# NIRMA UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY B. Tech. Sem.

V 2EE303: Electrical Power System – II
UNIT – 1: Symmetrical Components -I
1. Introduction 2. Definition of symmetrical components - positive sequence components - negative sequence components - zero sequence components 3. Graphical method of determining, sequence components 4. Significance of operator α and its properties 5. Relationship between unbalanced phasors and symmetrical components. i.e. Va = Va1 + Va2 + Va0 Vb = Vb1 + Vb2 + Vb0 Vc = Vc1 + Vc2 + Vc0 Again Vb1 = α2 Va1 Vb2 = α Va2 Vb0 = Va0 2 Vc1 = α Va1 Vc2 = α Va2 Vc0 = Va0 Hence Va  Vb   = Vc    1 ∝ 2  ∝  1 1 Va1  ∝ 1 Va 2  ---------------------(1)   ∝ 2 1 Va0   

i.e Vp = AVs 6. Relationship between symmetrical components and unbalanced phasors. Vp = AVs A-1 Vp = A-1 AVs ∴ Vs = A-1Vp Hence 1 ∝ Va1  Va  1 1 ∝ 2  2 = 3  1 1 Va0     ∝2   ∝ 1  Va  Vb    Vc   

UNIT - 2 Symmetrical Components - II
Example 1: A delta connected load is connected across an unbalanced 3-phase supply. If IA = 10∠30° A and I B = 15∠-60° A, find the symmetrical components. Also find the symmetrical components of delta currents. Comment . [IA1 = 14∠42° A, IA2 = 4.65∠248° A, IA0 = 0,IAB1 = 8∠72° , IAB2 = 2.7∠218° , IAB0 = 0] Example 2: Prove that the three line voltages Vab, Vbc and Vca will have no zero-sequence component. Example 3: Prove that neutral current can flow only if zero sequence current exists.

Example 4: A balanced star – connected load takes 150 A from a balanced 3-phase 4-wire supply. If the fuses in two of the lines are removed, find the symmetrical components of the line currents before and after the fuses are removed. [Ia1 = 50∠0° A, Ia2 = Ia0 = 0, Ia1 = Ia2 = Ia0 = 50∠0° A]

UNIT – 3 Symmetrical Components - III
1. Absence of zero- sequence components - line voltage in 3-phase system - Line currents in 3- phase, 3 – wire systems 2. Power in terms of symmetrical components S = VaIa* + VbIb* + VcIc* = 3Va1Ia1* + 3Va2Ia2* + 3Va0Ia0* = sum of symmetrical component powers 3. Example : Given Va0 = 30∠-30° V, Va1 = 450∠0° V, Va2 = 225∠40° V Ia0 = 10∠190° A, Ia1 = 6∠20° A, Ia2 = 5∠50° A Determine the complex power represented by these voltages and currents by (i) symmetrical components (ii) unbalanced phase components [S = 10245.78 – j 2777.9] VA 4. Sequence impedances of a transmission line. - equal positive and negative sequence impedance - zero – sequence impedance much larger than the positive (or negative) sequence impedance Comment: sequence equations are in decoupled form

UNIT: 4 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines and Transformers
1. Sequence network of a synchronous machine

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Va1 = Ea – Ia1Z1 Positive sequence network

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Va2 = -Ia2Z2 Negative sequence network

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Va0 = - Ia0Z0 when Z0 = Zg0 + 3Zn Zero – Sequence network

2. sequence impedances of transmission line Z1 = Z2 Z0 = Z l0 + 3Zg 0 Z l 0 = Zero – Sequence impedance of a line Zg 0 = Ground impedance 3. Zero-sequence networks of a transformer Rules for developing zero sequence network of a transformer

1. Series switch of a particular side is closed if it is star connected with neutral grounded 2. Shunt switch of a particular side is closed if that side is delta connected Exercise: Develop Zero – sequence networks for various type of transformer connections

UNIT: 5 Sequence Networks of a Power System
1. Assembly of sequence networks of a power system 2. Draw sequence networks of a power system given below

3. Example=Develop-sequence network of a given power system

Gen 1 : 25MVA, 11kV, X1 = 0.2, X2 = 0.15, Gen 2 : 15MVA, 11kV, X1 = 0.2, X2 = 0.15, Syn. Motor 3 : 25MVA, 11kV, X1 = 0.2, X2 = 0.2, Transformer1: 25MVA, 11 ∆ / 120 Y kV, X = 10% Transformer2: 12.5MVA, 11 Y/ 120 ∆ kV, X = 10% Transformer3: 10MVA, 120 Y/ 11 ∆ kV, X = 10% Choose a base of 50MVA, 11 KV in the circuit of generator.

X0 = 0.03 pu X0 = 0.05 pu X0 = 0.1 pu

Note: Zero sequence reactance of each line is 250% of its positive sequence reactance.