International Society for Iranian Studies

History: From the Saljuqs to the Aq Qoyunlu (ca. 1000-1500 C.E.) Author(s): Charles Melville Source: Iranian Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3/4, A Review of the "Encyclopaedia Iranica" (Summer Autumn, 1998), pp. 473-482 Published by: Taylor & Francis, Ltd. on behalf of International Society for Iranian Studies Stable URL: . Accessed: 19/09/2013 04:53
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vol. 1000-1500 C. an event that falls almost exactly in the middle of the period underreview and which to some extent destroys its unity.10. 1988). alreadyvery much in evidence.30 on Thu. particularlyin the army and in the militaryregime of the Ghaznavids.while leaving a profound impressionon Persiansociety. Garcin (Paris. which snuffedout the tentative Persian reassertiveness of the 10th century under such widely-differingregionaldynastiesas the Saffarids.the Mongol sack of Baghdadin 1258 and the end of the Abbasid caliphateis taken as the defining turning point in medieval Persianhistory. volume 31. but of course his view is not confined to Iran. of course.Samanids. See also the recent Etats. generally claimed as a "Persian" of the Aq Qoyunlu and dynasty. culture. Comparedwith both what went before and what came after. societes et cultures du monde musulman medieval XeXVsiecle. Even the Safavids. D. Turks were. were heirs to the tribal background relied heavily on Turcomansupport. 1. ed. Nevertheless. Morgan. Cambridge University. 1995). 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The arrivalof the Ghuzz tribes in the early 11th century was not an entirely peaceful affair-the authorof the Thrtkh-i Sistlin regardsit as a calamity for that formerly prosperous province-and much worse was to follow.What makes the Safavids distinctive is that once again-for the first time since the fall of the Abbasids-religion becomes a crucial element in state ideology. In the first place.41. volume 2 of MarshallHodgson's The Ventureof Islam is still perhapsthe nearestapproach to a united vision of the "MiddlePeriods"of Islamic history.Despite the continuing use of ghuliamsor slave troops. though he doesn't go out of his way to elaborate the point. all of which causedenormous destruction. and again underthe Qajars. The period to 1500 is a formative phase in the Charles Melville is Lecturerin Persian Studies.however.E.'Traditionally.) THECOMINGOF THE THE HALF-MILLENNIUM OF PERSIAN HISTORYBETWEEN Saljuqsand the establishmentof the Safavid dynasty is one of repeatedupheaval and largely alien rule. considers that even the longer period up to 1800 possesses a unity that justifies its treatment in a single book (p. This long and eventful period is seldom treatedas a whole. this is the age of Turkish domination.-C.and political life. 1. the Saljuqswere freebornTurkish chiefs and the reins of power were henceforthheld by rulers from the same milieu up to the Safavid period. certain recurring Persian history from featuresand long-termtrendshelp to define and characterize the Saljuqs to the Aq Qoyunlu. therewas considerablecontinuity despite the changes wrought by the Mongols. Summer/Fall 1998 CharlesMelville History: From the Saljuqs to the Aq Qoyunlu (ca. with the Mongol invasions of the 13th century and Timur's campaigns in the late 14th. Medieval Persia 1040-1797 (London. ix). again with a wider perspective. J. This content downloaded from 202.O. numbers3-4.and Buyids.Iranian Studies.

slowly displacingArabic works. I propose to examine each of these groups in turn.10. (iii) biographiesof leading figures. in adequte CAJA:EB-AL-MAQDUR. thereare a numberof generalarticlesthatcannoteasily be classified undera single heading but relate principally to economic activity. CAFIFand BARANI are also included. artistic. to highlight amas where furtherresearchis likely to be fruitful).Thereare several entrieson the main narrative of the period. including entries on some places that are at least partly relevantto our the extent of involving themselves in their factionalism and intrigues. The traditionsof the InnerAsian steppeswere anotherelementto be absorbedinto the Perso-Islamicamalgam that had emergedunderthe Abbasids. Persian historians of India. with the latter portrayedas protectors of the indigenous population and moderators of governmentexcess. detail to bring out their importance(and. In both the Saljuq and Mongol periods we see the rapid disintegrationof centralizedfamily rule into regional"partykingdoms. covered in otherreview articlesin this volume.the AKBAR AL-DAWLATAL-SALJUQIYAand the Ibn cArabshah's biography of Timur. (i) Historiographyand historians of the period From the Saljuq periodonwards. the men of the pen continuedto play their part and to offer their services to their overlords. reflectingthese trends.(ii) dynasties and families. from Sufi shaikhs to Shici sultans.historical writing in Persian increasesin volin the areaof ume and importance. who played an increasingly prominentrole in society and political affairs. The nomadism of the court was a new feature. and religious history of the period is administration." If therewas an increasingtendencytowardsmilitaryrule. EBN CARABSAHis himself the This content downloaded from 202. though there will inevitably be some overlap between them. such distinctions become even furtherblurred.In addition(v). The focus is on political and dynastic history.offices. government and the intellectual.undereither theirtitles or the name of the author.41. in the latter case. largely at the hands of Sufi shaikhs. and technicalterms.Overarchingthese questions is the issue of how the nomadic invaderswere assimilatedinto Persian society and to what extent the acculturation of the Turco-Mongoliantribes was a one-way process. to what extent do the available volumes of the Encyclopaedia Iranica flesh out the picture?How much use are the relevantarticles for understanding the period and how fully is it covered?What could one learn of the period by consulting the EIr? A survey of the relevantarticles suggests four broadgroups: (i) historiography and historiansof the period. which entailednew offices and institutions and required adjustmentson the part of the bureaucracy. With the Islamizationof the Mongols. particularly sources dynasticand local history. If these generalobservationscan be taken to characterize the period under review. The tribalorigin of Persia's rulers duringthis periodis its second and concomitant characteristic.encapsulatedin the growth and transformationof the Safaviyya leadershipitself.Two Arabicworksare covered. This broughta new dimension to the natureof political legitimacy and additional instability to the processes of dynastic succession. Even in the Mongol period. it is not possible to view amirs and viziers as two watertight opposing interests.30 on Thu. and (iv) institutions. 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .474 Melville developmentof Persia'sreligious identity.

DASTUR-EDABIRIand DASTURALKATEB.4 Chronology is very much a part of shown by the use of the word tiarikh to designate both. See my article.5 2. is the only detailedaccount of the reign of the IlkhanOljeitu. and reliability of the chronicles.emphasizing his accountsof Timuridrelationswith Egypt. whereasthe manuscript breaksoff at the outset of his rule. The twelve-animalcalendarwas introducedinto Iranby the Mongols and continued to be used alongside the Hijri lunarcalendarfor longerthanis statedhere. A valuable and substantial article. on the whole the entries are too brief to provide a real assessment of the work in question. The Mongol and Timuridhistorians cAta' Malik Juvaini and cAli Yazdi will perhaps be found later under Juvainiand Sharafal-Din respectively? Local history is represented by brief entries on the lost history of Heratby ABU NASR FAMI. the importanceof Turkish patronageof astronomers. authorof a Persian chronicle on the Saljuqs of Anatolia and their Mongol successors. 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the 'Atabat al-katabah. Aubin. for example. CALENDARS ii. these are often inaccurate.41. EBN AL-ATIR.sources. 1319.10. Ed. while the entry on AHARI gives the misleading impressionthat his Thrtkh-i Shaikh Uvais has valuablematerialon Uvais's reign. China and India. HOSAYN-for which see the useful study of Isabel Miller.From the Saljuqs to the Aq Qoyunlu 475 subject of a brief but useful entry. "L'aristocratieurbainedans l'Iran seldjukide: l'exemple de Sabzavar." Iran 32 (1994): 83-98. gets a succinct entry which gives little idea of what the work contains. The only obvious omission I have noticed underthis heading is an entry on Aqsarali.30 on Thu. perhaps the single most importantsource for the pre-Mongol period.An importantwork of this naturewhich might have been includedhere is the collection of Saljuq documents.however. J. "The Chinese Uighur animal calendar in Persian historiography of the Mongol period. AFZAL-AL-DIN KERMANI. and the local historyof Sabzavarby Ibn FunduqBAYHAQI.the 14th-century history of Ruyan by AWLIAZALLAH AMOLI. without emphasis. we would readabout the structure. Islamic period infers. 'Abbas Iqbal (Tehran 1329/1950).there are brief but useful articleson works connected with the administration. long ago exploited by Jean Aubin. outlook.2the historian of Kirman. "Local history in ninth/fifteenth century Yazd: the Tarikh-i Jadid-i Yazd.3 In additionto historiesand theirauthors. down to ca. the historian of Yazd. which does not di justice to the importanceand value of that work. CroZet 1 (1966): 323-32.Ideally. and manualsfor secretaries." Melanges R. 3. by BANAKATI. 4. AHMAD B. has an appropriatelylong and analyticalentry. 5. I. Otherwise. but though it is full of precise dates."Iran 27 (1989): 75-79. Miller. such as the Timurid ATAR ALWOZARA'. This content downloaded from 202.Anothersource for the reign of Oljeitu. The Persian Matla'-i Sa'dain of CABDAL-RAZZAQSAMARQANDI is also given a full witnessed by the calendarreforms undertakenfor Malikshahand the work of the Maraghah observatoryunder the Ilkhans and laterat Samarqand underUlugh Beg. The Tirikh-i Uljaita by ABU'L-QASEM KASANI. and their importanceas historical texts. and this is often not available elsewhere either.

D. to the study of this particularly Among the scholars who have contributed period of Persian history. for dynastiesof tribal and nomadicorigin. Another Italian merchant. Jalayirids. nothing is revealed of the inner dynamics or politics of the Kartstate.41. p. who was appointedsecond archbishopof Sultaniyya in 1322. LawrenceG. see next section). thesis. This content downloaded from 202. and DEFREMERY. there are entries on BARTHOLD. "The Kart dynasty of Herat: religion and politics in medieval Iran" (Columbia. 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . particularlyin the pioneering studies of Minorsky. a more thorough discussion and comparisonof the various genres will be possible in a futureentry on historiographythan can realistically be found in articleson individualworks. etc.Mongols/Ilkhans. is includedmore for the role he played in Mongol diplomaticrelationswith the west thanfor the recordhe left of his travels.10.476 Melville Travellers'accounts of Persia in this period may also be mentioned under the headingof sources. Khwarazmshahs. Persian historiographyis not adequatelystudied and it is useful to have importanthistoricaltexts and the work of Persian historians given space in the medieval Elr. Although the authorrefersto 6.the DELHI SULTANATE and the Central Asian CHAGHATAYIDS. thanks to alphabetical chance. who visited Persia in the late 12th century. articles on the Ghurids. BUSCARELLO.BARBARO."With luck. space does not allow detailedevaluation of individual works.Qara Qoyunlu. includethe IndianBAHMANIDS. Saljuqs.6 A long articleon the AQ QOYUNLU by R.Arabicsourcescontinue to be valuable. Potter's Ph. though often neglected. These articles tend to list their achievementsand output. individualrulers(cALAM-AL-DIN Thus only a couple of the majordynasties are dealt with here. BEREZIN. and by entries on Timuridsare still to follow. as is Guillaume ADAM. nor of theirculturalpatronageor relationswith the religious classes. For the postAbbasidperiod.CONTARINIand CONTIare all given notices commensuratewith their importance. (ii) Dynasties and families The difficulty of establishingand maintainingcentralizedrule in medieval Persia..30 on Thu. Nevertheless. BOYLE. and no doubtmany of them will featurein the volume(s) devoted to "Ebn. In view of our heavy relianceon the chronicles for reconstructing Persian history. 1992). The coverage number of entries dedicated extendsoutside the wider Iraniansphere. who concentratesmore on the wider picture of IlkhanidPersia and relations with neighboringpowers.CLAVIJO. is well illustratedby the particularly to both regional and local powers. might have been worth a mention. Actually. Some of these are at least represented ATSIZ. closer analysis might yield a more sophisticatedpicturethan a simple dichotomy between 'men of the sword' and 'men of the pen'. Muzaffarids. makes important progress in this direction. The Kartsof Herat(AL-E KART) are given rathercursorytreatmentby BertoldSpuler. Quiring-Zocheunderlinesthe essenthe tial Turk versus Tajik clash (esp. Benjamin of Tudela. 166) that has been taken to characterize whole period. critical evaluations of these works are essential.

was dedicatee of the Bahr al-fawd`id. becoming independent in Anatolia afterthe collapse of the Ilkhanate. the DU'L-QADR are also a Mongol successor state. All are critical and up-to-datereviews of these dynasties. Mir Hashim Muhaddith. The history of this region is ratherobscure and seldom impinges on events south of the Alburz. Yusufshah(brotherand heir of Afrasiyab. for example. but also as heirs to a tribally constitutedmilitaryelite posing the same problemsfor stable government. the Bosworth's reconstruction Salghuridsof Fars. 897) was the dedicatee of Hindushah'sTajiaribal-salaf. less obviously connectedwith Persian history or culture but rightly viewed as successors to the Saljuqs.7most of whom survived into and beyond the lchanid period. Stephen Humphreysgives a very succinct statementof the distinguishing featuresof the political system of the period as a whole in his article on the KurdishAYYUBIDS. 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .the Ahmadili. In additionto those a sense. BADUSPANIDS of Ruyan and Rustamdar. Apartfrom rulingdynasties. 1991). the AL-E BORHAN. bringing with them political influence that in neither case was necessarily any less oppressive than the Turkish regimes with which they clashed. 1984).From the Saljuqs to the Aq Qoyunlu 477 the marriagebetween Uzun Hasan's daughterand Sultan HaidarSafavi. S. but not on the Jalayirids. though the converse is less true. The fragmentationof Saljuq power into appanagesis reflectedin a sequence of articles on the atabegates. give these regions a particularlysignificant place in the continuity of Persianculture.30 on Thu. and ed. Nusratal-Din Ahmadb. It is representedhere by entries on the Bavandids (AL-E BAVAND). Though Shabankara'i'sMajma' al-ansab. the previous connection with Junaidis passed over. is not cited in the bibliography of any of these articles (see now ed. but also as patrons. and civic life. and Arslan Aba b. There is perhaps an insufficient emphasis on the extent to which the Safavids were themselves the posterity of the Aq Qoyunlu.and AL-E AFRASIAB. Luristan. trans. the rulers of Greaterand Lesser Luristan. The sea of precious virtues. p. ATABAK). The authorsemphasizethe importanceof such families in administrative.10. This content downloaded from 202. there are entries on the DARGAZINIfamily of Saljuq viziers and the Bukharanfamily of culama. Meisami (Utah. as is the space devoted to them. the Ahmadilis of Maraghahand the Atabegs of Yazd.who could have been incorporated by the device of calling them Al-i Jalayir (the same goes for the Al-i Muzaffar).v. These articles provide useful surveys of the Ildegozids of Azarbaijan (I'm not sure that of the name as Ildeniiz can be dismissed so easily).economic. Among other things. Aq Sunqur. 8. there is an article on the CHOBANIDS. the progress and influence of Shicism in the Caspianprovinces.8 Of the Mongol successor regimes. They were important not only in giving some continuity of rule and local autonomy in their districts.and Yazd. J. as well as their conservativeattitudeto their pre-Islamic heritage. R. 7. A medieval Islamic mirrorfor princes. which contains sections on the rulers of Fars.not son. notionallyestablishedon behalf of Saljuqprinces (s.Tehran.41. not only in a genealogical sense. One region with more than its share of local rulers is the Caspian province of Mazandaran. The coherentand detailednarratives providedin these articles are thus particularlywelcome.

generallywell covered. A basic subdivision of the entries by type indicatesthat dynastic rulers constitute the largest group. Two of the Bavandid rulers are given their own entries.10. (iii) Biographies There are about75 entries on historicalfigures from the period underreview.would certainlydeserve their own article. one of whom. Bosworthviews CALA\-AL-DAWLA CALJfrom a rather wider perspective. Although rulers from Transoxania are featured. was in effect the first of the Khwarazmshahs. ALP ARSLAN and BARKIAROQ. all but four of the Ilkhansappearin the first two letters of the alphabet. these encyclopedia articles fulfill a very important need in assembling scatteredmaterialsand bibliographicinformation. however brief. thoughit is interestingto see how he slightly amplifies this material in his article on CALA'-AL-DAWLA HASAN. The rulers are generally given sufficient space for a propersurvey of their reigns and of the issues facing them. particularlyfor the reign of ABU SACID. including sultans of Delhi. Categorizationof the atabegsas amirsratherthanrulerswould slightly redressthe apparentimbalance.Whetheror not it is feasible to impose a standard formula on the differenttypes of article is a question for the editors.Only two or three amirs from the Saljuq period are mentioned.there are one or two surprisingomissions. 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .41. such as cAli This content downloaded from 202. Ismacili Imams. neither of which adds very much to the information already given in the detailed article by Wilferd Madelungdevoted to the dynasty(see above). including the ever-present question of succession. Various Aq Sunqurs. far too many to mention individuallyhere. both had to fight for their positions in a political system that was resistantto centralization and in which brotherswere as likely to succeedas sons.and not just for the long-runningwar against the Mamluksof Egypt and Syria. Ilkhans.30 on Thu. ANUSTIGIN GARtAkI. notably alBursuqi. which is not well servedby Persian historiography. but there is always a need to strikea balancebetween an overview of a subject and the presentationof factual detail. but this must be partly a result of editorialinconsistency (particularlyif comparedwith the previous Ghaznavidperiod). These draw interesting insights from the Arabic sources. and various others are represented. whereasProf. Even for the Mongol period. so that Saljuq and Ghuridsultans. which should be that much easier to achieve when the subject appearsin more thanone place. Many of them demonstrate the EIr's value in stimulating researchon little-studiedsubjects. and who merits an individual entry.There is perhapsno certain way of deciding who should be includedmerely in the context of largerarticles.neither Batu Khan of the Golden Horde nor his brotherand successor Berke are included. Timurids. The Saljuq sultans. Atabegs.478 Melville Given the absence of modem monographson all but a tiny fraction of Persia's dynasties (the nearestapproachstill being the relevantchaptersof The CambridgeHistory of Iran). A second category of biographiesof amirs and royal princes or princesses reveals a far less even coverage. and are evenly spreadacross the period.and the result is a series of valuablearticlesby Peter Jackson (consulting editor for the Mongols). There is an almost exclusive monopoly of biographiesfor the Mongol and to a lesser extent Timuridperiods. Khwarazmshahs. By chance.

CALA'-AL-DINMOHAMMAD. Ann K.There may be several very good reasons for these variationsin coverage (notablyof course the alphabet. Emirs mongols et vizirs persans dans les remous de l'acculturation. 1995). If the men of the sword. and DOKUZ KATUN are representative of a wider constituency (Baghdad Khatunis omitted). 1988). Only BORHAN-AL-DIN. See particularly A. brotherof Hulegu. Studia Iranica. Thus the treatmentof BUQA.a gap partly catered for elsewhere (CLASS SYSTEM iv.incorporating a discussion of about 30 terms and offices. This time the bias is strongly towards the Saljuq period. Classes in medieval Islamic Persia). but it is worth drawingattentionto them. cf. IJth-14th century (Albany. N. 8. 10. it is true. Administrationand social organization)to distilling a lifetime's researchon the subject. to which the vizier al-Kunduri could have been addedunder'Anid al-Mulk. In practice.there is also occasionally a wasteful overlap between rulers and those who served them. This content downloaded from 202.however.41.9 Thus the princesses and royal wives. two separateincidents in the struggle between Arghunand AhmadTeguderseem to have been conflatedinto one. other than some conflicting information and the odd statement that Khabushanis near Ray. in case it is possible througha deliberate editorial policy to achieve a more even balance. appearratherfew.notably BAYSONGOR. chap. doubton purpose.'? (iv) Offices and institutions For the administrativesystems of the regimes from the Saljuqs to the Aq is advised to refer to the respective dynasties.the Muzaffarid vizier.. they play a far more visible and important role in affairs. post-datethe Ilkhans. but in fact men of action in a religious guise.but also the existence of sources and the volume of information available about individuals). and DARVIS AHMAD. AHMAD TAKUDAR. No amirs or viziers from the sultanate in Indiaare included. S.Y. K.Loosely underthe heading of men of the pen.From the Saljuqs to the Aq Qoyunlu 479 Padshahthe Oiratand Ariq Boke. adds nothing to the article on ARGUN KHAN. in an article that 9.10. Continuity and change in medieval Persia: Aspects of administrative. As with the duplication between dynastiesand rulers. Lambton devotes a long article (CITIES iii. She has little to say on social structure. are the Ismacili di' . 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . who accordingto some accounts was responsiblefor Oljeitu's war againstGilan. CAYTAS. the men of the pen too seem under-represented. so importanta group in the period underreview. Qoyunlu the reader however. and the Turcomandervish. The few women to be mentioned are all from the Ilkhanidperiod when. DELSAD KATUN. in fact. the Mongol amir and vizier.30 on Thu. economic and social history. see now the study by Jean Aubin.Cahier 15 (Paris. BARAQ BABA. For Buqa. the Timurid officials. S. The articles on these two groups are generally shortbut sufficient to indicate the importanceof the subject and the reason for its inclusion. there are various betterplaces to look for informationon both administrative history and individualposts. BOLOGANKATUN. The extent to which the rulingTurco-Mongolelites graduallyassimilatedthe cultureof their subjects is brought out in various articles on Timurid prince governors who became importantpatronsand even practitioners of the arts.

enter into or refer to the debate aboutthe size of the Ilkhanidarmies and the logistical problemsposed by the numbersof mountsemployed.a regrettably brief entry). and. to the Mongol period(I.e. An article on bitikc'1 (Mongol scribe) would have been useful in this least. to supplement the tribalcontingentsthatmade up the originalforces of the Saljuqsand Mongol 11. 771-72) and COURTS AND COURTIERSiii. 434-36). Of all the institutionsof the period. the latter a particularly useful attemptto synthesize informationon court etiquetteand organization. for the importanttribalelement in society. and Lambton. 20-24. which was equivalentto the Arabictitle AMIR-AL-OMARAM. Masson-Smith cited and discussed by D. It is difficult to chart the significance of changes in titulature. AMIR. ch. See various articles by J. as is the factionalism that often affectedboth groupings. Islamic.It remainsunclearwhatpracticaleffect the nomadic lifestyle of the courthad on administration. and also their development over time and the decline in status of certaintitles. contains a summaryof the main administrative offices and departments.which has not received much scholarlyattention. These articles are necessarily concise. DIVAN ii. beyond the introduction of new offices such as the yartchi (camp master)and perhapsa simplification of procedures. The primacy of the Persian bureaucrats in the early Ilkhanidperiod. The most persistent role of the bureaucracy is in financial administration.480 Melville explores both the traditional groupingsof sword. e. ARMY ii. BIGARI. op.g. the army is perhapsthe most prominent and is discussed in severalplaces. Thus we see the theoreticalduties of the offices and occasionally the abuses associatedwith them. which does not. however. BIGAR. BEGLERBEGI. many household and nominally administrative posts tended to fall to the Turkish military (see DAWA(T)DAR). to CAgAYER. others evidently by the civilian secretariat. This content downloaded from 202. where they have received more systematic study.. particularlyfor the period under review. The peripateticnatureof the Saljuqand Mongol courtsis discussed not only underDIVAN. In the Islamic period). but in articles on CAPITAL CITIES ii. 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The conflict and rivalrybetween the pen and sword is also alludedto in the article on the bureaucrats (DABIR ii. though as Bosworth notes. 1986). and BOKAVOL. Governmentoffice (esp.41.10. pen.CUSTOMS DUTIES).. cit. see DIVANBEGIi.Many of the offices attachedto the court are listed separately. The Mongols (Oxford. religion and commerceand the relations between them (cross-reference here should be made to CAYYAR. but takenin combinationthey providea very adequatepicture of the current state of knowledge-which is hampered by an absence of archivalmaterial and a relianceon manuals. was probablyundermined by the influx of other ethnic groups into the chancery. for a clarificationof the situation underthe Timurids. such as the AKTAJI (why not Akta6l?). In Islamic times (esp." A common featureof the armies of the period was the continuing use of military slaves.30 on Thu. 499) is a good place to startfor a generalreview. tAgNIGIR.g. 4. 0. Morgan. ALd.some held by the military elite.though the vizierate seems on the whole to have maintainedits position. Many of the terms introducedduring the Turkish invasions were inherited via the Zangids and Ayyubids by the Mamluk sultanate in Egypt.covered by various articles on taxes (cAWAREZ.-v.

v. Militaryslavery in Islamic Iran for a brief overview. also BARID.eds.). Raby and T..and particularlyTabriz."Mongolian Studies 14 (1991): 27-39 and idem."in J. Articles on BALK and BUKHARA (why not Bukara?) in the pre. BARDA AND BARDADARI v.but relevantand often repetitiveinformationis to be found in articleson the horse (ASB iii. the term had come also to mean a tax to levy troops. The article on COMMUNICATIONSunfortunatelybegins with the 19th century. It is helpful to have a geographicalperspectiveon Persian history. (v) Miscellaneous topics The question of communications leads us beyond the details of dynastic and institutionalhistory and of the people who made it.. McChesney's Waqfin Central Asia. Islamic history to 1941 contains a brief reminderof the history of the Ildegozids and the Atabegs of Maraghah(see above). and iv. "Notes of Chinese titles in Mongol Iran. In the Mongol period. eds. although this is not the impression given elsewhere. 13.41. 14801889 (Princeton. N. DIVAN(-E). The compositionof the Mongol armyis furtherdiscussed under tERIK. to the wider dimensions of the period. In Islamic times) and the postal service (CAPAR). Four hundredyears in the history of a Muslim shrine. "Biography of a cultural broker: Bolad Ch'eng-hsiang in China and Iran. Evidencefor the continuity of institutions such as the military review into the Turcomanperioddepends largely on the Aq Qoyunluexample in Fars in 1476.From the Saljuqs to the Aq Qoyunlu 481 invaders.BOLOD Ch'eng-Hsiang(s. In the Mongol and Timuridperiods contains great areasof overlap with the articleon the Chaghatayids. as well as focusing on the importanceof Azerbaijan. "Changing forms of legitimation in Mongol Iran. that again contain much on the Chaghatayidsand assert that diplomatic and commercialcontactsbetween Chinaand Persiadeclined in the early 14thcentury. See T.. CENTRAL ASIA v. as is the Great Khan's representative in Persia. D. 14. and the importanceof their religious associations. Fitzherbert. neither of which refers to the other. 235." in G. The articles on Balkh were unable to take advantage of R.and post-Mongolperiodsilluminatethe effects of largerhistorical developmentson the rise and fall of cities. who has been the subjectof some more recentresearch.Thus AZERBAIJANiv.'2 The fundamental importanceof contacts with the east during this periodis furtherunderlined by articles on CHINESE TURKESTAN iii. by the Timuridperiod. CARZ.'4 12. 1991). Rulersfrom the steppe: State formation on the Eurasian periphery (Los Angeles. The Court of the Il-Khans 12901340. though in many cases this simply means that the same basic material is rearrangedunderdifferentheadings. See now T. thoughdifferent emphases and bibliographies make both valuable.J. 7-22. Seaman and D. Allsen. Oxford Studies in Islamic Art 12 (1996). but the hazardsof the overlandjourney are mentioned.'3 The matter is not broacheddirectly in CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS iii. 1991). Marks. as a capital under the Mongol and Turcoman dynasties. 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . e. with the Kubraviyyaand Naqshbandiyya in the case of Bukhara.g.30 on Thu. This content downloaded from 202.

a Theirreadinessto contribute most impressiveand celebratedgroupof authorities.An index of the articles would be very useful and in my view easily as desirableas a list of the contributors. is covered in articles on COINS AND COINAGE (see esp.Articles on the bazaar(BAZAR).10. and commercial significance. relevantto economic.who form. despite increasingrestrictionson space. with excellent illustrations. which usefully concenas much as the commodities trateson traderoutesand methodsof transportation and economic aspects of trade. 19 Sep 2013 04:53:12 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . intellectual. the foregoing review necessarily touches only briefly on the main trendsand the majortopics coveredby the Encyclopaedia Iranica. CARAVAN. This content downloaded from 202. 2030). The Ilkhanidexperiment with papermoney is also treatedseparately(CAV [sic]). providesnot only a summary of existing knowledge but also the fruits of new researchand many signposts for the way forward. DINAR.482 Melville Such contacts were of an effort to avoid duplicationand stimulatedifferentapproaches. and where authorsare not aware of what has been or is being written in other relatedarticles. to the Encyclopaedia is both a testimony to and a guaranteeof its quality. It is certainlyan indispensablereference on the whole.41. In conclusion. Commercialcontacts are coveredin an article on COMMERCE iv. and DIRHAM. and Saljuqto Aq Qoyunluperiod. and CARAVANSARY also addressthe organizationof tradeand commercial activity. financial. with reference to historical developmentsin our period. Before the Mongol conquest(for the later period. but is perhapssufficientto reveal the greatwealth of its materialon the history of the work. indeed. this could be broughtto their attention.30 on Thu. The important areaof numismatics and monetaryhistory. see Supplement).The cross-referencingis not all it might be. and political affairs.

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