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Step-I: Arrangement to obtain Fraunhoffer diffraction due to a single slit: Monochromatic source of light ‘S’ is placed at the focal length of Lens L 1. The wavelength of light is ‘λ’ From the lens a parallel beam of light otherwise called the plane wave front is intercepted by a slit AB of width ‘e’.. The emergent beam is brought to focus, using another lens L 2, on a screen. The resultant of the secondary wavelets from different points of the slit AB of incident wave front give rise to central maximum of large intensity at 'O' on the screen placed at the focal length of the converging lens.
But at a point like 'P' on either side of 'O' the secondary wavelets will either undergo constructive or destructive interference depending on the value of ' θ. Thus on either side of the central maximum a number of alternate maxima and minima are formed. The intensity at a minimum is zero. The intensity at any secondary maximum is very small compared to the intensity of central maximum.
Resultant intensity at various points on the screen: 1. Each point on the wave front is a secondary source of light. 2. All such secondary wavelets have the same amplitude, frequency and a same phase difference ‘d’ between successive secondary wavelets. 3. Phase difference between any two consecutive waves in the slit of width ‘e’ is
4. The resultant Amplitude and phase of due to the superposition of ‘n’ secondary sources is obtained at a point on the screen by applying the polygon law. If the resultant amplitude is ‘R’ and phase is θ then,
7.5. When ‘n’ is very large. Let na=A and nd=2 α then. ‘a’ and ‘d’ are very small ‘na’ and ‘nd’ are finite. The Intensity distribution at any point on the screen is given by . . 6.
each of which can be regarded as a point source. .Fraunhoffer Diffraction Single Slit Amplitude Construction The wave arrives at the single slit as a plane wave. the amplitudes of the segments will have a constant phase displacement from each other. and will form segments of a circular arc when added as vectors. Divided into segments.