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STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR (SITH) INTRODUCTION

The static induction thyristor (SITh) or field-controlled diode (FCD) was
first introduced by Teszner in the 1960’s. This device is capable of conducting large currents with a low forward voltage and turn-off quickly. It is a self-controlled GTO-like on-off device that was commercially introduced by Toyo Electric Co. (Toyo Denki) of Japan in 1988. It belongs to a family of Static Induction Device and is a high power high frequency power semiconductor device. It is essentially a p+nn+ diode with a buried p+ grid like gate structure. The device structure is analogous to SIT except that a p+ layer has been added to the anode side.

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Static induction devices
There are many devices which belong to the static induction devices family:      Static Induction Transistor (SIT), Static Induction Diode (SID), Static Induction Thyristor, Static Induction Transistor Logic (SITL), Static Induction MOS Transistor (SIMOS)

STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR (SITH)

Features
 Since they are normally on-state, gate electrodes must be negatively biased to hold off-state.  The SI-thyristor at on-state behaves similar to pin diodes.  The on-state voltage is low in the Si-thyristor, which is due to thyristor action followed by carrier injection effect around the gate channel. Minority-carrier device (a JFET structure with an additional injecting layer).  Power-handling capability similar to GTO.  Faster switching speeds than GTO.  Level-triggered and Voltage-driven (voltage-controlled) devices.

Fabrication
Many interesting works have been done on fabricating different structures of SITH to improve its forward blocking and switching characteristics , such as anode-shorting pattern , shallow-junction pattern and double-gate pattern.

Fig. 3 Surface plan view of the fabricated SI thyristor

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STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR (SITH)

BASIC STRUCTURE OF SITH

Fig. 4
 Basic structural types of SITH had been developed in recent years, such as buried gate, surface gate, recessed gate, double dielectrics gate and buried-gate with diffused source region (DSR buried-gate).  It is normally ON state device, i.e if the anode is positive and the gate voltage is zero, the device will behave like a diode and current will flow freely.  The forward biasing of the P+ N junction will cause a hole injection into the region N- region and its conductivity will be modulated.  When the gate is reversed biased with respect to cathode, a depletion layer will block Anode current. As a results device gets OFF.  Evidently it is not a thyristor like structure like trigger into conduction device but somewhat SIT like V-I characteristics with varying Negative gate biase.

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STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR (SITH)

WORKING
ON-STATE

 When a positive voltage pulse is applied to the gates, the depletion region is filled with carriers and the device becomes on-state.  The transition time of the turn-on process is largely dominated by the rate of the carrier injection time.  At the turn-on phase the SI-thyristor acts just like as a pin-diode

OFF-STATE

 Since SITh is normally ON state, the gate electrodes have to be negatively biased.  The negative bias voltage to the gate forms a low-conductive depletion region around the gates and the SI-thyristor holds off-state.

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STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR (SITH)

Some examples

Type

4kV/300A

4kV/600A /400A Ceramics Sheered type (Reverse Conducting)

5.5kV/600A /400A

4kV/30A

Package

Ceramics Sheered type

Ceramics Plastic Mold Sheered type type (Reverse Conducting)

Outside view

Applications Inverter Pulsed power

Inverter Pulsed (Soft Switching) power

Pulsed power Inverter

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STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR (SITH)

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
Advantages of SITh
 The device has also high immunity for electromagnetic noise.  SITh has high di/dt and dv/dt critical ratio. capable of handling rapid voltage or current changes.  It’s a vertical structure device with short multichannel. Being a vertical device, the SITh offers advantages in obtaining higher breakdown voltages than FET.

Disadvantages
 One of the disadvantages of the SIT is the relatively flat shape of the potential barrier. This leads to slow, diffusion based transport of carriers in the vicinity of the potential barrier.

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STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR (SITH)

SPECIFICATIONS
• • • • • • Short channel length Low gate series resistance Low gate source capacitance Small thermal resistance Low noise High audio frequency power capability

• The forward blocking voltage of this SITH has been increased to 1600 V from the previous value of 1000 V, • The blocking gain increased from 40 to 70,

• A high anode blocking voltage VAK and switching speed are necessary parameters for SITH with good performance.

Applications
Due to its high switching speed, high di/dt and dv/dt capabilities, along with a low forward on state voltage (Von), SITH has been used in systems of energy accelerator, current-source inverter and high-frequency power conversion, etc.

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STATIC INDUCTION THYRISTOR (SITH)

References
 www.wikipedia.org  “Present status of SIThy” shimizu,sekiya,Iidal NGK insulators  “Power electronics handbook” by M.Rashid  “Recent development of the SIThy and its applications”  Evaluation of Modern Power Semiconductor Devices and Future Trends of Converters by Bimal K. Bose, Fellow, ZEEE

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