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(a) Calculate the change in entropy when 1.00 kg of water at 100°C is vaporized and converted to steam at 100°C. (b) Compare your answer to the change in entropy when 1.00 kg of ice is melted at 0°C. Is the change in entropy greater for melting or for vaporization? Interpret your answer using the idea that entropy is a measure of the randomness of a system. 20.6. (a) Calculate the theoretical efficiency for an Otto cycle engine with γ = 1.40 and r = 9.50. (b) If this engine takes in 10,000 J of heat from burning its fuel, how much heat does it discard to the outside air? 20.8. The Otto-cycle engine in a Mercedes-Benz SLK230 has a compression ratio of 8.8. (a) What is the ideal efficiency of the engine? Use γ = 1.40. (b) The engine in a Dodge Viper GT2 has a slightly higher compression ratio of 9.6. How much increase in the ideal efficiency results from this increase in the compression ratio? Ex 20.2 A Carnot engine takes 2000 J of heat from a reservoir at 500 K, does some work, and discards some heat to a reservoir at 350 K. How much work does it do, how much heat is discarded, and what is the efficiency? Find the total entropy change in the engine during one cycle. Ex 20.3 Suppose 0.200 mol of an ideal diatomic gas (γ = 1.40) undergoes a Carnot cycle with temperature 227oC and 27oC. The initial pressure is pa = 10.0 x 10 5 Pa, and during the isothermal expansion at the higher temperature the volume doubles. (a) Find the pressure and volume at each of points a, b, c, and d in the pV-diagram of the cycle. (b) Find Q, W, and ΔEint for each step and for the entire cycle. Determine the efficiency of the engine using the results in (b) and using the temperature-dependent equation for eC. 20.11. A window air-conditioner unit absorbs 9.80 x 104 J of heat per minute from the room being cooled and in the same time period deposits 1.44 x 10 5 J of heat into the outside air. (a) What is the power consumption of the unit in watts? (b) What is the energy efficiency rating of the unit? 20.19. A certain brand of freezer is advertised to use 730 kWh of energy per year. (a) Assuming the freezer operates for 5 hours each day, how much power does it require while operating? (b) If the freezer keeps its interior at a temperature of -5.0°C in a 20oC room, what is its theoretical maximum performance coefficient? (c) What is the theoretical maximum amount of ice this freezer could make in an hour, starting with water at 20oC?

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- BMM2523_Chapter 2 thermodynamics9-13 An air-standard cycle executed in a piston-cylinder system is composed of three specified processes. The cycle is to besketcehed on the P - v and T - s diagrams and the back work ratio are to be determined. Assumptions 1 The air-standard assumptions are applicable. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3 Air isan ideal gas with constant specific heats. Properties The properties of air are given as R = 0.287 kPa·m 3 /kg·K, c p = 1.005 kJ/kg·K, c v = 0.718 kJ/kg·K, and k =1.4. Analysis (a) The P - v and T - s diagrams of the cycle are shown in the figures.(b) Process 1-2: Isentropic compression )( 12,21 T T mcw in −= − v s T 321 v P 321 11212 =⎟⎟ ⎠⎜⎜⎝ = r T T T v 11 −− ⎞⎛ k k v rocess 2-3: Constant pressure heat addition T T mRP −=−= V V v he back wrk ratio isP 2,32 Pd w out = ∫ − )()( 232323 To )()( 2312,32,21 T T mRT Tby mh13001

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- BMM2523_Chapter 2 thermodynamics9-13 An air-standard cycle executed in a piston-cylinder system is composed of three specified processes. The cycle is to besketcehed on the P - v and T - s diagrams and the back work ratio are to be determined. Assumptions 1 The air-standard assumptions are applicable. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible. 3 Air isan ideal gas with constant specific heats. Properties The properties of air are given as R = 0.287 kPa·m 3 /kg·K, c p = 1.005 kJ/kg·K, c v = 0.718 kJ/kg·K, and k =1.4. Analysis (a) The P - v and T - s diagrams of the cycle are shown in the figures.(b) Process 1-2
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