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BASIC PRINCIPLES MADE CLEAR BY SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS
101 SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS .
lOl SCIENCE By Ilia Podendorf Illustrations by Robert Borja .
EXPERIMENTS ODHAMS PRESS LTD LONDON .
Ilia Podendorf is a science teacher w h o encourages children to work on their own and to investigate and solve problems as scientists do. children see or hear or otherwise observe w h a t happens in certain situations. improves reading skill and t h e capacity to follow directions intelligently. This is a good reason to do them for children can learn while having fun. N . incidentally. 1960. enables children to build concepts with which to interpret t h e world around them. Doing these experiments is fun. like t h e ones outlined in this book. T h e knowledge gained t h r o u g h experimenting. But there is a more basic reason.. supplemented by other types of learning. Copyright. Published pursuant to agreement with •Cresset & Dunlap Inc. Y„ U . Through experiments children get first-hand knowledge that certain things do indeed take place. By doing t h e experiments in this book. not only helps children develop better concepts but. S. . Childrens Press First published in Britain 1961 Reprinted 1962 All rights reserved under international and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Doing experiments. N e w York. T h u s children become equipped to explore t h e everexpanding world of knowledge to which science leads. W h e n they learn w h a t happens in a very small part of t h e universe they acquire knowledge t h a t helps to explain events in a larger universe. A.
C O N T E N T S EXPERIMENTING . . 128 107 115 29 . .. EXPERIMENTS WITH MACHINES EXPERIMENTS WITH CHEMISTRY EXPERIMENTS WITH PLANTS MORE EXPERIMENTS . . . 147 . . . 87 94 . . 10 .. . . 59 73 . . . 15 . . . . . 43 EXPERIMENTS WITH AIR EXPERIMENTS WITH MAGNETS EXPERIMENTS WITH ELECTRICITY EXPERIMENTS WITH WATER EXPERIMENTS WITH HEAT EXPERIMENTS WITH SOUND EXPERIMENTS WITH LIGHT . . INDEX OF EXPERIMENTS 156 .
E X P E R I M E N T .
W h e n a scientist does a n experiment. Scientists m a y use several ways to find answers to their m a n y questions. Experiments are i m p o r t a n t b u t scientists also use other ways of getting a c c u r a t e information. if it is necessary. Scientists do a great deal of experimenting. As he thinks a b o u t the e x p e r i m e n t . T h e y m a y listen to different sounds.Most people like to experiment—to try something which they have never tried b e f o r e — a n d see w h a t happens. there are certain things w h i c h he is almost sure to do. T h e y m a y collect a n d look at things. T h e n he decides u p o n a p l a n for doing the experiment a n d gathers the materials which he will need. they look. T h e y read w h a t other people have written about t h e subject t h a t interests them. T h e n he will do the experim e n t . he will m a k e a record of it. he will most likely form a n opinion a b o u t w h a t will h a p p e n . H e m a y need to repeat the experiment several times before he c a n be sure of the answer to his question. 11 . listen. W h e n scientists do a n experiment. H e will note whether his opinion was correct or not. T h e y are almost sure to p l a n a n experiment if an experiment is t h e best w a y to find a n a n s w e r to a question or to s o m e t h i n g which they wish to know. T h e y m a y w a t c h growing plants or animals for a period of time a n d m a k e careful records of w h a t happens. T h e y experiment to find the right answers to questions a n d to find ways of m a k i n g n e w things. H e will w a t c h e v e r y t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n s a n d . H e first decides w h a t his question i s — w h a t it is t h a t he w a n t s to find out. read a n d m a k e records.
The parts will be just alike. In this book there are one h u n d r e d a n d one questions which we are almost sure to ask ourselves. Most of these suggestions are experiments. You must have the question clearly in m i n d . 12 . T h e answers to these questions m a y c a u s e y o u to t h i n k of other questions. y o u will w a n t to w o r k as scientists work. W h e n you do t h e e x p e r i m e n t s . Some experiments need to be planned with a control. For e a c h question t h e r e is a suggestion for a w a y to find a n a n s w e r to it. You may then plan other experiments for yourself. You must think over the plan for doing the experiment.. T h e way in which they are different has to do with the question w h i c h he is t r y i n g to answer. T h e answers to these questions a n d others which you m a y plan for yourself help you to understand the environment in which you live. You must gather the materials together. listen a n d think carefully to find out w h a t happens in order to decide u p o n the answer to the question. You might then form a n opinion a b o u t w h a t you think will h a p p e n or w h a t the answer to the question will be. This means planning the experiment in two parts. with t h e exception of one thing. as n e a r l y as possible. T h e y are experiments which scientists have d o n e a n d ones which you m i g h t like to do. As you are doing the e x p e r i m e n t watch. T h e e i g h t h e x p e r i m e n t with h e a t is a n example of a controlled experiment. a n d t h e n follow t h e p l a n carefully.It is easy to see that a scientist plans a n d carries on the experiment in a very careful way.
13 .. test tubes. F u r t h e r suggestions for w h e r e to find satisfactory a n d s i m p l e m a t e r i a l s for e x p e r i m e n t s are given in the back of the book. etc. rubber corks.Flasks. mentioned in these experim e n t s are found in most Chemistry Sets.
A X E V .
1. Try the experiment again and see whether the same thing happens. . Notice the bubbles that come from the bottle and rise to the top of the water. N o w tip the bottle a little to one side. T h e same thing does h a p p e n . Try this experiment and find out. T h e bottle h a d air in it a n d the air h a d to be removed before the water could go into it. They are bubbles of air. 16 Turn the bottle upside down a n d lower it into the p a n of water. T h e bubbles are bubbles of something. Is this empty bottle really empty? Tou are sure to think it is. Try other shaped bottles a n d see w h e t h e r they c a n be m a d e to b u b b l e too.
Try the e x p e r i m e n t again to see whether the same thing happens. T h e air kept the water away from the ship's sail. If you r e m e m b e r this you will be able to u n d e r s t a n d the next experiment and explain the reason for what happens. Be sure to keep it dry as you float it.2. T h e sail stayed dry because there was air in the glass. Air is something—it is a material. This experiment and the first experiment show that air takes u p space. 17 . Can this ship be sunk below the water without getting it wet? M a k e a ship by putting a sail on a cork as you see in the picture. Raise the glass and examine the sail of the ship to see w h e t h e r it is now wet. Turn a glass upside down over the ship a n d push it down. Float the ship on the water in a j a r or a deep pan.
W a t e r r u n s into it evenly a n d w i t h o u t interference. See what happens. Can this flask be made to blow bubbles? 18 Put the stopper which has a tube through it into the flask. Any bottle may be used. T h i s c a n be explained because air takes u p space. See how many bubbles you are able to get. Now put the end of the tube in water. It should.3. 4. Now you have learned another important fact about air. T h e water runs slowly a n d with interference. T h e other one makes it difficult for t h e air to escape. Into which of these flasks can water be poured easily? Pour water into the one with the two-holed r u b b e r stopper. We say t h a t air expands when it is heated. Try it and see if it works. Pour water into the other one. C a n you explain why the bubbles come out of the tube? You are right if you say it is because the air in the flask gets w a r m a n d needs m o r e room. Hold the ball of the flask in both hands for a few minutes. But the best results are obtained with lightweight glass. . C a n you explain why this is so? You are right if you say t h e one with t h e second hole in the r u b b e r stopper makes it possible for the air to escape as the water runs into it. Could you think of something to do to the one with hiccups to make the water r u n into it evenly? You may say—loosen the cork.
5. It goes down because the air in the flask contracts a n d takes u p less room. the water in the tube will go down again. W h a t did happen? Did the water in the flask rise in the tube? W h y do you t h i n k the w a t e r c a m e u p in t h e t u b e ? You are right if you say it is because the air in the flask e x p a n d e d a n d pushed the water u p in the tube. Try. to decide what you think will happen—in other words m a k e a prediction. 19 . After several minutes decide whether your prediction was correct. What happens when the air in this flask is heated? Hold both your h a n d s on the flask above the water line. If you t a k e y o u r h a n d s off a n d t h e air cools.
Put a balloon on an empty flask. T h e balloon is sure to blow up. 20 M a k e your prediction before you read any further. . You r e m e m b e r e d an i m p o r t a n t idea a b o u t air if you m a d e the right prediction. What happens when the air in this flask is heated? Make a prediction about what you think will happen.6. Now hold the flask over a spirit lamp and see what h a p p e n s . It blows u p because the air in the flask e x p a n d s a n d takes u p more room.
N o w t h e r e was r o o m in t h e flask for more air. T h e air t h a t was in the flask contracted w h e n it cooled. W h e n the water stopped boiling and b e g a n to cool t h e s t e a m in t h e flask c h a n g e d b a c k to water. T h e h e a t c a u s e d t h e air to e x p a n d a n d some of it go out of the flask. T h e only way the air could get in was for t h e balloon to go in. In this picture you see a balloon turned inside out in a flask. H e a t it until it boils. T h e heat caused the water to boil a n d some of it to c h a n g e to s t e a m . 21 . on the outside of flask and balloon. T h e b a l l o o n will slowly go d o w n into t h e flask.7. N o w after the balloon was put on the m o u t h of the flask no more air could get in or out. too. T h e s t e a m p u s h e d more of t h e air out of t h e flask. Now put the balloon over the mouth of the flask a n d let it cool. Do you wonder how this experiment balloon get into the flask? was done? How did the P u t a small a m o u n t of w a t e r in the flask. T h e balloon really was p u s h e d in by the.
8. Now let the air out of it and weigh it again. Has air really any weight? Weigh a football while it is blown up. 22 . Did it weigh the same? When did it weigh more? This shows you that air does have weight.
You are sure to know that air moves. Does t h e wheel t u r n ? T h e heat causes the air to expand. W h e n air expands it becomes lighter because the molecules move farther a p a r t . Because the air which was not h e a t e d is heavier it moves d o w n a n d pushes the w a r m air up. 23 . Does it turn? Hold the wind wheel about 18 inches above an electric plate which is not connected. Did you ever wonder why? Why does air move? Hold the wind wheel about 18 inches above a cold radiator. Does it turn? Hold it over a warm radiator. Does it turn? Hold the wind wheel about 18 inches over the electric p l a t e a n d c o n n e c t u p t h e plate.g.
T h e candle will soon go out a n d the water will rise around it. Now cover the jar with cardboard.10. T h e water rises because the c a n d l e b u r n e d u p p a r t of the air and water c a m e in to take its place. they are bubbles of air. If you noticed bubbles escaping as you put the milk bottle down over the candle. 24 . T h e heat f r o m the candle caused the air to e x p a n d a n d some of it escaped in the bubbles. What happens to a lighted candle when it is covered up: Light the candle and lower the candle by the string into the fruit jar. Now pour water around the candle. H e a t the wax on the end of t h e c a n d l e a n d s t a n d it u p in the dish. W h a t happens to the candle? T h e candle needs fresh air to keep burning. Turn the milk bottle over the lighted candle. Here is another way to do this experiment.
11. one at a time. Why do suction-cup darts stay on a target? Perhaps this experiment will help you understand the reason. Now put t h e m . Most of the air on the inside of the darts was forced out when the dart "hit the target. S q u e e z e t h e m so t h a t most of the air is forced out of t h e m . on your a r m . Remove the bulbs from a couple of m e d i c i n e d r o p p e r s . You can feel them hanging there. Now there is more air pushing on the outside of the bulbs t h a n there is on the inside. You remember t h a t you p u s h e d most of t h e air out of the bulbs. It is the air on the outside of the darts t h a t holds t h e m there. . It is the air pushing on the outside that holds them there.
or lemonade. if you take the air out of it. or whatever you would like to drink. 26 . When you suck on it you a r e t a k i n g some of t h e air out of t h e straw.12. Air pressure is very helpful to us. You could not drink through a straw if it were not for air pressure. Place one of the straws in your mouth and suck on it. T h e liquid will come u p in it. too. You will notice t h a t there is no liquid in the other straw. N o w the air on the outside of the straw pushes down on the liquid a n d forces it u p to take place of the air which you took out of t h e straw. How can that be true? Put two straws in a glass of milk.
Air weighs something. Air pushes in all directions. Air contracts when it is cooled. . 27 Fire needs air to burn. Air expands when it is heated.N o w you know t h a t : Air is a material—it takes u p space. Air moves. .
Try picking each of t h e m u p with the magnet. You will be right. etc. r u b b e r bands. Examine each pile carefully and decide what kinds of things magnets will pick up. You will doubtless decide t h a t magnets pick u p only things m a d e of iron or steel. marbles. pins. T h e r e are a few other kinds of metals which magnets will pick u p b u t they are not c o m m o n ones. 30 . Put each thing which you can pick u p with the m a g n e t in one pile a n d p u t all t h e others into another pile. matches. beads. What kinds of things will a magnet pick up? M a k e a collection of at least t w e n t y small things such as p a p e r clips.1. Everyone knows magnets will pick up things.
2. You will need to do this many times with different c o m b i n a t i o n s of m a g n e t s — a l w a y s one bigger t h a n the other. Use two of the magnets. F i n d out how m a n y p a p e r clips each of them will pick up. It is the age and how well the magnet has been cared for t h a t counts. Do this over again with two other magnets. The size of a magnet does not show how strong it is. If you did not discover this you will need to try the experiment again with another collection of magnets. This e x p e r i m e n t shows us how i m p o r t a n t it is to do an experiment m a n y times before we can be sure of a correct answer to a question. 31 . Have ready a large pile of paper clips. one larger t h a n t h e other. You are almost sure to have discovered that some of the smaller magnets are just as strong or stronger t h a n t h e bigger ones. Are big magnets stronger than little magnets? Collect several magnets of different sizes.
You have really discovered the laws of poles of magnets. do other magnets have poles? . Bring the other slowly u p beside it and see w h a t h a p p e n s . An N pole will push away another N pole. Lay one of the bar magnets on the table. You will notice that there is an N on one end and an S on the other end of each of them. N o w t u r n one of t h e m around and do the experiment over again. If you have another pair of bar magnets try this experiment with them. Turn the magnet in your h a n d a r o u n d and bring the N pole slowly up to the S pole of the magnet on the table. Do this several times. Try bringing the S pole u p to the N pole of the magnet on the table and notice what happens. You could say this in another way: Poles which are alike repel each other. Poles which are not alike attract each other. Notice what happens. Bring slowly the S pole of the other magnet up to S pole of the magnet on the table. and see whether the same things happen. Lay one of them on the table. An S pole will push away another S pole. Now use the bar magnets. You have probably come to the following conclusions: An S pole will cling to an N pole. Do this several times.Will one magnet attract another magnet? « Use two pencil-shaped magnets. Perhaps you are wondering. Bring the N pole up to the N pole and again notice what happens. Notice what happens. An N pole will cling to an S pole.
because one time the magnets attracted e a c h other a n d the o t h e r t i m e they did not. Now t u r n the bar magnet around a n d bring it u p to the same end of the r o u n d magnet.4. Have you decided that the round magnet has poles? You probably have. 33 . Bring one end of the bar magnet up to "one end" of the round magnet. Do round magnets have poles? Hold the round magnet u p so that it can swing freely. T h e y repelled each other.
Now place the magnet in the hammock and let it swing freely. Can magnets be used as compasses? M a k e a s t a n d a r d or s u p p o r t for a b a r m a g n e t . If you h a d not k n o w n which direction was n o r t h you could have e x a m i n e d the m a g n e t a n d t h e n you would have known. T h e S pole should be called the south-seeking pole. If you look carefully you will see t h a t t h e N o r t h pole is p o i n t i n g toward the north. M a k e a hammock for the magnet by folding a piece of p a p e r a r o u n d it and tying the two ends of the paper to a string which hangs from the support. T h e N pole gets its n a m e because it points north. .5. The needle in a compass is really a magnet. It should really be called the north-seeking pole. It needs to be m a d e from wood or from something which magnets will not attract. A b a r m a g n e t could be used as a compass. 34 After a few minutes it will come to rest.
Take the m a g n e t in the other h a n d and touch one end of the magnet to one e n d of the needle. Can a magnet be made out of a steel needle? Hold the needle in one h a n d . W h e n the magnet reaches the other end of the needle it should be raised away from the needle and brought back to t h e starting end.6. and with one end of the magnet. If it does you have made a magnet. You could make a compass out of your magnet. Stroke t h e needle with the magnet. T h e stroking should be continued fifty'to seventy-five times—always stroking in one direction. N o w see w h e t h e r your steel needle will pick u p a pin. 35 . You could lay the needle on a cork and float the cork on water.
Be sure the bolt is iron because your electric m a g n e t will not work if it is steel. Measure off about 6 yards of cotton covered copper wire 24 gauge. Leave about one foot of wire at the end so there will be some for connections.7. . How are electric magnets made to work? 36 Find an iron stove bolt a b o u t two inches long. Start w r a p p i n g the wire on the bolt by beginning at the nut end. W r a p the iron bolt tightly with paper and tape the paper in place.
T h e y can be m a d e to pick u p a n d drop loads. 37 . Now loosen one of the wires from the dry cell and see w h a t h a p p e n s to the p a p e r clips. Twist the two wires firmly together close to the bolt. T h e p a p e r clips should fall. Now you are ready to connect u p your magnet. This will make a second layer of wire on the bolt. Twist the other wire around the other terminal.W h e n you have reached the other end of the bolt. You may have enough wire to make a third layer. This is why electric magnets are so useful— t h e y are only m a g n e t s w h e n t h e r e is electricity going t h r o u g h them. Now see whether you can pick up paper clips with your electric magnet. Push the cotton back f r o m the ends of the wire so that the copper shows. Leave a b o u t a foot of wire at this end too so t h a t it c a n be used for connections. Twist one wire around one terminal of a dry cell. t u r n it around and keep on wrapping. You should be able to pick up several paper clips.
Electric magnets do have poles—N and S poles. Now turn the bar magnet around and hold the e n d of it t o w a r d t h e s a m e e n d of t h e electric m a g n e t .8. Notice what happens. Lay the electric magnet on a table. Do you have reason to think that the electric magnet has poles? You might try this same e x p e r i m e n t on the other end of the electric magnet. Slowly move one end of the bar magnet toward one end of the electric magnet. . Do electric magnets have poles? Connect u p your electric magnet. Notice what happens.
Find out which pole is now the N pole and which pole is the S pole.9. 39 . Remove the wire from the middle terminal of the dry cell. Can the poles of electric magnets be changed? Connect u p your electric m a g n e t as you did in experiment No. You are sure to have discovered that the poles have been changed. Try this experiment again and see whether the poles have been changed back again. Now put the other wire on the outside terminal. N o w remove the wire from the other terminal and put it on the middle one. 7 a n d find out which pole is the N pole a n d which pole is the S pole.
This is one way of making an electric magnet stronger. N o w find out how m a n y p a p e r clips the electric magnet will pick up. Test it to see how m a n y p a p e r clips it will pick up. With another wire connect the centre terminal of one dry cell to the outside terminal of the other dry cell. Now remove the wire from the centre terminal and put it on the centre terminal of another dry cell. 40 .10. Can an electric magnet be made stronger? Connect u p your electric magnet as you have been doing.
An electric magnet can be m a d e from an iron bolt and cotton-covered copper wire. Magnets attract other magnets according to laws of poles. Magnets can be used as compasses. T h e size of a magnet does not determine its strength.Now you know that: Magnets will pick u p things made of iron and steel. . Different shaped magnets have poles. Electric magnets work only when a current of electricity flows through them. An electric magnet can be made stronger. Electric magnets have poles. Magnets can be made. 41 T h e poles of electric magnets can be changed.
Now w r a p the loose end of wire from the electric magnet a r o u n d one nail and the other loose end of wire a r o u n d t h e other nail. Hammer 2 small nails into the block of wood about 1 V z inches apart. 44 . T h e r e are m a n y kinds of switches. Find a small block of wood about 2 inches long and 1 inch wide.1. See w h e t h e r your electric magnet will work. This is a broken circuit. Some look like this. We can make it a complete circuit by making a loop of wire which can be hooked from the copper wire on one nail to t h e c o p p e r wire on the other nail. You h a v e m a d e a switch. How can the current in the electric magnet be turned off and on more easily? Connect one wire of your electric magnet to the dry cell. Connect another cotton-covered copper wire to the other terminal of the dry cell. You c a n use a c o p p e r strip if you wish. It will not work because the electricity cannot go from one nail to the other. Your electric m a g n e t can be t u r n e d off a n d on.
This happens so fast that the bell continues to ring as long as the switch is down. This breaks the circuit and the clapper goes back. Be sure you connect a positive terminal and a negative one. Connect two dry cells together. How can a bell be connected with two dry cells so that it will ring? Use cotton-covered copper wire. Do you wonder why your bell rings? If you look carefully you will see an electric magnet in it. Connect a wire to a switch and to one of the terminals of one of the dry cells. W h e n the switch is on. The positive terminal is in the middle and the negative one is on the outside. W h e n it goes b a c k t h e circuit is completed again and the clapper once more is pulled over to hit the bell. the electric m a g n e t pulls the clapper over so it hits the bell. Connect a wire to the other terminal on the other dry cell. Connect a wire to the other end of the switch. . You will notice there are two screws on the bell. Now see whether your bell will ring. Now you are ready to connect the bell.2. 46 Connect one of the loose wires to one screw and the other to the other screw. This is important because electricity goes from the positive to the negative.
48 There are other things which may cause the bell to ring all the time. Do this and see what happens. Electricity goes the shortest p a t h and sometimes the shortest p a t h is not the way we want it to go. All wiring must be done-carefully a n d only good wire used.3. In fact the wire acts just like the a r m of the switch. Why does a bell sometimes ring all the time? Connect u p the bell as you did in experiment 2 so t h a t it will ring when the switch is down. . Shorts cause a great deal of heat a n d may cause a fire. Suppose you h a d a bit of wire left at t h e e n d w h e n you connected it to one e n d of the switch a n d this wire accidentally touched the other side of the switch. Some insulation may be off of the wire in two places a n d these wires m a y accidentally touch each other. We call this a short. Now the bell rings whether the switch is down or not.
light b u l b and switch. Open the switch. You p r o b a b l y noticed all of the metals c o n d u c t e d and the non-metals did not.4. O n e at a time substitute the following materials for the c o p p e r strip or knife of t h e switch—brass curtain rod. r u b b e r bands. string. You might try other things such as scissors. iron nail. a n d strip of aluminium foil. match. screw driver a n d see whether they conduct. Will other things besides copper wire conduct electricity sufficiently to light a lamp bulb? Connect two dry cells. 49 . W h i c h ones c o n d u c t e d electricity? H o w did you know they conducted the electricity? Of course the light b u l b lighted only w h e n t h e electricity was conducted.
Connect u p a dry cell. Tou can see it work. This may prevent the rest of the wire from getting too hot and causing a fire. M a k e the magnet stronger by placing another dry cell in the circuit a n d see w h e t h e r it works. You may decide to place a third dry cell in the circuit and make the electric magnet even stronger. T h e wire in it will melt a n d break the current.5. Something is almost sure to have h a p p e n e d to the wire in the fuse by now. It is easy to see t h a t a fuse is very helpful. Place two small nails a b o u t V2 inch a p a r t in the cork. _ . or it m a y have b u r n e d out w h e n you a d d e d the t h i r d . Now you place a very thin piece of iron pict u r e wire from one nail to a n o t h e r allowing it to touch t h e copper wire which is a r o u n d the nails. T h e picture wire must be t h i n n e r t h a n t h e c o p p e r wire. an electric magnet and a switch. Use a cork to represent a fuse. What good is a fuse? This experiment will help you understand how a fuse works. It may have b u r n e d out when you a d d e d the second dry cell. N o w cut the wire b e t w e e n the switch a n d dry cell a n d you will have a b r o k e n circuit even when the switch is closed. Close the switch and see whether the electric magnet works. W r a p one of the loose wires a r o u n d one nail a n d the other loose wire a r o u n d the other.
T h e loop becomes bright red. It does not burn u p because there is no oxygen in the bulb. a n d fire needs oxygen in order to burn. Notice what happens. 51 . There is either a vacuum in the bulb or a gas that will not support fire. T h e n it burns up.6. It gives off light. Use a fine piece of iron picture wire about 6 inches long. M a k e a loop about as big a r o u n d as a lead pencil at one end. What makes a light bulb light up? This experiment will help you find out what makes an electric light bulb light up. T h e wire in an electric light b u l b gets red hot because electricity is going through it. N o w p u t the loop in a flame.
7. You might p u t a piece of tissue p a p e r on a black board and rub it. It will cling because it has been charged with static electricity. Can I make some electricity without a dry cell or wall socket? The electricity you have been experimenting with is c u r r e n t electricity. T h e r e is a n o t h e r kind of electricity called static electricity. Static electricity works best on a cold day. . Another n a m e for it is frictional electricity. You may make some static electricity by r u b b i n g a balloon which has been blown up. Now see whether the balloon will cling to the wall. It will stick to the black board until its charge is gone.
) Gent y Ws head down h. * th hear and see static electricity if you do this You may both hear ana experiment How can I hear and see electricity.8. . Will not hurt your cat.s y ^ „ ^ see ^ sparks ****** shuffle your feet over a rtig m the wi some object.
What do electric charges do to each other? 54 Put a silk thread through the end of a grain of puffed rice. Put a second one u p in the same way so that the puffed rice grains are about even with each other. Charges which are not alike a t t r a c t each other. T h e charges a r e called n e g a t i v e a n d positive. T h e y push away from each other because they have the same charge of static electricity. The puffed rice will first j u m p to the rod. These charges were negative. . C h a r g e s of electricity which are alike repel each other. Now rub a hard rubber rod or comb with flannel or fur. Hold the rod near to the puffed rice and notice what happens.9. T h e n they push away from the rod and from each other. This happens because the puffed rice are first attracted to the rod. They get the charge of electricity which the rod has a n d then they are repelled. Tie the other end of the thread to a support so that the puffed rice will be hanging down 8 or more inches.
P u t the dolls u n d e r the glass. How can a positive charge of electricity be made? Find four books each a b o u t a n inch thick. After a while the dolls will come u p a n d t o u c h the glass. They may start dancing u p and down. R u b the glass vigorously with a silk cloth. .10. T h e n they get the same c h a r g e as the glass (positive) a n d are repelled. Each time they come u p a n d touch the glass they get charged and each time they go down they lose their charge and are pulled back u p again. Place two books in one pile on a table and the other two about a foot away in another pile. Place a glass window pane from one pile of books to another. Cut some tissue paper dolls about one-inch tall.
Tou have read that the positive electric charges attract the negative charge. This experiment will help you see it happen. What do a positive and negative charge do to each other?
R u b a glass stirring rod h a r d with silk. With a silk thread suspend it in the air by tying it to a support. Now r u b a h a r d r u b b e r rod with fur. H o l d t h e r u b b e r rod close to the glass rod without touching it. Notice what happens. T h e rubber rod has a negative charge and the glass rod a positive charge. They attract each other.
Now you know that:
C u r r e n t s of electricity c a n be t u r n e d off a n d on with a switch.
A complete circuit is necessary to make a bell ring.
A short circuit may make a bell ring all the time.
M a n y metals are good conductors of electricity.
A fuse helps protect homes from fire.
A light b u l b lights because t h e fila'ment becomes very hot and gives off light.
Static electricity can be produced by rubbing.
Like electric charges repel each other.
Unlike electric charges attract each other.
T h e water d i s a p p e a r e d a little at a time into the air. Put a teaspoonful of water in one dish. and three in the other. two teaspoonfuls of water in another dish. Examine t h e m every two or three hours. We call this evaporation. t h e n t h e one with two a n d then the one with three. Place them side by side and let stand.1. Notice what happens. T h e dish with one teaspoonful of w a t e r b e c a m e e m p t y first. What happens to water left standing in a dish? Find three dishes all alike. 60 .
You are right if you say the water evaporated from the saucer first because the air touched more of it. Put 2 tablespoonfuls of water in each of them. Place them side by side and let them stand. From which of these dishes will water evaporate first? Find a saucer.2. a water glass a n d a footed test tube or narrow-necked bottle. F r o m which one did the water e v a p o r a t e first? W h i c h one was second? Try to think of a reason why this happened as it did. V 61 .
Does wind help water to evaporate? 62 Draw two squares on a blackboard. Be sure they are the same size. N o w fan one of them. Which dries first? T h e one which was fanned is sure to dry first.3. by rubbing them with a wet cloth. . Make each of them wet. T h e little particles of water are called molecules. T h e wind carries the particles of water away faster t h a n the air which is not moving so fast does.
T h e one in the w a r m place will probably dry first because the little molecules of water will go into w a r m air faster t h a n into cold air. Notice which dries first. T h i s w a y t h e y will e a c h get exactly t h e s a m e amount of water. This is because the molecules of w a r m air are moving faster t h a n molecules of cold air. 63 . Be sure there is no wind in either place. Now hang one of the towels in a warm place a n d one of t h e m in a cold place. Does heat help water evaporate? Use two towels t h a t are exactly the same size a n d kind of material. Fold the two together and put them in w a t e r .4.
P u t s o m e ice c u b e s in t h e w a t e r a n d shake t h e m a r o u n d . Can water be taken out of the air again? Put a small a m o u n t of water in a glass j a r . You notice drops of water on the outside of the glass. These drops of water came from the air.5. 64 . T h e little molecules of water in the air collected into little drops of water. This makes t h e water a n d j a r very cold. Little drops of water are almost sure to form on the outside of the j a r if you are in a w a r m room. N o w w a t c h w h a t h a p pens to the outside of the jar. This sometimes happ e n s w h e n y o u a r e a b o u t to d r i n k a cold glass of lemonade. We say t h e water condensed.
The water starts going u p in t h e glass t u b e . The colouring makes it possible for you to see it more easily. T h i s is b e c a u s e t h e molecules of water move faster a n d farther a p a r t as they are h e a t e d . a one-hole r u b b e r stopper with a glass t u b e t h r o u g h it. Fill t h e flask with water. Notice what happens. Will water expand (take up more space) when it is heated? Use a flask. coloured with a little food colouring.6." . Heat the flask of water gently or slowly. T h e n t h e water takes up more room and we say it "expands.
Use food colouring to colour the hot water. warm or cold water.7. Fill one of them with hot water and the other with cold water. T h e w a r m water is lighter a n d gets pushed u p by the heavier cold water. 66 . Tou may wonder since doing experiment heavier. number 6 which is Find two pint bottles of exactly the same size. Place a paper over the mouth of the bottle with cold water in it. This experim e n t may cause you to wonder a b o u t ice a n d whether it sinks or floats. N o w hold the paper firm and turn the bottle upside down over the other one. Notice w h a t h a p p e n s . Pull the paper away from between the two bottles.
If the ice cubes float t h e n how m u c h of the cube is above water a n d a b o u t how m u c h is below water? This shows you why icebergs are so dangerous. Cold w a t e r c o n t r a c t s a n d gets h e a v i e r as it gets colder until it is near freezing—then there is a point at which it e x p a n d s until it freezes. Will ice float? Place about six ice cubes in a bowl of water and watch them. They float so that they are both above and below water and are not always easy to see. Ice floats because it is lighter t h a n water. This is not true of most things which become solids. T h e t e m p e r a t u r e at which it starts to expand is about 4° C. Notice whether they sink or float. .8.
.What does water do to sugar. but the sand did not. salt and sand? j . 68 Put a tablespoonful of sugar in a cup of water and stir. W h a t happens? Do the same with sand. W h a t happens? The sugar a n d salt b o t h dissolved in t h e w a t e r very quickly. W h a t happens? Do the same with salt.
P u t o n e t a b l e spoonful of sugar in the hot w a t e r a n d see how long it takes for the sugar to dissolve. T h e sugar dissolved faster in the hot water.10. . Put cold water in one of t h e m a n d the same a m o u n t of hot w a t e r in t h e o t h e r . T h e molecules of w a t e r are moving about faster in the hot water. Will the sugar dissolve faster water? in hot water than in cold Use two glasses the same size. Now put the same a m o u n t of sugar in the cold water and see how long it takes for it to dissolve.
What happens to the sugar when water evaporates? 100"". Fill a cup one-half full of hot water. 70 . Now place two tablespoons of the sugar solution in a saucer and let it stand. Stir into t h e water t h r e e t a b l e s p o o n s of sugar. T h e water evaporated but the sugar did not. After the w a t e r h a s e v a p o r a t e d w h a t is left in t h e saucer? You will find s u g a r in t h e saucer.11.
Wind speeds up evaporation. Water will expand when it is heated. Heat speeds up evaporation. Water vapour will condense where it is cooled. 71 Hot water dissolves things faster than cold water.Now you know that: W a t e r evaporates. . j W h e n water evaporates f r o m sugar water. Water dissolves some things quickly. W a r m water is lighter than cold water. Ice will float. sugar stays in the container. T h e greater the water surface the quicker the water will evaporate.
Tou will remember if you did experiment No. 6 in the section on air and experiment No. 6 in the section on water that both air and water expand when they are heated. Air is a gas and water is a liquid and both of them took up more and more room as they were heated. Perhaps you wonder whether solid materials expand when they are heated. To help answer this you might find out—Does wire expand when it is heated?
Find a bare copper wire about three feet long. Fasten the wire to a firm support. T h e support should be about two feet from the edge of a table. Stretch the wire across the table and let it h a n g over another support or pile of books at the edge of the table. Fasten a weight to the end of the wire that hangs d o w n . T h e weight will hold t h e wire tight. W h e n the weight stops moving mark the position of the bottom of the weight. Now place three or four candles u n d e r the wire in a standing position. Perhaps you should put paper under t h e m so that you do not get wax on the table. Light the candles. M o v e the candles f r o m place to place u n d e r the wire so that the wire becomes heated aH along the length. After about five minut&s mark again the position of the bottom of the weight. See how the marks are different. T h e second mark is doubtless lower t h a n t h e first one. T h i s is because the wire expanded as it heated and became longer. T h e longer the wire became the lower the weight could go.
Our bodies are sensitive to heat and cold. We know
we are warm or cold. We might then ask ourselves— Why are thermometers so often used to determine the temperature of a place or thing?
Get a glass of water from the tap. Feel the water and try to d e t e r m i n e for yourself t h e t e m p e r a t u r e . Write down your estimate. N o w use a t h e r m o m e t e r a n d find out t h e actual t e m p e r a t u r e . Do this again a n d see w h e t h e r you were right. Try this same experiment using hot water. Do you think that you were a good thermometer? You probably think that your estimates cannot be depended upon completely. Neither can we be d e p e n d e d u p o n to j u d g e temperatures of rooms. If we come in f r o m the cold outside we p r o b a b l y think the r o o m is w a r m . If we come into the same room from the hot outside we probably think that the room is cool. Exact temperatures can only be found by the use of a thermometer.
A m a n by the n a m e of Galileo invented this air thermometer. This can be called an upside-down thermometer because it works in the opposite direction f r o m the r e g u l a r t h e r m o m e t e r s — t h e b u l b is u p instead of down. This is because the air in the b u l b contracted a n d took u p less room. and a piece of glass tubing. Add a little food colouring to colour it. the air in the tube goes down. Turn the flask upside down a n d put the end of the tube in some water.3. except for the air which goes through the tube. Now p u t the stopper into the flask so that it is air tight. a one-hole rubber stopper. W h e n the air gets w a r m e r a n d expands. You may wish to colour the water so that you can see what happens more easily. Hold your h a n d s on the ball of the flask until the air in it has expanded enough that a few (8-10) bubbles of air have escaped. Put the end of the tubing into the hole of the stopper. Dampen the rubber stopper and the glass tubing. How can I make a thermometer? Use a glass flask. Fix a support for the flask so that it will be held in position. Now you have an air thermometer. 76 . W h e n the air gets colder the water in the tube goes up.
4. It will t h e n be a b o u t three inches from the end. It is easy to see. Before the wax hardens hold one of the marbles in it. . T h e wax will harden and fasten the marble to the rod. too. W h i c h fell off first. Hold the end of the rod nearest the marbles in a flame a n d see what h a p p e n s to the marbles. Can heat travel in a solid? 78 Use a metal curtain rod one foot or more long. Find a candle and three marbles. second. The third marble can be fastened one inch from the last—four inches from the end. In the same way fasten another marble on the rod o n e i n c h f r o m t h e first m a r b l e . that the heat travels away from the source of heat. Light the candle and drip a little wax on the rod a b o u t two inches from the end of the rod. t h i r d ? It is easy to see f r o m this t h a t heat can travel through solids.
Does glass conduct heat as well as a metal does? Find a glass stirring rod a n d a metal rod as nearly the same diameter as possible. Doubtless you decided t h a t the metal rod was the better conductor of heat because the marble on the metal rod fell off first almost every time. You should try this experiment more than once to find out whether the same thing always happens each time. Now hold the end of the metal rod in the flame and see how long it takes for the marble to fall off.5. M e t a l is a better c o n d u c t o r of h e a t t h a n glass is. This is why we put hot food in metal pans if we wish it to cool quickly. Fasten a m a r b l e with c a n d l e wax a b o u t one inch from the end of each one of them. Now you know that metal will conduct heat. 79 . Now hold the glass rod in t h e flame a n d see how long it takes the m a r b l e to fall off.
You will probably decide that aluminium is a better conductor than brass because in most of the experiments the marble on the aluminium rod fell off second. Of course the a m o u n t of wax has a great deal to do with the length of time which it will take for the marble to fall off. H o l d t h e rods one at a time in a flame and time it to see how long it takes for the marble to fall off of each one. You will come to the conclusion t h a t copper is a better c o n d u c t o r t h a n either of the others because probably the marble fell off first almost every time. Although you intend to get the same a m o u n t of wax on each one it is not always possible.80 This experiment can be done just as number 5 was done. . You will be wise to r e p e a t this experiment several times. W i t h candle wax fasten a m a r b l e a b o u t one inch from t h e end of each rod.
Fill a test tube (be sure the tube is heatproof) about three-fourths full of water. Do you u n d e r s t a n d w h y you were able to do it? R e m e m b e r t h a t glass is a poor c o n d u c t o r of heat and that hot water is lighter than cold water and you will be able to explain why you were able to do it.7. Hold the bottom of the tube in your t h u m b a n d front finger. Hold the t u b e so that the flame hits the tube where the top of the water is. . Can you hold a test tube with water in it while the water is boiling? You are almost sure to say no to this question. See whether you could hold the tube until the water boiled. Try this experiment.
Get a jug of hot water and take the temperature of the water. Wool is a poor conductor because it has m a n y little air spaces in it. Why do we wear wool in the winter time or when it is cold ? I Find two pint milk bottles which are just alike. Record the t e m p e r a t u r e so that you will not forget it. It did not let so much of the heat in the bottle escape. P o u r some of t h e hot w a t e r into o n e of t h e milk bottles and some of it into the other milk bottle so that b o t h of t h e m are full to t h e top. P u t a cork in each of them. After about half-an-hour take the temperature of the water in each milk bottle. H o w did they compare? T h e one with the wool a r o u n d it was w a r m e r because wool is a poor conductor of heat. . Wrap one of them with a woollen cloth and then set them side by side in a cool place.8. We wear woollen clothing so that the heat from our bodies will not escape so easily.
T h e white p a p e r will reflect more of the heat t h a n the black paper does. We are cooler in the s u m m e r time if we wear lightcoloured clothing. T h e water in the test t u b e w r a p p e d in black will have absorbed some of the heat f r o m the sun a n d will be w a r m e r t h a n t h e other.Why do we wear light coloured clothing in the summer time ? Use two test tubes t h e s a m e size. Fill a glass with cold water. The light-coloured clothing will reflect the heat from the sun better than the dark colour will. Take the t e m p e r a t u r e of the water. Place the test tubes side by side in the sunshine. After about thirty minutes take the t e m p e r a t u r e of the water in each of the test tubes. 83 . Fill the two test tubes with water from the glass. Wrap one of the test tubes with white p a p e r a n d the other black paper.
10. The spirit will disappear first because it evaporates faster. How does each of them feel ? The methylated spirit will doubtless feel cooler. . You probably r e m e m b e r t h a t wind speeds u p evaporation. Why do we feel cool when we come from swimming summer time? in the Let a bottle of water and a bottle of methylated spirit stand side by side overnight. Put a drop of water on a saucer and a drop of spirit in another place on the same saucer and notice which disappears first. As a liquid evaporates. Now put a couple of drops of water on the back of your hand and a couple of drops of spirit on the back of your other hand. It feels cooler because it evaporates faster. W h e n you come out of the pool the air a n d maybe wind hits your body a n d speeds u p the evaporation and because it is evaporating fast you feel cool. heat is taken from your hand.
85 Dark colours absorb heat and light ones reflect it. Wool is a poor conductor of heat. We need t h e r m o m e t e r s to m e a s u r e t e m p e r a t u r e accurately. Glass is a poor conductor of heat. . Evaporation has a cooling effect. H e a t travels through solids.N o w you know t h a t : Wire expands when it is heated. Some metals are better conductors t h a n others.
S O m N T D .
N o w pluck t h e r u b b e r b a n d . Stretch the rubber b a n d over an empty box. Notice there is no sound. T h e sounds which are made when something vibrates travel to our ears through the air. What do you notice? It was easy to see that something moved back and forth when the sounds were made. Hit t h e fork again and feel it.1. Feel it a n d listen to it. What causes sound? Place one end of a ruler on the edge of the table so that the other end extends beyond the table. Now hit one tine of the fork lightly on something solid. Notice that there is no sound. Hold the piece of paper u p to your lips and blow on t h e edge of it. W a t c h a n d listen to the fork. 88 . This shows that sounds are caused by vibrations. W h e n something moves back and forth we say it vibrates. Now hit the free end of the ruler a n d notice what you hear a n d see. Watch a n d listen for what happens. W h a t do you hear a n d see? Hold the t u n i n g fork motionless.
Tap the table lightly with a pencil and listen carefully to the sound. Tou might do an experiment and answer this question: Will sound vibrations travel through wood? Sit at a table which is m a d e of wood. travel You have learned. Try this experiment several times. that vibrations travel through air. You will decide t h a t the sound is louder w h e n you h e a r it t h r o u g h the wood of the table top.2. . Wood not only carries sound but carries it better t h a n air does. Now you have learned that sound is caused by are probably wondering whether vibrations. too.. As you c o n t i n u e to t a p t h e t a b l e lower y o u r h e a d to the table and listen with one ear on the table top. You will find out that metal does carry sound better t h a n wood. Tou sound vibrations through other kinds of materials. Your next question will p r o b a b l y be—Will metal carry sound better than wood? You may plan an experiment for yourself and answer that question.
N o w place one h a n d b e h i n d each ear and cup the hands forward. Listen again. You can see that the ears do help catch the sound waves. Listen to a person talking or to a piece of music for one m i n u t e .3. this Do our ears help catch sound waves? Try experiment. Now notice how loud the sound is. . Listen a g a i n . 90 . T h e sound was louder when you held your hands behind your ears t h a n it was when you first listened. Now we know that sounds are caused by vibrations. Here is another question which you are almost sure to ask yourself. W h e n you held your ears back against your head the sound was not so loud as when you first listened. N o w notice how l o u d t h e s o u n d is. Notice how loud t h e sound is. Place a finger on each ear and hold the e a r b a c k a g a i n s t t h e h e a d .
. What makes some sounds louder than others? Try hitting a d r u m very lightly and notice the sound. Sounds are louder or not so loud d e p e n d i n g u p o n what the vibration travels t h r o u g h . H o w good a person's ears are and how far they are from the sound also affects the loudness. W h e n the d r u m is hit hard the skin goes back and forth farther than when it is not hit so hard. Hit it a bit harder and notice the sound. Hit it very h a r d and notice the sound. too.4. T h e loudness of a sound depends upon how big the vibrations are. There are other things which affect the loudness of s o u n d s . You have decided t h a t t h e h a r d e r it is hit the louder the sound.
T h e pitch is higher if it is stretched tighter and if it is a finer rubber band. Now put the two r u b b e r b a n d s a r o u n d the bigger box.5. You m i g h t try p l a n n i n g a n e x p e r i m e n t to find out whether the length of the string has anything to do with the pitch. The pitch is higher when the rubber band is shorter t h a n w h e n it is longer. 92 . You will find out that length affects the pitch. T h e sounds are higher t h a n they were on the smaller box. T h e thicker rubber band makes a lower sound than the other. Pluck them. What causes sounds to be of different pitch ? Place the r u b b e r b a n d s a r o u n d the smaller of the two boxes. Now pluck the other of them and notice the sound. T h e thickness of the r u b b e r b a n d s a n d the tightness of t h e m have to do with the pitch. The rubber bands had to be stretched tighter to get them over the larger box. Pluck one of them and notice the sounds.
Some sounds are louder t h a n others because the waves go back and forth farther than others. 93 Some sounds are higher t h a n others because the waves are faster t h a n others.Now you know that: Sounds are caused by vibrations. . Sound travels better through wood t h a n it does through air. Ears help catch sound waves.
T h e wax paper is said to be translucent and the black paper opaque. N o w light a l a m p a n d hold t h e glass between you and the lamp. 96 .1. Cut a piece of wax paper that size. Try the black paper in the same way. Light did not go through the black paper and you. How does light get from one place to another? Find a piece of glass about 6" square. Cut a piece of black paper the same size. Now cut a circle in the black paper and then hold it to the l a m p a n d notice the shadow it makes. T h e shadow is r o u n d like the circle a n d s q u a r e like the p a p e r . You doubtless discovered light went through the glass and you could see through it. Light travels in a straight line a n d it c a n n o t go through the black paper. could not see through it. so you see the lighted circle and the black shadow. Light went t h r o u g h the wax paper but you could not see through it. of course. Now hold the wax paper u p between you and the lamp. T h e glass is said to be t r a n s p a r e n t .
Here is another experiment which will help you how light gets from one place to another. Move it slowly about. . the sunlight on t h e wall moves. Hold the mirror in such a way that the bright sunlight hits it. As you move the mirror slowly. T h e rays of light come from the sun—hit the mirror—and are bounced or reflected to the place on the wall. T h e light travels in a straight line to the mirror and in a straight line to the wall where you see it. understand S t a n d in a w i n d o w a n d use a mirror.2. You will find a reflection of the sunlight on the wall.
E a c h piece should be at least six inches square. . point a light on t h e black p a p e r a n d notice the amount of light in the room.3. With a flashlight. lightcoloured things reflect more light than rough. dark ones. You will find that smooth. What kinds of things reflect the most light? Place a piece of white p a p e r a n d a piece of black p a p e r side by side on a table. Try it with rough surfaces and polished surfaces. T h e white paper reflects more light. Point the light on the white paper and notice again the a m o u n t of light in the room. Some kinds of things reflect light better than others. Try the experiment with papers of other colours. D a r k e n the room.
r U I N I N / D U U l \
What can we see in a mirror?
Find a square or rectangular mirror. Stand the mirror u p behind the letters at the top of this page. Could y o u r e a d t h e words? See h o w m a n y of t h e following words you can read. T h e mirror bends the light rays which come to it so t h a t the letter appears upside down in the mirror. T h e upside down half with the half on the paper completes the image. In some cases the image was a word. COOKIE, OBOE, and O H I O could be read. Can you think of other words which can be read?
Can we get a reflection of a reflection?
Stick a pin into a pad of paper. Take a rectangular mirror in each of your hands a n d stand them u p so that they are side by side with the pin in front of the place where they touch each other. Now move the outer edges of the mirrors slowly forw a r d . You will see t h a t you h a v e more t h a n one pin. You may have as m a n y as eight reflections of the pin. In fact, you have reflections of reflections.
T h e lower part of the spoon appears to be moved over—not where it really is—because the rays reflected from it go through both the water and air. There are many uses of light refraction. T h e top part of the spoon looks to be where it really is because the rays of light reflected from it go only through the air and glass. T h e h a n d l e of the spoon will appear broken where the surface of the water touches it.6. Glass is one of them. What is refraction? This experiment stand what refraction is. T h e lenses in glasses are cut so they will refract or b e n d light rays in just the right way to help the eyes to see. Stand a spoon in the glass of water. O t h e r things will refract light. T h e rays are bent. 103 . will help you under- Fill a glass two thirds full of water. This we call refraction.
green. Set a glass dish of water in the sunlight. You m a y see a r a i n b o w on t h e wall. lay a piece of white paper where the rainbow lies. T h i s is w h y we h a v e rainbows. blue. yellow. orange and red. Because of this shape it separates the white sunlight into the rainbow colours. The prism is glass cut into a particular shape. If you succeed in p u t t i n g the r a i n b o w on a table. How can we make a rainbow? H o l d a prism in t h e p a t h of a r a y of sunlight and turn the prism slowly until you see a rainbow on the wall or ceiling. T h e sunlight is made up of the rainbow colours—violet.7. . indigo. T h e water breaks the sunlight up into the colours of w h i c h it is m a d e . T h e sunshine on drops of water in the sky may cause a r a i n b o w which we can see. You m a y be able to get a r a i n b o w in another way. You will notice it shows u p more clearly on the white.
Light can be reflected. light-coloured things reflect the most light. A mirror bends the light rays t h a t come to it. We can get a reflection of a reflection. 105 Light rays ean be broken into the colours of the rainbow. Light travels in a straight line. Smooth. Light rays are bent as they go t h r o u g h some materials. .Now you know t h a t : Light travels t h r o u g h some materials a n d not through others.
Put one of t h e m u n d e r the front end of the box a n d the other nearer the back end of it. This broom stick may be put under the front of the box and the box rolled forward again. 108 . T h e broom sticks serve as wheels. E a c h t i m e t h e box rolls off of one of t h e b r o o m sticks p u t it u n d e r the f r o n t a n d c o n t i n u e moving the box. T h e y m a d e the work a great deal easier. How can a heavy box of toys be moved from one side of a room to the other? Find two broom sticks.1. T h e box will roll off of the broomstick n e a r e r the back. Now the box will roll forward easily.
Tie a string to the front of the toy cart. How can we measure the amount of work which wheels do? Use a small toy cart a n d a spring b a l a n c e scales. You may need to borrow the spring balance scales from a science laboratory.2. . It will be a great deal less because the wheels are doing much of the work for you. It is easy to tell that the work is made easier by using the broom sticks in experiment No. 1. The reading will tell you how much work you are doing. Notice the reading on the spring balance scales. Now turn the cart upside down on the floor a n d pull it along p a y i n g attention to the r e a d i n g on the spring balance scales. Turn the cart over on its wheels a n d pull it along again. Hook the spring balance scales to the other end of the string.
Notice the reading on the spring balance. Wheels are called simple machines because they do work for us. Fasten the spring balance on the end of the string which is on the cart a n d pull the cart along the board. 110 . Suppose your family was moving. Now hold the spring balance so that the cart is dangling at the other end of the string from it. Set the cart at one end of it. How could you get your heavy plane. This is the weight of t h e cart a n d the m e a s u r e of the work which you are doing. T h e a m o u n t of force will be t h e r e a d i n g on the spring balance. Lay the board on the floor. 2. bicycle up into the van ? You could use an inclined How does an inclined plane help do work? For this experiment you will need the spring bala n c e a n d the little toy cart which you used in experiment No. A r r a n g e the b o a r d so t h a t one end of it is on the floor and the other end is on a pile of books about one foot high. N o w pull the cart u p t h e b o a r d a n d notice the reading on the spring balance. You will notice that you are working harder t h a n when the board was on the floor but not so hard as when you lifted it straight u p in the air.3. Notice how m u c h force it takes to pull t h e cart. This is the a m o u n t of work which you are doing. There are other kinds of simple machines. You will also need a board at least six inches wide and three feet long.
4. . you must move f a r t h e r b u t t h e work is easier. which one took the more turns? T h e one with m o r e t h r e a d s was doubtless easier b u t you h a d to t u r n it more times. Notice. Here. With a hammer give each of the screws the same kind of a start into the wood. 3. T h e picture will help you u n d e r s t a n d w h a t threads are. how m a n y turns you make to put the screw in t h a t far. Screw each of t h e m down until they are half in the wood. as in e x p e r i m e n t No. Now screw the other one down and notice how this one compares to the other one. Was it the same one which was hardest to get in the wood? Was it t h e s a m e one which took more t u r n s to get it into the wood? Which one was the hardest. too. T h e bicycle would be moved farther. T h e one difference in these two screws should be that one of them has m a n y more threads than the other.F r o m this e x p e r i m e n t you can see t h a t w h e n you use an inclined plane you need to travel farther but it is not so much work. T h e bicycle could be loaded on the truck by wheeling it u p an inclined plane. As you do it notice how h a r d it is to do. Find a board at least three inches square and about as thick as the screws are long. Use a screw driver and screw one of t h e m down until it is about V 4 of its length in the wood. This would be much easier t h a n lifting it straight u p into the truck. What kind of screws are easiest to use? Find two screws which are the same length and the same size around. though.
How could you lift a very heavy box into your play tree-house? You will need a pulley a n d a long strong rope for this experiment. Now pull on the rope. You have probably discovered that you can lift the box more easily t h a n you did with only one pulley.5. Now fasten the rope to the bottom of the top pulley. Fasten one of t h e m to the box and the other to the tree as you have done. Put the end of it through the bottom pulley and u p and through t h e top pulley. You might use two pulleys. Tie the end of the rope securely to the rope which is tied a r o u n d the box. T h e more pulleys you use the easier the work becomes. N o w pull d o w n on the rope. . Now p u t the rope t h r o u g h the pulley so t h a t the other end hangs down. Fasten the pulley to a limb of the tree which is above the tree house. You will isee t h a t by pulling d o w n on t h e r o p e t h e box moves up.
113 . Screws make work easier. inclined planes.Now you know that: Wheels make work easier. screws. Inclined planes make work easier. Wheels. Pulleys make work easier. a n d pulleys are all simple machines.
CHEMISTRY ! fs .
10 in the section on air you probably remember that some of the air was used u p as the candle b u r n e d . In both cases oxygen is combining with something. jjg Look at this test tube the next day. This e x p e r i m e n t c a n be d o n e with steel wool instead of iron filings. If you did experiment No. What happens when things rust? Use a fairly large test tube from a chemistry set for this experiment. . Fill the test t u b e with water a n d then empty the water. You will notice t h a t water rises in the test t u b e . E m p t y the rest of them out. T h e p a r t of the air which the fire used a n d the p a r t which the rusting used was the same. M a n y of t h e m will stick to the side of the tube. Now turn the test tube upside down a n d stand it in a dish which has about one-half inch of water in it. Rusting is. in a way. iron unites with the oxygen to form rust. like very slow burning. About one fifth of the air is oxygen. Water c a m e about one fifth of t h e way u p in the t u b e a n d filled the place where the oxygen was.1. It was the gas called oxygen. This must m e a n that some of the air has been used up. While the test tube is wet on the inside put a few iron filings in the tube and shake them around. In rusting.
2. the gas continued to be formed a n d when the lighted match was lowered near the wick the gas began to burn before the flame really touched the wick. Let the candle burn for a few minutes. a candle snuffer or a teaspoon to put out the flame. Try this several times. Light a m a t c h a n d bring it t o w a r d t h e c a n d l e wick f r o m above. 117 . Hold. in one hand. What happens when a candle burns? Find a candle which has not been used before and place it in a candle holder. It is this gas which burns a n d causes the candle-to give off light. Put out the flame a n d immediately bring the lighted m a t c h slowly toward the wick from above. This is because t h e wick is surrounded with a gas that starts burning. W h e n a candle burns it is really b u r n i n g gas formed from the melted wax of the candle. T h e candle wax soon rises in the wick and is changed to gas. and hold in the other h a n d a lighted match. W h e n the wick is first lighted the heat from the b u r n i n g wick melts the candle wax. W h e n t h e c a n d l e was put out. You will notice t h a t the wick will catch fire before t h e m a t c h touches it. T h e wick starts burning after you have touched it with the lighted match.
T h e carbon dioxide held oxygen away from the flame and a flame cannot burn without oxygen. Now pour one-half of the water into the beaker of vinegar and the other half into the beaker of soda. How can we make Carbon Dioxide? Use three small beakers or glasses. This is one way to make carbon dioxide. Again the m a t c h continues to burn in each of them. P o u r t h e vinegar w a t e r i n t o t h e soda w a t e r a n d notice what happens. In one of t h e m put two tablespoonsful of baking soda. You notice a lot of bubbles when the vinegar water was p o u r e d into t h e soda w a t e r . T h e s e b u b b l e s were bubbles of carbon dioxide. You will notice t h a t the match continues to b u r n as long as there is enough of it to burn. Again light a match a n d hold it into the beaker of soda water a n d the beaker of vinegar water. Fill another onefourth full of vinegar a n d the t h i r d one one-fourth full of water. Light a match and hold it into the beaker of vinegar soda water. This time the match goes out. Light a m a t c h a n d h o l d it i n t o e a c h of t h e beakers one after t h e other. 118 .3.
. C a r b o n dioxide always t u r n s limewater milky. Put a straw in the limewater. How do we know that we breathe out carbon dioxide? Fill a test tube about three-fourths full of limewater from a chemistry set. After it has b u b b l e d a bit look at the limewater. We are making carbon dioxide all the time in our bodies too. Take the other end of the straw in your mouth and blow your b r e a t h into t h e limewater. When we breathe out we are getting rid of much of it. In experiment Number 3 you made some carbon dioxide.4. You will notice that it has turned a milky colour. We say that limewater is a test for carbon dioxide.
Put a drop of tincture of iodine on each of them. except the apple. Try this test on scrapings from a potato. The one which we know to be starch looks purple or almost black. How do we know if a food has starch in it? Dust a bit of starch over a piece of glass. Dust a bit of baking soda over another piece of glass.5. scrapings from an apple. 120 . The other one remains the colour of the iodine. a slice of white bread and a cracker. Compare them. have starch in them. If starch is present we may expect the purple colour. You will find t h a t all of these foods. Many of our foods have starch in them.
6. . T h e spot will spread a n d become larger. T h e other two m a d e the paper greasy. You will decide that the honey does not have fat in it. E x a m i n e t h e p a p e r after about ten minutes. It may not show on the back of the paper. In this way test peanut butter. D r a w two small circles on the paper—one near each e n d . Many of our foods have fats fats? in them. honey. R u b some butter which we all know to be fat on one of the circles. In the circle at the end of the paper r u b some lemon juice which we know not to be fat. It made the paper sticky but not greasy. T h e place where t h e lemon juice was p u t is drying. This is called the spot test for fat. Look at both sides of it. 121 . How can we test for Use a clean sheet of paper. T h e place where the butter was p u t will look greasy. and cream for fat.
7. You will notice that the potato weighed much less. in them? Do potatoes have other substances Use a scale which weighs very small amounts. This is because some of the water in the potato evaporated into the air. This will be about the same as the weight of the whole potato. N o w cut the p o t a t o into small pieces a n d write down the date and the total a m o u n t all these pieces of potato weighed. Get a potato and wash it clean so that there will be no dirt to r u b away. From this experiment you are sure to decide that potatoes have much water in them. In experiment Number 5 we found that potatoes have a great deal of starch in them. O n each following day weigh the potato again until the weight of the potato does not change. 122 . W h e n the weight does not change we will know that the potato has lost its water. O n the next day weigh t h e potato again a n d write d o w n the weight.
milk and water. T h e other three remained the same. T h e vinegar a n d lemon juice caused t h e m to t u r n pink. L i q u i d soap is a base. Get a small a m o u n t of each of the following—vinegar. T h e one with t h e liquid soap on it t u r n e d blue. Bases t u r n pink litmus p a p e r blue. sweet milk. changed the colour of neither paper because they were neither acids nor bases. lemon juice.8. T h e other liquids. and liquid soap. Select 5 pieces of blue litmus paper. Here you notice only one of t h e m c h a n g e d . P u t the end of each of these papers into each of the liquids and remove them again. Blue litm u s p a p e r c a n be used to test for acids. . Litmus paper is used to test for acids a n d for bases. It t u r n s pink when acid is present. How do we test for acids? In most chemistry sets there is litmus paper. Select 5 pieces of pink litmus paper a n d test each of the liquids in the same way. Notice what happens. water.
This is not surprising since marble is formed from limestone a n d limestone is formed from shells and other remains of sea animals. coral m rock a n d slate. This is the test—when there is lime present there will be bubbles of carbon dioxide formed when the acid test is used. . a piece of granite. Try the test on three o t h e r r o c k s — m a r b l e . You will notice that there are bubbles on the limestone b u t not on t h e other two rocks.LIMESTONE 9. We know that limestone has lime and that the other two do not. You will decide t h a t t h e m a r b l e a n d coral rock both have lime in them. Put a drop of hydrochloric acid on each of these rocks. a n d a piece of coal. How can we test for lime in rocks? 124 Find a piece of limestone.
10. How can I make butter?
Butter is m a d e f r o m t h e c r e a m a f t e r it has been s e p a r a t e d f r o m whole milk. You t h e n m a y m a k e some butter by putting about lA c u p of whipping cream in a pint fruit jar. Drop into the cream a few drops of lactic acid. T h e lactic acid will cause the butter fat to separate from the buttermilk more easily. Put a top on the j a r a n d begin shaking it with a regular movement. After a few minutes you will see little l u m p s of b u t t e r . Shake gently and the little lumps will become one big l u m p of b u t t e r . T h e b u t t e r m i l k c a n t h e n be p o u r e d off of the butter. You will probably wish to salt the butter before it is eaten.
N o w you know t h a t :
Oxygen a n d iron combine to m a k e rust.
W h e n a candle burns it is really gas that is burning.
W h e n vinegar a n d soda are c o m b i n e d c a r b o n dioxide is formed.
Limewater is a test for carbon dioxide.
Iodine is a test for starch.
T h e spot test is a test for fats.
Potatoes have much water in them. 127
Litmus paper can be used as a test for acids.
Hydrochloric acid can be used to test for lime in rocks.
i R L J L n x n r s 128 .
as it is called. a n d the food for the embryo. T h r e e or four hours later examine the seeds. T h e two halves in which the food is stored are called the cotyledons . Compare the ones in water to the ones which were not in water.i. What is inside a seed? You will need at least six hean seeds to do this experiment. cool water a n d let t h e m stand. Now with your O n the inside you will find something which looks like this: 130 T h e parts which you see are the baby plant or embryo. T h e ones in water are bigger and the seed coat may be wrinkled a n d broken. D r o p three b e a n seeds in fresh. clear.
2. 131 . T h e opening was the spot you saw. Water enters the bean seed through a little opening near the white scar. T h e o p e n i n g is called the microphyle. How does water get inside a seed? Select six b e a n seeds whose seed coats a p p e a r to have no cracks or openings in them. Examine them carefully. T h e ones with the wax on them are likely to look as they did when they were put in the water. Do this to all six of them. I n six of t h e m you filled it with w a x so t h a t the water could not get in unless there were other openings in the coat which you did not see. Examine t h e m in the morning. T h e other six are likely to look swollen and some of them may have wrinkled a n d split seed coats. Now select six more bean seeds which seem to have no cracks or openings in the coat. Put all twelve of these seeds in water a n d let stand overnight. You will notice no marks on t h e m except on one side. There you will see what appears to be a white scar a n d a tiny spot at one end of the scar on each of them. Light a candle and let some of the wax drip on the scar a n d on the tiny spot at the end of it.
Watch carefully to see what happens. . a pint milk bottle. Put this in a warm light place and water it each day. T h e two cotyledons become like leaves for the little plant. Pour water on the sand until it is wet and the p a p e r soaked. Put the seeds in water and let stand for several hours or overnight. 13? Pour sand into the paper until it is about half full. sand. Put the three seeds which were soaked in water between the glass and the paper in three different places. T h e n you will see a little loop which will be the stem. Put it in the funnel and cut it to fit. paper towelling. three bean seeds. Add more sand until it comes almost to the top of the paper. Place the funnel in the milk bottle. What happens when a seed begins to grow? T o do an experiment to answer this question you will need: a glass funnel.3. After a few days the loop will straighten u p and bring u p with it the two parts of the bean seed. and some water. You will p r o b a b l y first notice a tiny root coming out of the seed. Some of the water will r u n through into the milk bottle. Fold the paper towelling in half like this and now fold it again like this.
some sand. a pint milk bottle. The maize seeds are called monocotyledons because they only have one part to the seed. . paper towelling. T h e b e a n a n d radish seeds are called dicotyledons because they have two parts to the seed. three bean seeds.4. The maize will be quite different. The maize seed never comes up into the air as the bean seed did. a powder funnel. Place the funnel in the milk bottle and put the paper in it just as you did in experiment N u m b e r 3. T h e point is really folded leaves. three radish seeds. Now you know that not all seeds look alike as they begin to grow. Now put in the sand. Place the seeds in between the paper and the glass. Do all seeds look alike when they begin to grow? For this experiment you will need. You must watch the maize and radish seeds to see whether they look the same. T h e radish looked more like the bean but it was m u c h smaller. 134 Put the seeds in water to soak for 3 or 4 hours. three maize seeds. I n s t e a d of a loop coming u p it sends up a sharp green point. Set the e x p e r i m e n t in a suitable place a n d watch them begin to grow. You know what to expect the beans to look like as they grow.
T h e last experiment showed us that seeds will germinate in light places. In a few days a seed will crack and a plant will begin to grow just as you saw h a p p e n in the last experiment. T h e other bowl should be placed in an equally w a r m but light place. One of the bowls should be placed in a w a r m dark place. Will seeds germinate in dark places? To do an experiment to answer this question you will need. Look at the seeds each day. . T h e r e will be a velvety covering of fine root-hairs on the root.5. Put seeds on the wet blotting papers. If n o n e of t h e seeds g r o w we c a n t h i n k t h a t the seeds were not good because we have already found out t h a t seeds treated this way will g e r m i n a t e in the light. The seeds in both the light and dark places should begin to grow or germi8 * # nate as we call it. When the blotting paper is soaked with water pour off the rest of the water. at least 30 radish seeds. 2 finger bowls. Pour a little water into each of the bowls. two pieces of glass. In each bowl place a piece of blotting paper which has been cut to fit the bowl. and water. 2 pieces of blotting paper. N o w cover the bowls with glass.
After the p a p e r is soaked with water drain off the rest of the water. Place the other glass over them and fasten the edges of the glass together with tape at each side. After a time t h e roots will begin to t u r n a r o u n d a n d point down again. What happens ij the roots oj a plant begin to grow up instead of down ? Find two pieces of glass four or five inches square. Lay the blotting paper on one of the pieces of glass and p o u r water on it. If roots begin to grow upwards instead of down they turn around and go down. T h e radish seeds will begin to grow. Now turn the glass a r o u n d so t h a t the roots will point u p instead of down and the tops point down instead of up. You p r o b a b l y noticed t h a t the tops have turned around too.6. Cut a piece of blotting p a p e r the same size of the glass. Notice what happens. . Now sprinkle a few radish seeds on the blotting p a p e r . Now stand the glass u p in a shallow p a n of water and fix a support for it so that it will stay that way. T h e y have begun to point up again. There is something inside plants which causes the tops to grow towards the light and the roots to grow in the direction from which the gravity pulls.
7. too. It will begin to get green. Check them each day to see if they need more water and to see what is happening to them. W h e n the leaves are about six inches high move one of the containers out into the light a n d leave the other in t h e d a r k . Place b o t h containers in a d a r k place a n d water them well. Plant three of them in pebbles or shells. P l a n t the other three in a n o t h e r dish in the same way. T h e leaves will get green only if they have sunlight. N o w move the second one out into the light and see what happens to it. T h e one which is moved to the light begins to get green b u t the other one stays yellow. C o m p a r e t h e m each day. You will notice that they start to grow but that the leaves are yellow instead of green. . Will green leaves grow from bulbs which have been in the dark ? Get six Narcissus bulbs.137 .
8. Put water in each of them. Get a stick of celery which is nine or ten inches long. Put them together side by side. Take the celery out of the water and dry it. Colour the water in one of them red and the water in the other blue with food colouring. These are the water tubes in the stem. The red has gone up on one side and the blue has gone up the other side. Water goes up to the leaves through the water tubes. 138 Slit the stick of celery half the way up. How does water get up to the leaves of a plant? Find two glasses about five inches high. . Put one side in one glass of coloured water and the other side in the other glass of coloured water. Let this stand for about two hours. You will notice spots of colour which shows where the coloured water went up the stem. Now cut across the celery stalk. Notice what has happened to the colour of the celery.
What do yeast plants need in order to become active? 140 .9.
As the yeast plants grow a n d form more yeast plants they give off carbon dioxide and alcohol. Put another teaspoonful of yeast in another cup and the same amount in a third cup. T h e sugar is food for the yeast plants. There are m a n y bubbles. . yeast and sugar shows much action.Get a quantity of dry yeast. To one of these cups of water a n d yeast add one teaspoonful of sugar. The yeast looks like dry powder. The bubbles you see are bubbles of carbon dioxide. In this dry powder are m a n y little inactive plants. The water and yeast alone has no evidence of action. You will see nothing has happened to the dry yeast. T h e third c u p — t h e one with the water. Set all three cups aside for about half-an-hour. In two of these cups a d d mildly w a r m water until the cup is about half full. Put a teaspoonful of this yeast in a cup. Examine them to see what has happened.
Put the other two dishes in a cold place. where it is w a r m and where it is dark. In what kind of place should we expect mould to grow? Get four dishes which are fairly deep. If there was none put it back and wait another day or more if necessary.io. . Put two of the dishes—one with glass and one without glass—in a warm dark place. Place half-aslice of fresh b r e a d in e a c h of t h e m . If mould appears it will most likely be on the bread which was covered with glass and was put in the warm dark place. or mildew grows best where there is not much fresh air. Cover two of the dishes with pieces of glass. Mould. After about three days look at the pieces of bread. See whether there was any mould on any of it.
You might try growing geraniums in this way. Plants which can be grown from stems in much the same way include Busy Lizzie (Impatiens sultani). Pull off the leaves near where the stem was cut. Put dry soil on top and press down lightly. Keep the branch watered and watch for roots to develop. Can plants be grown from stems? Get a p h i l o d e n d r o n p l a n t which has several branches. Se't the plant where it will get sunlight and water as it needs it. Fill the pot almost to the top. W h e n some of the roots are an inch or more long it is ready to be planted in soil. Find a flower pot a n d p u t a few shells or pieces of broken flower pot in the bottom. Fill the pot about half full of rich soil. Hold the roots in the pot and put more soil in around the plant. 143 . Water the soil.ii. Put the b r a n c h in w a t e r so t h a t the w a t e r comes u p over the place where the leaves were pulled off. too. Cut off about six inches of one of the branches.
144 African violets can be started from their leaves too. W i t h a s h a r p knife cut the new little plant away from the leaf.12. Can plants be grown from leaves? Obtain a leaf of a bryophyllum plant. . Lay the leaf in a shallow dish of water. Their leaves can be put in water and rooted just as the stems were rooted in experiment N u m b e r 11. Keep it watered and watch for signs of a tiny plant on the edge of the leaf. There may be one or there may be many. Prepare a flower pot with good soil as you did the one in experiment N u m b e r 11. Put the new little plant on the top of the soil and press around it lightly.
Seeds will germinate in dark places. Roots grow downwards and leaf parts grow upwards. Leaves are green when they grow in the sunlight. . Plants can be raised from leaves. Water moves u p w a r d in the stems of plants. Plants can be raised from stems. Not all seeds look alike w h e n they begin to grow. Water goes into the seed t h r o u g h the little opening on one side. Sugar is food for yeast plants. Seeds will germinate in light places.Now you know t h a t : A seed contains an embryo a n d food for the embryo. 145 Moulds grow best where it is warm and dark and there is not much fresh air.
I. 148 . T h e penny will fall into the glass. This time shoot the card off with your t h u m b and finger. The card went off of the glass so fast that the penny did not have a chance to get started. N o w with your finger push t h e c a r d off of t h e glass. P u t t h e c a r d a n d t h e p e n n y on t h e glass again. When any thing is still it tends to stay still unless something starts it moving. T h e penny could not get started because of inertia. T h e p e n n y went off with the c a r d . Place a card on a water glass and put a penny on the centre of the card. Why do we jail backwards when a car in which we are rid- P e r h a p s this e x p e r i m e n t will help us answer this question.
This is because of inertia. O n top of the sand put about an inch of small pebbles and on top of the pebbles about the same amount of soil. W h e n rivers carry a heavy load of gravel. The next day it will look different from what it did when you left it. Why are there more pebbles in some places than others? Use a tall glass j a r . t h a t almost all of the pebbles are n e a r the bottom with the sand among t h e m a n d on top of them. Things which are moving have a tendency to keep moving in that direction unless something stops them. Put in the j a r about an inch of sand. You can feel them slide. This is one reason why there are more pebbles in some places than others. T h e y drop the gravel. They do this for the same reason that you go forwards when the car stops. The pebbles fall first because they are heavier. too.2. You will notice. O n top of the sand and pebbles is a fine layer of soil. When a car stops suddenly why do we go forward? Place three or four books stacked one on top of the other on top of your h a n d . Stand the jar aside overnight. . The books slide forwards off of your hand. Do this experiment several times. Now fill the jar about three-quarters full of water and shake the jar until everything in it is very well mixed. 3. Stop suddenly. Walk forward fast with the books. sand a n d m u d they drop the gravel first then the sand a n d at last the m u d . You will notice t h a t the water is almost clear. sand and mud when the river slows down and stops flowing so fast. The soil falls last because it is lighter. It takes a long time for all of the dirt to settle down. .
Be sure to count t h e m . may be surprised Fill a glass full of water.6. P u t each one i n — e n d first a n d carefully. There is a very thin skin or film over the water which makes it possible for the water to "pile u p . If you predicted ten you missed it a long way because you may be able to put in more t h a n a hundred. . Begin one after a n o t h e r p u t t i n g in p a p e r clips. You may wish to predict how many you think you can put in before you start. How many paper clips can be put in a glass full of water? This question is rather like a puzzle—you at the answer. " 152 If you look from the side of t h e glass you may see the water above the glass.
Tou are sure it is not a real butterfly and you are probably wondering— How does she get the paper butterfly to stay on her finger? At the bottom of this page is the outline of a paper butterfly. Cut a butterfly this shape from a piece ofvery heavy paper or light weight cardboard. Now try balancing the butterfly on your finger. E a c h of t h e weights are being pulled down by gravity and they pull down on the butterfly wing. This causes the head of the butterfly to press against your finger and balance there . O n the underside of each front wing tape a small coin. Colour it as you wish. In the picture you see a little girl with a butterfly on her finger. Scotch tape will do.7. W h a t you have done is put the same amount of weight on each side.
. N o w cut each of the half pieces of apple in two pieces. T h e point at which the apple touches the table is in line with the centre of gravity. T h e a m o u n t of apple on one side balances the a m o u n t on the opposite side. Try tipping it from one side to the other. Place each of t h e m on the table with the r o u n d e d side d o w n .8. Place each half on the table with the r o u n d side down. T h e y also t o u c h t h e t a b l e at t h e middle of the r o u n d e d side. You will notice that the apple touches the table at the middle of the half. This will help you u n d e r s t a n d why the topsyturvy toy does not tip over. Why does a topsy-turvy toy not tip over? Get a nice round apple. T h e apples touch the table at a point where there is the same a m o u n t of apple on each side. Cut the apple in two halves.
think. 155 . Organize those things w h i c h you won. You m a y plan e x p e r i m e n t s to show these i m p o r t a n t ideas a n d try t h e m out for yourself. Perhaps there are other things which you wonder about. a n d work carefully. experiment. Things which are moving have a tendency to continue moving unless something stops them. Water moves upwards in soil. You may find suggestions for doing other experiments in other books. b u t be very sure that you look. You may read. " There are many other experiments which you might do to show these a n d other i m p o r t a n t ideas in science.der a b o u t into good questions and set out to find the answers. T h e r e is a thin film or skin over water which makes it possible for water to "pile u p . listen. Water moves upwards faster in soil that is porous than in soil that is packed. or ask questions.Now you know that: W h e n a t h i n g is still it tends to stay still unless something starts it moving.
88 S o u n d travels b e t t e r t h r o u g h w o o d t h a n it does t h r o u g h air. 98 Smooth. 39 Electric m a g n e t s c a n be m a d e stronger. 50 Light b u l b lights because h e a t e d f i l a m e n t gives off light. 48 M a n y metals a r e good c o n d u c t o r s of electricity. 81 S o m e metals a r e better c o n d u c t o r s t h a n others. 63 T h e greater t h e w a t e r surface. 52. 18 Air e x p a n d s w h e n h e a t e d . 82 Dark colours absorb heat. 30 T h e size of a m a g n e t does not d e t e r m i n e its strength. 24 MAGNETS M a g n e t s pick u p t h i n g s m a d e of i r o n a n d steel. 39 Electric m a g n e t s ' poles c a n be c h a n g e d . 61 W i n d speeds u p e v a p o r a t i o n . c a r b o n dioxide is f o r m e d . 20 Air c o n t r a c t s w h e n c o o l e d . 38 Electric m a g n e t s c a n b e m a d e . 83 E v a p o r a t i o n has a cooling effect. 35 Electric m a g n e t s work only w h e n c u r r e n t flows through t h e m . 60. 61. 101 L i g h t rays a r e b e n t as they go t h r o u g h some materials. 32 Different s h a p e d m a g n e t s h a v e poles. 37 Electric m a g n e t s h a v e poles. 19. 76 H e a t travels t h r o u g h solids. 33 M a g n e t s a r e used as compasses. 109. 40 ELECTRICITY Switches t u r n c u r r e n t on a n d off. 117 ' W h e n vinegar a n d sod% a r e c o m b i n e d . 119 I o d i n e is a test for starch. 120 T h e spot test is a test for fats. 46. 36. 96 Light c a n be reflected. light coloured things reflect the most light. 84 SOUND S o u n d s a r e caused by vibrations. 36. 90 S o m e sounds a r e louder t h a n others because t h e waves go b a c k a n d forth f a r t h e r t h a n others. it leaves the sugar. 67 W a t e r dissolves some t h i n g s quickly. 35 M a g n e t s c a n be m a d e . 18. 54. 31 M a g n e t s a t t r a c t o t h e r m a g n e t s a c c o r d i n g to laws of poles. 111 Screws m a k e work easier. 75 We n e e d t h e r m o m e t e r s to m e a s u r e h e a t accurately. 79. 60. light colours reflect it. t h e q u i c k e r t h e w a t e r evaporates. 37. 21 Air has weight. 96. 62 H e a t speeds u p e v a p o r a t i o n . 110. 23 Fire n e e d s air to b u r n . 47 Short circuit m a k e s bell r i n g all t h e t i m e . 66. 112 CHEMISTRY O x y g e n a n d iron c o m b i n e to m a k e rust. 70 . 16. 56 HEAT W i r e e x p a n d s w h e n h e a t e d . 100 We c a n get a reflection of a reflection. 69 * Vwhen w a t e r e v a p o r a t e s f r o m s u g a r . 19. 111 Pulleys m a k e work easier. 63 Water vapour will condense where it is cooled. 51 Static electricity c a n be p r o d u c e d . 65 W a r m w a t e r is lighter t h a n cold w a t e r . 92 LIGHT L i g h t travels t h r o u g h some m a t e r i a l s a n d not t h r o u g h others. 44. 62. 91 S o m e sounds a r e higher t h a n others because t h e waves a r e faster. 5 3 Electric charges t h a t a r e alike repel e a c h other. 21. 112 I n c l i n e d planes m a k e w o r k easier. 124 156 WATER W a t e r evaporates. 80 Wool is a poor c o n d u c t o r of h e a t . a t t r a c t e a c h other. 79 Glass is a poor c o n d u c t o r of heat. 104 SIMPLE MACHINES W h e e l s m a k e w o r k easier. 22 Aii» p u s h e s in all directions. 78. 89 E a r s help c a t c h s o u n d waves. 122 L i t m u s p a p e r c a n be used as a test for acids. 26 Air moves. 34. 108. 121 B u t t e r is m a d e f r o m c r e a m . 103 Light rays can be broken into the colours of t h e r a i n b o w .INDEX OF EXPERIMENTS AIR Air takes u p space. 54 Electric charges t h a t a r e unlike. 45 Electric bells n e e d c o m p l e t e circuit to ring. 126 Potatoes h a v e m u c h w a t e r in t h e m . 116 W h e n a c a n d l e b u r n s it is really gas t h a t is b u r n i n g . 17. 49 Fuses help protect f r o m fires. 99 A m i r r o r bends the light rays t h a t c o m e to it. 64 W a t e r will e x p a n d w h e n h e a t e d . 68 H o t w a t e r dissolves things faster t h a n cold water. 98 Light travels in a straight line. 123 H y d r o c h l o r i c acid c a n be used to test for lime in rocks. 118 L i n t e w a t e r is a test for c a r b o n dioxide. 25. 74. 81 Ice will float.
PLANTS A seed contains a n e m b r y o a n d food for the e m b r y o . 141 Moulds grow best where it is warm and dark and t h e r e is not m u c h fresh air. A. 144 MORE EXPERIMENTS W h e n a t h i n g is still it tends to stay still unless s o m e t h i n g starts it moving. 151 •There is a t h i n film of skin over w a t e r which m a k e s it possible for it to "pile u p . T o u r n a i . 137 W a t e r moves u p w a r d in t h e stems of plants. 132. 130 W a t e r goes into t h e seed t h r o u g h t h e little o p e n i n g on one side.. 136 Leaves a r e green w h e n t h e y g r o w in t h e sunlight. t 4 8 T h i n g s which a r e m o v i n g h a v e a t e n d e n c y to c o n t i n u e m o v i n g unless s o m e t h i n g stops t h e m . 150 W a t e r moves u p w a r d faster in soil thftt is p o r o u s t h a n in soil t h a t is p a c k e d . 134 Seeds will g e r m i n a t e in d a r k places. 135 Roots grow d o w n w a r d a n d leaf p a r t s grow u p w a r d . " 152 P r i n t e d in B e l g i u m by £ t a b l i s s e m e n t s C a s t e r m a n S. 149 W a t e r moves u p w a r d in soil. 131 N o t all seeds look alike w h e n t h e y begin to grow. 135 Seeds will g e r m i n a t e in light places. 143 P l a n t s c a n be raised f r o n t leaves. 142 P l a n t s c a n be raised f r o m stems. 138 S u g a r is food for yeast plants.
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