Pro/ENGINEER 2000i2

®

NC Machining Option Topic Collection

Parametric Technology Corporation

Copyright © 2000 Parametric Technology Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
This document may not be copied, disclosed, transferred, or modified without the prior written consent of Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC). Information described in this document is furnished for general information only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a warranty or commitment by PTC. PTC assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this manual. The software described in this document is provided under written license only, contains valuable trade secrets and proprietary information, and is protected by the copyright laws of the United States and other countries. UNAUTHORIZED USE OF SOFTWARE OR ITS DOCUMENTATION CAN RESULT IN CIVIL DAMAGES AND CRIMINAL PROSECUTION. Registered Trademarks of Parametric Technology Corporation or a Subsidiary Advanced Surface Design, CADDS, CADDShade, Computervision, Computervision Services, dVISE, Electronic Product Definition, EPD, HARNESSDESIGN, Info*Engine, InPart, Optegra, Parametric Technology Corporation, Pro/ENGINEER, Pro/HELP, Pro/INTRALINK, Pro/MECHANICA, Pro/TOOLKIT, PT/Products, and Windchill. Trademarks of Parametric Technology Corporation or a Subsidiary 3DPAINT, Associative Topology Bus, Behavioral Modeler, CDRS, CV, CVact, CVaec, CVdesign, CV-DORS, CVMAC, CVNC, CVToolmaker, DesignSuite, DIMENSION III, DIVISION, DIVISION EchoCast, DIVISION MockUp, DIVISION ProductView, DIVISION Reality, dVSAFEWORK, dVS, EDE, e/ENGINEER, Electrical Design Entry, EPD.Connect, EPD Roles, EPD Visualizer, Expert Machinist, ICEM, ICEM DDN, ICEM Surf, Import Data Doctor, Information for Innovation, ISSM, MEDEA, MEDUSA, ModelCHECK, NC Builder, Parametric Technology, Pro/ANIMATE, Pro/ASSEMBLY, Pro/CABLING, Pro/CASTING, Pro/CDT, Pro/COMPOSITE, Pro/CMM, Pro/CONVERT, Pro/DATA for PDGS, Pro/DESIGNER, Pro/DESKTOP, Pro/DETAIL, Pro/DIAGRAM, Pro/DIEFACE, Pro/DRAW, Pro/ECAD, Pro/ENGINE, Pro/FEATURE, Pro/FEM-POST, Pro/FLY-THROUGH, Pro/HARNESS-MFG, Pro/INTERFACE for CADDS 5, Pro/INTERFACE for CATIA, Pro/INTRALINK Web Client, Pro/LANGUAGE, Pro/LEGACY, Pro/LIBRARYACCESS, Pro/MESH, Pro/Model.View, Pro/MOLDESIGN, Pro/NC-ADVANCED, Pro/NC-CHECK, Pro/NC-MILL, Pro/NC-SHEETMETAL, Pro/NC-TURN, Pro/NC-WEDM, Pro/NC-Wire EDM, Pro/NCPOST, Pro/NETWORK ANIMATOR, Pro/NOTEBOOK, Pro/PDM, Pro/PHOTORENDER, Pro/PHOTORENDER TEXTURE LIBRARY, Pro/PIPING, Pro/PLASTIC ADVISOR, Pro/PLOT, Pro/POWER DESIGN, Pro/PROCESS, Pro/REFLEX, Pro/REPORT, Pro/REVIEW, Pro/SCAN-TOOLS, Pro/SHEETMETAL, Pro/SURFACE, Pro/VERIFY, Pro/Web.Link, Pro/Web.Publish, Pro/WELDING, Product Structure Navigator, PTC, PTC i-Series, Shaping Innovation, Shrinkwrap, Virtual Design Environment, Windchill e-Series, Windchill Factor, Windchill Factor e-Series, Windchill Information Modeler, CV-Computervision logo, InPart logo, Pro/REFLEX logo, and PTC logo.

Third-Party Trademarks Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. Windows and Windows NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. CATIA is a registered trademark of Dassault Systems. PDGS is a registered trademark of Ford Motor Company. SAP and R/3 are registered trademarks of SAP AG Germany. FLEXlm is a registered trademark of Globetrotter Software Inc. Vistools Library is copyrighted software of Visual Kinematic Incorporated (VKI) containing confidential trade secret information belonging to VKI. The HOOPS Graphics System is a proprietary software product copyrighted by Tech Soft America, Inc. All other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND This document and the software described herein are Commercial Computer Documentation and Software, pursuant to FAR 12.212(a)-(b) or DFARS 227.7202-1(a) and 227.7202-3(a), and are provided to the Government under a limited commercial license only. For procurements predating the above clauses, use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to the restrictions set forth in subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software Clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 or Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights at FAR 52.227-19, as applicable. Parametric Technology Corporation, 128 Technology Drive, Waltham, MA 02453-8905 3 January 2000

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Table of Contents
Pro/NC .................................................................................................................. 18
Getting Started with Pro/NC .................................................................................................... 18 About Pro/NC .................................................................................................................... 18 To Create a Manufacturing Model ...................................................................................... 19 Pro/NC Concepts............................................................................................................... 20 To Retrieve a Manufacturing Model.................................................................................... 23 To Place a Workpiece in Part Machining ............................................................................ 24 To Manipulate a Workpiece................................................................................................ 24 To Place a "No Geometry" Workpiece in Part Machining .................................................... 24 To Replace a Design Model in Part Machining ................................................................... 25 Part Family Tables in Pro/NC............................................................................................. 25 Example: Replacing a Design Model.................................................................................. 26 To Build a Manufacturing Model in Assembly Machining .................................................... 26 To Reclassify Components of a Manufacturing Assembly................................................... 27 Manufacturing Process............................................................................................................ 28 About Manufacturing Process ............................................................................................ 28 To Get Process Status and Tool Path Information .............................................................. 30 Operations......................................................................................................................... 31 Workcells........................................................................................................................... 35 Fixtures ............................................................................................................................. 47 Coordinate Systems .......................................................................................................... 48 NC Sequences .................................................................................................................. 51 Retract Surface.................................................................................................................. 54 Material Removal............................................................................................................... 58 Tooling .................................................................................................................................... 61 About Elements of Tool Setup............................................................................................ 61 To Set Up Tools in Advance............................................................................................... 63 To Set Up a Tool when Creating an NC Sequence............................................................. 64 Tool Setup Dialog Box ....................................................................................................... 64 Solid Tool Models .............................................................................................................. 78 Manufacturing Parameters ...................................................................................................... 84 About Manufacturing Parameters....................................................................................... 84 To Set or Modify NC Sequence Parameters....................................................................... 86 Common NC Sequence Parameters .................................................................................. 88 Milling Parameters ............................................................................................................. 93 Turning Parameters ......................................................................................................... 123 Holemaking Parameters................................................................................................... 138

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Wire EDM Parameters ..................................................................................................... 143 To Use Previous Parameters ........................................................................................... 150 To Use a Non-Active Site................................................................................................. 150 To Include a Parameter in a Relation ............................................................................... 151 Using Parameters in Relations......................................................................................... 151 Sites ................................................................................................................................ 152 Machinability Database .................................................................................................... 156 Milling.................................................................................................................................... 161 General Information ......................................................................................................... 161 Tool Axis Control in Milling ............................................................................................... 167 Volume Milling ................................................................................................................. 172 Automatic Cut Motions for Volume, Local, and Profile Milling............................................ 176 Local Milling..................................................................................................................... 182 Surface Milling ................................................................................................................. 188 Swarf Milling .................................................................................................................... 209 Face Milling ..................................................................................................................... 211 Profile Milling ................................................................................................................... 215 Pocket Milling .................................................................................................................. 218 Trajectory Milling.............................................................................................................. 219 Thread Milling .................................................................................................................. 234 Engraving ........................................................................................................................ 240 Plunge Milling .................................................................................................................. 241 Mill Geometry........................................................................................................................ 243 About Mill Geometry ........................................................................................................ 243 Mill Window ..................................................................................................................... 244 Mill Volumes .................................................................................................................... 246 Mill Surfaces.................................................................................................................... 261 Turning.................................................................................................................................. 269 About Turning NC Sequences.......................................................................................... 269 To Set Up the Coordinate System for Correct CL Output.................................................. 269 To Define a Turning Envelope.......................................................................................... 270 Using Turning Envelopes ................................................................................................. 271 To Define the Stock Boundary ......................................................................................... 272 Stock Boundary and Cut Extensions ................................................................................ 272 Defining the Stock Boundary in Part and Assembly Machining ......................................... 273 Example: Using Stock Boundary for Area Turning ............................................................ 274 To Change the Stock Boundary Outline ........................................................................... 274 To Define the Cut Extensions........................................................................................... 274 To Adjust Cut Motion Ends .............................................................................................. 275 To Specify Corner Conditions .......................................................................................... 276

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Corner Condition Types ................................................................................................... 277 To Specify Local Stock Allowance.................................................................................... 278 Local Stock Allowance ..................................................................................................... 278 To Specify the Tool Orientation........................................................................................ 279 To Use Multi-Head Turning .............................................................................................. 279 To Create an Area Turning NC Sequence........................................................................ 280 Area Turning.................................................................................................................... 281 Example: Face Area Turning............................................................................................ 281 Example: Outside Area Turning ....................................................................................... 282 Example: Inside Area Turning .......................................................................................... 283 To Create a 4 Axis Area Turning NC Sequence ............................................................... 284 Example: 4 Axis Area Turning.......................................................................................... 284 To Create a Profile Turning NC Sequence ....................................................................... 285 Profile Turning ................................................................................................................. 285 Example: Profile Turning.................................................................................................. 286 To Create a Groove Turning NC Sequence...................................................................... 286 Groove Turning................................................................................................................ 287 To Create a Thread Turning NC Sequence ...................................................................... 290 Thread Turning ................................................................................................................ 290 Examples: Thread Turning............................................................................................... 291 To Create a Facing Thread Turning NC Sequence........................................................... 292 To Perform the Remainder Material Analysis ................................................................... 292 Turn Profile ........................................................................................................................... 292 About Turn Profile............................................................................................................ 292 To Define a Turn Profile................................................................................................... 293 To Define a Turn Profile by Sketching .............................................................................. 294 Sketching a Turn Profile................................................................................................... 295 To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting Surfaces ................................................................ 296 Example: Defining a Turn Profile by Selecting Surfaces ................................................... 297 To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting Curves ................................................................... 297 To Define a Turn Profile by Section.................................................................................. 298 Example: Defining a Turn Profile by Section..................................................................... 298 To Define a Turn Profile by Creating a Reference Envelope............................................. 299 To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting a Reference Envelope............................................ 300 To Adjust a Turn Profile ................................................................................................... 300 Holemaking ........................................................................................................................... 301 About Holemaking ........................................................................................................... 301 To Create a Holemaking NC Sequence............................................................................ 302 Holemaking Cycle Types ................................................................................................. 303 Three and Five Axis Holemaking...................................................................................... 304

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To Set Up a Peck Table................................................................................................... 305 Peck Table ...................................................................................................................... 305 Example: Peck Table ....................................................................................................... 306 To Define Hole Sets......................................................................................................... 307 Combining Selection Methods.......................................................................................... 309 To Define Depth .............................................................................................................. 309 To Define the Starting Point for Drilling............................................................................. 310 To Define Depth for Blind Drilling ..................................................................................... 311 To Select Holes by Axes.................................................................................................. 311 To Select Holes by Surfaces............................................................................................ 312 To Select Holes by Diameters.......................................................................................... 312 To Select Holes by Feature Parameters........................................................................... 313 To Select Holes by Points ................................................................................................ 313 To Define the Countersink Diameter ................................................................................ 314 To Use the Automatic Chamfer Selection......................................................................... 315 Example: Automatic Chamfer Selection ........................................................................... 315 To Define Plates for Web Drilling ..................................................................................... 316 Back Spotting Specifics ................................................................................................... 316 Example: Back Spotting................................................................................................... 316 Drill Groups ........................................................................................................................... 319 About Drill Groups ........................................................................................................... 319 To Define a Drill Group .................................................................................................... 320 To Modify a Drill Group .................................................................................................... 320 Using Drill Groups............................................................................................................ 320 Auto Drilling........................................................................................................................... 321 About Auto Drilling ........................................................................................................... 321 To Create an Auto Drilling NC Sequence ......................................................................... 321 To Select a Coordinate System and Retract Plane ........................................................... 322 The Default Coordinate System and Retract Plane........................................................... 323 To Filter Rows ................................................................................................................. 323 Filters Available for Auto Drilling....................................................................................... 324 To Edit Hole Parameters.................................................................................................. 325 To Apply Hole Strategies ................................................................................................. 325 Defining Your Hole Strategies .......................................................................................... 326 To Customize the Table ................................................................................................... 327 To Reorder the NC Sequences Created by Auto Drilling................................................... 327 Wire EDM ............................................................................................................................. 328 About Wire EDM NC Sequences...................................................................................... 328 To Create a 2-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence ................................................................... 328 Contouring and No Core Cut Motions............................................................................... 329

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To Create Rough, Finish, and Detach Cut Motions........................................................... 329 Example: Rough, Finish, and Detach Cut Motions............................................................ 331 To Specify Thread Point and Approach Point ................................................................... 332 Example: Specifying Thread Point and Approach Point .................................................... 333 To Specify Taper Angle for 2-Axis Contouring .................................................................. 333 To Specify Corner Conditions .......................................................................................... 334 Corner Condition Types ................................................................................................... 335 Example: Corner Conditions ............................................................................................ 336 To Create No Core Cut Motions ....................................................................................... 336 Specifying a Start Point for No Core Cut Motions ............................................................. 337 To Use Previous Cut Motions........................................................................................... 338 To Mirror Cut Motions ...................................................................................................... 338 Example: Mirroring Cut Motions ....................................................................................... 339 To Create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence in Taper Angle Format ................................ 339 To Create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence in Head1/Head2 Format ............................. 340 Automatic Synchronization of Start and End Points .......................................................... 341 To Set Up the Register Table(s)....................................................................................... 343 Register Tables ............................................................................................................... 344 To Set Up the Radius Substitution Table(s)...................................................................... 344 Radius Substitution Tables .............................................................................................. 345 Auxiliary NC Sequences........................................................................................................ 346 About Auxiliary NC Sequences ........................................................................................ 346 To Create an Auxiliary NC Sequence............................................................................... 346 User-Defined NC Sequences................................................................................................. 346 About User-Defined NC Sequences ................................................................................. 346 To Define a Manufacturing UDF....................................................................................... 347 Including Operations, Workcells, and Reference Superfeatures in a Manufacturing UDF.. 348 Example: Manufacturing a Group of Features .................................................................. 349 To Place a Previously Defined Group in Another Manufacturing Model ............................ 349 Example: Using a Manufacturing UDF with Pro/PROGRAM ............................................. 350 The Customize Dialog Box .................................................................................................... 353 About the Customize Dialog Box...................................................................................... 353 To Create a Control Point ................................................................................................ 355 To Create an Offset Control Point .................................................................................... 356 Offset Control Points........................................................................................................ 356 To Create an Automatic Cut Motion ................................................................................. 357 Implicit Tool Motions ........................................................................................................ 357 To Redefine a Follow Cut Motion ..................................................................................... 357 The Follow Cut Dialog Box............................................................................................... 358 To Split a Follow Cut Motion ............................................................................................ 359

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To Create a Follow Sketch Motion ................................................................................... 360 Example: Using Tool Kerf and CL Command ................................................................... 361 To Create a Follow Sketch Motion in Holemaking............................................................. 362 To Create a Connect Motion ............................................................................................ 363 To Redefine the Connect Motions .................................................................................... 364 To Create a GoTo Point Motion........................................................................................ 365 To Create a Go Delta Motion ........................................................................................... 366 Modifying the Go Delta Increments .................................................................................. 367 To Create a Go Home Motion .......................................................................................... 367 To Create a Plunge Motion .............................................................................................. 367 Plunge Motions................................................................................................................ 368 To Create a Retract Motion.............................................................................................. 368 To Create a Tangent Approach Motion............................................................................. 369 To Create a Tangent Exit Motion...................................................................................... 369 To Create a Normal Approach Motion .............................................................................. 370 To Create a Normal Exit Motion ....................................................................................... 370 To Create a Lead In Motion ............................................................................................. 371 Lead In and Lead Out Motions ......................................................................................... 371 To Create a Lead Out Motion........................................................................................... 372 To Create a Helical Approach Motion............................................................................... 372 To Create a Helical Exit Motion........................................................................................ 373 To Create an Approach Motion Along Tool Axis ............................................................... 373 To Create an Exit Motion Along Tool Axis ........................................................................ 374 To Specify Parameters for a Tool Motion ......................................................................... 374 To Insert a CL Command................................................................................................. 375 CL Commands................................................................................................................. 376 Modifying CL Commands................................................................................................. 377 Customizing the Operation Tool Path .................................................................................... 377 About Customizing the Operation Tool Path..................................................................... 377 To Reorder Output of NC Sequence Tool Paths............................................................... 377 To Synchronize Output of NC Sequence Tool Paths ........................................................ 378 To Specify Synch Points .................................................................................................. 379 To Insert a CL Command................................................................................................. 380 Adding CL Commands at the Operation Level.................................................................. 381 To Modify a CL Command ............................................................................................... 381 To Find a CL Command................................................................................................... 382 To Delete a CL Command ............................................................................................... 382 To Copy a CL Command ................................................................................................. 383 CL Data................................................................................................................................. 383 About CL Data ................................................................................................................. 383

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To Write CL Data to a File................................................................................................ 383 Default CL File Names..................................................................................................... 384 To Create a Set of NC Sequences ................................................................................... 385 Sets of NC Sequences..................................................................................................... 385 To Output CL Data for a Set of NC Sequences ................................................................ 386 To Process CL Data on a Remote Machine...................................................................... 386 To Input a CL Data File.................................................................................................... 387 To Display CL Data for an Operation, NC Sequence, or a Set of NC Sequences.............. 387 The DISPLAY CL Menu ................................................................................................... 388 To Display Tool Path for an NC Sequence ....................................................................... 390 To Rotate or Translate CL Data ....................................................................................... 391 Rotating and Translating CL Data .................................................................................... 391 Example: Translating CL Data ......................................................................................... 391 To Mirror CL Data ............................................................................................................ 391 Mirroring CL Data ............................................................................................................ 392 Example: Mirroring CL Data............................................................................................. 392 To Scale CL Data ............................................................................................................ 392 To Output CL Data in Different Units ................................................................................ 392 To Edit CL Data Files....................................................................................................... 393 To Perform Screen Editing of CL Data ............................................................................. 395 To Perform Search/Replace............................................................................................. 396 To Perform CL Data Gouge Checking.............................................................................. 396 To Specify an NC Alias .................................................................................................... 398 NC Aliases....................................................................................................................... 398 To Include Pre- and Post-Machining Files ........................................................................ 399 To Convert a CL File........................................................................................................ 400 Converting CL Files ......................................................................................................... 400 Using the PLAY PATH Dialog Box ................................................................................... 400 Subroutine Programming....................................................................................................... 406 About Subroutine Programming ....................................................................................... 406 To Create a New Subroutine Pattern................................................................................ 406 Limitations ....................................................................................................................... 408 Examples: Subroutine Programming ................................................................................ 408 To Redefine a Subroutine Pattern .................................................................................... 409 NC Post-Processing .............................................................................................................. 409 About NC Post-Processing .............................................................................................. 409 To Generate a CL File and an MCD File at the Same Time .............................................. 410 To Generate an MCD File from an Existing CL File .......................................................... 411 CL Output ............................................................................................................................. 411 About CL Output .............................................................................................................. 411

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Supported CL Data Commands ....................................................................................... 412 CL Output for Holemaking Cycles .................................................................................... 419 CL Output for Circular Interpolation .................................................................................. 424 Synchronized Output for XY-UV 4-Axis Wire EDM ........................................................... 426 NC Check ............................................................................................................................. 427 About NC Check.............................................................................................................. 427 Modifying NC Sequences ...................................................................................................... 428 About Modifying NC Sequences....................................................................................... 428 To Modify an NC Sequence ............................................................................................. 428 Modifying Parameters of Multiple Automatic Cut Motions ................................................. 429 To Change a Parameter Value for All Cut Motions at Once .............................................. 429 To Redefine an NC Sequence ......................................................................................... 430 To Reorder an NC Sequence........................................................................................... 430 To Suppress or Delete Mill Volumes and Surfaces ........................................................... 431 Patterning NC Sequences ..................................................................................................... 432 About Patterning NC Sequences...................................................................................... 432 To Create a Coordinate Pattern of an NC Sequence ........................................................ 433 Coordinate System Patterns ............................................................................................ 433 Using Relations................................................................................................................ 434 To Create a Rotary Table Pattern of an NC Sequence ..................................................... 434 To Modify a Coordinate Pattern of an NC Sequence ........................................................ 435 To Create a Reference Manufacturing Pattern ................................................................. 435 Reference Patterns.......................................................................................................... 436 To Reference Pattern a Volume Milling NC Sequence...................................................... 436 To Create a Dimension Pattern of an NC Sequence......................................................... 436 Changing Feed Colors........................................................................................................... 437 About Changing Feed Colors ........................................................................................... 437 To Change a Feed Color.................................................................................................. 437 To Change a Feed Range................................................................................................ 438 Model Tree............................................................................................................................ 438 About Model Tree ............................................................................................................ 438 To Display the Manufacturing Features............................................................................ 439 To Select the Features to Display .................................................................................... 439 To Display the Manufacturing Parent/Child Relationships................................................. 439 To Add Manufacturing Parameters................................................................................... 440 Process Information .............................................................................................................. 440 About Process Information............................................................................................... 440 To Output Manufacturing Information ............................................................................... 440 To Set Up Filter Configuration.......................................................................................... 441 To Generate a Route Sheet ............................................................................................. 442

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Route Sheet .................................................................................................................... 442 To Create a Customized Report on a Manufacturing Process........................................... 442 Using Pro/REPORT in Pro/NC ......................................................................................... 443 Examples: Creating a Customized Report on a Manufacturing Process............................ 444 Naming Conventions ............................................................................................................. 446 About Naming Conventions.............................................................................................. 446

Expert Machinist ............................................................................................... 447
Getting Started with Expert Machinist .................................................................................... 447 About Expert Machinist .................................................................................................... 447 To Create a Machining Process ....................................................................................... 449 To Retrieve a Machining Process..................................................................................... 449 To Create a New NC Model ............................................................................................. 450 The NC MODEL Menu Commands .................................................................................. 450 Tip: Creating NC Models.................................................................................................. 451 To Replace a Reference Model........................................................................................ 451 Part Family Tables in Expert Machinist............................................................................. 452 Creating and Modifying Stock................................................................................................ 452 To Create Stock............................................................................................................... 452 The Create Stock Dialog Box ........................................................................................... 453 Example: Creating a Default Billet .................................................................................... 455 To Modify Stock Allowances ............................................................................................ 457 To Modify Stock Outline ................................................................................................... 458 Operations ............................................................................................................................ 459 To Create an Operation ................................................................................................... 459 The Operation Setup Dialog Box...................................................................................... 460 To Define Program Zero .................................................................................................. 461 Program Zero Usage ....................................................................................................... 462 Machine Tools....................................................................................................................... 463 To Create a Machine Tool................................................................................................ 463 Machine Tool Settings ..................................................................................................... 464 To Set Up a PPRINT Table.............................................................................................. 467 The PPRINT Table .......................................................................................................... 468 Cutting Tools......................................................................................................................... 471 About Setting Up Tools .................................................................................................... 471 To Set Up Cutting Tools................................................................................................... 471 The Tool Setup Dialog Box .............................................................................................. 471 To Set Up the Material Directory Structure ....................................................................... 473 Example: Setting Up the Material Directory Structure ....................................................... 473 To Add a New Tool .......................................................................................................... 474 To Specify the Cutting Data for the Tool........................................................................... 475 13

To Retrieve Tool Parameters ........................................................................................... 475 To Add a Sketched Tool................................................................................................... 476 To Modify an Existing Tool............................................................................................... 476 To Delete a Tool .............................................................................................................. 477 To Save Tool Parameters ................................................................................................ 477 To Create a Tool Model ................................................................................................... 477 Solid Tool Models ............................................................................................................ 478 To Use a Tool Model........................................................................................................ 478 Using Assembly as a Tool Model ..................................................................................... 479 Machining Features............................................................................................................... 479 About Machining Features ............................................................................................... 479 To Create a Machining Feature........................................................................................ 480 To Adjust Feature Boundaries.......................................................................................... 481 Example: Adjusting Feature Boundaries........................................................................... 481 To Adjust Soft Walls ........................................................................................................ 485 To Adjust Feature Depth.................................................................................................. 485 To Machine a Feature...................................................................................................... 486 To Set Tool Path Properties............................................................................................. 486 To Mimic a Tool Path ....................................................................................................... 487 Face Features....................................................................................................................... 488 To Create a Face Feature................................................................................................ 488 To Machine a Face Feature ............................................................................................. 488 The Face Milling Dialog Box............................................................................................. 489 Example: Face Machining................................................................................................ 491 Slab Features........................................................................................................................ 491 To Create a Slab Feature................................................................................................. 491 Example: Creating a Slab Feature ................................................................................... 492 To Machine a Slab Feature.............................................................................................. 493 The Slab Milling Dialog Box ............................................................................................. 494 Pocket Features .................................................................................................................... 496 To Create a Pocket Feature............................................................................................. 496 To Machine a Pocket Feature .......................................................................................... 497 The Pocket Milling Dialog Box.......................................................................................... 498 Through Pocket Features ...................................................................................................... 500 To Create a Through Pocket Feature ............................................................................... 500 Example: Creating a Through Pocket............................................................................... 501 To Machine a Through Pocket Feature ............................................................................ 502 The Through Pocket Milling Dialog Box............................................................................ 503 Step Features ....................................................................................................................... 505 To Create a Step Feature ................................................................................................ 505

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To Machine a Step Feature.............................................................................................. 505 The Step Milling Dialog Box ............................................................................................. 506 Profile Features..................................................................................................................... 508 To Create a Profile Feature.............................................................................................. 508 To Machine a Profile Feature ........................................................................................... 509 The Profile Milling Dialog Box .......................................................................................... 510 Channel Features.................................................................................................................. 512 To Create a Channel Feature........................................................................................... 512 Example: Creating a Channel Feature ............................................................................. 513 To Machine a Channel Feature........................................................................................ 513 The Channel Milling Dialog Box ....................................................................................... 515 Example: Channel Machining........................................................................................... 517 Slot Features......................................................................................................................... 518 To Create a Slot Feature.................................................................................................. 518 To Machine a Slot Feature............................................................................................... 519 The Slot Milling Dialog Box .............................................................................................. 520 Through Slot Features........................................................................................................... 521 To Create a Through Slot Feature.................................................................................... 521 To Machine a Through Slot Feature ................................................................................. 522 The Through Slot Milling Dialog Box ................................................................................ 523 Boss Top Features................................................................................................................ 525 To Create a Boss Top Feature......................................................................................... 525 Example: Creating a Boss Top Feature............................................................................ 526 To Machine a Boss Top Feature ...................................................................................... 527 The Boss Top Milling Dialog Box...................................................................................... 528 Example: Boss Top Machining ......................................................................................... 530 Flange Features .................................................................................................................... 531 To Create a Flange Feature............................................................................................. 531 Example: Creating a Flange Feature................................................................................ 532 To Machine a Flange Feature .......................................................................................... 533 The Flange Milling Dialog Box.......................................................................................... 534 O-Ring Features.................................................................................................................... 535 To Create an O-Ring Feature........................................................................................... 535 To Machine an O-Ring Feature........................................................................................ 536 The O-Ring Milling Dialog Box ......................................................................................... 537 Example: O-Ring Machining............................................................................................. 538 Hole Group Features............................................................................................................. 539 To Create a Hole Group Feature...................................................................................... 539 Combining Selection Methods.......................................................................................... 540 To Select Holes by Axes.................................................................................................. 541

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To Select Holes by Diameters.......................................................................................... 541 To Select Holes by Surfaces............................................................................................ 541 To Select Holes by Feature Parameters........................................................................... 542 To Machine a Hole Group Feature ................................................................................... 542 The Drilling Strategy Dialog Box....................................................................................... 543 Example: Automatic Chamfer Machining.......................................................................... 546 Entry Hole Features .............................................................................................................. 547 To Create an Entry Hole Feature ..................................................................................... 547 The Entry Hole Dialog Box............................................................................................... 548 To Machine an Entry Hole Feature................................................................................... 549 Free Form Machining ............................................................................................................ 550 To Machine a Free Form Feature..................................................................................... 550 The Freeform Milling Dialog Box ...................................................................................... 552 Tool Path Display and Output ................................................................................................ 553 About Displaying the Tool Path ........................................................................................ 553 To Display the Tool Path.................................................................................................. 554 The PLAY PATH Dialog Box ............................................................................................ 555 To Add a Break Point....................................................................................................... 556 Manipulating Break Points ............................................................................................... 556 To Position the Tool......................................................................................................... 557 To Insert a CL Command................................................................................................. 557 Using Parameters in CL Commands ................................................................................ 558 To Delete a CL Command ............................................................................................... 558 To Redefine a CL Command............................................................................................ 558 To Save CL Data in a File ................................................................................................ 559 To Output a CL File ......................................................................................................... 559 To Output NC Codes ....................................................................................................... 560 Template Machining .............................................................................................................. 561 About the Template Manager........................................................................................... 561 To Create a New Template .............................................................................................. 561 To Convert an Existing TPL Template File to XML Format ............................................... 563 To Place a Template........................................................................................................ 563 Miscellaneous ....................................................................................................................... 564 To Manipulate Features Using the Model Tree ................................................................. 564 Options Available from the Model Tree............................................................................. 564 To Toggle Material Display .............................................................................................. 567

Pro/PROCESS for MFG ..................................................................................... 568
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 568 About Pro/PROCESS for MFG......................................................................................... 568 About Defining the Process Plan Work Flow .................................................................... 568 16

To Use Pro/PROCESS for MFG....................................................................................... 570 About Specific Uses for Pro/PROCESS for MFG.............................................................. 571 About the Part Machining Process Plan ........................................................................... 571 To Document the Part Machining Process Plan................................................................ 572 Process Steps....................................................................................................................... 573 About Process Assemblies .............................................................................................. 573 To Use Process Mode ..................................................................................................... 574 MFG SETUP Menu Commands ....................................................................................... 575 MFG SEQUENCE Menu Commands ............................................................................... 575 COMPONENT Menu Commands..................................................................................... 576 MFG MODIFY Menu Commands ..................................................................................... 577 STEP REGEN Menu Commands ..................................................................................... 578 Select Step Menu ............................................................................................................ 578 Read About and Create Steps ......................................................................................... 578 View Steps ...................................................................................................................... 584 Documenting the Process ..................................................................................................... 585 Create Customized Documentation.................................................................................. 585 Read About Process State............................................................................................... 588 Specific Process Considerations ...................................................................................... 588 Reports............................................................................................................................ 590 Other Process Functions ....................................................................................................... 595 About Obtaining Information............................................................................................. 595 About Step Information .................................................................................................... 595 Simplified Representations............................................................................................... 596 Sample Session .................................................................................................................... 597 About the Sample Session............................................................................................... 597 To Retrieve the Process Model ........................................................................................ 597 Example: Retrieved Process Model.................................................................................. 597 To Create Drawings......................................................................................................... 598 To Use the Play Steps Functionality................................................................................. 598 Example: MFG Model Stock Assembled .......................................................................... 598 To Use the Copy Process Functionality............................................................................ 600 Example: Copy Process Functionality .............................................................................. 601 To Define a New Operation.............................................................................................. 607

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Pro/NC
Getting Started with Pro/NC About Pro/NC
Pro/NC will create the data necessary to drive an NC machine tool to machine a Pro/ENGINEER part. It does this by providing the tools to let the manufacturing engineer follow a logical sequence of steps to progress from a design model to ASCII CL data files that can be post-processed into NC machine data. The illustration below summarizes the Pro/NC process.

Design Model

Workpiece

Manufacturing Model

Machine Tools (Workcells) Tool

Fixture Setups

Set Up Manufacturing Database Set Up Operation Define NC Sequences Create CL Data Files (APT)

Pro/NC

Produce In-Process Model

Post-Process

Drive NC Machine Tool

Licensing Requirements
Pro/NC is a family of optional modules that can be ordered in any combination, to provide a “custom fit of the available functionality to your company’s needs. The Pro/NC-ADVANCED license covers the complete Pro/NC functionality as described in this Help System. Other modules provide subsets of this functionality. The table below lists the functionality available with each of the modules.

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If you do not have the appropriate license to perform a specific set of functions, you may need to use a different command to start Pro/ENGINEER, or you might be able to “float the necessary options to your working session.

IF YOU HAVE Pro/NCMILL

YOU CAN

Perform 2.5-Axis Milling with positioning Perform 3-Axis Milling and Holemaking with positioning Perform 2-Axis Turning and centerline drilling Perform 4-Axis Turning and centerline drilling

Pro/NCTURN

Pro/NCWEDM Pro/NCADVANC ED

Perform 2- and 4-Axis Wire EDM NC sequences Perform 2.5- to 5-Axis Milling and Holemaking Perform 2- and 4-Axis Turning and Holemaking Perform Milling, Turning, and Holemaking NC sequences on Mill/Turn centers Perform 2- and 4-Axis Wire EDM NC sequences

To Create a Manufacturing Model
1. From the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, choose File > New (or click the corresponding icon). The system displays the New dialog box. 2. Choose the Manufacturing option button under Type. 3. Specify the type of the model by selecting an option button under Sub-Type: If you are machining a single part with only one workpiece, choose NC Part. If you are machining an assembly of reference parts with no, one, or many workpieces, or if you do not have the permission to make changes to the workpiece model, choose NC Assembly.

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4. Type a name for the new manufacturing model in the Name text box, unless you want to accept the default. 5. Click OK. 6. If you have chosen NC Part as the sub-type, the system displays the browser window, listing all the part files in the current directory. Select the name of the reference part. 7. The system displays the MANUFACTURE menu, the model tree, and, in case of Part machining, the reference part.

Pro/NC Concepts

Design Model
The Pro/ENGINEER design model, representing the finished product, is used as the basis for all manufacturing operations. Features, surfaces, and edges are selected on the design model as references for each tool path. Referencing the geometry of the design model sets up an associative link between the design model and the workpiece. Because of this link, when the design model is changed, all associated manufacturing operations are updated to reflect the change. Parts, assemblies, and sheetmetal parts may be used as design models. The following illustration shows an example of a design model—a valve housing.

Holes to be drilled

Surfaces to be milled

Workpiece
The workpiece represents the raw stock that is going to be machined by the manufacturing operations. Its use is optional in Pro/NC. The benefits of using a workpiece include: 20

• • •

Automatic definition of extents of machining when creating NC sequences. Dynamic material removal simulation and gouge checking (available with Pro/NCCHECK). In-process documentation by capturing removed material. The workpiece can represent any form of raw stock; such as bar stock or casting. It may be created easily by copying the design model and modifying the dimensions or deleting/suppressing features to represent the real workpiece. The following illustration shows an example of a workpiece—a casting.

Holes removed— not part of casting

Dimensions increased to allow for material removal

Dimensions decreased to allow for material removal

If you have a Pro/ASSEMBLY license, the workpiece can also be created directly in Manufacturing mode by referencing geometry of the design model. As a Pro/ENGINEER part, the workpiece can be manipulated as any other: it can exist as an instance of a part family table; it can be modified and redefined.

Manufacturing Model
A regular manufacturing model consists of a design model (also called “reference part since it is used as a reference for creating NC sequences) and a workpiece assembled together (see illustration below). As the manufacturing process is developed, the material removal simulation can be performed on the workpiece. Generally, at the end of the manufacturing process the workpiece geometry should be coincident with the geometry of the design model. However, material removal is an optional step.

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Solid lines show design model

Dotted lines show workpiece Reference part is assembled inside the workpiece

If you are not concerned with material removal, you do not have to define the workpiece geometry. Use a workpiece represented by a coordinate system (“workpiece with no geometry), or no workpiece at all in Assembly machining. When a manufacturing model is created, it generally consists of four separate files: • • • • The design model—filename.prt The workpiece—filename.prt The manufacturing assembly—manufacturename.asm The manufacturing process file—manufacturename.mfg

Part and Assembly Machining
There are two separate types of Pro/NC: • • Part machining—Acts on the assumption that the manufacturing model contains one reference part and one workpiece (also a part). Assembly machining—No assumptions are made by the system as to the manufacturing model configuration. The manufacturing model can be an assembly of any level of complexity (as with sub-assemblies), and can contain any number of independent workpieces and/or reference models. It can also contain other components that may be part of the manufacturing assembly, but have no direct effect on the actual material removal process (for example, the turntable, or clamps.). Once the manufacturing model is created, Part and Assembly machining use similar techniques to develop the manufacturing process. If there are specific techniques for defining an NC sequence they will be described in the appropriate chapter. Keep in mind that in Part machining the system automatically determines some of the machining aspects based on the 22

workpiece geometry; therefore, while Assembly machining gives you more flexibility in building the manufacturing model, it may also require extra steps when creating the NC sequences. The major difference between Part and Assembly machining is that in Part machining all the components of the manufacturing process (operations, workcells, or NC sequences) are part features that belong to the workpiece, while in Assembly machining these are assembly features that belong to the manufacturing assembly. Note: Use Assembly machining if you do not have the permission to make changes to the workpiece model. When you create an automatic material removal feature in Assembly machining, the system lets you specify whether or not the feature should be visible at part level (that is, when you retrieve a workpiece in Part mode).

To Retrieve a Manufacturing Model
1. From the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, choose File > Open (or click the corresponding icon). The system displays the browser window. 2. By default, all files are listed in the browser window. To narrow down the search, choose Manufacturing from the Type drop-down list. You can also use one of the following options from the Sub-type list: All—Lists all the models in the Manufacturing family of products, that is, all the models that have the “.mfg extension (including Cast, Mold, Sheet Metal manufacturing, and so on). NC Part—Lists only the Part manufacturing models created in Release 18.0 and later. NC Assembly—Lists only the Assembly manufacturing models created in Release 18.0 and later. Pre-18.0 MFG—Lists all the Part and Assembly manufacturing models created prior to Release 18.0.

Note: Filtering by sub-type applies only to files created in Release 16.0 and later. Use All to retrieve “.mfg files created prior to Release 16.0. 3. Select the name of the model to retrieve from the browser window. 4. The system displays the manufacturing model, the model tree, and the MANUFACTURE menu.

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To Place a Workpiece in Part Machining

When you create a new model for part machining, you are immediately prompted to enter the name of the design model. This is the base component of the manufacturing assembly. To continue with the manufacturing assembly: 1. Choose Mfg Model from the MANUFACTURE menu. 2. Choose one of the options: Assemble—To assemble the workpiece to the design model. Choose Workpiece and enter the name of the workpiece. The workpiece will be retrieved for assembling with the design model. Assemble the workpiece by specifying the proper placement constraints. Create—To create the workpiece directly in Manufacturing mode (this option is only available if you have an appropriate license). Choose Workpiece, enter the name of the workpiece, and create the first feature of the workpiece referencing geometry of the design model as necessary. To create more features on the workpiece, use the Mod Work option in the MFG MODIFY menu.

To Manipulate a Workpiece

To Place a "No Geometry" Workpiece in Part Machining
You do not have to define the raw stock geometry if you are not concerned with the material removal simulation. Since the manufacturing operations are stored as workpiece features, the workpiece part must be present in the manufacturing assembly; however, it need not have any geometry. You will be able to create manufacturing operations and generate the appropriate CL data (no material removal simulation will be performed). 1. Choose Mfg Model from the MANUFACTURE menu. 2. Choose Create, Workpiece, and enter a name for the workpiece. 3. Choose Datum, Coord Sys, and create a coordinate system to represent the workpiece. Return to the MANUFACTURE menu.

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While there are no manufacturing operations created, you can disassemble the workpiece using the Delete option in the MFG MDL menu and create or assemble another one. You can also redefine the assembly constraints of the workpiece using the Redefine option in the MFG MDL menu.

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Note: If you do not have the appropriate license and cannot create a workpiece in Manufacturing mode, create the workpiece containing a coordinate system in Part mode and then assemble it to the reference part.

To Replace a Design Model in Part Machining

1. Choose Mfg Model from the MANUFACTURE menu. 2. Choose Replace from the MFG MDL menu. 3. Select the member (design model) to replace. 4. The INSTANCES menu appears with a namelist of instances (including the generic part) and two additional options Show Table and Edit Table. 5. Select the replacement instance from the menu. 6. Regenerate.

Part Family Tables in Pro/NC
The Replace option in the MFG MDL menu allows you to replace a design model by a member of the same part family. You can create NC sequences for one member of the family, and then generate appropriate CL data for other members by replacing the design model and regenerating the manufacturing model. When you replace a design model and regenerate the workpiece, the NC sequences and material removal (where applicable) are updated according to the new model. Note: This functionality only works if you use the Replace option in the MFG MDL menu. For example, if you replace a reference part with another family member using Simplified Representations, the NC sequences will still reference the original reference part.

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Example: Replacing a Design Model
Workpiece (shown in dashed lines where different from the design model) Design model

Initial manufacturing assembly

Create the operations.

Regenerate to update Replace the design model with another family instance the workpiece.

To Build a Manufacturing Model in Assembly Machining

Assembly machining allows you to define a complex manufacturing assembly using an extensive set of techniques. You can assemble parts, regular assemblies, or other manufacturing assemblies, and create parts directly in Manufacturing mode. When you choose Mfg Model from the MANUFACTURE menu, the MFG MDL menu appears with the following options: • • • • Assemble—Assemble a reference model (part or assembly), workpiece (part or assembly), a general assembly, or another manufacturing assembly. Create—Create a reference part or a workpiece (part). Redefine—Redefine the assembly constraints of a selected component. Delete—Disassemble any of the manufacturing assembly components. If you try to disassemble a component that is referenced by an existing NC sequence, you will get an error message. You can then redefine or delete the NC sequence and try again. You can use the MFG MDL menu options in any combination and as many times as needed. In order for the assembly machining NC sequences to be created correctly, the system must “know which components are reference parts, which are workpieces, and which are “others (that is, stationary fixtures). As you assemble or create components, you have to classify them:

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When you choose Assemble from the MFG MDL menu, the following options are available: Ref Model—Assemble a reference model (part or assembly). If an assembly is specified, all its components will be classified as reference parts. Workpiece—Assemble a workpiece (part or assembly). If an assembly is specified, all its components will be classified as workpieces. Gen Assem—Assemble a general assembly. In this case, you have to classify the assembly components. Choose Ref Model from the MFG CLASS menu and select all the components (parts or subassemblies) to be classified as reference models. Choose Done Sel when finished. Then choose Workpiece from the MFG CLASS menu and select all the components to be classified as workpieces. Choose Done Sel when finished. All the components that you have not classified as either reference model or workpiece will stay in the manufacturing assembly but will have no effect in defining manufacturing geometry. Mfg Assem—Assemble another manufacturing assembly. Its reference model(s) and workpiece(s) will retain their classification in the new manufacturing model. However, any NC sequences that have existed in the manufacturing assembly prior to the current manufacturing process will not be accessible here: you will not be able to display CL data, or modify parameters.

When you choose Create from the MFG MDL menu, the component will be classified as the reference part or the workpiece, depending on the option you use (Ref Model or Workpiece).

To Reclassify Components of a Manufacturing Assembly

1. On the MANUFACTURE menu, click Mfg Model > Reclassify. 2. Select component(s) that you want to reclassify. Click Done Select when finished. 3. Select the new class for selected components: Ref Model—The selected components will be treated as reference models. Workpiece—The selected components will be treated as workpieces. Fixture—The selected components will be treated as fixtures.

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This functionality provides you with an easy way to reclassify fixtures, workpieces, and reference parts for existing assemblies. It will also save time for manufacturing engineers who receive an assembly with fixtures that may have been created in Assembly mode, and who need to specify which components are the fixtures, and where are the reference part and the workpiece.

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Click Done. 4. Select more components to reclassify, or click Quit Select to finish the reclassification process.

Manufacturing Process About Manufacturing Process

The Pro/NC process consists of the following basic steps: 1. Set up the manufacturing database. It may contain such items as workcells (machine tools) available, tooling, fixture configurations, site parameters, or tool tables. This step is optional. If you do not want to set up all your database up front, you can go directly into the machining process and later define any of the items above when you actually need them. 2. Define an operation. An operation setup may contain the following elements: Operation name Workcell (machine tool) Coordinate system for CL output Operation comments Operation parameters FROM and HOME points

You have to define a workcell and a coordinate system before you can start creating NC sequences. Other setup elements are optional. 3. Create NC sequences for the specified operation. Each NC sequence is a series of tool motions with the addition of specific post-processor words that are not motion-related but required for the correct NC output. The tool path is automatically generated by the system based on the NC sequence type (such as Volume Milling, Outside Turning), cut geometry, and manufacturing parameters. You can apply more “low level control, if you like, by: Defining your own tool motions, that is, approach, exit, and connect motions. Tool motions include Automatic Cut motions. Inserting non-motion CL commands.

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4. For each completed NC sequence, you can create a material removal feature, either by making the system automatically remove material (where applicable), or by manually constructing a regular Pro/ENGINEER feature on the workpiece (such as Slot or Hole).

Modal Settings
Most of the machining setup elements are modal, that is, all subsequent NC sequences will use this setting until you explicitly change it. Among those are: • • • • • Operation setup (including the workcell and Machine coordinate system) Fixture setup Tool (provided the tool type is compatible with the NC sequence type) Manufacturing parameters of an activated site NC Sequence coordinate system (for the first NC sequence, the Machine Coordinate system specified for the operation will be implicitly used as the NC sequence coordinate system as well, unless you explicitly specify another one) Retract surface

Walk-Through Menus
Most of Pro/NC menus are designed to “walk you through the process development. These menus use checkmarks to select an option; more than one option may be selected at a time. When you choose Done from such a menu, the system will invoke the appropriate user interface for each selected option in turn. If some selection is necessary at a particular point, the checkmark will be automatically turned on. For example, when you first set up an operation, only the Workcell and Mach Csys options will have checkmarks next to them. You can turn other checkmarks on as well (for example, to specify the FROM and HOME points), but you are not required to do so. Similarly, when you start defining the first NC sequence, you will have a checkmark at the Tool option. For the next NC sequence, however, the Tool option will not have a checkmark next to it (provided the previous tool is applicable). Turn it on only if you want to specify another tool. Another aspect of the “walk-through functionality in the process development user interface is that if you omit a step the system will prompt you for the required information. For example, if you select the NC Sequence option while the operation has not been set up, the system will bring up the OPERATION menu first (as if you have selected Operation), and then invoke the user interface for creating an NC sequence. This allows you to reduce the time and minimize the number of menu selections involved in defining an NC sequence.

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To Get Process Status and Tool Path Information

Once you choose Machining from the MANUFACTURE menu, the Manufacturing Info dialog box (Info Box) containing the current manufacturing info will appear at the top of the screen. The Info Box has two tabulated pages: Status and Tool Path Info. Select on the appropriate tab (Status or Tool Path Info) at the top of the Info Box to toggle between the pages. The following items are listed in the Status page of the Info Box: • • • • • • Operation name Workcell name and type Machine coordinate system and the model it belongs to NC sequence type Tool ID and pocket number NC Sequence coordinate system and the model it belongs to If you want to find out more about a particular item, select on the appropriate button in the Info Box, and a corresponding Info window or subwindow will appear. The following information can be obtained by pressing the buttons in the Info Box: • • • • • Operation—The current operation data will be displayed in the Info window. Workcell—The current workcell data will be displayed in the Info window. Machine or NC Sequence coordinate system—Highlights on the screen. NC sequence—The current NC sequence info will be displayed in the Info window. Tool—The system displays the Tool Setup dialog box, which allows you to set up tooling. The information in the Info Box updates as you develop the manufacturing process. When you display the tool path, the appropriate information appears in the Tool Path Info section of the Info Box, such as the feedrate, the spindle speed, the current XYZ coordinates of the tool, the current IJK coordinates of the tool axis, and so on. These values update to match the tool’s location.

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Operations
About Operations An operation is a series of NC sequences performed at a particular workcell and using a particular coordinate system for CL data output. Note: You have to set up an operation before you can start creating NC sequences. An operation is a workpiece (or assembly) feature that contains the following information: • • • • • • • Name Workcell to be used Coordinate system for CL data output Retract surface Comments (optional) A set of manufacturing parameters (optional) FROM and HOME points (optional) When the NC sequences and material removal features are created, they contain a reference to the current operation name. Operation setting is modal, that is, once an operation is created, it stays current until another operation is created or activated.

To Create an Operation

You have to create an operation before you can start defining NC sequences. When creating the operation, the required elements are the machine tool name and the Program Zero coordinate system. 1. On the MANUFACTURE menu, click Machining > Operation (or Mfg Setup > Operation). The Operation Setup dialog box opens. Note: If you do not have any operations defined, the system automatically opens the Operation Setup dialog box and starts creating a new operation when you click Machining or Mfg Setup. 2. If you already have defined some operations for the current manufacturing process, click the New icon at the top of the dialog box to start creating a new operation.

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The Operation Setup dialog box displays the default settings for the operation name and output parameters. To change the default name, type the new name in the Operation Name text box. 3. Select or create a machine tool (workcell). If you have set up some machine tools prior to creating the operation, their names appear in the NC Machine drop-down list. To create a machine tool, click next to the NC Machine drop-down list.

next to the Program Zero text box and select or 4. Define the Program Zero. Click create a coordinate system. Once the Program Zero is defined, the name of the coordinate system appears in the Program Zero text box, and clicking the coordinate system on the screen. next to it will highlight

5. Use any of the other, optional, elements of operation setup, if needed. You can: On the General tab, set up the Retract surface. The Retract surface is used for creating Milling and Holemaking NC sequences. If you do not define it at this time, you will be prompted to do this once you start creating the first Milling or Holemaking NC sequence. Click for details.

6. Click OK to finalize creating the operation and close the dialog box. 7. If you want to immediately create another operation, click Apply, and then click the New icon at the top of the Operation Setup dialog box.

The Operation Setup Dialog Box The Operation Setup dialog box contains the following elements: • Operation Name—The operation name identifies the operation within the manufacturing process. The default operation names have the format OP010, OP020, where the number gets automatically incremented by the system. You can type any name. NC Machine—The name of the machine tool (workcell) used to perform the operation. If you have set up some machine tools prior to creating the operation, their names appear in the NC Machine drop-down list. To create or redefine a machine tool, click to the NC Machine drop-down list. 32 next

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On the General tab, click details.

to assemble and set up the fixtures. Click for

On the From/Home tab, specify datum points to serve as FROM and HOME locations. On the Output tab, change the output parameters or type the operation comments, to be output using PPRINT.

In the lower portion of the Operation Setup dialog box there are three tabs: General, From/Home, and Output. They contain the following elements: The General tab • • Program Zero—Select or create a coordinate system used for NC output and for other machining references. The Retract group box—Specify how the tool retracts between the cuts: Surface—Set up the retract surface. Tolerance—Controls maximum deviation of the tool when it moves along a nonplanar retract surface. The default is 0.1" (in English units) or 1 mm (in metric units). You can type any value.

The

FROM Point—Create or select a datum point to serve as the FROM location. Once set, the name of the datum point appears in the text box. Clicking point on the screen. Clicking cancels the FROM setting. highlights the datum

HOME Point—Create or select a datum point to serve as the HOME location. Once set, the name of the datum point appears in the text box. Clicking point on the screen. Clicking cancels the HOME setting. highlights the datum

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Output NCL File—The default name for the operation cutter location (CL) data file. You can type any name. Clicking Use Default sets it back to the system default. PARTNO—The part name, output with the PARTNO command, as well as using PPRINT. You can type any name. Clicking Use Default sets it back to the system default (the name of the workpiece for Part machining, and the name of the manufacturing assembly for Assembly machining). Startup File—Type the name of the file you want to be included at the very beginning of the operation CL file (after the PARTNO, MACHIN, and UNITS commands). The file must be located in your current working directory and have the extension “.ncl.

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icon—Assemble and set up the fixtures. The From/Home tab

Note: If the workcell associated with the operation has two heads, you can set up separate FROM and HOME points for the second head. In this case, a From motion will be created between the From point specified for a head (that is, Head 1 or Head 2) and the first point of the first NC sequence that uses this head; a Home motion will be created from the last point of the last NC sequence that uses this head to the Home point for the head. The Output tab

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Shutdown File— Type the name of the file you want to be included at the very end of the operation CL file. The file must be located in your current working directory and have the extension “.ncl. Comments—Type the operation comments in the text box below. These comments can be output using PPRINT.

To Specify Comments for an Operation The comments for an operation can be listed in the Manufacturing info; they can also be output in the CL data files using PPRINT. 1. On the Output tab of the Operation Setup dialog box, type the operation comments in the Comments text box. 2. Use the following buttons located to the right of the Comments text box, as necessary: Open—Read in an exiting text file containing operation comments. The contents of this file will replace the current operation comments, if any. Insert—Insert the contents of an exiting text file containing operation comments at the cursor location, while preserving the current operation comments, if any. Save As—Save current operation comments in a text file. Clear—Remove current operation comments.

To Activate an Operation

1. Click Operation. 2. The Operation Setup dialog box opens, with the name of the currently active operation displayed in the Operation Name text box. 3. Select the name of the operation you want to activate from the drop-down list. 4. Click OK to activate the operation and close the dialog box.

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Once an operation is created, it stays current until another operation is created or activated. All newly created NC sequences will be included in this operation. Follow the procedure below if you want to activate one of the previously created operations (to add another NC sequence to it, or to customize its tool path).

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Workcells
About Workcells A workcell is a workpiece (or assembly) feature that specifies a machine tool using: • • • • • • Name Type Number of axes A set of parameters Associated tools Associated site(s)

To Create a Machine Tool (Workcell)

1. On the MFG SETUP menu, click Workcell. Another way to access this functionality is to click in the Operation Setup dialog box.

The Machine Tool Settings dialog box opens. 2. If you already have defined some machine tools for the current manufacturing process, click the New icon at the top of the dialog box to start creating a new machine tool. The Machine Tool Settings dialog box displays the default settings for the machine name, type, and parameters. You can click OK or Apply at this point to create a machine tool with default name and parameters, and no cutting tools associated with it. 3. To change the machine name, type the new name in the Machine Name text box. 4. To change the machine type, use the Machine Type drop-down list. Click to see a summary of the existing workcell types and the NC sequence types subsequently available for each of them. The number of axes specified for the workcell will also affect the NC sequence options; for example, if you set up a 4-Axis Mill workcell, you will have the 3 Axis and 4 Axis options available when creating NC sequences, but the 5 Axis option will not appear. Auxiliary NC sequences are available for any type of workcell. 5. To change the number of axes, use the Number of Axes drop-down list. 6. To change the parameters, use the tabs located in the lower portion of the dialog box.

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7. To set up the cutting tools for the machine, click the Cutting Tool Setup button located on the Cutting Tools tab. You can also set up the tools later by clicking NC Setup > Cutting Tool Manager. 8. Click OK to finalize the machine tool creation and close the dialog box. 9. If you want to immediately create another machine tool, click Apply, and then click the New or the Open icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box. You can save the current machine tool, along with its parameters, by clicking the Save icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box. You can then use the Open icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box to create a new machine tool with the same parameters, whether in this or in another NC process.

Machine Tool Settings A machine tool is identified by the following elements: • Machine Name—The machine name identifies the machine tool within the manufacturing process. The default machine names have the format MACH01, MACH02, where the number gets automatically incremented by the system. You can type any name. When you save the machine tool data on disk, the system uses the Machine Name as a filename (with the .gph extension). • • Machine Type—The machine type can be Mill, Lathe, Mill/Turn, or Wedm. Number of Axes—Depending on the machine type, can be: For Mill—3 Axis (default), 4 Axis, or 5 Axis. For Lathe—1 Turret (default) or 2 Turrets. For Mill/Turn—2 Axis, 3 Axis, 4 Axis, or 5 Axis (default). For Wedm—2 Axis (default) or 4 Axis.

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CNC Control—The controller name (optional). Location—The location of the machine tool (optional). Orientation—(Available only for Lathe or Mill/Turn machine tools.) Specifies the lathe orientation: Horizontal (default) or Vertical. This option defines the default Sketcher orientation when you later create Turning NC sequences in this workcell: For Horizontal, the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system will point horizontally to the right, and the x-axis—vertically upward.

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For Vertical, the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system will point vertically upward, and the x-axis—horizontally to the right.

PP Name—The name of the default post-processor associated with the machine. Type the name in the text box. The Reset button lets you change the name back to the system default. ID—The post-processor ID. PPRINT—Opens the PPRINT menu to let you set up your PPRINT options. CL Command Output Options

FROM—Specifies how the FROM statement will be output to an operation CL data file: Do Not Output (default)—No FROM statements are output. If a From point is specified, its location is output as a GOTO statement at positioning feed. Only At Start—A FROM statement is output at the beginning of the file. It corresponds to the location of the From point, if specified, or to the first location on the tool path for the first machining feature. All other tool paths are added to the operation without a FROM statement. At Every Tool Path—FROM statements are output at the beginning of each tool path for a machining feature. For the first tool path, this FROM statement corresponds to the location of the operation From point, if specified, or to the first location on the tool path for this machining feature.

LOADTL—Controls the output of the LOADTL command in the operation CL data file: Modal (default)—The LOADTL command is output at the beginning of CL data for a feature tool path only if a tool change is needed. Not Modal—Outputs the LOADTL statement at the beginning of each feature tool path, regardless of whether the tool is the same or changed.

COOLNT/OFF—Controls the output of the COOLNT/OFF statement. Output (default)—The COOLNT/OFF statement is output at the end of each feature tool path.

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The tabs on the Machine Tool Settings dialog box enable you to specify the following parameters of a machine tool.

The Output tab Post Processor Options

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Do Not Output—COOLNT/OFF is output only once, at the end of the file.

SPINDLE/OFF—Controls the output of the SPINDL /OFF statement. Output (default)—The SPINDL /OFF statement is output at the end of each feature tool path. Do Not Output—SPINDL /OFF is output only once, at the end of the file.

Use Rotate Output—If this option is not selected (default), all CL data is transformed and output in the coordinates of the Program Zero coordinate system. When you select this option, the system outputs the applicable TRANS and ROTABL commands to specify linear and rotational transformations. Only select this option when indexing to a new table position is desired. Rotation Output Mode—Available only when Use Rotate Output is selected. Controls output of ROTABL statements. The values are: Incremental (default) and Absolute. In Absolute mode, zero position is defined by the Program Zero. Rotation Direction—Available only when Use Rotate Output is selected. Allows you to specify that rotation is performed in a particular direction (this may occur when there is an obstruction in one rotation direction but not another). The values are: Shortest (default)—Make the shortest possible move to the new position. CLW—Always rotate in the clockwise direction. CCLW—Always rotate in the counterclockwise direction.

Rotation Axis—Specify the rotation axis: A-Axis or B-Axis (default).

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Head 1—Specify whether milling is available on Head 1. Head 2—Specify whether milling is available on Head 2. If both Head1 and Head2 are selected, the HEAD1 and HEAD2 options will appear in the MACH AUX menu when creating Milling NC sequences.

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Multiple Axis Output Options These options become accessible only for a Mill type machine tool when you set Number of Axes to 4 Axis.

Milling Capability These options become accessible only for a Mill/Turn type machine tool.

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Creating a Milling or Holemaking NC sequence using HEAD2 will result in HEAD2 statement being output in the CL file. If neither Head1 nor Head2 is selected when defining the workcell, then the
SEL MENU with the MILL and TURN options will not appear when creating NC sequences. That is, once you click NC Sequence on the MACHINING menu, you will be brought directly into the MACH AUX menu for Turning.

Note: 5-Axis Holemaking will be allowed on a Mill/Turn workcell, even if it is defined as 2- or 3-Axis. Select the Head1 option, and then select MILL from the SEL MENU when creating the NC sequence.

Cutter Compensation When you expand this field, the Output cutter position options become available: • • Tool Center—Cutter location (CL) data is output with respect to the tool center. Tool Edge—Cutter location (CL) data is output with respect to the cutting edge of the tool. If you select this option, type the desired value in the Safe Radius text box. This value represents the smallest concave corner radius that can be safely machined, and must be slightly bigger than the radius (Cutter Diameter/2) of the biggest tool on the machine. The Adjust Corner drop-down list gives you a choice of corner condition options for convex corners: Straight—When passing a convex corner, the tool path consists of two straight segments extended until they intersect. Fillet—When passing a convex corner, the tool path consists of two straight segments connected with an arc. Automatic—The system adds a fillet corner condition at all the convex corners on the outside contour of the part, and a loop corner condition at all the convex corners on the inside contour of the part.

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Maximum Speed—Maximum allowable spindle speed for the machine tool (optional). Type the maximum speed value in RPM (revolutions per minute). Horsepower—Spindle horsepower (optional).

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The Spindle tab

The Feed tab

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Feed Units—Select the rapid feed rate units from the Rapid Traverse drop-down list. The values are: IPM (default)—inches per minute MMPM—millimeters per minute

Feed Limits—Type the value of the feed rate used for rapid traverse in the Rapid Feed Rate text box (optional).

Tool Change Time—Time needed for changing a tool, in seconds (optional). Type the value in the text box, or use the UP and DOWN arrows next to the text box to increase or decrease the value, respectively. The Cutting Tool Setup button opens the Tool Setup dialog box to let you set up the cutting tools associated with the machine tool. For 2-turret Lathe and 4- or 5-axis Mill/Turn machines, you get separate cutting tool setup buttons for Head 1 and Head 2.

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The Cutting Tools tab

The Travel tab Lets you specify the travel limits for the machine tool: X-Axis Travel, YAxis Travel, and Z-Axis Travel. Specifying these values is optional. Values for the travel limits along the axes should be the actual dimensions that indicate the extent of the machine tool workspace relative to the Program Zero coordinate system. For example, if a machine tool is 60 inches wide, and the origin of the Program Zero coordinate system is located halfway between the ends, specify the travel limits for X-Axis Travel as follows: type -30 in the left text box and 30 in the text box on the right. If you display or otherwise output the CL data for a machining feature that exceeds the limitations of the machine tool where it is defined, the Information Window will appear, listing the values of the limits that have been exceeded and their corresponding actual values.

The Comments tab Type the comments associated with the machine tool in the text box (optional).

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Workcell Types The workcell type determines the types of NC sequences that can be created using it (for example, 4 Axis Lathe allows you to perform 2- and 4-axis Turning and Holemaking).

Workcell Type

Descriptio n

NC Sequence Types Available Turning: Area Profile Groove Thread Holemaking : Drill Face Bore Countersink Tap Ream

Lathe

2- or 4-Axis Turning and Holemaking.

Mill

3- to 5-Axis Milling and Holemaking.

Milling: Volume Local Mill Surface Mill Face Profile Pocketing Trajectory Thread Engraving

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Plunge Holemaking : Drill Face Bore Countersink Tap Ream Mill/Turn Mill/Turn center (2Axis Turning to 5-Axis Milling and Holemaking ). Milling: Volume Local Mill Surface Mill Face Profile Pocketing Trajectory Thread Engraving Plunge Turning: Area Profile Groove Thread Holemaking : Drill Face Bore Countersink

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Tap Ream WEDM Wire Electric Discharge Machine (2or 4-Axis), as well as any other type of 2D Contouring (for example, flame cut or laser.). WEDM

You can create a workcell at setup time and then use it in an operation, or create a workcell directly when defining an operation.

Saving and Retrieving Workcells Workcells are saved as user-defined features (groups) containing a single feature (the workcell). The configuration file option “pro_mf_workcell_dir allows you to specify a “library directory for workcells. There, the workcell files will be available to all users for retrieval into their manufacturing processes. The option’s value is the path name (absolute path is recommended) of the directory where the workcell files will be stored. To Set Up a PPRINT Table

1. On the Output tab of the Machine Tool Setup dialog box, click PPRINT. Another way to access this functionality is from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu: click Mfg Setup > CL Setup > PPRINT. The PPRINT menu opens with the following options: Create—Create a new PPRINT table. Modify—Modify the current PPRINT table. Retrieve—Retrieve an existing PPRINT table from the current working directory.

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Save—Save the current PPRINT table for later use. You will be prompted for the name of the file. The file will have an extension “.ppr and will be stored in the current working directory. Show—Show the current PPRINT settings.

10.If the table has not been set up, the Modify option will be grayed out. Choose Create. If you have previously set up a PPRINT table, you can either change your former settings using the Modify option, or start with a clean table using Create. The Activate PPRINT dialog box opens. It contains all the items that can be output through PPRINT. Whether an item will be output or not is determined by the flag value. The default flag value for all items is “NO. Change it to “YES if you want the item to be output. 2. To change the flag value, highlight the item or items in the PPRINT table by clicking on them once, then click on the appropriate action button (Yes or No), located in the lowerleft portion of the dialog box. To unselect an item, click on it once more. You can also use the Select All and Unselect All icons located in the lower-right portion of the dialog box. 3. To supply comments for an item, highlight it and type the comment in the Comments text box. When you highlight an item with an existing comment, the comment is displayed in the Comments text box. While editing a comment, you can revert to the previous value by clicking the drop-down arrow next to the Comments text box. 4. Click OK to finish setting up the PPRINT table.

The PPRINT Table To output some model information to the CL files, you have to set up a PPRINT table for this model. This table contains all the items that can be output through PPRINT. Whether an item will be output or not is determined by the flag value. The default flag value for all items is “NO. Change it to “YES if you want the item to be output. You can add an optional comment to be output along with the item. Note: Comments are limited to 69 characters or less. Whenever you output CL data to file, the system will check the PPRINT table. If any flag is set to “YES and the appropriate information is available, the corresponding PPRINT command will be output to the CL file. The following items are output once per CL file: • • • • PART_NAME DATE_TIME SCALE TRANSLATE

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ROTATE The following items are output once per operation:

• • • • • •

OPERATION_NAME OPERATION_COMMENTS LAYER_NAME UDF_NAME TOOL_TABLE ONLY_OUTPUT_USED_TOOLS The following items are output once per NC sequence:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

NC_SEQUENCE_NAME NC_SEQUENCE_COMMENTS FEATURE_ID SEQUENCE_TYPE CUTCOM_REGISTER SPINDLE_SPEED CUT_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS ARC_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS FREE_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS RETRACT_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS PLUNGE_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS SCAN_TYPE RETRACT_HEIGHT NUMBER_OF_SLICES The following items are output once per LOADTL or TURRET statement:

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TOOL_NAME TOOL_POSITION_NUMBER

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

TOOL_COMMENTS TOOL_PARAMETERS TOOL_OFFSET_NUMBER CHAMFER_LENGTH CORNER_RADIUS CSINK_ANGLE CUTTER_DIAM DRILL_DIAMETER DRILL_LENGTH END_ANGLE END_OFFSET GAUGE_Z_LENGTH GAUGE_X_LENGTH HOLDER_TYPE INSERT_LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH_UNITS NOSE_RADIUS NUM_OF_TEETH POINT_ANGLE SHANK_DIAMETER SIDE_ANGLE SIDE_WIDTH TOOL_MATERIAL TOOL_ORIENTATION TOOL_TYPE

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Fixtures
About Fixtures Fixtures are parts or assemblies that help orient and hold the workpiece during a manufacturing operation. Fixtures can be created and saved in Part or Assembly mode, and retrieved into the Manufacturing mode during fixture setup. Creating the fixture in Assembly mode is advantageous since fixtures can be created as needed during the intermediate process steps by referencing the workpiece. It is a simple process, since you can build the fixture referencing the workpiece with Use Edge. You do not have to quit out of Manufacturing mode to enter Part or Assembly mode; you can simply open another object (part or assembly) between NC sequences. Note: If you have an appropriate license, you can use the library of manufacturing fixtures (clamps, holding plates, chucks and jaws) of generic sizes.

To Create a Fixture Setup

1. On the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, click Mfg Setup > Fixture > Create. on the General tab of the Another way to access this functionality is to click Operation Setup dialog box. The FIXTURE SET menu opens. Click Create. 2. On the DEFINE FIXT menu, click Name and enter a name for the fixture setup. The name must be unique within the manufacturing model. If you do not use this option, the setup will be given a default name (FSETP0, FSETP1). 3. Click Component. The FIXT COMP menu appears with the options: Assemble—Assemble a new fixture component (part or assembly). Create—Create a new part on the fly. This option allows you to create fixtures as needed during the intermediate process steps by referencing the workpiece geometry. Clear—Remove selected fixture components using the Select option, or remove all the components in the current fixture setup using the All option in the CLEAR menu.

4. The Setup Time command allows you to type the time it takes to assemble/disassemble the fixtures. This time will then appear in the route sheet as a setup time for the NC sequence.

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5. Click Done when finished defining the fixture setup. This setup becomes active (that is, it will be used by all newly created NC sequences).

Fixture Setup

To use fixtures in the manufacturing process, you must first define the fixture setup(s) for the manufacturing model. Each fixture setup has a name and contains information about the fixtures that are to be present in the model when the setup is active. Only one setup can be active at a time. Setup names can be used to manipulate fixtures within the manufacturing model. Since fixture setups contain fixture assembly information, each manufacturing model has to have its fixture setup(s) explicitly defined; unlike sites or tools, you can not retrieve a fixture setup from one model into another manufacturing model. Fixture setups can be defined at the time of setting up an operation or at any time between NC sequences. on the General tab of the Operation Setup dialog box When you click (or click Fixture on the MFG SETUP menu), the FIXTURE SET menu appears with the commands: • • Create—Create a new fixture setup. This setup then becomes active (that is, it will be used by all newly created NC sequences). Modify—Modify an existing fixture setup. When you select a name of the setup to modify from a namelist menu, the current setup is temporary replaced by the setup selected for modification. You can modify the setup name, add or remove components, or change the setup time. Once modifications are done, however, the original setup that was on display before you started the modification process will reappear. If you want to make the modified setup active, use the Activate option below. Delete—Delete a fixture setup by selecting its name from a namelist menu. Activate—Specify which of the previously defined fixture setups to display (that is, make active). Select the name of the fixture setup you want from a namelist menu.

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Coordinate Systems
About Coordinate Systems Coordinate systems are one of the elements of operation and NC sequence setup in Pro/NC. They define the orientation of the workpiece on the machine and act as the origin (0, 0, 0) for CL data generation. Coordinate systems used in Pro/NC can belong to the design model, to the workpiece, or to any other component of the manufacturing assembly. You

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can use coordinate systems created prior to bringing a component into the manufacturing model, or create them in Manufacturing mode.

To Specify a Coordinate System

The Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems are specified in a similar way, as described in the following procedure. next to the Program Zero text box in the Operation Setup dialog box, or 1. Click select the Coord Sys option in the SEQ SETUP menu. 2. The MACH CSYS or the SEQ CSYS menu, respectively, will appear with the following options: Create—Select the model that the coordinate system will belong to, then create the coordinate system. Select—Select the coordinate system either by selecting on the screen or using the Sel By Menu option. Use Prev—Allows you to select a coordinate system used for an earlier operation or NC sequence. If you specify separate coordinate systems, the NC Sequence coordinate system is highlighted in magenta, the Machine coordinate system—in red.

Machine and NC Sequence Coordinate Systems There are two types of coordinate systems in Manufacturing: • Machine—Acts as the default origin for all CL data. This coordinate system is specified at the time of operation setup using the Program Zero option in the Operation Setup dialog box. All NC sequences created within a certain operation will use the same Machine coordinate system. NC Sequence—Affects all the NC sequence data, such as retract surface and cut feed direction. This coordinate system is specified at the time of NC sequence setup using the Coord Sys option in the SEQ SETUP menu. The NC Sequence coordinate system must be oriented in a certain way, as described in the following sections. The NC Sequence coordinate system setting is modal, that is, once specified, it will stay for all subsequent NC sequences until you change it. For the first

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NC sequence, the Machine coordinate system specified for the operation will be implicitly used as the NC sequence coordinate system as well. If the Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems are different, then, upon creating an NC sequence, all CL data will be transformed and output in the coordinates of the Machine coordinate system. If the Z axes of the NC Sequence and Machine coordinate systems are not parallel, the tool orientation vector (i,j,k) or table rotation will be provided. This functionality allows you to post-process 3-axis operations to be performed on the 5-axis machines. In Turning, it can be used if the post-processor requires X-Y input. Notes: Using the CL_DATA_MODE parameter, you may specify that the linear and rotational transitions between the NC Sequence and Machine coordinate systems be output in the CL file, instead of transforming all CL coordinates. To output CL data with respect to the NC Sequence coordinate system, use the COORDINATE_OUTPUT parameter.

Z-Axis Orientation Pro/NC NC Sequence coordinate systems should be oriented so that the positive Z-axis points away from the holding fixtures of the machine. For example, on a vertical milling machine, the positive Z-axis points up, away from the table surface. The following shows the Z-axis orientation for milling.

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For turning, remember that the positive Z-axis points away from the lathe headstock. If you create a coordinate system at the headstock end of the part, make sure the positive Z-axis points towards the rest of the workpiece. On the other hand, if you create a coordinate system at the tailstock end of the part, the Z-axis should point away from the workpiece, off into space. In either case, the Z-axis must be colinear with the turning axis. The following shows the Z-axis orientation for turning.

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NC Sequences
About NC Sequences An NC sequence is a workpiece (or assembly) feature that represents a single tool path. The tool path consists of the following components: • • • Automatic Cut motions, that is, tool motions while actually cutting the workpiece material. Approach, exit, connect moves. Additional CL commands and post-processor words (for example, feedrates, PPRINT, OPSTOP).

To Create an NC Sequence

When you choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu, a namelist menu appears with the names of all existing NC sequences and the New Sequence option. Selecting an existing NC sequence name allows you to redefine references for this NC sequence (that is, redefine the sequence setup elements, or change the tool motions). Selecting New Sequence allows you to create a new NC sequence under the current operation. You have to set up an operation before creating an NC sequence. The type of workcell defines the types of NC sequences available. Once you select the type of the NC sequence, define the tool path using the NC SEQUENCE menu options: • Seq Setup—Specify geometric references appropriate to the NC sequence type, for example, select surfaces to mill, or sketch the area of the cut for turning. This option also allows you to change the modal settings, such as tool, coordinate system, retract, and specify the manufacturing parameters for the NC sequence. For most NC sequence types, the system will generate the default tool path based on the results of sequence setup. Play Path—Verify the tool path prior to completing the NC sequence.

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• •

Customize—Customize the default tool path, that is, define your own tool motions and insert CL commands. Seq Info—Brings up a checklist menu of all tool motions, along with the NC Sequence option. Select the motion(s) that you want to display info for (you can use Select All); use the NC Sequence option to display the NC sequence info. The appropriate info will be displayed in an Info Window. Done Seq—Finalize the current NC sequence and return to the MACHINING menu. Next Seq—Finalize the current NC sequence and immediately start defining a new NC sequence of the same type and with the same initial setup (tool, parameters, cut geometry). You are brought directly into the NC SEQUENCE menu, where you can change any of the setup elements or “tweak the tool path using the Customize functionality. Quit Seq—Abort defining the NC sequence. You will be prompted for a confirmation.

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Elements of NC Sequence Setup

An NC sequence setup consists of the following elements: • • • • • • • • Name (optional) Comments (optional) Tool Manufacturing parameters NC Sequence coordinate system Retract surface (for Milling and Holemaking NC sequences) Geometric references appropriate to the NC sequence type Start and End points (optional) Most of these settings are modal. You usually have to specify cut geometry and adjust the manufacturing parameters for each specific NC sequence. If you choose Customize prior to completing the sequence setup, the appropriate interface will be invoked automatically to “walk you through the required steps.

To Customize a Name of an NC Sequence

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As an NC sequence is created, it will be given a default name corresponding to its type (for example, Volume Milling). The Name option in the SEQ SETUP menu allows you to enter a customized name for the NC sequence. This name will then be displayed instead of the default NC sequence name in the namelist menus and messages (for example “Computing tool path for NC_Sequence_name).

To Specify Comments for an NC Sequence

The comments for an NC sequence can be listed in the Manufacturing info; they can also be output in the CL data files using PPRINT. 1. On the SEQ SETUP menu, click Comments. 2. The NCSQ COMMENT menu appears with the following options: Create—A system window will appear to allow you to enter the comments using the system editor. Modify—A system window will appear with the current comments. Edit the comments using the system editor.

To Set Up Start and End Points for an NC Sequence

1. On the SEQ SETUP menu, select the Start and/or End option. 2. The following commands are available: Create—Create a datum point to serve as the appropriate start or end point Select—Select an existing datum point to serve as the start or end point. Remove—(Appears only if a point of the appropriate type has already been specified.) Delete the start or end point.

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At the NC sequence level, the start and end points are specified using the Start and End options in the SEQ SETUP menu. When a new NC sequence is created, it will automatically use the End point of the previous NC sequence as its Start point.

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To Select an NC Sequence

NC sequence features themselves do not have geometry that you can select on to choose the NC sequence for modification, CL data output . Whenever an NC sequence is to be selected, the NC Sequence option will appear in the SELECT FEAT menu. When you choose it, a namelist menu of the NC sequences will appear; each NC sequence is identified by its number and type, followed by the operation name, for example: 1: Volume Milling, Operation: OP010 2: Profile Milling, Operation: OP010 and so forth. If you have specified an NC sequence name using the Name option in the
SEQ SETUP menu, this name will appear in the namelist menu instead of the

NC sequence type (for example, Volume Milling). Note: If a line is too long to fit in the namelist menu, place the cursor over it and check the bottom line in the message window to see the whole entry. If more than one operation has been defined for the model, the SEL NC SEQ menu controls which NC sequences are listed in the namelist menu: • • By Cur Oper—Only NC sequences that belong to the current operation will appear in the namelist menu. All Operations—All NC sequences existing in the model will appear in the namelist menu. Another way to select an NC sequence is to choose the corresponding material removal feature (if it has been created). However, this works only if the material removal feature itself can not be selected for this particular operation. For example, this method can be used for CL data output, but will not work for suppressing or reordering. An NC sequence can also be selected using the Sel By Menu option (as any other feature) by its feature number, internal ID, or from a Model Tree.

Retract Surface
About Retract Surface

The retract surface defines the level to which the tool is retracted after a cut. Depending on your machining needs, you can specify the retract surface to be a plane, cylinder, sphere, or a custom-made surface.

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You can specify the retract surface at the operation level, and then modify it at the NC sequence level, if needed. When an operation Retract Surface is defined, the tool will traverse along this surface from the end of one sequence to the beginning of the next sequence. The retract surface setting is modal, that is, once specified, it will stay for all subsequent NC sequences until you change it, as long as it is applicable to the NC sequence type. For example, if you specify a cylinder at the operation level on a 5-Axis workcell, you will have to define a planar retract surface when creating a 3-Axis NC sequence. The following illustration shows various types of retract surfaces.

Retract plane

Retract cylinder

When you set a non-planar retract surface, you can control the maximum deviation of the tool from this surface, as shown in the following illustration, by specifying a Tolerance value in the Retract group box, located on the General tab of the Operation Setup dialog box. The default is 0.1" (1 mm).
Tolerance retract surface

tool path tool

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To Set Up a Retract Surface

next to the Surface text box in Retract group box, located on the General 1. Click tabbed page of the Operation Setup dialog box, or select Retract from the SEQ SETUP menu. 2. The system displays the Retract Selection dialog box. 3. Select the Surface option button and click one of the following buttons: Select—Select a datum plane, a planar or revolved surface feature, or a planar surface on the model. Create Plane—Create a datum plane. Create Surface—Create a revolved surface feature. This option is not available in 3-Axis workcells or for 3-Axis NC sequences. You do not have to use the Revolve option to create the surface, as long as the resulting surface is a surface of revolution; for example, you can use Extrude and create a cylinder. Along Z Axis—Create a datum plane normal to the Z-axis of either the Machine or the NC Sequence coordinate system (depending on whether you define retract at the operation or the NC sequence level), by specifying an offset along this axis. Type the offset value in the Enter Z Depth text box.

4. The Preview button lets you display the retract surface prior to finalizing the setup. Click OK to create the retract surface, Cancel—to quit.

To Set Up a Retract Sphere 1. Select the Sphere option button in the Retract Selection dialog box. 2. By default, the sphere center is either the Machine or the NC Sequence coordinate system (depending on whether you define retract at the operation or the NC sequence level). To specify a different center, use one of the following options in the drop-down list in the Set Sphere Center group box: Default—Use the default center, that is, the Machine coordinate system if you define retract at the operation level, or the NC Sequence coordinate system if you define retract at the NC sequence level. Select Csys—Select a coordinate system. Create Csys—Create a coordinate system. Select Datum Point—Select a datum point.

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Create Datum Point—Create a datum point.

The system displays the name of the coordinate system or datum point that is the current center of the sphere at the bottom of the Set Sphere Center group box. It also shows, in parentheses, the name of the model that the coordinate system or datum point belongs to. 3. There are two ways to specify the sphere radius: Select the Sphere Radius option button and type the radius value in the text box to the right. Select the Offset From Datum Point option button. This activates the Set Offset Reference group box with the following options in the drop-down list: Default—Use the sphere center as the offset reference. Select Point—Select a datum point to be used as the offset reference. Create Point—Create a datum point to be used as the offset reference. The system displays the name of the reference datum point, with the model name in parentheses, at the bottom of the Set Offset Reference group box. Type the offset value with respect to this datum point in the text box below the Offset From Datum Point option button.

To Set Up a Retract Cylinder 1. Select the Cylinder option button in the Retract Selection dialog box. 2. By default, the cylinder axis is one of the axes of either the Machine or the NC Sequence coordinate system (depending on whether you define retract at the operation or the NC sequence level). To specify a different reference, use one of the following options in the drop-down list at the top of the Set Cylinder Axis group box: Default—Use the default reference, that is, the Machine coordinate system if you define retract at the operation level, or the NC Sequence coordinate system if you define retract at the NC sequence level. Select Axis—Select a datum axis. Create Axis—Create a datum axis. Select Csys—Select a coordinate system. Create Csys—Create a coordinate system.

The system displays the name of the reference (coordinate system or datum axis) in the middle portion of the Set Cylinder Axis group box. It also shows, in parentheses, the name of the model that the coordinate system or datum axis belongs to. If the reference

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is a coordinate system, you can select which axis to use as the cylinder axis using the drop-down list at the bottom of the Set Cylinder Axis group box. 3. There are two ways to specify the cylinder radius: Select the Cylinder Radius option button and type the radius value in the text box below. Select the Offset From Datum Point option button. This activates the Set Offset Reference group box with the following options in the drop-down list: Default—Use the sphere center as the offset reference. Select Point—Select a datum point to be used as the offset reference. Create Point—Create a datum point to be used as the offset reference. The system displays the name of the reference datum point, with the model name in parentheses, at the bottom of the Set Offset Reference group box. Type the offset value with respect to this datum point in the text box below the Offset From Datum Point option button.

Material Removal
About Automatic Material Removal Material removal is a workpiece (or assembly) feature that can be created to represent the material removed from the workpiece by an individual NC sequence. Pro/NC provides two methods of generating material removal simulation: • • Automatic—The system automatically calculates material to remove based on the geometric references specified for the NC sequence. Construct—Create material removal feature yourself as a regular Pro/ENGINEER feature (Cut, Hole).

To Create a Material Removal Feature

1. Choose Matrl Remove from the MACHINING menu. 2. Choose NC Sequence from the SELECT FEAT menu and select the parent NC sequence from the namelist menu. 3. Select the method of material removal: If you choose Automatic, Pro/NC constructs the appropriate feature.

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If you choose Construct, the feature creation interface is invoked. Create the feature to represent the removed material.

Automatic material removal may not be available for some NC sequence types. In this case, you are brought directly into creating a feature.

Material Removal for Assembly Machining When you create an automatic material removal feature in Assembly machining, the INTRSCT OPER menu will appear to let you specify the level (part, subassembly, or the top-level assembly) at which the feature should be visible. If you use the Auto Sel option in the AUTO OPER menu, the volume of material to be removed by the NC sequence will be automatically intersected with all the affected workpieces and the results displayed. If the intersection is performed at the part level (that is, it will be visible in Part mode), and the assembly has several instances of the same part, you will be prompted to select one occurrence of the part to intersect the assembly feature with; then the material removal will be shown on all parts according to the instance selected for intersection. Note: If a workpiece is a family instance, or a generic part with instances in session, automatic material removal at part level can not be performed on it. You can use the Construct functionality.

Automatic Material Removal in Milling For Volume and Local milling, the amount of material removed using the Automatic option is defined by the milling volume and depends on the PROF_STOCK_ALLOW parameter value. All material inside the volume will be removed, with the offset equal to the PROF_STOCK_ALLOW value left on the sides and bottom. For Pocketing, the amount of material removed automatically also depends on the PROF_STOCK_ALLOW parameter value. All material along the surfaces selected for machining will be removed, with the offset equal to the PROF_STOCK_ALLOW value left on the sides and bottom. When Automatic material removal is performed for a Conventional or Contouring surface milling NC sequence, as well as for Plunge milling, the surface(s) are offset by stock allowance (if applicable) and the side walls are built towards the retract plane. Note that stock allowance is added at all the surface edges as well. This result is then subtracted from the workpiece. The following illustration shows the tool path and automatic material removal for Conventional surface milling.

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Automatic material removal for Profile milling is defined by the tool geometry and the trajectory of the last profiling pass, as shown in the next illustartion.
NUM_PROF_PASSES 2 PROF_STOCK_ALLOW Material removed for the last profiling pass only.

Automatic material removal for Face milling removes all material above the surface(s) selected for facing. Automatic material removal for an Engraving NC sequence will produce a line corresponding to the reference groove. Neither the width nor the depth of the cut will be reflected. Automatic material removal is not available for Trajectory and Thread milling.

Automatic Material Removal in Turning For Area and Groove turning, the Automatic option will remove material from the whole area of the cut (minus PROF_STOCK_ALLOW). Convex corners can be either straight or filleted, depending on the CORNER_FINISH_TYPE parameter value. For Profile turning, Automatic material removal can be created if the NC sequence uses a single Turn Profile, or multiple Turn Profiles that form a continuous chain of entities. Tool path for Profile turning NC sequences does not require definition of cut extensions; for material removal purposes, the system adds extensions to the Turn Profile endpoints, similar to cut extensions in Area turning. These extensions point in default directions depending on the type of the NC sequence: Outside, Inside, or Face. You do 60

not have control over the direction of material removal extensions; if they do not work for your Turn Profile, create the material removal feature using the Construct option. The following illustration shows the default material removal extensions for Profile turning.

Outside

Inside

Face

X Z

X Z

X Z

X Z

X Z

X Z

For Trajectory and Thread turning, Automatic material removal is not applicable.

Automatic Material Removal in Holemaking When Automatic material removal is performed for a Holemaking NC sequence, the system will produce holes in the workpiece coaxial with the holes selected for drilling. The diameter and axial cross-section of the holes are defined by the tool parameters, and the depth of each hole is defined by the depth of drilling.

Automatic Material Removal in Wire EDM Automatic material removal is available for No Core Wire EDM only. It is not applicable for contouring NC sequences.

Tooling About Elements of Tool Setup
Pro/NC requires the following general categories of information about tools: • Tool Table information—This set of elements defines the correspondence between a descriptive tool name (Tool_ID) and its location on the machine (Pocket). You can optionally supply a value for the gauge length register (Offset) and comments output for the tool (Comments). Each workcell has its own Tool Table.

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Tool Type—One of the predefined tool types available in Pro/NC. Tool types correspond to the types of NC sequences performed in the workcell; the tool type, in turn, defines the tool’s cross-section and, therefore, the set of parameters you have to specify for the tool. Geometry parameters—Parameters that specify all the dimensions of the tool. These dimension values are used in calculating the tool path and material removed, and should accurately reflect the actual tool dimensions and length units. Some of the Geometry parameters are required to define the tool’s cross-section, others are optional. The actual parameter names in this category depend on the Tool Type. Advanced parameters—Various parameters, mostly optional, that define tool properties other than geometry: Length units of the tool (Length_Units). The default length units of a tool are those of the workpiece. If you change the Length_Units, this will affect the actual tool dimensions. Tool gauge lengths (Gauge_X_Length and Gauge_Z_Length)—optional. (Used to create lenght qualifiers in the LOADTL or TURRET statements.) Optional parameters used when referencing MDB files: number of teeth (for milling tools only) and tool material. If you do not set these parameters, you will be prompted for information at the time of MDB file lookup. Optional comments (Tool_Comment): a text string that will be stored along with the tool parameters and output with the tool table. If you want the tool table to show a comment different than the Tool_Comment parameter string, use Edit > Table Comments in the Tool Setup dialog box, and type in a new comment string. When you set up the tooling for a workcell or specify a tool to be used for an NC sequence, the system displays the Tool Setup dialog box. This dialog box enables you to add, modify, and delete the tools, as well as view all the tools currently defined for the workcell. Note: When you select a Tool Table entry in the upper portion of the Tool Setup dialog box, the system updates the lower portion to display this tool’s parameters and section sketch.

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Tool Table Elements
Tool_ID is a descriptive tool name (for example, BALL125), which uniquely identifies the tool with a certain set of parameter values. If two tools within a manufacturing process have the same Tool_ID, then all of their parameters (geometry, material, gauge lengths) are also the same. They may, however, be located in different pockets on the machine, that is, have different Pocket numbers. When you output CL data for an operation or NC sequence to a file, the system outputs the Pocket number in the LOADTL or TURRET statement. If the Tool Table line contains a value for Offset, it will be output as well. For example, these Tool Table lines:

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Pocket ID Offset Comments -----------------------------------------1 BALL1 2 FLAT1 4 flat end mill

produce, respectively, the following CL output: LOADTL / 1 LOADTL / 2, OSETNO, 4 Comments are output with the Tool Table when you use PPRINT. To add comments to a tool, enter them in the Tool_Comment field under the Advanced tab. The tool name (Tool_ID) is used throughout Pro/NC to identify the tool. You can store the tool’s parameters in a text file and then retrieve it to use in a different manufacturing process. Tool_ID serves as the name for this parameter file, therefore, all the operating system’s restrictions for file names apply to Tool_ID (for example, it cannot contain spaces or periods). The name must be less than thirty-two alpha-numeric characters long. Note: The tool name can not contain hyphens (“-). Underscores (“_), however, can be used.

Tool Type
When you define a tool within a workcell, tool types available for selection are consistent with the types of NC sequences performed in the workcell. For example, if you have a Mill type workcell, the tool type selection includes milling and holemaking tools, but no turning. If you set up a tool at the time of creating an NC sequence, the tool type selection will be limited to those applicable for the current NC sequence type. For example, if you are creating a Standard Drill NC sequence, the tool types available for selection will include DRILLING, MILLING, and so on, while for a Tap NC sequence the only tool type available will be TAPPING. Tool type is stored with the tool parameters.

To Set Up Tools in Advance

1. Choose Tooling from the MFG SETUP menu and select the name of the workcell where you want to set up the tooling. Or, at the time of creating or modifying a workcell, you can choose Tooling from the CELL SETUP menu to set up tooling for this workcell. Another way to access tooling setup is to click the Tool Setup icon in the Pro/ENGINEER toolbar. 2. The system displays the Tool Setup dialog box, with all the tools defined for the current workcell listed in the Tool Table section.

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3. Add new tools or modify the existing ones using any combination of techniques described below. 4. Choose File > Done to exit the Tool Setup dialog box.

To Set Up a Tool when Creating an NC Sequence

1. Check off the Tool option in the SEQ SETUP menu. 2. The system displays the Tool Setup dialog box, with all the tools defined for the current workcell listed in the Tool Table section. 3. Select an existing tool in the Tool Table, modify it if necessary, or create a new tool using the techniques described below. 4. Choose File > Done to exit the Tool Setup dialog box.

Tool Setup Dialog Box
About Setting Up Tools

You can set up tools in advance, as part of the manufacturing database setup, and then select the appropriate tool when performing an NC sequence, or create tools on the fly at the time of defining an NC sequence. Whenever you access the Tooling functionality, the system displays the Tool Setup dialog box, which enables you to create, modify, and delete tools, as well as to review the tools already defined for the workcell.

To Add a New Tool 1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > New. 2. The system fills in the fields in the dialog box with the default values: Pocket number is incremented by 1 with respect to the last one currently in the Tool Table. Tool_ID is a default name in the format T0001, T0002, and so on. Offset is blank. Tool Type is the first one in the list of the currently applicable tool types.

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Parameters that appear under the Geometry and Advanced tabs are defined by the Tool Type. Required parameter fields contain a system-supplied default value, optional parameters have a default value of dash (-).

3. If you want to set up a tool of a different type, click on the arrow next to the Tool Type parameter and select the appropriate value. The system displays the parameter names and default values for the new Tool Type. 4. Modify the parameter values, if desired. 5. Click Preview to display the tool section based on the current parameter values. 6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until satisfied with the tool section. 7. Click Apply to add the new tool to the Tool Table.

Tool Parameters Each type of tool has a set of parameters that describe the geometry of the tool. The parameters for each type of tool are listed in a tool parameters table for each tool type and are explained in the illustrations that follow. The bold cross (+) shown in these pictures for each type of tool indicates the default tool control point, that is, the point for which the tool path will be calculated. Tool Parameters for Turning Tools

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Turn Nose_R • adius Tool_W • idth Side_W • idth Length Side_A ngle End_A ngle • • • • • • • • •

Turn Groove

Gauge_ • X_Leng th Gauge_ • Z_Leng

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th Tool_M • aterial Holder_ • Type •

Turning Tools
Side Width Tool Width Tool Width

Length End Angle Side Angle Radius Turn End Angle Nose Radius Turn Groove

Length Side Angle

Tool Parameters for Milling Tools

Cut • ter _Di am Cor • ner _Ra diu s Cut ter 66

_Wi dth Sha nk_ Dia m Len • gth Ins ert _C ut_ Wi dth Ins ert _Le ngt h En d_ Off set Sid • e_A ngl e Cut _Le ngt h Ga • uge _X_ Len gth Ga • uge _Z_ Len gth Nu • m_ Of_ Tee • • • • • •

• •

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th Too • l_M ate rial • •

Milling Tools
Cutter Diam * d Cutter Diam d Cutter Diam d

Side Angle ** Length

Corner Radius r = d/2 Ball Endmill

Corner Radius 0 < r < d/2 Radius Endmill

Corner Radius r = 0 (or "-") Flat Endmill

* For a ball endmill, you can set Cutter_Diam to a dash (-). The tool will then be driven by its Corner_Radius.

** If you specify a Side_Angle other than a dash (-), the tool will not be automatically degouged when creating the NC sequences. Use Taper Mill tools for automatic degouging.

Side Mill Tool Sections

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Shank Diam

Shank Diam

Cutter Diam Length Length Cutter Width Cutter Diam Cutter_Width Corner_Radius - (or 0) Corner_Radius - (or 0) (the same section will be displayed if you set Cutter_Diam to "-" and specify a non-zero Corner_Radius) Shank Diam Shank Diam

Length

Corner Radius

Length

Corner Radius

Cutter Width Cutter Diam 0 < Corner_Radius < Cutter Width / 2

Cutter Diam Corner_Radius = Cutter_Width / 2

Thread Mill Tool

Cutter Diam Insert End Offset End Insert Length * Length

Shank Cutter Diam
d

This diagram illustrates the Thread Mill tool Tool parameters Insert_Length and End_Offset are not reflected in the tool section display. The tool is shown like this. *

Length

If you specify a non-zero Num_Of_Teeth, Insert_Length is ignored If Num_Of_Teeth = 0, then machining is based on the combination of. the effective insert length (Insert_Length - End_Offset*2) and pitch (defined by the manufacturing parameter THREAD_FEED).

Plunge Mill Tool

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Length

45 Cutter Width d*

Insert Cut Width Cutter Diam

Corner Radius

* This dimension is calculated by the system, according to the formula: d = 0.2 * (Cutter_Diam - Insert_Cut_Width*2)

Taper Mill Tools

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Taper Mills With No Cut_Length Shank Diam Shank Diam Shank Diam

Length Side Angle Corner Radius Cutter Diam Corner Radius 0 Flat Taper Mill *

Length Side Angle Cutter Diam

Length

Side Angle

Cutter Diam

Bullnose Taper Mill

Corner Radius Ball Taper Mill

If the Cut_Length value is a dash (-), the length of the tapered portion is determined by the combination of Cutter_Diam, Side_Angle, and Shank_Diam parameter values. Taper Mills With Cut_Length Specified Shank Diam Shank Diam Shank Diam

Le ng t h

Length

Length

Si de An gl e

Cut Length

Side Angle

Cut Length

Side Angle

Cut Length

Corner Radius Cutter Diam Corner Radius 0 Flat Taper Mill

Cutter Diam

Cutter Diam Bullnose Taper Mill

Corner Radius Ball Taper Mill

Groove, Contouring, and Auxiliary Tools

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Cutter Diam
d

Cutter Diam*
d

Cutter Diam
d

Side Angle
Length 1/2 Length Length Length

Corner Radius 0 <= r <= d/2 Groove

Contouring (Wire EDM)

Auxiliary

* Unlike other tools, you can set the Cutter_Diam of a Contouring tool to be 0.

Tool Parameters for Auxiliary and Contouring Tools (shown in the preceding illustration)

Auxiliary Cutter_Diam Length • •

Contouring • •

Tool Parameters for Holemaking Tools

Drill Cutter_Diam Point_Diameter Drill_Diameter Body_Diameter Length Chamfer_Length Drill_Length Insert_Length Tip_Offset Gauge_Offset • • • •

Csink • •

Tap • •

Ream •

Center Drill •

Bore •

Back Spot •

• • • • • • • • • • •

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Cutting_Offset Side_Angle Point_Angle Csink_Angle Gauge_X_Length Gauge_Z_Length Tool_Material • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • •

Holemaking Tools—Drill and Tap

Cutter Diam

Cutter Diam

Cutter Diam

Point Angle Length Point Angle Tip Offset Length Chamfer Length Point Diameter Tap Can be 0 Length

Point_Diameter (or 0) Tip_Offset Drill—Regular

Point Diameter Drill—Elongated

Holemaking Tools—Countersink
Cutter Diam

Cutter Diam Point Angle

Length

Length Gauge Offset Point Angle Point_Diameter = 0 Regular Point Diameter Truncated

Holemaking Tools—Bore and Back Spotting

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Body Diameter Cutter Diam Cutting Offset Length Length Csink Angle Cutter Diam / 2 Back Spotting

Insert Length Bore

Holemaking Tools—Ream and Center Drill

Cutter Diam

Side Angle

Side Angle Length Csink Angle

Length Drill Length

Point Angle Cutter Diam Ream Drill Diameter Center Drill

To Retrieve Tool Parameters 1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > Open Tool Parameters File. 2. The system displays the browser window. The search starts in your current working directory. If you have set the pro_mf_tprm_directory or pro_library_dir by using the appropriate configuration options, you can quickly jump to these directories by clicking the button in the top-right corner of the browser window. By default, the browser displays files with the “.tpm extension. If you have pre-Release 12.0 tool files with the extension “.tprm, you can display them in the browser window by clicking the arrow next to the Type field and selecting *.tprm. 3. Select a file name from the browser window and click Open. 4. The system searches the Tool Table for the Tool_ID of the tool being retrieved: If not found, the system appends the tool at the end of the Tool Table. The Pocket number is incremented by 1 with respect to the last one currently in the Tool Table. The Offset field is left blank.

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If the system finds a tool in the current Tool Table that has the same name and the same parameters as the one being retrieved, it highlights the appropriate Tool Table entry and displays its parameter values and section sketch. If the name belongs to a tool that already exists in your manufacturing process but has a different set of parameters, the system issues a warning and queries you if you want to overwrite an existing tool. If you confirm, it highlights the appropriate Tool Table entry and displays the tool’s new parameter values and section sketch.

Note: When you retrieve a tool parameters file, its type must correspond to the Tool Type value in the Tool Setup dialog box; otherwise, the system will issue an error message and the tool will not be retrieved.

Tool Parameters Library You can create your own tool library, where all the tool parameter files are to be stored. This way, the tools are available to all users for retrieval into their manufacturing processes, for modifying, or for setting up new tools. The configuration file option to use is: pro_mf_tprm_dir

pro_mf_tprm_dir

To Add a Sketched Tool 1. When defining a Trajectory Milling or Trajectory Turning NC sequence, check off the Tool option in the SEQ SETUP menu. 2. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose Edit > Sketch. 3. The system increments the Pocket number by 1 with respect to the last one currently in the Tool Table and generates a default name for the tool. The Offset field is left blank. 4. Modify the Tool_ID as desired. 5. Click Sketcher. 6. The system invokes the Sketcher functionality and brings up a new subwindow. Sketch the tool section.

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pathname

Always enter in the configuration file the complete pathname to the tool library to avoid problems when working in different directories with Pro/ENGINEER. Example: /usr/users/toolcrib

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To Modify an Existing Tool 1. Highlight the appropriate entry in the Tool Table. 2. The system updates the lower portion of the Tool Setup dialog box to display this tool’s parameters and section sketch. 3. Enter new values for parameters you want to modify. 4. Click Preview to display the tool’s section based on the new parameter values. 5. When satisfied, click Apply to update the Tooling database.

To Delete a Tool 1. Highlight the appropriate entry in the Tool Table. 2. Choose Edit > Delete. 3. The system deletes the current table entry.

To Save Tool Parameters 1. Select the tool you want to save by highlighting the appropriate Tool Table entry. 2. Choose File > Save. 3. The system saves the tool parameters in a text file called “tool_id.tpm. If you set the “pro_mf_tprm_dir configuration option, described below, the file is stored in the library directory; otherwise, in the current working directory.

Saving Tool Parameters You can save tool parameters in the form of ASCII text files and then reuse these tools in a different manufacturing process without having to set them up from scratch. When you save a tool, the system stores its type and parameter values in a text file named “tool_id.tpm, where tool_id is the tool name (Tool_ID). You can later retrieve a tool parameter file into a different manufacturing process. Note: Prior to Release 12.0, the default extension for the tool parameter files used to be “.tprm. Old files with this extension will be recognized by the system as tool parameter files, that is, they will be retrievable. Whenever a tool parameter file is stored, however, it will now have the “.tpm extension. A sample tool parameter file follows.

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TOOL_ID TOOL_TYPE LENGTH_UNITS CUTTER_DIAM CORNER_RADIUS SIDE_ANGLE LENGTH NUM_OF_TEETH TOOL_MATERIAL GAUGE_X_LENGTH GAUGE_Z_LENGTH TOOL_COMMENT -

BALL125 MILLING INCH 1.25 0.625

4 -

Note that tool parameter files do not contain Pocket number and Offset information. You have to specify these in context of the workcell when you set up the tooling or create an NC sequence.

To Use a Standard Tool 1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > Open Std Size (this option is available only for the following tool types: DRILLING, CENTER-DRILLING, and TAPPING). 2. Select a file name from the browser window. 3. The system reads in the tool parameter file.

Standard Tools System-supported standard tools are available in Pro/NC. They are stored in a system directory as tool parameter files, based on the tool type, and can be retrieved in a manufacturing process using the Open Std Size option under the File pull-down menu of the Tool Setup dialog box. Currently, only drills, center drills, and taps are supported. You can configure your own standard size tool database. Set the configuration file option “pro_mf_tprm_dir to a local directory. Under this directory create a sub-directory “drills which will contain “.tpm files for drilling, a subdirectory “center_drills which will contain “.tpm files for center drilling, and a subdirectory “taps containing tap tool files. An example of a directory structure for a standard tools database follows:

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set "pro_mf_tprm_dir /common/mfg_tools"

/common/mfg_tools

/drills

/center_drills

/taps

1_8.tpm

3_16.tpm

5_32.tpm

0.tpm

00.tpm

1_2.tpm

1_4.tpm

1_8.tpm

Drilling tool parameter files

Center drilling tool parameter files

Taping tool parameter files

Note: Do not confuse the standard tool parameter files with the standard library of solid tools (available with Pro/LIBRARY license).

Solid Tool Models
About Solid Tool Models All Pro/NC needs to know about a tool is its parameters. It creates an NC sequence and displays the default tool based on the values in the “.tpm file. However, you can enhance the CL data display and interactively check for interference by showing a “real tool. In order to do this, design your tool as a regular Pro/ENGINEER model (part or assembly), and then establish associativity between this model’s dimensions and Pro/NC tool parameters. When such a tool is used, you will have the option to display the default section or the real tool model. This is also another way to create your tool library.

Standard Library
If you have an appropriate license, you can also use the standard tool library of solid tools. It contains common tools (mills, taps, and drills) of sizes corresponding to ANSI standards. For more information, refer to the TOOLING LIBRARY Catalog.

To Create a Tool Model 1. Create a new Pro/ENGINEER model of type Part, give it the name of the tool. Reproduce the tool geometry by using the appropriate construction features (protrusions, cuts, and so on). 2. Create a coordinate system to represent the tool origin, i. e., the tool control point. This is the point that will follow the tool path computed for the NC sequence. Make sure the Zaxis of the coordinate system is pointing in the upward direction (into the tool) for Milling and Holemaking tools; for Turning, the axes of the tool coordinate system must 78

be oriented so that they will coincide with the directions of the NC sequence coordinate system’s axes when the tool is in default orientation. Change the coordinate system’s name to “TIP (use Set Up, Name). 3. Establish associativity between the model’s dimensions and tool’s parameters. There are two ways to do this: Modify appropriate dimension symbols to exactly correspond to the parameter names. Choose Modify from the PART menu, then choose DimCosmetics and Symbol. Select the feature to display dimensions, then select dimension text and enter the new symbolic name, for example, [Cutter_Diam]. Add parameters to the model with the names exactly corresponding to the tool parameter names. This method is convenient when you want to define the tool parameters directly in the tool assembly (for example, Cutter_Diam for an insert drill vs. a drill bit).

Notes: Parameter names are case-insensitive. For example, when modifying a dimension symbol or adding a model parameter for Cutter_Diam, you can use [Cutter_Diam], [cutter_diam], or [CUTTER_DIAM]; the system will recognize either of these strings as a tool parameter name. If an assembly is to be used as a tool model, you can modify dimension symbols or add parameters to any of the component parts as well as the assembly itself.

Example: A Solid Tool Model for Milling A tool model is created as a regular Pro/ENGINEER part or assembly, with a few additional steps to establish associativity between the tool model and the manufacturing tool. An example of a milling tool model is shown in the following illustration.

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Origin coordinate system Dimension symbols correspond to tool parameter names. RCORNER_RADIUS

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To Assign Tool Material and Number of Teeth Tool material and number of teeth can be set up while creating a model. Then, when the tool model is retrieved into a manufacturing process, the tool parameters Num_Of_Teeth and Tool_Material will be initialized, which will simplify the use of Machinability Database files. • To specify number of teeth, add a relation: Num_Of_Teeth = 6 (for example) • To set up material, choose Set Up from the PART menu, then choose Material, and assign material to the tool model.

To Use a Tool Model

To use a tool model in Pro/NC, you have to retrieve the tool using the Open Tool Library option. The system will look up the tool model and read appropriate dimension values into the tool parameter file. When displaying CL data, you will have an option to display the tool model, or a default tool. 1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > Open Tool Library. Note: Make sure to select the correct tool type from the Tool Type drop-down list in the dialog box before retrieving a solid tool model. 2. Choose By Reference or By Copy: By Reference—Direct associativity with the library model will be established. You will not be able to modify the tool parameters for a particular NC sequence using the Tool Setup dialog box. If the tool model in the library is later modified, all the manufacturing data will be updated upon regenerating the manufacturing model. By Copy—The tool information will be copied into the manufacturing model. The tool parameters for the NC sequence can be modified using the Tool Setup dialog box; the library model will not be changed. If the library model is later modified, it will not affect this NC sequence.

3. Select a tool model name from the browser window. 4. The system reads in the tool parameters from the model (the model name is used as Tool_ID).

Tool Display

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If a tool model was used for creating an NC sequence, then whenever you display the path and tool, two additional options will appear: • • Disp Model—Use the tool model geometry in CL data display. No Model—Display the default tool section based on the tool parameter values. If you have the same manufacturing model displayed in multiple windows, the tool and tool path will update concurrently in all windows if they are modified. Note: If the TIP coordinate system is missing in the model, the system will issue an error message and display the default tool. If multiple coordinate systems named TIP are found in the tool model, a warning will be issued; the tool origin will be selected by the same rules as the tool parameters are extracted from a tool assembly (for example, the assembly coordinate system takes precedence).

Using Assembly as a Tool Model If an assembly is used as a tool model, the system will search the assembly first, and then all the component parts in the same order as they were assembled (that is, the first component will be searched first), for the tool parameters and origin data. Once a parameter is set, all values for the same parameter found later will be ignored. In other words, the top-level assembly parameters take precedence over component parameters, and after that the precedence is determined by the order of assembly. If, after all components are searched, some of the tool parameters are missing, an error message will appear and you will be asked to select another tool.

To Use Tool Outline in Turning 1. In the Tool Setup dialog box, choose File > Open Tool Library > Use Outline (this option is available only for the tool types TURNING and TURN-GROOVING). 2. Select a tool model name from the browser window. 3. The system reads in the model parameters and geometry, and generates the tool outline by projecting the external profile of all components of the tool model to the XZ plane of the TIP coordinate system. When creating an NC sequence using this tool, the system will use the tool outline for material removal and degouging purposes, as described above. Note: If you have trouble generating tool path when using a solid tool outline, try increasing the value of the NC sequence parameter BACK_CLEAR_ANGLE.

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Solid Tool Capabilities in Turning Generally, a tool model is used for visual purposes only. However, in Turning you have an option to use the tool model geometry for calculating the automatic material removal and degouging the tool path. This functionality allows you to customize the tool outline and designate the cutting edges that correspond to your particular tool/holder combinations. When you specify that you want to use the tool outline, the system will use the whole tool profile in computing the tool path. This option is similar to using a tool model By Reference, because you can modify the tool section only by modification of the tool model geometry. The tool model for this functionality is set up according to the general rules of setting up a solid tool model: • • • It can be a Pro/ENGINEER part or assembly. It must contain a coordinate system named “TIP to indicate the control point location. The only geometric parameter you have to define for the tool model is Nose_Radius, required for calculating material removal. You can define this parameter by either using a model parameter or a dimension symbol. You can also add parameters to the model to provide values for non-geometric parameters (such as Tool_Comment or Gauge_X_Length). If an assembly is used as a tool model, you can use both Part and Assembly parameters for this purpose, as before. Unlike regular Tool Model functionality, you do not have to define geometric parameters (such as Tool_Width, Length); the tool outline will be based directly on the tool model geometry. Geometry of the tool will be defined by projecting the external profile of all components of the tool model to the XZ plane of the TIP coordinate system. This projected tool contour will be used to remove material and also to degouge against the tool contour. If the tool model is an assembly, you can indicate which portion of the tool will actually be used to remove material using the Yes_No type parameter “solid_tool_cutting at the part level. If this parameter is set to “yes for a certain part in the tool assembly, the outline of this part will be used as the cutting edges. All other edges in the assembly will be assumed to be non-cutting. You can specify a clearance value, to avoid contact between non-cutting tool geometry and the workpiece material, using the NC sequence parameter TOOL_CLEARANCE. This parameter designates how close the non-cutting edges will be allowed to approach workpiece material.

Example: Using the Tool Outline in Turning

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Tool assembly Set "solid_tool_cutting yes" for this part

The system uses tool geometry to generate the tool path and remove material.

To Use Customized Tools in Holemaking If you want to use a tool model By Reference, you generally have to define all the parameters required by Pro/NC for the appropriate tool type. In Holemaking, however, you may want to use customized tools that are not easily described by the tool section parameters of either of the Holemaking tool types. Pro/NC allows you to use a simplified parameters’ set for a solid Holemaking tool. In Holemaking, Pro/NC needs the following information about your tool to generate the tool path and the proper CL data: • • • • Cutter_Diam—The cutter diameter of the tool, used for Auto depth computations. Tip_Offset—The distance from the tool control point (tip) to the shoulder (where Cutter_Diam starts). Length Csink_Angle—For countersink tools, defines the resulting chamfer angle. When you retrieve a Holemaking tool model, if the system finds the Tip_Offset parameter it will use this simplified parameters’ set for tool representation. Therefore, when defining a solid model for a Holemaking tool,

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you can specify just the parameters listed above, and the TIP coordinate system, and use this model By Reference for Holemaking NC sequences.

Example: A Solid Tool Model for Holemaking

Dimension symbols correspond to tool parameter names.

Origin coordinate system

Manufacturing Parameters About Manufacturing Parameters

Manufacturing parameters are accessed by choosing options from the MFG PARAMS menu. These can be selected when creating, modifying, or redefining an NC sequence. To access the MFG PARAMS menu, choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu, and then Parameters from the SEQ SETUP menu. Note: You can also access the manufacturing parameters for the current NC sequence by clicking the Manufacturing Parameters icon in the Pro/ENGINEER toolbar. This is equivalent to selecting Seq Setup, Parameters, Set. The Param Tree dialog box will appear. You can either set all the parameters for an NC sequence manually, one-byone, or initialize the parameters file from database.

Initializing the NC Sequence Parameters
There are several ways to initialize the NC sequence parameters: • If a site corresponding to the type of the NC sequence has been activated (whether by associating it to the workcell or by using the Activate option), it will be automatically used to initialize the parameters. You can retrieve parameters of another site appropriate for the current NC sequence using the Site option in the MFG PARAMS menu. Note that retrieving site parameters does not activate the site for subsequent NC sequences.

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Retrieve an existing NC sequence specific parameters file. Choose Retrieve from the
MFG PARAMS menu, then choose Param Files and select a file name from the DATA FILES menu. This menu will contain all the appropriate type files in the current

directory, or in the library directory, if set. If the file resides in another directory, select Names and enter path and name for the file to be retrieved. You can also enter a question mark (?) after selecting Names, which will open the browser window. The search will be started in the “pro_mf_param_dir directory, if set; otherwise, in your current working directory. Note: If the retrieved file contains some parameters inapplicable for the current NC sequence, these parameters will be listed in the Information Window. • • Retrieve the set of parameters used for a previous NC sequence. The Use Prev option is only available after at least one NC sequence has been created. For a milling, turning, or holemaking NC sequence, feed and speed parameters can be initialized using the Machinability Database (MDB) files. The rest of the parameters will have to be filled in using the Set option. Note: You can use the Set option at any time to modify the parameter values.

Parameter Inheritance
All levels of manufacturing features automatically inherit their parameters from an upper-level feature, unless you explicitly modify (customize) a parameter at the current level. That is, Tool Motions inherit their parameters from the parent NC sequence, while NC sequences may (under certain circumstances) inherit their parameters from sites. The following are the rules for the NC sequence parameter inheritance: • If, at the time of creating an NC sequence, a site of appropriate type is associated with the current workcell, the NC sequence will inherit the parameters of this site. This is called implicit inheritance. If you later modify the parameters of the site, the NC sequence parameter values will update accordingly. Also, if you later replace the associated site with another one (of the same type) the NC sequence parameters will update to the values in the new site associated with the workcell. Note: If you disassociate a site from the workcell (without replacing it with another site of the same type), existing NC sequences that implicitly inherit their parameters from this site will keep the inheritance link. • If you initialize the NC sequence parameters using a site other than the one associated with the workcell (by activating another site or by using the Site option in the MFG PARAMS menu), then the NC sequence will inherit the parameters of this site. This is called explicit inheritance. If you later modify the parameters of the site, the NC sequence parameter values will update accordingly. However, changing the site associated with the workcell, or the workcell itself, will not affect the parameters of this NC sequence. If you initialize the NC sequence parameters using the Retrieve option in the MFG PARAMS menu, these parameters will be marked as customized.

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If you initialize the NC sequence parameters using the Use Prev option in the MFG PARAMS menu, and the previous NC sequence inherits its parameters from a site, the current NC sequence will not automatically inherit from the same site. The following situations are possible: If both the previous and the current NC sequence implicitly inherit from the same site, the inherited (non-customized) parameters used from the previous NC sequence will also be marked as inherited in the current NC sequence. If the previous NC sequence explicitly inherits from a site, and you want the new NC sequence inherit from the same site, use the Site option first to initialize the NC sequence parameters, then use the Use Prev option. In this case, all the inherited parameters used from the previous NC sequence will also be marked as inherited in the current NC sequence. If the previous and current NC sequences inherit from different sites, or if one of them does not have an inheritance source, then all the parameters used from the previous NC sequence will be marked as customized.

• •

If you initialize the NC sequence parameters using an MDB file, these parameters will be marked as customized. If you modify parameter values using the Set option in the MFG PARAMS menu, these parameters will be marked as customized. Parameters marked as inherited will automatically update all the way down if you change a parameter value at the upper level. However, if you have explicitly modified a parameter value at a certain level, this parameter will be marked as customized and will not change when you modify parameters at an upper level. Customized parameters can also be inherited by the lowerlevel features. In other words, if you modify CUT_FEED at the NC sequence level, it will no longer change if you later modify CUT_FEED in the parent site file, but the Automatic Cut motion CUT_FEED will update to the new NC sequence value (unless you explicitly customize it at the Tool Motion level, too). When you look at the parameters of an NC sequence or Tool Motion, the inherited parameter values appear in parentheses. However, if you save a parameters file to disk (using the Save option in the MFG PARAMS menu), this file will list all the parameters without parentheses (because when you retrieve this file into another NC sequence, these parameters will be marked as customized).

To Set or Modify NC Sequence Parameters

Þ Þ Þ

The Set option allows you to set or modify parameters for the NC sequence. If you have initialized the parameters, all or some of the parameters values will

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be filled out. You can then modify them to suit this specific NC sequence. If it is a new file, you will have to replace every “-1 with a value. Note: Only parameters visible at the NC sequence level will appear for modification. Use the Visibility option to modify the parameters’ visibility. 1. Choose Set from the MFG PARAMS menu. 2. A Param Tree dialog box appears with a “simplified set of parameters, corresponding to the NC sequence type. These parameters are the most commonly modified; they provide a quick and simple way of creating and modifying the tool path. If you want to modify a parameter not in the Simplified set, press the Advanced button in the upper-right corner of the dialog box (this button allows you to toggle between the Advanced and Simplified parameters’ presentations). The complete set of NC sequence parameters is displayed in the Param Tree dialog box. They are listed under the following categories, or branches: Name—Machine and NC data file names. Feeds—Feed parameters. Cut Options—Parameters that define the type of the cut, such as scan type, cycle type. Cut Params—Cut parameters, such as step depth, stock allowance. Machine—Machine-related parameters, such as speeds, registers, coolant. Entry/Exit—Parameters that define the entry and exit path for the tool, such as plunge angle, lead-in, approach and exit path. Thread—Parameters specific to a lathe Thread NC sequence. This branch will not appear for any other type NC sequences.

Double-clicking on the name of the branch will collapse or expand it. 3. To modify a parameter, use the mouse to highlight the cell with the parameter value. The value will appear in the input panel at the top of the dialog box. Then, depending on the parameter type, do the following: When modifying a parameter that has a numeric value, type in a new value and press<CR>. You can enter a mathematical expression, which may contain other parameters in the same NC sequence, or tool parameters. For example, if you enter: STEP_OVER CUTTER_DIAM / 2

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the STEP_OVER distance will be based on the cutter diameter of the current tool (if the tool is later changed, STEP_OVER will also be updated).

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You can also include model dimension symbols (in assembly format, for example, d12:0) and user-defined parameters which are already defined in relations for the model. When you enter a relation in the input panel, the system evaluates the relation and places the value in the appropriate cell. If you later highlight this cell for modification, the input panel will display the relation used. When modifying a parameter that has a string value, such as SCAN_TYPE, press the down arrow to the right of the input panel (or press <F4>). A drop-down list will appear with all possible values for this parameter. Scroll to the value you want (to display it in the input panel), then press <CR>.

4. The Edit button in the menu bar of the dialog box allows you to copy a parameter value (in a cell, not in the input box) and then paste it into other cells, or in all cells within a row. This is especially helpful when modifying parameters of an NC sequence which has multiple Automatic Cut motions. 5. To finish modifying the parameters, choose File > Exit. 6. Choose Save from the MFG PARAMS menu if you want to save this file to disk (you will have to save the parameters if you want to retrieve them for another NC sequence), and enter a file name. The file will be saved with a file extension corresponding to the type of NC sequence you are creating. These are: .mil—Milling NC sequences .trn—Turning NC sequences .drl—Holemaking NC sequences .edm—Wire EDM NC sequences .aux—Auxiliary NC sequences 7. Choose Done to return to the NC SEQUENCE menu.

Common NC Sequence Parameters
The parameters that are common to all NC sequences are listed below. They are listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set up the parameters. Click to access the topics describing the NC sequencespecific parameters. Notes: You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means that the default value is not set by the system). Some parameters may have a value of dash (-), that is, “ignore. This means that the parameter will not be used. Usually a system default or another parameter will be

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used instead. The “- value is only acceptable for those parameters that have it as a default. Length units for NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the units of the workpiece. If you change the workpiece units using the Same Size option (so that the dimension values are changed), the system also scales all the appropriate parameters of the currently existing NC sequences.

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Names
MACH_NAME The machine name as required in post-processing. The default MACH_NAME is TURN for turning, MILL for all other NC sequences. MACH_ID The machine ID as required in post-processing. The default MACH_ID is 01. NCL_FILE The default name of the CL file for the NC sequence. The default is a dash (-), in which case the system generates a default name. PRE_MACHINING_FILE Enter name of the file you want to be included at the very beginning of the CL file. The file must be located in your current working directory and have extension “.ncl. The default is a dash (-), that is, none. POST_MACHINING_FILE Enter name of the file you want to be included at the very end of the CL file. The file must be located in your current working directory and have extension “.ncl. The default is a dash (-), that is, none.

Cut Param
TOLERANCE The tool path approximates curved geometry by moving in small straight line increments, as shown in the following drawing. The maximum distance that the straight line path deviates from the curved geometry is set by TOLERANCE. The default TOLERANCE is 0.001" (0.025 mm).

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TOLERANCE

Design surface Machined surface

Tool centerline path Tool

Feed
CUT_FEED The feed rate used for cutting motion. The default CUT_FEED is not set (displayed as “–1). CUT_UNITS IPM (inches per minute—default), FPM (feet per minute), MMPM (millimeters per minute), FPR (feet per revolution), IPR (inches per revolution), MMPR (millimeters per revolution). RETRACT_FEED The rate at which the tool moves away from the workpiece. The default RETRACT_FEED is a dash (-), in which case the CUT_FEED will be used. RETRACT_UNITS IPM (default), FPM, MMPM, FPR, IPR, MMPR. FREE_FEED The feed rate used for rapid traverse (RETRACT_UNITS are used for rapid feed rate units). The default FREE_FEED is a dash (-), in which case the RAPID command will be output to the CL file. The same happens if FREE_FEED is set to 0. PLUNGE_FEED The rate at which the tool approaches and plunges into the workpiece (in Milling and Turning). The default PLUNGE_FEED is a dash (-), in which case the CUT_FEED will be used. PLUNGE_UNITS IPM (default), FPM, MMPM, FPR, IPR, MMPR.

Machine
LINTOL 90

Allows you to specify the linear tolerance interpolation used by postprocessor, for multi-axis milling and Mill/Turn rotary linearization. Outputs the “LINTOL / r statement at the beginning of the CL file. The default LINTOL is a dash (-), in which case the LINTOL statement will not be output. CIRC_INTERPOLATION Specifies the format in which the tool motion along an arc or circle will be output to the CL file. The options are: • POINTS_ONLY—Use this format for machines that have no circular interpolation capabilities. Arcs are approximated by a series of straight line moves affected by tolerance (as shown in the illustration above). ARC_ONLY (default)—Use this format for machines that have full circular interpolation. Only the CIRCLE statement and the minimum number of points necessary for postprocessing will be output to the CL file. The number of points is defined by the NUMBER_OF_ARC_PTS parameter. POINTS_&_ARC—The CIRCLE statement and the maximum number of points according to the tolerance value will be output to the CL file. APT_FORMAT—Use it if your post-processor expects the circular motions to be in the APT format. Note: The CIRC_INTERPOLATION parameter specifies only the format for CL data output. The actual tool path along curved geometry is always generated according to the TOLERANCE parameter value, as described above. NUMBER_OF_ARC_PTS Specifies the number of points to be output to the CL file if CIRC_INTERPOLATION is set to ARC_ONLY. The default is 3. COOLANT_OPTION ON, OFF (default), FLOOD, MIST, TAP, THRU. COOLANT_PRESSURE NONE (default), LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH. COORDINATE_OUTPUT Specifies which coordinate system, MACHINE_CSYS or SEQUENCE_CSYS, is used as the CL data origin (the default is MACHINE_CSYS). FIXT_OFFSET_REG Allows you to specify the fixture transformation offset register used on your machine. The default FIXT_OFFSET_REG is a dash (-), that is, none. If you

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specify another value (“n) for FIXT_OFFSET_REG, the “SET / OFSETL, n and “SET / OFSETL, OFF statements will be output. END_STOP_CONDITION Specifies the stop command to be issued at the end of the CL data output for an NC sequence: • • • • NONE (default)—No command. OPSTOP—The OPSTOP command will be issued. PROGRAM_STOP—The STOP command will be issued. GOHOME—The GOHOME command will be issued. If you specify a Home point for the operation, the tool appears in the Home location. If you do not specify the Home point, the system outputs the GOHOME command anyway, but it does not move the tool, and issues a warning.

Entry/Exit
START_MOTION Defines how the tool will move from the Start point of the NC sequence to the beginning of the cut motion. If you do not specify the Start point (using the Start option in the SEQ SETUP menu), this parameter will be ignored. The values are: DIRECT (default)—The approach motion will be a straight line from the Start point of the NC sequence to the start of the cut. Z_FIRST—The tool will first move in the direction parallel to the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system, then move in the direction normal to the z-axis and start cutting. Z_LAST—The tool will first move in the direction normal to the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system, then move along the z-axis and start cutting. Not applicable for Wire EDM. END_MOTION Defines how the tool will move from the end of the cut to the End point of the NC sequence. If you do not specify the End point (using the End option in the SEQ SETUP menu), this parameter will be ignored. The values are: • • DIRECT (default)—The exit motion will be a straight line from the end of the cut to the End point of the NC sequence. Z_FIRST—The tool will first move in the direction parallel to the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system until it reaches the Z coordinate of the End point, then move to the End point in the direction normal to the z-axis.

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Z_LAST—The tool will first move in the direction normal to the z-axis until it reaches the XY coordinates of the End point, then move to the End point along the z-axis. Not applicable for Wire EDM.

Milling Parameters
The following parameters are specific to milling NC sequences. They are listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set up the parameters. For description of the common manufacturing parameters, available for all the NC sequence types, see the topic Common NC Sequence Parameters. Click to access this topic. Notes: You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means that the default value is not set by the system). Length units for the NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the units of the workpiece.

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TYPE_1—The tool continuously machines the volume, retracts upon encountering islands. TYPE_2—The tool continuously machines the volume without retract, moving around the islands upon encountering them. TYPE_3—The tool removes material from continuous zones defined by the island geometry, machining them in turn and moving around the islands. Upon completing one zone, the tool may retract to mill the remaining zones. It is recommended that ROUGH_OPTION for TYPE_3 is set to ROUGH_&_PROF. TYPE_SPIRAL—Generates a spiral cutter path. TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it retracts and returns to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the same direction. Avoiding islands is the same as in TYPE_1. 93

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Cut Option
SCAN_TYPE Applicable for Volume, Surface, Face, Pocket, and Plunge milling. For Volume milling, refers to the way a milling tool scans the horizontal cross-section of a milling volume and avoids islands. The options are:

TYPE_1_CONNECT—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it retracts, rapids back to the start point of the current pass, plunges, and then moves to the start of the next pass. If there is an adjacent wall at the start of the cutting passes, the connection motion follows the profile of the wall to avoid gouging. CONSTANT_LOAD—Perform high speed roughing (with ROUGH_OPTION set to ROUGH_ONLY) or profiling (with ROUGH_OPTION set to PROF_ONLY). The following illustration shows the scan types for Volume milling.

TYPE_1

TYPE_SPIR AL

TYPE_2

TYPE_3

TYPE_ONE_DIR

TYPE_1_CONNECT

For Straight Cut Surface milling: • • TYPE_1—The tool continuously machines the selected surfaces, retracts upon encountering islands. TYPE_3—If selected surfaces are divided into zones, the tool will completely machine one zone before moving to the next. For Isolines Surface milling: • • TYPE_1—The tool continuously machines the selected surfaces, retracts upon encountering islands. TYPE_2—The tool continuously machines the selected surfaces, moving around the islands upon encountering them.

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TYPE_3—If selected surfaces are divided into zones, the tool will completely machine one zone before moving to the next. TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it will retract and return to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the same direction. For Cut Line Surface milling:

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TYPE_1—The tool moves back and forth along the generated cut lines. TYPE_3—If selected surfaces are divided into zones, the tool will completely machine one zone before moving to the next. TYPE_SPIRAL—The tool makes the first cutting pass halfway between the start and end cutlines. The following passes will be made alternately to the right and to the left of the first pass. TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it retracts and returns to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the same direction. TYPE_HELICAL—(Available only if the CUTLINE_TYPE parameter is set to FLOWLINES.) The tool moves along a helix. Valid for Closed Cut Line machining only. The resulting tool path is shown in the following illustration.

Start cutline (the top surface boundary)

End cutline (the bottom surface boundary)

For Projected Cuts Surface milling, the scan types are the same as for Volume milling (with the exception of TYPE_1_CONNECT and CONSTANT_LOAD). They refer to the way the flat pattern of the tool path is created. For Swarf milling: • • TYPE_1—The tool moves back and forth across the surfaces being machined. TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it retracts and returns to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the same direction. TYPE_HELICAL—The tool moves along a helix. Valid for a closed loop of surfaces only. 95

For Face milling: • TYPE_1—The tool makes parallel cutting passes, moving back and forth along the selected face. If the selected face consists of multiple zones, the tool ignores them and moves across the whole length of the workpiece. TYPE_3—If the selected face consists of multiple zones, the tool machines one zone, moving back and forth in parallel cutting passes, then retracts and moves to the next zone. TYPE_SPIRAL—The tool makes the first cutting pass in the middle of the surface. The following passes will be made alternately to the right and to the left of the first pass. TYPE_ONE_DIR—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass it retracts and returns to the opposite side of the workpiece, to start the next cut in the same direction.

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TYPE_1

TYPE_3

For Pocketing, the scan types are the same as for Volume milling (with the exception of TYPE_1_CONNECT and CONSTANT_LOAD). They refer to the way the tool scans the bottom of the pocket. For Plunge milling, you can not change the scan type when the tool has Insert_Width smaller than Cutter_Diam/2. For a regular flat tool the following scan types are available: • • • TYPE_3—Completely machines one region before moving to the next. TYPE_SPIRAL—Generates a spiral cutting path. TYPE_ONE_DIR—Cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass the tool returns to the opposite side of the region, to start the next cut in the same direction. ROUGH_OPTION Controls whether a profiling pass occurs during a Volume milling NC sequence. The options are: • ROUGH_ONLY—Creates an NC sequence with no profiling.

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ROUGH_&_PROF—Creates an NC sequence that rough cuts the milling volume, then profiles the volume surfaces. PROF_&_ROUGH—Profiles the volume surfaces first, then rough cuts the volume. PROF_ONLY—Only profiling is done. ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP—Cleans up the walls of the volume without creating a profiling pass. If SCAN_TYPE is set to TYPE_3, the horizontal connect moves within each slice will follow the walls of the volume. If SCAN_TYPE is set to TYPE_ONE_DIR, the tool will follow the walls of the volume vertically, when plunging and retracting. For TYPE_ONE_DIR, the tool retracts to the level of the previous slice; however, it will not move sideways by more than (STEP_DEPTH + CUTTER_DIAM/2), with respect to the current slice. POCKETING—Profiles the walls of the volume and finish mills all the planar surfaces inside the volume that are parallel to the retract plane (island tops and bottom of the volume). The open edges of the planar faces are milled according to the value of the POCKET_EXTEND parameter. FACES_ONLY—Finish mills only the planar surfaces inside the volume that are parallel to the retract plane (island tops and bottom of the volume). The open edges of the planar faces are milled according to the value of the POCKET_EXTEND parameter. Note: A tool path similar to ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP with TYPE_ONE_DIR can be obtained by using 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling with ROUGH_STEP_DEPTH. The following illustration shows the cutter path depending on the ROUGH_OPTION.

ROUGH_ONLY

PROF_ONLY

Profiling after rough cut ROUGH_&_PROF

Profiling first PROF_&_ROUGH

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ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP with ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP TYPE_3 with TYPE_ONE_DIR

Tool path

STEP_DEPTH

Mill volume walls (side view) STEP_DEPTH + CUTTER_DIAM/2 ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP with TYPE_ONE_DIR

POCKET_EXTEND Defines the positioning of the tool when machining the open edges of the planar faces inside a volume (for example, island tops). The values are: • • • TOOL_ON (default)—The tool stops when its center touches the boundary of the face. TOOL_TO—The tool stops when its leading edge touches the boundary of the face. TOOL_PAST—The tool stops when its heel touches the boundary of the face. This parameter is used when ROUGH_OPTION is set to POCKETING or FACES_ONLY. TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE In Volume milling, if set to YES, confines the milling volume to that inside the workpiece boundaries, in order to avoid air machining. If set to NO (default), trimming will be done only in the Z direction. Note: When you intentionally offset or sketch the volume past the workpiece boundaries (as shown in the following illustration), make sure to set this parameter to NO.

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Milling volume

Specify TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE NO to make the offset work.

In 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface and Face milling, if set to YES (the default is NO), makes the tool machine one zone of the workpiece before going to the next. The actual tool path depends on the SCAN_TYPE parameter value. The following illustration shows Face milling with SCAN_TYPE set to TYPE_ONE_DIR.

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE NO

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE YES

CUT_DIRECTION For Volume milling, allows you to reverse direction of tool motion within a slice. The values are STANDARD and REVERSE. For Profile milling, STANDARD (the default) machines selected surfaces from top to bottom, that is, starting with the top slice; REVERSE machines from bottom to top, that is, starting with the lowest slice. STEPOVER_ADJUST If set to YES (the default), adjusts the step-over distance (defined by the STEP_OVER and NUMBER_PASSES parameters) to make both the beginning and the end of the cutter path for one pass close to the edges. The adjusted step-over distance does not exceed the original one. If set to NO, the step-over distance will be exactly as defined by the combination of the STEP_OVER and NUMBER_PASSES parameters.

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STEPOVER_ADJUST

NO

YES

CUT_TYPE Combined with SPINDLE_SENSE, controls where material is relative to the tool when it is removing material during profiling NC sequences or slices; bottom slices, such as in pocket milling, are not affected by this parameter. The options are CLIMB, UPCUT, and ZIG_ZAG. The possible combinations and the resulting tool path are: • • • CLIMB and CW—Cutter to the left (default). UPCUT and CW—Cutter to the right. UPCUT and CCW—Cutter to the left. CLIMB and CCW—Cutter to the right. ZIG_ZAG—Cut direction changes on every slice. Note: CUT_TYPE parameter for Volume milling can be specified when ROUGH_OPTION is specified as ROUGH_&_PROF, PROF_&_ROUGH, or PROF_ONLY or when the SCAN_TYPE is TYPE_SPIRAL. For Local milling, there is an additional option NONE, which makes the tool move back and forth when cleaning up material. For Profile milling, the ZIG_ZAG option can be used when profiling open contours. It provides lace-type connection between slices, while CLIMB and UPCUT make the tool retract and rapidly traverse to the beginning of the next slice.

CUT_TYPE

CLIMB

ZIG_ZAG

For 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling, CUT_TYPE, combined with SPINDLE_SENSE and CUT_DIRECTION, controls the start point and

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direction of machining the surface. The LACE_OPTION parameter must be set to NO. FIX_SKIPPED_SLICES By default (NO), if Pro/NC cannot create a slice at a certain Z depth when milling a volume (for example, because of geometry problems), this slice will be skipped and the tool will go to the next slice. If this parameter is set to YES, then, whenever a slice cannot be created, Pro/NC will generate the next slice and repeat it at the level of the skipped slice. In other words, if a slice can not be created, the next slice will be repeated twice: at the Z level of the skipped slice and at its own Z level. The system will issue a warning every time a slice cannot be generated. LACE_OPTION Controls whether the tool retracts at the end of a pass on a surface mill (as shown in the following illustration). The default (NO) causes the tool to retract after each pass, so that all cuts are in the same direction. LINE_CONNECT, CURVE_CONNECT, and ARC_CONNECT cause the tool not to retract. If set to LINE_CONNECT, neighboring endpoints of the cutting passes will be connected by straight line segments. CURVE_CONNECT uses a more complex (and slower-working) algorithm which takes into account the reference part geometry. If LACE_OPTION is set to CURVE_CONNECT, the tool will follow geometry of the obstacles that would otherwise interrupt the cutting pass. Use CURVE_CONNECT only if LINE_CONNECT causes gouging. Valid for Straight Cut Surface milling and Cutline machining (in the latter case, LINE_CONNECT is the default, and the CURVE_CONNECT option is not available). The ARC_CONNECT option, available for 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling only, results in the system providing smooth, arc-like conections between the neighboring cutting passes. The cutting passes are shortened, as necessary, to accomodate the connecting motions, so that the tool stays within surface boundaries. The connections are automatically degouged. Use this option for high-speed machining. Note: If you set LACE_OPTION to LINE_CONNECT for 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling, the system automatically degouges connecting motions and switches to CURVE_CONNECT if LINE_CONNECT causes gouging. In 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences, if LINE_CONNECT causes gouging, the tool will retract. To avoid such retracts, use CURVE_CONNECT.

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LACE_OPTION NO

LACE_OPTION LINE_CONNECT

ALLOW_NEG_Z_MOVES If set to NO, eliminates negative Z moves for 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling NC sequences. The default is YES. If you set ALLOW_NEG_Z_MOVES to NO, you have to also set SCAN_TYPE to TYPE_1 and LACE_OPTION to NO.

ALLOW_NEG_Z_MOVES NO

RETRACT_OPTION Minimizes retracts. The default is OPTIMIZE. If NOT_OPTIMIZE is specified, the cutter will retract between two slices if the second slice does not start directly below the cutter’s current location. It will also retract between the rough and the profile pass within a slice if ROUGH_OPTION is ROUGH_&_PROF or PROF_&_ROUGH. Specify NOT_OPTIMIZE if OPTIMIZE causes gouging. Note: If Approach or Exit path is specified for each slice using Build Cut, the RETRACT_OPTION parameter will be ignored. GOUGE_AVOID_OPTION In Swarf milling, specifies whether the tool will retract to avoid gouging: RETRACT_TOOL—The tool may retract between cuts. LIFT_TOOL—Number of retracts between cuts will be minimized. GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE

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For 3-Axis Profiling: TIP_&_SIDES (the default) will make the system detect undercuts when degouging the tool path. If you want to be able to machine an undercut, set GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE to TIP_ONLY. For 5-Axis Profiling: if set to TIP_&_SIDES, the system degouges with respect to the whole tool (as defined by the tool parameters). The tool will retract if an undercut is detected. The default is TIP_ONLY, in which case the system does not detect undercuts. Note: GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE setting cannot be changed when modifying parameters. Use Redefine. REMAINDER_SURFACE Applicable for Straight Cut Surface milling and 3-Axis Isolines and Cut Line Surface milling NC sequences. If it is set to YES (the default is NO), the system will generate a surface representing the leftover material (to be removed by a subsequent Local Mill NC sequence). This surface will belong to the current NC sequence, and will be regenerated upon regenerating the tool path. Note: The remainder surface will be generated based on the SCALLOP_HGT parameter value. AUTO_SYNCHRONIZE Applicable for Cut Line Surface milling only. If set to YES (the default), the system will attempt to use edges crossing all the selected cut lines as synch lines. If this is not satisfactory, set AUTO_SYNCHRONIZE to NO and specify the synch lines or synch points manually. AUTO_INNER_CUTLINE Applicable for Cut Line Surface milling only. If set to YES, the system will attempt to use edges crossing all the specified synch lines as inner cut lines. The default is NO. CUTLINE_TYPE Applicable for Cut Line Surface milling only. Allows you to select which algorithm the system uses when it calculates cut line distribution. The values are: BLEND—The system uses a surface boundary blend to generate cut lines. FLOWLINES (default)—The system uses a Finite Element Analysis method to process the surfaces selected for milling and generate cut lines. CUTLINE_EXT_TYPE Applicable for Cut Line Surface milling only. Specifies how the system handles the case when a cut line does not extend the whole length of the surface selected for machining. The values are:

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BOUNDARY (default)—The system will attempt to extend the cut lines up to the boundary of the surface. NONE—Machining will be limited to the length of the specified cut lines.

CUTLINE_EXT_TYPE End cut line Start cut line Surface selected for machining

BOUNDARY

NONE

AXIS_DEF_CONTROL Applicable for 5-Axis Cut Line Surface and Trajectory milling, and for Swarf milling. For 5-Axis Cut Line Surface milling and Swarf milling, the values are: • USE_SURF_NORMS (the default)—The surface normal is used in determining the tool axis orientation, that is, any user-specified axis definition provides a localized lead and tilt angle that is applied to the normal of the surface being machined. IGNORE_SURF_NORMS—The surface normal is disregarded, and the tool axis orientation is a strict interpolation of the user-specified axis definitions. Not available for Swarf milling From Surface Isolines. For 5-Axis Trajectory milling, this parameter is used for Automatic Cut motions created using the Surfaces option. Another way to specify axis definitons is to use the Axis Control option in the CUTMOTION SETUP menu. The AXIS_DEF_CONTROL parameter specifies the approximation type between the explicit axes definitions. The values are: • RELATIVE_TO_DRIVE_SURFACE (default)—Preserves the lead and tilt of the tool axis relative to the surface normal for each explicit axis defined at locations on the surface. As the tool moves between explicit axis definitions, the system computes an average lead/tilt angle by linearly interpolating between the last explicit axis definition and the next explicit axis definition. This average is then applied relative to the surface normal at the current location. This method can be used to generate variable lead / tilt tool paths when precise axis control is necessary. An example would be to apply this control to make sure the tool and holder can pass through a narrow channel of part geometry. 104

PROJECT_ON_DRIVE_SURFACE—Preserves the lead angle of the tool axis relative to the surface normal for each explicit axis defined at locations on the surface. As the tool moves between explicit axis definitions, the system computes an average lead angle by linearly interpolating between the last explicit axis definition and the next explicit axis definition. This average is then applied at the current location and the tool axis is projected onto the surface making the tilt component 0. This method can be used to generate tool paths that have a variable user-controlled lead angle, but maintain cutting with the side of the tool. FROM_AXES_AND_DRIVE_SURFACE—This method is appropriate when a set of surfaces have some surfaces that are nondevelopable. In these nondevelopable areas, the tool path can be unpredictable, so you may want to override the system defaults by specifying explicit axis definitions. The system will derive all other tool vectors from the surface boundary. Tool axes will be interpolated using the same rule as for RELATIVE_TO_DRIVE_SURFACE. AXIS_LINEAR_APPROXIMATION—The tool orientation is a linear approximation of explicit axis definitions. AXIS_LEAD_ANGLE_APPROXIMATION—The tool orientation is an interpolation of lead angles along the trajectory. USE_VARIABLE_TILT If set to YES (the default is NO), the tool will tilt to avoid gouging. Available for Swarf milling only. IGNORE_RULINGS If set to NO (the default), the tool will be parallel to the ruling lines when machining ruled surfaces. If set to YES, the tool will ignore the ruling lines of the ruled surfaces. Available for Swarf milling only. 4X_LEAD_RANGE_OPT If set to YES (the default is NO), the system will attempt to use variable lead angle to avoid gouging. That is, if gouging occurs with the specified 4X_LEAD_ANGLE, the system will try to use another angle in the range between 4X_MIN_LEAD_ANGLE and 4X_MAX_LEAD_ANGLE. Applicable for 4-axis milling only. CUSTOMIZE_AUTO_RETRACT If set to NO (the default is YES), the tool will not perform the automatic retract when following the default tool path. SLICE_PATH_SCAN Defines the order of machining multiple passes within multiple step depths (slices). The values are:

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PASS_BY_PASS—After completing the first pass for the first slice, go to the first pass for the second slice, and so on. After completing the first pass for the last slice, go to the second pass for the first slice; proceed until completing the last pass for the last slice. SLICE_BY_SLICE—Complete all the passes within a slice before going to the next slice.

Cut Param
STEP_DEPTH The incremental depth of each pass during rough cut NC sequences. The STEP_DEPTH must be greater than zero. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). MIN_STEP_DEPTH For Volume and Profile milling, specifies the minimum acceptable distance between slices. By default, all planar surfaces that are normal to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system produce additional slices. A slice along such a planar surface will be skipped if the distance between it and the previous slice is less than the value of MIN_STEP_DEPTH. NUMBER_CUTS For Face milling, gives you additional control over the number of cuts to depth (also controlled by the STEP_DEPTH parameter). The system will compute number of cuts using the STEP_DEPTH parameter value, compare it with the NUMBER_CUTS value, and use the greater one. The default is a dash (-), that is, not used. For Cutline machining, allows you to perform milling in step depth increments. This has to be used together with the next parameter OFFSET_INCREMENT. The default is a dash (-), that is, not used. OFFSET_INCREMENT Together with NUMBER_CUTS, allows you to perform Cut Line machining in step depth increments. The tool will make the first slice at (OFFSET_INCREMENT * (NUMBER_CUTS–1) + PROF_STOCK_ALLOW) above the selected surfaces and perform NUMBER_CUTS slices at OFFSET_INCREMENT distance from each other, so that the last slice is at PROF_STOCK_ALLOW above the selected surfaces. If SCALLOP_HGT is specified, it will affect the last slice only. At the end of each slice, the tool will retract, move to the beginning of the next slice, and plunge. If LACE_OPTION is set to NO, the tool will additionally retract after each cutting pass across the surface(s) being machined. The default is a dash (-), that is, not used. ROUGH_STEP_DEPTH Available for 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling only. The default is a dash (-). If you specify a value other than the default, the system performs surface

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milling in depth increments, defined by the appropriate horizontal slices. This allows you to create Volume-like tool paths without actually defining a Mill Volume, which is especially helpful when machining imported (nonsolid) surfaces. The NC sequence removes the same material and has the same automatic degouging capabilities as the regular 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling sequences. The following illustration shows 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling in depth increments.

Select this surface.

WALL_SCALLOP_HGT Controls the step depth for Volume milling. The WALL_SCALLOP_HGT (wsh) must be less than or equal to the cutter radius, that is, wsh <= d/2. The default is 0. BOTTOM_SCALLOP_HGT Similarly used to control step-over distance for Volume milling. SCALLOP_HGT Similarly used to control step-over distance for Surface milling and Local milling By Previous Tool. The STEP_DEPTH and the WALL_SCALLOP_HGT parameters are illustrated in the following graphic, STEP_DEPTH and WALL_SCALLOP_HGT. Pro/NC handles these parameters as follows: 1. If you specify WALL_SCALLOP_HGT as zero (wsh = 0), a scallop height is calculated using STEP_DEPTH. 2. If you specify wsh > 0, a step depth is calculated using wsh. This calculated value is compared to the STEP_DEPTH you defined. Pro/NC uses the lesser of the two. The same is true for STEP_OVER and BOTTOM_SCALLOP_HGT (for Volume milling) or SCALLOP_HGT (for Surface milling). STEP_DEPTH and WALL_SCALLOP_HGT

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STEP_OVER

Tool path WALL_SCALLOP_HGT

STEP_OVER

ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW and PROF_STOCK_ALLOW The amount of stock left after the rough cut for the finish cut. Both parameters are used for Rough Cut NC sequences only, and specify different stock allowances for roughing and profiling cuts in a Volume NC sequence. PROF_STOCK_ALLOW must be set to a value less than or equal to ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW. When geometry is displayed after Automatic material removal, it will use PROF_STOCK_ALLOW.

Pocket PROF_STOCK_ALLOW

ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW

BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW For Volume milling, the amount of stock left after a rough NC sequence on planar surfaces parallel to the retract plane. The default is a dash (-), in which case the BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW parameter will be ignored and PROF_STOCK_ALLOW will be used instead. For Facing, specifies the amount of stock left on the selected face. The default, a dash (-), sets the stock allowance to 0. WALL_TOLERANCE Lets you specify the amount of material that can be left along the walls after the previous NC sequence, without the Local Mill NC sequence cleaning it up. The default is 0. Applicable for Local milling NC sequences referencing a previous Volume NC sequence. 108

STEP_OVER Controls the lateral depth of cut of either type of endmill. The STEP_OVER must be a positive value less than or equal to the cutter diameter. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). TOOL_OVERLAP An alternative to STEP_OVER. Indicates the amount that the tool should overlap the region machined during the previous pass. If TOOL_OVERLAP is specified and STEP_OVER is not, STEP_OVER will be calculated as (CUTTER_DIAM – TOOL_OVERLAP). PLUNGE_STEP Controls the distance between successive plunges of the tool. The default is a dash (-), in which case: • • If you are using a Plunge Mill tool, this distance is equal to the tool parameter Insert_Cut_Width. If you are using a regular milling tool, the system calculates the maximum plunge step, based on the Cutter_Diam of the tool, that results in removing all the material between the plunges. Applicable for Plunge milling only. CORNER_ROUND_RADIUS Specifies the minimum radius allowed for concave corners in high speed machining. Available for Volume milling only. The default is 0. NUMBER_PASSES Gives you additional control over the number of tool passes per slice (also controlled by the STEP_OVER parameter). The system will compute stepover distance using the NUMBER_PASSES parameter value (if other than 0), compare it with the STEP_OVER value, and use the one that is smaller. Applicable for Volume milling and Facing. For Facing, if NUMBER_PASSES is set to 1, it will override the STEP_OVER value, so that only one pass per slice will be made. ONE_PASS_OFFSET Allows you to offset the tool path for a one-pass Face milling NC sequence (that is, when NUMBER_PASSES is 1). The positive value offsets the pass to the left with respect to the cut direction, the negative—to the right. The default is 0. INITIAL_EDGE_OFFSET Allows you to offset the first pass for Face milling with respect to the edge of the surface being milled. The default is 0, in which case the tip trajectory at 109

first pass will coincide with the surface edge; the positive value offsets the first pass into the surface, the negative—off the surface. Cannot be greater than the STEP_OVER value. FINAL_EDGE_OFFSET Allows you to offset the last pass for Face milling with respect to the edge of the surface being milled. The default is 0, in which case the tip trajectory at last pass will coincide with the surface edge; the positive value offsets the last pass into the surface, the negative—off the surface. Cannot be greater than the STEP_OVER value. CUT_ANGLE The angle between the cut direction and the X-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system. The default CUT_ANGLE is 0, which is parallel to the Xaxis. Valid for Volume and Plunge milling, Pocketing, Facing, Straight Cut Surface milling, and Projected Cuts Surface milling. CUT_ANGLE will be ignored for Volume and Plunge milling, Pocketing, and Projected Cuts Surface milling if SCAN_TYPE is TYPE_SPIRAL.

CUT_ANGLE 0

CUT_ANGLE 90

LEAD_ANGLE Together with TILT_ANGLE, defines the tool orientation with respect to the surface normal for 5-Axis Surface milling NC sequences. LEAD_ANGLE is specified in degrees from the surface normal with respect to the tool travel direction: positive value tilts the tool forward, negative—backward. TILT_ANGLE Together with LEAD_ANGLE, defines the tool orientation with respect to the surface normal for 5-Axis Surface milling NC sequences. TILT_ANGLE is specified in degrees from the surface normal with respect to the tool travel direction: positive value tilts the tool to the right, negative—to the left. AXIS_SHIFT Allows you to shift the CL data along the tool axis. If set to a positive value, will shift all CL data down along the tool axis; a negative value will shift the CL data up. The default is 0. Note: AXIS_SHIFT is applied after gouge checking has been performed. Use the Gouge Check functionality to make sure there is no gouging.

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Tool

Model

AXIS_SHIFT

NUM_PROF_PASSES Together with PROF_INCREMENT, allows you to create multiple profiling or trajectory passes horizontally offset from each other. NUM_PROF_PASSES specifies the amount of passes that will be generated (the default is 1). Applicable for Volume milling when ROUGH_OPTION is set to PROF_ONLY, for Profiling, and for Trajectory milling. If another value of the ROUGH_OPTION parameter is specified for Volume milling, NUM_PROF_PASSES will be ignored. PROF_INCREMENT Specifies the horizontal distance between the passes generated according to NUM_PROF_PASSES, which means that the first pass will be offset from the final pass by: (NUM_PROF_PASSES–1)*PROF_INCREMENT. The default is 0. Applicable for Volume milling when ROUGH_OPTION is set to PROF_ONLY, for Profiling, and for Trajectory milling. If another value of the ROUGH_OPTION parameter is specified for Volume milling, NUM_PROF_PASSES will be ignored.

NUM_PROF_PASSES and PROF_INCREMENT

NUM_PROF_PASSES =1 PROF_INCREMENT

NUM_PROF_PASSES = 4 First pass

Final pass

CORNER_OFFSET Specifies the amount of material to be removed by a Local Mill NC sequence using Corner Edges. The default is 0. 111

SLOPE_ANGLE In Local Milling, the angular value with respect to the XY plane that divides the material to be removed into vertical and horizontal regions. For example, if you are removing material left over in a pocket with slanted walls, specifying the value of the SLOPE_ANGLE less than the wall slope will make the tool machine the bottom edges of the pocket first, and then remove the material in the corners between the walls. The default SLOPE_ANGLE for newly created NC sequences is 30 degrees. For NC sequences created prior to Release 2000i2, the default value is 90 degrees. START_OVERTRAVEL Specifies the distance from the tool to the surface outline for all passes except the first one for each slice (see also APPROACH_DISTANCE). The default is 0. Applicable for Facing only. END_OVERTRAVEL Specifies the distance that the tool overtravels past the surface outline on all passes except the last one for each slice (see also EXIT_DISTANCE). The default is 0. Applicable for Facing only. GROOVE_DEPTH The depth of the groove. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). Applicable for Engraving only. 4X_TILT_ANGLE Specifies the angle (in degrees) between the tool axis and the 4 Axis Plane. Normally, the tool axis is parallel to this plane (the default 4X_TILT_ANGLE is 0). Applicable for 4-axis milling only. 4X_LEAD_ANGLE Specifies the angle (in degrees) between the tool axis and the projection of the surface normal on the 4 Axis Plane (the default is 0). Applicable for 4-axis milling only. 4X_MAX_LEAD_ANGLE Specifies the maximum lead angle allowed when trying to avoid gouging. The default is a dash (-), but you have to specify a value if 4X_LEAD_RANGE_OPT is set to YES. Applicable for 4-axis milling only. 4X_MIN_LEAD_ANGLE Specifies the minimum lead angle allowed when trying to avoid gouging. The default is a dash (-), but you have to specify a value if 4X_LEAD_RANGE_OPT is set to YES. Applicable for 4-axis milling only. CHK_SRF_STOCK_ALLOW 112

Allows you to specify stock allowance to be used with check surfaces. The default is a dash (-), that is, ignore. This parameter is available for Milling NC sequences that utilize the Check Surfs functionality (that is, Surface, Trajectory, Profile milling, and for Local Milling referencing a Surface milling NC sequence). Note: Be careful when specifying CHK_SRF_STOCK_ALLOW for NC sequences where all the reference part surfaces are selected as check surfaces.

Feed
ARC_FEED Allows you to control the cut feed around arcs. The default is a dash (-), in which case the CUT_FEED will be used. If set to 0, the RAPID statement will be output before the CIRCLE statement. ARC_FEED_CONTROL Determines how the value for cut feed around arcs is calculated. The options are: TOOL_CENTER (default)—The feed rate that is output for CIRCLE statements is always equal to the value specified for ARC_FEED. TOOL_PERIMETER—The feed rate that is output for CIRCLE statements is adjusted to insure that the contact point between the tool and the material moves with a speed equal to the value specified for ARC_FEED. This means the value for ARC_FEED will have to be calculated for each CIRCLE statement according to the following rules: For internal radii:
feed = ARC_FEED * (circle radius / (circle radius + CUTTER_DIAM/2))

For external radii:
feed = ARC_FEED * (circle radius / (circle radius – CUTTER_DIAM/2))

INVERSE_FEED Enables you to specify the inverse time feed rate, or the rate of rotation, for machines with rotary axes. Available for 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences only. If you set INVERSE_FEED to YES (the default is NO), the system outputs the following line in the CL data file before the first cutting feed statement:
FEDRAT / INVERS, AUTO

At the end of the CL data file, the system outputs the following line:
FEDRAT / INVERS, OFF

RAMP_FEED See Entry/Exit parameters.

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APPROACH_FEED See Entry/Exit parameters. THREAD_FEED Defines the thread pitch. Applicable for Thread milling only. THREAD_FEED_UNITS TPI (default), MMPR, IPR. Applicable for Thread milling only.

Machine
SPINDLE_SPEED The rate at which the machine spindle rotates (RPM). The default is -1. SPINDLE_SENSE The direction of spindle rotation. CW (clockwise—default), CCW (counterclockwise). SPINDLE_RANGE NO_RANGE (default), LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, NUMBER. If a value other than NO_RANGE is set, range will be included in the SPINDL command in the CL file (for example, “RANGE, LOW). If set to NUMBER, the RANGE_NUMBER parameter value will be used in the SPINDL command (for example, “RANGE, 4, where 4 is the RANGE_NUMBER parameter value). RANGE_NUMBER Will be output in the SPINDL command if SPINDLE_RANGE is set to NUMBER. The default is 0. MAX_SPINDLE_RPM If set to a value other than a dash (-) (which is the default), the MAXRPM attribute will be added to the SPINDL command. SPEED_CONTROL The default SPEED_CONTROL is CONST_RPM (constant revolutions per minute). CONST_SFM (constant surface feet per minute) and CONST_SMM (constant surface meters per minute) allow you to apply feed rate control to the contact surface between the tool and the workpiece, to create good surface finish. CUTCOM

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Controls tool compensation. The options are: ON—Turns on the cutter compensation in the CL file. The compensation is Right or Left, depending on CUT_TYPE and SPINDLE_SENSE. OFF (the default)—No tool compensation provided. CUTCOM statements are not output for cut motions. CUTCOM_REGISTER Specifies the number of the register of the machine controller that holds the tool compensation data. The default is 0. NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS Specifies if colinear points in approach and exit motions should be stripped or added. The values are: 0—Strip colinear points. 1—Do not strip colinear points, to allow proper implementation of Cutcom. n (where n is an integer)—The Approach, Exit, or Cutcom move will be divided into n equal segments by adding extra GOTO points.

1st GOTO point 1st GOTO point 2nd GOTO point 2nd GOTO point 3rd GOTO point

1st GOTO point 2nd GOTO point 3rd GOTO point 4th GOTO point

Approach move Part

Approach move Part Cut motion

Approach move Part Cut motion Cut motion

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 0 (colinear points stripped)

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 1 NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 2

CUTCOM_LOC_APPR Specifies location of CUTCOM statement on the approach motion if multiple cutcom points are specified. Cutcom points are numbered from 0 to n, where n is the value of NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS. The default is 1. CUTCOM_LOC_EXIT

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Specifies location of CUTCOM statement on the exit motion if multiple cutcom points are specified. Cutcom points are numbered from 0 to n, where n is the value of NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS. The default is 0.

1st GOTO point (cutcom point 0) 2nd GOTO point (cutcom point 1) 3rd GOTO point (cutcom point 2) 4th GOTO point Approach move
NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 2

Exit Move Cut motion

Part 5th GOTO point

6th GOTO point (cutcom point 0) 7th GOTO point (cutcom point 1) 8th GOTO point (cutcom point 2)

CUTCOM_ON_SPIRAL Specifies whether cutter compensation is on or off for Volume NC sequences with SCAN_TYPE set to TYPE_SPIRAL. The default is NO. If you set it to YES, you must also set the CUTCOM parameter to ON, and have an approach and exit motion defined in Build Cut. HOLDER_DIAMETER Along with HOLDER_LENGTH, allows you to use holder dimensions for automatic gouge avoidance. The default is a dash (-). If specified, will also be reflected when displaying CL data and when the tool is displayed in the Preview window of the Tool Setup dialog box. Applicable for Trajectory, Straight Cut and Isolines Surface milling. HOLDER_LENGTH Along with HOLDER_DIAMETER, allows you to use holder dimensions for automatic gouge avoidance. The default is a dash (-). If specified, will also be reflected when displaying CL data and when the tool is displayed in the Preview window of the Tool Setup dialog box. Applicable for Trajectory, Straight Cut and Isolines Surface milling. OSETNO_VAL Specifies the tool gauge length register. The default is a dash (-), in which case the Offset value from the Tool Table is used. Z_GAUGE_OFFSET

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Shifts CL output by a specified value along the tool axis. If you specify a positive value, CL data is shifted in the positive Z-direction of the tool coordinate system; a negative value shifts CL data in the opposite direction. The default is a dash (-).

Entry/Exit
RAMP_ANGLE The angle at which the tool enters the workpiece during a plunge cut. The default RAMP_ANGLE is 90, which enters the workpiece parallel to the Zaxis. Not applicable for Facing or Trajectory NC sequences. RAMP_FEED The rate at which the tool moves upon entering the workpiece during a plunge cut. The default is a dash (-), in which case the CUT_FEED will be used. Not applicable for Facing or Trajectory NC sequences. CLEAR_DIST The clearance distance above the surface to be milled (for example, the previous slice level) at which the rapid motion ends and the PLUNGE_FEED begins. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). PULLOUT_DIST Specifies the height above the level of the cut (for example, the slice just milled) up to which the tip of the tool will retract at CUT_FEED and then change to RETRACT_FEED. The default is 0. INTER_RET_HEIGHT Specifies the distance that the cutter will retract above the level of the cut to perform intermediate rapid motions. The default is a dash (-), in which case the cutter will retract all the way to the retract surface. Applicable for Facing only. LEAD_IN If set to YES, makes the tool enter the workpiece along a tangent circular path when profiling. The arc radius is set by LEAD_RADIUS, the arc angle— by ENTRY_ANGLE. You can also specify the length of the adjacent straight portion of Lead In trajectory using TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, and the length of a straight segment normal to it using NORMAL_LEAD_STEP. For closed contours, if start point is not set, the tool will enter at a location determined by the system. If not satisfied with this location, specify your own Start Point axis. The tool will enter at the point along the profile which is closest to the start point axis. LEAD_IN and LEAD_OUT

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EXIT_ANGLE TANGENT_LEAD_STEP NORMAL_LEAD_ STEP LEAD_OUT LEAD_IN LEAD_RADIUS LEAD_IN

Start point LEAD_OUT

ENTRY_ANGLE Open profile

Closed profile

If a closed contour contains multiple loops, LEAD_IN and LEAD_OUT will be applied to each loop.

If LEAD_IN is set to YES with a zero radius, the tool will go directly to the point closest to the Start Point specified and start cutting. When LEAD_IN is set to NO, cutting will begin at the default point of the contour determined by the system.

Default start of Start Point axis the contour

Start Point axis

Tool path

Tool path

LEAD_IN

NO

LEAD_IN YES LEAD_RADIUS 0

LEAD_OUT

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Makes the tool exit the workpiece along a tangent circular path when profiling. Works similarly to LEAD_IN. If the end point is specified it will be used for LEAD_OUT, otherwise the default 90 arc (and the default exit point for closed contours) will be used. LEAD_RADIUS The radius of the tangential circular movement of the tool when leading in or out. The default is 0. TANGENT_LEAD_STEP The length of the linear movement that is tangent to the circular lead-in or lead-out motion. The default is 0. NORMAL_LEAD_STEP The length of the linear movement that is normal to the tangent portion of the lead-in or lead-out motion. The default is 0. HELICAL_DIAMETER Allows you to replace the plunge motion between the slices for Rough Volume milling with a helical entry motion. The helical diameter will be formed by the outside of the tool as it approaches the beginning of a Rough slice; the angle of descent is defined by the RAMP_ANGLE parameter value. If a Start Point axis is specified, the helix center will be at the axis location; if the helical motion violates the Mill Volume, the system will issue a warning and stop machining. If a Start Point axis is not specified,the helix will be created as close to the start point of the lower slice as possible. To move from the end of the previous slice, the tool will lift off the surface by PULLOUT_DIST and horizontally move at RETRACT_FEED to the start of the helical entry into the lower slice. If you have specified Approach Walls for the NC sequence, the helical motion will not be created when the tool moves down outside the Approach Walls; however, if the tool moves down inside the Mill Volume, the system will use the helical entry. The default HELICAL_DIAMETER is 0, in which case the helical motion will not be performed. APPR_EXIT_EXT Applicable for Volume milling only. Defines the maximum distance between the periphery of the tool and the Approach Wall of the mill volume for approach and exit motions within a slice. APPR_EXIT_PATH Applicable for Profiling and for the profiling pass of Volume milling NC sequences. Allows you to trim the sketched approach or exit path by the outline of the profiling tool motion. For approach path, only the first portion (from the start point up to the first intersection with the profiling outline) will be kept. For exit path, only the last portion (from the last intersection with the profiling outline to the end point) will be kept. If the approach/exit

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path is set to not be trimmed, the tool will follow the whole path as sketched. The values are: TRIM_BOTH (default)—Both the approach and exit path will be trimmed. TRIM_APPROACH—Trim only the approach path. TRIM_EXIT—Trim only the exit path. TRIM_NONE—Do not trim.

APPR_EXIT_PATH Approach path Approach path

APPR_EXIT_HEIGHT Applicable for Volume, Local, Profile milling, and Engraving. Allows you to control the depth of the approach and exit path specified during Build Slice. The options are: DEPTH_OF_CUT (the default)—The approach/exit path for each pass (including the first/last) will be at the depth of the start/end point of the pass. RETRACT_PLANE—Approach/exit movements will be at the level of the retract plane. OVERTRAVEL_DISTANCE For 3-Axis Straight Cut Surface milling, specifies the distance that the tool travels past the surface outline, both at the beginning and end of each cutting pass. APPROACH_DISTANCE Specifies the length of approach motions. For Facing, also specifies the additional (with respect to START_OVERTRAVEL) distance from the tool to the surface outline for the first pass in each slice. The default is 0. EXIT_DISTANCE Specifies the length of exit motions. For Facing, also specifies the additional (with respect to END_OVERTRAVEL) distance that the tool overtravels past the surface outline for the last pass in each slice. The default is a dash (-), that is, 0.

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APPROACH_FEED The rate at which the tool approaches the surface during a Facing NC sequence. The default is a dash (-), in which case CUT_FEED will be used. EXIT_FEED The rate at which the tool overtravels past the surface edge during a Facing NC sequence. The default is a dash (-), in which case CUT_FEED will be used. CLEARANCE_EDGE Specifies which point of the tool is to be used for measuring the exit motions and the overtravel motions when the tool leaves the material: HEEL (default)—The heel of the tool. CENTER—The center of the tool. LEADING_EDGE—The leading edge of the tool. Applicable for Facing only. ENTRY_EDGE Specifies which point of the tool is to be used for measuring the approach motions and the overtravel motions when the tool approaches the material: LEADING_EDGE (default)—The leading edge of the tool. CENTER—The center of the tool. HEEL—The heel of the tool. Applicable for Facing only. APPROACH_TYPE Allows you to automatically create an approach motion in Thread milling and Local milling By Previous Tool. In Thread milling, the values are: RADIAL—The approach motion will be a straight line normal to the cut motion, controlled by the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter. HELICAL—The tool will approach the start of the cut motion in a helical motion controlled by the ENTRY_ANGLE and the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameters. NONE—No approach motion will be generated. In Local milling By Previous Tool, the values are:

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HELICAL (default)—The tool approaches the machining surface following a helical trajectory, tangent to the start point of the cutting tool path. The helical pitch value is controlled by the RAMP_ANGLE parameter (the default value for RAMP_ANGLE in this case is 30). The lead-in radius is equal to the radius of the previous tool minus the radius of the cutting tool. If the CLEAR_DIST parameter value is greater than 0, the helical approach will start at the CLEAR_DIST height; otherwise, at retract plane. CIRCULAR—The tool approaches the machining surface following a circular trajectory, tangent to the start point of the cutting tool path. The lead-in radius is equal to the radius of the previous tool minus the radius of the cutting tool. NONE—The tool plunges to the start point of the tool path. EXIT_TYPE Allows you to automatically create an exit motion in Thread milling and Local milling By Previous Tool. In Thread milling, the values are: RADIAL—The exit motion will be a straight line normal to the cut motion, controlled by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter. HELICAL—The tool will exit the cut motion in a helical motion controlled by the EXIT_ANGLE and the EXIT_DISTANCE parameters. NONE—No exit motion will be generated. In Local milling By Previous Tool, the values are: HELICAL (default)—The tool exits by following a helical trajectory, tangent to the end point of the cutting tool path. The helical pitch value is controlled by the RAMP_ANGLE parameter (the default value for RAMP_ANGLE in this case is 30). The lead-out radius is equal to the radius of the previous tool minus the radius of the cutting tool. If the PULLOUT_DIST parameter value is greater than 0, the helical exit will end at the PULLOUT_DIST height; otherwise, at retract plane. CIRCULAR—The tool exits by following a circular trajectory, tangent to the end point of the cutting tool path. The lead-out radius is equal to the radius of the previous tool minus the radius of the cutting tool. NONE—The tool retracts to the pullout distance or to the retract plane. ENTRY_ANGLE The angle of the arc created by the circular movement of the tool when leading in. Used when creating Lead In motions. The default is 90. In Thread milling, defines the angle of the helical approach motion. If the angle is 0, the helical motion will still be created, but it will only contain one point. However, you will be able to modify the motion parameters in order to change this. EXIT_ANGLE

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The angle of the arc created by the circular movement of the tool when leading out. Used when creating Lead Out motions. The default is 90. In Thread milling, defines the angle of the helical exit motion. If the angle is 0, the helical motion will still be created, but it will only contain one point. However, you will be able to modify the motion parameters in order to change this. CUT_ENTRY_EXT For Surface and Swarf milling, specifies the default entry move type for intermediate cuts. The values correspond to the Each Cut entry move types available in the Entry/Exit Move dialog box. CUT_EXIT_EXT For Surface and Swarf milling, specifies the default exit move type for intermediate cuts. The values correspond to the Each Cut exit move types available in the Entry/Exit Move dialog box. INITIAL_ENTRY_EXT For Surface and Swarf milling, specifies the default entry move type for the first cut. The values correspond to the First Cut entry move types available in the Entry/Exit Move dialog box. FINAL_EXIT_EXT For Surface and Swarf milling, specifies the default exit move type for the last cut. The values correspond to the Last Cut exit move types available in the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

Thread
THREAD_DIAMETER Defines the minor diameter for an External thread or the major diameter for an Internal thread. Applicable for Thread milling only.

Turning Parameters
The following parameters are specific to turning NC sequences. They are listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set up the parameters. For description of the common manufacturing parameters, available for all the NC sequence types, see the topic Common NC Sequence Parameters. Click to access this topic. Notes:

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You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means that the default value is not set by the system). Length units for the NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the units of the workpiece.

TYPE_1—The tool will cut in one direction only, then retract to the beginning of the cut. If there are multiple hollows, the tool will complete the first hollow and go to the next one. TYPE_2—The tool will cut back and forth along the whole length of the cut. TYPE_3—The tool will cut back and forth. If there are multiple hollows, the tool will complete the first hollow and go to the next one. TYPE_1_CONNECT—Works the same as TYPE_1, except the tool will move from one pass to the next by profiling the workpiece between the end point of the first pass and the start point of the following pass. The following illustration shows the difference between TYPE_1 and TYPE_1_CONNECT.

• • •

• •

TYPE_1 (the default)—Starts in the middle and makes alternating passes on each side in turn. TYPE_ONE_DIR—Starts at one side of the groove and moves to the other side.

Þ Þ

Cut Option
SCAN_TYPE For Area turning, specifies the type of tool movement and the way the tool scans multi-step profiles:

SCAN_TYPE TYPE_1

SCAN_TYPE TYPE_1_CONNECT

For Groove turning, SCAN_TYPE specifies if the tool cuts from the middle to the sides of the groove, or from one side to the other:

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TYPE_1_CONNECT—Assures uniform stock allowance on the sides of the groove after the rough pass. Starts on the deepest portion of the groove, as close to the middle of the groove as possible, and makes alternating passes on each side in turn; continues making passes on the longer side, if necessary, until the wall is reached. Makes connecting motions between the plunge passes by moving along the profile of the groove (similar to TYPE_1_CONNECT in Area turning, described above). If ROUGH_OPTION for Groove turning is PROF_ONLY, the SCAN_TYPE parameter is ignored. ROUGH_OPTION Specifies if there is a profiling pass during an Area or Groove NC sequence:

• • • •

ROUGH_ONLY—No profiling is done. The tool cuts by horizontal rough passes for Area turning, by vertical passes for Groove turning. ROUGH_&_PROF—The profiling pass is performed after the rough turning is completed. PROF_ONLY—Only the profiling pass will be performed. ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP—Similar to ROUGH_ONLY, except that for ROUGH_ONLY the tool retracts immediately upon completing rough turning. ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP makes the tool follow along the profile up to its end before retracting.

ROUGH_OPTION

ROUGH_ONLY

ROUGH_&_PROF

ROUGH_&_CLEAN_UP

PROF_ONLY

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE Allows you to extend the tool path past the workpiece boundaries as sketched. If TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE is NO (the default), the machining zone

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will be formed by the whole sketch of the cut; the system will add a vertical line as the right boundary and a horizontal line as the left boundary. If TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE is set to YES, the machining zone will be defined on the outside by the workpiece boundaries, with a small extension past these boundaries determined by the system.

Section sketch extends past the workpiece.

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE YES

TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE NO

CUT_DIRECTION Allows you to reverse the default cutting direction for turning NC sequences (right-to-left for Outside and Inside turning, downward for Facing). The values are: • • STANDARD (default)—Use the default direction. REVERSE—Reverse the cut direction. The tool will cut left-to-right for Outside and Inside turning, and from the center upward for Facing. OUTPUT_POINT Allows you to choose which point of the tool will be used as the control point for CL output: • • • • • • • CENTER (default)—The center of the nose radius (the default control point). TIP—The output point will be offset downwards and to the left from the default control point by the NOSE_RADIUS value. X_OFFSET—The output point will be offset downwards from the default control point by the NOSE_RADIUS value. Z_OFFSET—The output point will be offset to the left from the default control point by the NOSE_RADIUS value. CENTER_RIGHT—Same as CENTER, but on the right side of the tool (for Groove turning only). TIP_RIGHT—Same as TIP, but on the right side of the tool (for Groove turning only). X_OFFSET_RIGHT—Same as X_OFFSET, but on the right side of the tool (for Groove turning only).

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Z_OFFSET_RIGHT—Same as Z_OFFSET, but on the right side of the tool (for Groove turning only). All the offsets are determined with respect to the default tool section orientation (as appears using the Show option). The same point will be used for Outside, Inside, or Face turning. Applicable for Area, Profile, and Groove turning only.

OUTPUT_POINT

CENTER

TIP

X_OFFSET

Z_OFFSET

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE Allows you to specify the type of gouge checking for turning NC sequences. TIP_ONLY (the default) calculates gouge avoidance with respect to the tip of the tool only. TIP_&_SIDES calculates gouge avoidance with respect to the tip and both cutting sides of the tool. The tool path will be changed to avoid gouging, and material removal simulation will reflect the tool geometry. Applicable for Area and Profile turning only.

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE

TIP_ONLY

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE

TIP_&_SIDES

CORNER_FINISH_TYPE

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Reflects the two ways of generating the tool path when passing a convex corner during a profiling pass of an Area NC Sequence: • • FILLET (default)—The tool path consists of two straight segments connected with an arc. STRAIGHT—The tool path consists of two straight segments extended until they intersect.

CORNER_FINISH_TYPE Tool path tool path

Part FILLET

Part STRAIGHT

Note: STRAIGHT may not work if the tool size is too big to enter a cavity in the part.

Tool

Tool path

Tool

Tool path cannot be generated

Part

FILLET

Part

STRAIGHT

STEPOVER_ADJUST YES (the default) allows you to uniformly distribute cutting passes across the area of the cut or along the groove width during a Rough NC sequence. If set to NO, the distance will be determined by either STEP_DEPTH (for Area turning) or STEP_OVER (for Groove turning). GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE Allows you to specify an intermediate retract for the profiling pass of Groove turning NC sequences: • • NO_BACKCUT (the default)—The tool will enter the groove on one side, retract at some intermediate point along the groove profile, enter on the other side and complete the cut. CONTINUOUS—The tool will enter the groove on one side, cut across, and exit on the other side. ALTERNATE_SIDE_OUTPUT If set to YES (the default is NO), allows you to generate CL output for Groove turning NC sequences based on the side of the tool cutting material. For scan types TYPE_1 and TYPE_1_CONNECT, the initial plunge is created with

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output point specified by the OUTPUT_POINT parameter. The tool retracts back to the starting height. The system then issues a new TURRET statement with OSETNO defined by the ALT_OSETNO_VAL parameter, and the tool moves to beginning of the next plunge with the X, Y, Z output based on the side of the tool entering material. This pattern is repeated for all rough passes. For profiling passes with GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE set to NO_BACKCUT, the first output point, specified by the OUTPUT_POINT parameter, is active until the retract which occurs at the intermediate point along the groove. Once the tool returns to starting height, the system issues a new TURRET statement with OSETNO defined by the ALT_OSETNO_VAL parameter, and the rest of the groove is cut with the other side of the tool and the new offset register. DEEP_GROOVE_OPTION Provides two options for machining deep grooves: • BY_DEPTH (the default)—The tool will cut to the bottom of the groove in PECK_DEPTH increments, retracting at FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH, if specified, before stepping over to the next pass. BY_WIDTH—The tool will completely machine the whole width of the groove at each PECK_DEPTH. Applicable for Groove turning NC sequences only.

Cut Param
TOOL_CLEARANCE The distance used to degouge the tool holder when solid tool outline is used. STEP_DEPTH The incremental depth of each pass during rough cut NC sequences. The STEP_DEPTH must be greater than zero. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). Applicable for Area Turning only. END_STEP_DEPTH If the value of END_STEP_DEPTH is different than that of STEP_DEPTH, then the step depth of the NC sequence will start at the value of STEP_DEPTH and gradually increase/decrease with each additional slice until the final slice, when it will become the value of END_STEP_DEPTH. Applicable for Area Turning only. MIN_STEP_DEPTH

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Controls how the intermediate reference part diameters are machined. The default is a dash (-), which means that all diameters will be machined to stock allowance. Applicable for Area Turning only. ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW and PROF_STOCK_ALLOW The amount of stock left after the rough cut for the finish cut. Both parameters are used for Rough Cut NC sequences only, and specify different stock allowances for roughing and profiling cuts in Area and Groove NC sequences. PROF_STOCK_ALLOW must be set to a value less than or equal to ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW. When geometry is displayed after Automatic material removal, it will use PROF_STOCK_ALLOW. The defaults are 0.

ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW

PROF_STOCK_ALLOW

ROUGH_ONLY

profiling pass

ROUGH_&_PROF

STOCK_ALLOW Determines the stock allowance for Profile turning NC sequences and final programmed thread depth for Thread turning. The default is 0. Z_STOCK_ALLOW Specifies the stock allowance in the Z direction, enabling you to leave different amounts of stock on the diameters and faces of a workpiece. Z_STOCK_ALLOW will be ignored if the value of ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW is 0. The default value is a dash (-), in which case the ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW or PROF_STOCK_ALLOW value will be used as applicable. Step Depth and Stock Allowance

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PROF_STOCK_ALLOW STEP_DEPTH Z_STOCK_ALLOW

x CSYS z

Z_STOCK_ALLOW (or ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW if Z_STOCK_ALLOW is "-")

NUMBER_PASSES Gives you additional control over the number of tool passes during an Area or Groove NC sequence (also controlled by the STEP_DEPTH parameter for Area turning, or STEP_OVER for Groove turning). The system will compute step depth using the NUMBER_PASSES parameter value (if other than 0), compare it with the STEP_DEPTH (or STEP_OVER) value, and use the one that is smaller. CUT_ANGLE Allows you to cut at an angle. For Outside and Inside Turning the angle is measured with respect to the Z axis, for Facing—with respect to the X axis. The default is 0. Applicable for Area turning only.

CUT_ANGLE 165

NUM_PROF_PASSES Specifies the amount of profiling passes. Applicable for Area and Groove turning when ROUGH_OPTION is ROUGH_&_PROF or PROF_ONLY. The default is 1. PROF_INCREMENT Specifies the offset between the profiling passes. The final pass will always be the same, which means that the first pass will be offset from the final pass by: (NUM_PROF_PASSES–1)*PROF_INCREMENT. The default is 0. If NUM_PROF_PASSES is greater than 1, you must specify a positive value for PROF_INCREMENT.

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NUM_PROF_PASSES = 3

PROF_INCREMENT

CONCAVE_RADIUS Defines the radius for a Round corner condition at a concave corner. CONVEX_RADIUS Defines the radius for a Round corner condition at a convex corner. CHAMFER_DIM Defines the size of the 45 chamfer when a Chamfer corner condition is added. START_OVERTARVEL and END_OVERTRAVEL These two parameters specify the distance that the tool travels outside the workpiece in the beginning and the end of each pass, respectively. Applicable for Area and Profile turning. The default value is 0. For Area turning, START_OVERTRAVEL and END_OVERTRAVEL will only be applied if the cut extension is parallel to the direction of the cut motion.

END_OVERTRAVEL not applied

START_OVERTRAVEL applied

BACK_CLEAR_ANGLE

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The minimum angle by which the back end of the tool will clear the workpiece as it enters an area of smaller diameter than was previously being machined. The default is 5. STEP_OVER The distance between two neighboring cuts. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). Applicable for rough Groove turning (that is, with ROUGH_OPTION other than PROF_ONLY). SIDEWALL_OFFSET Allows you to control the intermediate retract point for the profiling pass in Groove turning (when ROUGH_OPTION is PROF_ONLY or ROUGH_&_PROF, and GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE is NO_BACKCUT). SIDEWALL_OFFSET specifies the length of the second portion of the cut, that is, the distance between the point of retract and the end of the bottom of the groove. The default is a dash (-), in which case the tool will retract at the midpoint of the bottom entity. PECK_DEPTH If set to a value other than 0, the peck cycle will be performed. The default is 0. Applicable only for rough Groove turning (that is, with ROUGH_OPTION other than PROF_ONLY). ALT_OSETNO_VAL Specifies the alternative offset register value for Groove turning NC sequences when the ALTERNATE_SIDE_OUTPUT parameter is set to YES. The default value is a dash (-), that is, not used.

Machine
SPINDLE_SPEED The rate at which the machine spindle rotates (RPM). The default SPINDLE_SPEED is not set (displayed as “–1). SPINDLE_SENSE The direction of spindle rotation. CW (clockwise—default), CCW (counterclockwise). SPINDLE_RANGE NO_RANGE (default), LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, NUMBER. If a value other than NO_RANGE is set, range will be included in the SPINDL command in the CL file (for example, “RANGE, LOW). If set to NUMBER, the RANGE_NUMBER parameter value will be used in the SPINDL command (for example, “RANGE, 4, where 4 is the RANGE_NUMBER parameter value).

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RANGE_NUMBER Will be output in the SPINDL command if SPINDLE_RANGE is set to NUMBER. The default is 0. MAX_SPINDLE_RPM If set to a value other than a dash (-) (which is the default), the MAXRPM attribute will be added to the SPINDL command. SPEED_CONTROL CONST_RPM (constant revolutions per minute), CONST_SFM (constant surface feet per minute), CONST_SMM (constant surface meters per minute). The default SPEED_CONTROL is CONST_RPM. CUTCOM Controls tool compensation. The options are: ON—Turns on the tool compensation in the CL file. OFF (the default)—No tool compensation provided. CUTCOM statements are not output for cut motions. CUTCOM_REGISTER Specifies the number of the register of the machine controller that holds the tool compensation data. The default is 0. TOOL_ORIENTATION Allows you to control the tool orientation. It represents the angle (in degrees) from the tool axis clockwise to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system. TOOL_ORIENTATION can be any value between 0 and 360. The default is 0. Note: For Head 2, the angle is measured counterclockwise. That is, if TOOL_ORIENTATION is 90, for Head 1 the tool shank is oriented along the positive Xaxis of the NC Sequence coordinate system, while for Head 2 the tool shank is along the negative X-axis. DELAY The duration in seconds of a period of tool dwelling at the bottom of the groove. The default is 0, in which case the “DELAY / t statement will not be output in the CL file. Applicable for Groove turning only. OSETNO_VAL Specifies the tool gauge length register. The default is a dash (-), in which case the Offset value from the Tool Table is used. X_GAUGE_OFFSET

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Shifts CL output by a specified value. If you specify a positive value, CL data is shifted in the positive X-direction of the tool coordinate system; a negative value shifts CL data in the opposite direction. The default is a dash (-). Z_GAUGE_OFFSET Shifts CL output by a specified value. If you specify a positive value, CL data is shifted in the positive Z-direction of the tool coordinate system; a negative value shifts CL data in the opposite direction. The default is a dash (-).

Entry/Exit
PLUNGE_ANGLE The angle at which the tool approaches the workpiece. The default is 0. Applicable for Area and Groove turning. PULLOUT_ANGLE The angle at which the tool is pulled away from the workpiece. The default is 0. Applicable for Area and Groove turning.

PLUNGE_ANGLE 45

PLUNGE_ANGLE 0

PULLOUT_ANGLE 0

PULLOUT_ANGLE 45

RETRACT_RATIO Controls the depth of the tool retracting motion during an Area turning NC sequence. This depth is specified as a ratio of STEP_DEPTH. The default is 1.1.

retracting depth

STEP_DEPTH

retracting depth = STEP_DEPTH * RETRACT_RATIO

PULLOUT_DIST 135

Used for the final retract of the tool. The default is 0, in which case the system default value for retract will be used. Applicable for Groove turning only. FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH Applicable for peck cycle Groove turning only. If other than 0 (the default), the tool will retract all the way back to CLEAR_DIST upon reaching this depth below the top of the groove. CLEAR_DIST For Groove NC sequences, the clearance distance above the workpiece surface at which the PLUNGE_FEED ends and the CUT_FEED begins. For Thread NC sequences, the clearance distance from the workpiece (corresponds to “d in the AI parameter “FEDTO, d). The default is -1. APPROACH_DISTANCE In Area turning, will be used for the initial entry into rough turning, as well as for the entry into the profiling motion. Also specifies the length of approach Tool Motions for all NC sequence types. The default is 0. EXIT_DISTANCE In Area turning, will be used for the final exit from rough turning, as well as for the exit from the profiling motion. Also specifies the length of exit Tool Motions for all NC sequence types. The default is a dash (-), that is, 0. LEAD_RADIUS The radius of the tangential circular movement of the tool when leading in or out. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out Tool Motions, and in Build Cut for Profile turning. The default is 0. TANGENT_LEAD_STEP The length of the linear movement that is tangent to the circular lead-in or lead-out motion. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out motions in Build Cut for Profile turning. The default is 0. NORMAL_LEAD_STEP The length of the linear movement that is normal to the tangent portion of the lead-in or lead-out motion. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out motions in Build Cut for Profile turning. The default is 0. ENTRY_ANGLE The angle of the arc created by the circular movement of the tool when leading in. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out motions in Build Cut for Profile turning. The default is 90.

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EXIT_ANGLE The angle of the arc created by the circular movement of the tool when leading out. Used when creating Lead In and Lead Out motions in Build Cut for Profile turning. The default is 90.

NORMAL_LEAD_STEP TANGENT_ LEAD_STEP

LEAD_RADIUS cut motion

TANGENT_ LEAD_STEP

EXIT_ANGLE ENTRY_ANGLE

Thread
THREAD_FEED Number of threads per inch. The default value is not set (displayed as “–1). THREAD_FEED_UNITS TPI (default), MMPR, IPR. Allows alternate pitch designations. PERCENT_DEPTH A decimal number between 0 and 1 that indicates the percentage of remaining material to be removed with each pass. Note: This option is valid only for AI macros, not for ISO standard CL Data. NUMBER_FIN_PASSES Sets the number of passes to be made after the final thread depth (determined by STOCK_ALLOW) is reached. The default is 1. NUMBER_STARTS The number of threading starts in multiple start threading (corresponds to the AI parameter “TIMES,t and to the ISO parameter “MULTRD,t). For example, if NUMBER_STARTS is set to 4, there will be four threading starts spaced at equal intervals around the part. NUMBER_CUTS For ISO threads, the number of times the tool will be positioned to a multiple cut (corresponds to the ISO parameter “CUTS,c). NUM_TRANSVERSE_CUTS For AI threads, the number of times the tool will be positioned to a multiple cut (corresponds to “n in the AI parameter “OFSETL,n,o). 137

CUT_OFFSET For AI threads, the offset distance between the cuts in multiple cut threading (corresponds to “o in the AI parameter “OFSETL,n,o). The graphic below illustrates the NUM_TRANSVERSE_CUTS and CUT_OFFSET parameters.

tool

thread

CUT_OFFSET NUM_TRANSVERSE_CUTS = 4

OUTPUT_THRD_PNTS If set to YES (the default), outputs GOTO statements for the first and last points of the thread into CL file, before and after the THREAD/AUTO command, respectively. If set to NO, does not output these GOTO statements. INFEED_ANGLE Angle at which the tool begins the cut. The default value is 0. THREAD_DEPTH Thread depth (for General thread type only). The default value is not set (displayed as “–1).

Holemaking Parameters
The following parameters are specific to Holemaking NC sequences. They are listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set up the parameters. For description of the common manufacturing parameters, available for all the NC sequence types, see the topic Common NC Sequence Parameters. Click to access this topic. Notes: You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means that the default value is not set by the system). Length units for the NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the units of the workpiece. 138

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Cut Option
SCAN_TYPE There are several algorithms for automatically creating the Holemaking tool path: TYPE_1—By incrementing the Y coordinate and going back and forth in the X direction. TYPE_SPIRAL—Clockwise starting from the hole nearest to the coordinate system. TYPE_ONE_DIR—By incrementing the X coordinate and decrementing the Y. PICK_ORDER—The holes will be drilled in the same order as they are selected. If one choice results in more than one hole being selected (for example, All Holes or Pattern selection), these holes will be drilled according to TYPE_1. Then the PICK_ORDER drilling will be resumed. SHORTEST (default)—The system determines which order of holes results in the shortest machine motion time.

SCAN_TYPE

y x

y x

y x

TYPE_1

TYPE_SPIRAL

TYPE_ONE_DIR

CUT_DIRECTION Enables you to reverse the order in which the holes are machined. The values are: STANDARD (default) or REVERSE. REVERSE will make the system start with the last hole and go back to the first one. This functionality is helpful when you have to create multiple NC sequences on a large hole set: alternating direction of tool path for successive NC sequences lets you save time for repositioning the tool. If your tool path was created using the Customize functionality, CUT_DIRECTION will affect the Use Sketch segments, but not the Connect segments. CYCLE_FORMAT Specifies the output format for CL data of a Holemaking NC sequence. For all newly created NC sequences the default is COUPLET. The other option is FIXED (this is the default for NC sequences created prior to Release 12.0). Not applicable for BORE, REAM, and BREAKCHIP cycles (these are always output in COUPLET format). CYCLE_OUTPUT

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Specifies the order of drilling for an automatically created Holemaking tool path when multiple Hole Sets are included in the NC sequence: BY_HOLE (default)—The SCAN_TYPE algorithm will be applied to all the selected holes, without considering which Hole Set they belong to. This results in a shorter traversal path of the tool. BY_HOLESET—The SCAN_TYPE algorithm will be applied to holes in each Hole Set separately. This will somewhat reduce the size of the CL file, because each Hole Set will only have one CYCLE / ... and CYCLE / OFF statement associated with it, instead of turning the cycle on and off every time the tool moves to a hole in a different Hole Set.

Cut Param
BREAKOUT_DISTANCE The system adds the BREAKOUT_DISTANCE value to the Z depth in the CYCLE statements associated with holes drilled Thru All, and with through holes drilled using the Auto depth option. You can use it for Blind holes, if you select Use breakout distance when defining a Hole Set. The default is 0. CHK_SRF_STOCK_ALLOW Allows you to specify stock allowance to be used with check surfaces. The default is a dash (-), that is, ignore. This parameter is available for all 3-Axis Holemaking NC sequences except Back boring. PECK_DEPTH Depth increment for each drilling pass. Default value is 0. If you select DEEP drilling, you have to specify non-zero PECK_DEPTH. Not available for Countersink drilling.

Feed
THREAD_FEED Used for TAP cycles only (instead of CUT_FEED) to specify feed rate. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). THREAD_FEED_UNITS TPI (default), MMPR, IPR. Applicable for TAP cycles only. Allows alternate pitch designations. FLOAT_TAP_FACTOR Used for the floating TAP cycle only. The feed rate is calculated as the THREAD_FEED value multiplied by FLOAT_TAP_FACTOR. The default is 1.

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Machine
SPINDLE_SPEED The rate at which the machine spindle rotates. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). SPINDLE_STATUS ON (default), OFF. SPINDLE_SENSE The direction of spindle rotation. CW (clockwise—default), CCW (counterclockwise). SPINDLE_RANGE NO_RANGE (default), LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, NUMBER. If a value other than NO_RANGE is set, range will be included in the SPINDL command in the CL file (for example, “RANGE, LOW). If set to NUMBER, the RANGE_NUMBER parameter value will be used in the SPINDL command (for example, “RANGE, 4, where 4 is the RANGE_NUMBER parameter value). RANGE_NUMBER Will be output in the SPINDL command if SPINDLE_RANGE is set to NUMBER. The default is 0. MAX_SPINDLE_RPM If set to a value other than a dash (-) (which is the default), the MAXRPM attribute will be added to the SPINDL command. SPEED_CONTROL CONST_RPM (constant revolutions per minute), CONST_SFM (constant surface feet per minute), CONST_SMM (constant surface meters per minute). The default SPEED_CONTROL is CONST_RPM. CONST_SFM and CONST_SMM allow you to apply feed rate control to the contact surface between the tool and the workpiece, to create good surface finish. DELAY Duration of dwelling at depth. The default is a dash (-), in which case there will be no delay. Not applicable for TAP and DEEP cycles. DELAY_UNITS SECONDS (default) or REV.

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Entry/Exit
CLEAR_DIST The clearance distance above the top of the hole at which the PLUNGE_FEED ends and the CUT_FEED begins. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). CLEARANCE_OFFSET The clearance distance above the top of the hole at which the tool is positioned for 5-Axis Holemaking. Also defines how far the tool will retract after drilling a hole and before traversing to the next hole. The default value for CLEARANCE_OFFSET is a dash (-), in which case CLEAR_DIST will be used. Applicable for 5-Axis Holemaking only. PULLOUT_DIST Allows for the tool to return to a point other than that defined by CLEAR_DIST. The default is a dash (-), in which case this parameter is not used. If the default value is used, then the tool will return to the clearance distance (CLEAR_DIST) when moving to the next hole, and the cycle statement will not include the RETURN option. If the value of PULLOUT_DIST is set to 0, then the tool will return to the retract plane when moving to the next hole. RAPTO_DIST Allows for further rapid advance from CLEAR_DIST towards the top of the hole. The default is a dash (-), in which case this parameter is not used. FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH If set to a value other than 0 (the default), specifies full retraction out of the hole for BREAKCHIP cycle after a certain number of incremental steps. This number of steps is calculated as FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH / PECK_DEPTH. ORIENT_ANGLE Allows you to specify orientation of an asymmetric tool before backing it away from the hole wall before retracting. Applicable for BORE cycle and for back spotting only. The default is a dash (-), in which case this parameter is not used. JOG_DIST Allows you to specify the distance of backing an asymmetric tool away from the hole wall before retracting. Applicable for BORE cycle and for back spotting only. The default is a dash (-), in which case this parameter is not used. BACK_BORE_CLEARANCE 142

Minimum distance between tool and hole cylinder. Applicable for back spotting only.

Wire EDM Parameters
The following parameters are specific to Wire EDM NC sequences. They are listed under a heading corresponding to the name of the branch when you set up the parameters. For description of the common manufacturing parameters, available for all the NC sequence types, see the topic Common NC Sequence Parameters. Click to access this topic. Notes: You must supply a value for all parameters that have a default of –1 (this means that the default value is not set by the system). Length units for the NC sequence parameters (where applicable) are the same as the units of the workpiece. Cut Option AUTO_CORNER_TYPE Specify the default option for automatically created corner conditions: RADIUS—Create round corner motions for concave and convex corners. This is the default. STRAIGHT—Create a corner by extending straight segments until they intersect. CHAMFER—Chamfer the corners. BISECT— Bisect the corners. CORNER_PASSES Specify on which passes to create the automatic corner conditions: ALL_PASSES—On all passes. FIRST_PASS—On the first pass only. LAST_PASS—On the last pass only. APPROXIMATE_SPLINES Indicate whether you want to approximate spline edges with arcs when creating CL data output. The default value is NO; if you specify a value of YES, the spline edges will be approximated.

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AUTOSYNCH_START_END Enables automatic synchronization of the start and end points of a 4-Axis Wire EDM cut motion: YES—The two heads will be automatically synchronized at the beginning and the end of each cut. NO—The start and end points of the upper and lower contours will be mapped by cut entities; therefore, the upper and lower contours will have different start and end points in XY. Cut Param STOCK_ALLOW The amount of stock left after the NC sequence. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). CORNER_LENGTH Defines the size (the side length) of the parallelograms added to the tool path when corner condition is specified. The default is 0. CORNER_ANGLE For a sharp corner, the angle of the parallelogram equals the angle between the adjoining entities, and the CORNER_ANGLE value is ignored. However, if you add a corner condition between two tangent entities, the angle of the parallelogram will be defined by the CORNER_ANGLE parameter. The default is 0. CONCAVE_RADIUS Specifies the radius for a concave corner condition. CONVEX_RADIUS Specifies the radius for a convex corner condition. ATTACH_WIDTH Specifies a distance along a Contouring cut motion that is not to be cut, leaving the two sides of the cut attached by a small tab of material. STOP_DIST Distance before the end of the cut motion where the system will place a CL stop command (STOP or OPSTOP, depending on the END_STOP_CONDITION parameter value). This enables the operator to clamp the part before it is cut free and falls away. After the clamp is in place, the tool completes the trajectory. If the tool path consists of more than one pass, the stop point is located on the first pass only.

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DETACH_STOP_DIST Distance before the end of the Detach move where the system will place a CL stop command (STOP or OPSTOP, depending on the END_STOP_CONDITION parameter value). END_OVERTRAVEL Overtravel distance past the end of the cut motion. If the cut motion consists of more than one pass, the overtravel distance is applied according to the END_OVERTRAVEL_PASS parameter value. REVERSE_DIST Distance from end to reverse for multiple passes. NUM_PROFILE_PASSES Number of passes for a Finish cut motion. PROF_INCREMENT Increment for each Finish pass (unless this data is specified in the register table). STEP_OVER Controls the lateral depth of cut for No Core Wire EDM. The STEP_OVER must be a positive value less than the cutter diameter. The default is not set (displayed as “–1). TOOL_OVERLAP Another way to control the lateral depth of cut for No Core Wire EDM. TOOL_OVERLAP indicates the amount that the tool should overlap the region machined during the previous pass. The default is a dash (-). TOOL_OVERLAP must be less than the tool diameter. If TOOL_OVERLAP is specified and STEP_OVER is not, the lateral depth of cut will be calculated as (CUTTER_DIAM –TOOL_OVERLAP). Feed ARC_FEED Allows you to control the cut feed around arcs. If set to a dash (-) (which is the default), the CUT_FEED value will be used. If set to 0, the RAPID statement will be output before the CIRCLE statement. Machine SPARK_ALLOW

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Together with STOCK_ALLOW and the tool parameter CUTTER_DIAM, defines the trajectory of the center of the tool with respect to desired geometry. The default is 0. CL_DIST Value to be output to the CL_DIST command in the CL data. TAPER_ANGLE Value of the machine controlled taper angle (applicable for 2-Axis Wire EDM only). CL_OUTPUT_MODE Defines the CL output format for the tool axis (applicable for 4-Axis Wire EDM only): MULTAX_DATA (default)—The CL output will be in XYZ / IJK format. TAPER—The CL output will use the STAN statement. CUT_MOTION_CONNECT Controls the Connect moves between multiple cut motions: CUT_WIRE (default)—The wire is cut at the end of the cut motion. If the wire is disengaged between cut motions, the tool moves at RAPID feed. CONTINIOUS—Do not unload wire at the end of cut motion. If the wire is engaged between cut motions, the tool moves at CUT_FEED. CUTCOM_MOVE If this parameter is set to a non-zero value, it will allow the tool to move away from the specified tool path by this distance in the direction of the tool offset or Cutcom offset (whichever is applicable). Before each Cutcom move, the CUTCOM / OFF statement will be output. Then there will be new GENRTR, FLUSH, and CUTCOM statements for the next tool pass. At the end of a cut motion there will be a CUTCOM / OFF statement followed by exit motion for closed contours or by Cutcom move for open ones. CUTCOM_MOVE_APPROACH Specifies the length of linear move used to turn cutter compensation on or off for the first pass of a Contouring NC sequence (similar to CUTCOM_MOVE, described above). NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS Specifies if colinear points in approach and exit motions should be stripped or added. The values are: 0—Strip colinear points. 146

1—Do not strip colinear points, to allow proper implementation of Cutcom. n (where n is an integer)—The Approach, Exit, or Cutcom move will be divided into n equal segments by adding extra GOTO points.

1st GOTO point 1st GOTO point 2nd GOTO point 2nd GOTO point 3rd GOTO point

1st GOTO point 2nd GOTO point 3rd GOTO point 4th GOTO point

Approach move Part Cut motion

Approach move

Part Cut motion

Approach move

Part Cut motion

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 0

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 1

NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS 2 (colinear points stripped)

CUTCOM_LOC_APPR Specifies location of CUTCOM statement on the approach motion if multiple cutcom points are specified. Cutcom points are numbered from 0 to n, where n is the value of NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS. The default is 1. Note: For bisect angles, the motion towards the cut is considered an approach motion. CUTCOM_LOC_EXIT Specifies location of CUTCOM statement on the exit motion if multiple cutcom points are specified. Cutcom points are numbered from 0 to n, where n is the value of NUMBER_CUTCOM_PTS. The default is 0. Note: For bisect angles, the motion away from the cut is considered an exit motion.

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1st GOTO point (cutcom point 0) 2nd GOTO point (cutcom point 1) 3rd GOTO point (cutcom point 2) 4th GOTO point Exit Approach move move NUMBER_ CUTCOM_PTS 2

Part 5th GOTO point

Cut motion

6th GOTO point (cutcom point 0) 7th GOTO point (cutcom point 1) 8th GOTO point (cutcom point 2)

CUTCOM_REG_START Initial cutter compensation controller register number. CUTCOM_REG_INCR Increment of cutcom register for a multi-pass tool path. FLUSH_REG_START Initial flush register number. FLUSH_REG_INCR Increment of flush register for a multi-pass tool path. FLUSH_REG_APPROACH Number of flush register for the approach move. FLUSH_REG_DETACH Number of flush register for the detach move. GENRTR_ROUGH Power setting of the machine for the rough pass. GENRTR_APPROACH Power setting of the machine for the approach motion. GENRTR_DETACH Power setting of the machine for the detach motion. GENRTR_FINISH 148

Initial power setting of the first finish pass. GENRTR_REG_INCR Increment of GENRTR command for subsequent finish passes. REGISTER_TABLE Specify the name of the register table to be used. The default is a dash (-), in which case cutcom and generator will be determined using the appropriate parameters above. Entry/Exit APPROACH_DISTANCE Specifies the length of approach motions for Customize. The default is 0. EXIT_DISTANCE Specifies the length of exit motions for Customize. The default is a dash (-), that is, 0. APPROACH_MOVE Allows you to specify if the Approach move will be created automatically. The default is YES. In order for the Approach move to be created, you have to also specify a Thread Point for the cut motion. RETURN_TO_START If set to YES (the default is NO), the wire will return to the start point upon completing the cut motion. Applicable to No Core cut motions only. LEAD_IN If set to YES, the system will create a Lead In motion automatically on all passes of a multi-pass cut motion. The default is NO. LEAD_OUT If set to YES, the system will create a Lead Out motion automatically on all passes of a multi-pass cut motion. The default is NO. LEAD_RADIUS The radius of the tangential circular movement of the tool when leading in or out. The default is 0. TANGENT_LEAD_STEP The length of the linear movement that is tangent to the circular lead-in or lead-out motion. The default is 0.

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NORMAL_LEAD_STEP The length of the linear movement that is normal to the tangent portion of the lead-in or lead-out motion. The default is 0. END_OVERTRAVEL_PASS Specifies on which passes of a multi-pass motion to create an overtravel motion: NO—No overtravel motion is created (the default). ALL_PASSES—On all passes. LAST_PASS—On the last pass only.

To Use Previous Parameters

The Use Prev option in the MFG PARAMS menu allows you to create initial parameter value settings for the current sequence by making a one-time copy of those parameter values from a previous NC sequence. This is especially convenient when you perform several NC sequences in a row with parameters just slightly varying. After retrieving the parameters, use Set to make any variations, if necessary. When you choose Use Prev, a run-time menu of all previous NC sequences whose parameters are compatible with the current one will appear (if none of the previous NC sequences’ parameters are applicable, the system will issue a message). Select the NC sequence to use. It does not have to be of exactly the same type as the current one. The system will read in the applicable parameters and ignore those that are not valid for the current NC sequence type. However, the system will not check for the appropriate parameter values. For example, TYPE_3 is a valid SCAN_TYPE for Milling, but is invalid for Holemaking. If the value retrieved is not applicable for this NC sequence type, the system will issue a warning and automatically reset the parameter to its default value.

To Use a Non-Active Site

If there is a site associated with the workcell or an activated site of the appropriate type, its parameters will be automatically retrieved. You can also initialize the NC sequence parameters by explicitly selecting a pre-defined site. 1. Choose Site from the MFG PARAMS menu. You will have the following options:

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Cur Workcell—Use the site(s) associated with the current workcel. Use this option to use the default sites for the workcell after activating some other site. Current Dir—Retrieve site files from the current directory. Select a site type. Only the site types that are appropriate for the current workcell type will be listed. In Session—Use site files that have been created or retrieved in the current session.

2. Appropriate sites will be listed in a namelist menu. Select a name of the site to use. 3. The “.sit file will be read in, its default values initializing the NC sequence parameters. If some of the default values are missing, supply them using the Set option.

To Include a Parameter in a Relation

1. Choose Relations from the MANUFACTURE menu. 2. Choose Assem Rel. Note: You can use Part Rel for the workpiece in Part manufacturing if the relation contains only the NC sequence (not tool) parameters and workpiece dimensions. 3. Choose Tool Info or NC Seq Info if necessary to check on the parameter exact names and current values. NC Seq Info gives you the feature internal ID for the NC sequence. 4. Select the reference part and/or the workpiece to display dimensions in symbolic form. 5. Choose Add and enter the relation. Enter parameters using the syntax above.

Using Parameters in Relations
You can drive NC sequence and tool parameters by other parameters or part dimensions using relations. Both the parameters with numeric and string values can be included in relations. The NC sequence parameter syntax is:

PARAM_NAME:FID_#
where:

PARAM_NAME—the parameter name,
#—the internal feature ID of the NC sequence. Example: STEP_OVER:FID_22 = d6:1 * 0.1

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The tool parameter syntax is:

PARAM_NAME:TID_ID
where:

PARAM_NAME—the parameter name, ID—the TOOL_ID.
Example: STEP_OVER:FID_22 = CUTTER_DIAM:TID_RMIL1 * 0.4 If a parameter is driven by relation, the system puts a note next to it in the parameters file. If you modify a relation-driven parameter, its value will be reset upon regeneration. Options Tool Info and NC Seq Info in the RELATIONS menu, accessible in Manufacture mode only, facilitate using tool and NC sequence parameters in relations. They display parameters (including ID) for a selected tool or NC sequence, respectively.

Sites
About Sites The Site option in the PARAM SETUP menu allows you to set up NC sequence specific or generic sites that can be later used to specify parameters for NC sequences. Warning: When you start using a new release of Pro/NC, make sure to update your existing site files whenever there is a change in the way the system interprets a parameter value. Parameter values in site files are not updated automatically.

To Create a New Site File

1. From the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, choose Mfg Setup > Param Setup > Site > Create. 2. Enter the name for the site. The system will automatically add a suffix corresponding to the site type and extension “.sit (for example, “mach1_mil.sit). 3. Select a site type. 152

4. A Pro/TABLE window comes up with all the manufacturing parameters required for this type of NC sequence (for a generic site, all the parameters will be present). Supply values for the parameters. Each parameter must have either a default value, or low and high range, or both, specified. If omitting the default value, enter a dash (-). If both are specified, the default value must be within the range boundaries. You can also specify visibility and add optional comments for any parameters. When specifying a parameter value, you can enter relations, similar to modifying the parameters of an NC sequence. However, when an NC sequence inherits the site parameters, it will inherit the evaluated value of this relation, not the relation itself.

Parameter Visibility

Some of the manufacturing parameters need not be changed at the NC sequence level. You can set them up in a site file, and then remove them from display when you are modifying the NC sequence parameters. Similarly, you can specify which parameters are to be listed when you output the Manufacturing Info. Parameter visibility can be specified using the following means: • When you set up site parameters, two columns are available for each parameter: NC SEQ VISIBLE—Specifies if the parameter should appear in the NC sequence parameter list when creating or redefining NC sequences. MFG INFO VISIBLE—Specifies if the parameter should be listed when you display Manufacturing Info.

The default values for all parameters are YES for both columns. If you set a value to NO, this parameter will not be visible. If you specify that a parameter is invisible in NC sequences, it must have a set default value before the site may be accepted by Pro/NC. If you set a parameter with a “-1 value to be invisible, the system will issue an error message and allow you to re-edit the site table. • The Visibility option in the MFG PARAMS menu allows you to modify parameter visibility: When setting parameters at the operation level. At the time of creating or redefining an NC sequence.

When you select this option, a Pro/TABLE window appears with the list of all parameters and the two visibility columns, as described above.

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Manipulating Sites

The following options are available for site setup: • • • • • Create—Create a new site file. Modify—Modify parameters of a site. Select a site name from the menu. The editor window comes up with the current site parameters. Retrieve—Retrieve an existing site file from disk. Select a site name from the menu, or choose Names and enter the path and name of the site file. Save—Save a site file to disk. Select a site name from the menu. You have to save a site in order to use it in other manufacturing models. Delete—Delete a site. Select a site name from the menu, then confirm that you really want to delete the site. If the site has been used by an NC sequence, the system will issue a warning. If you delete such a site, all NC sequence parameters inherited from this site will be treated as customized (non-inherited). Where Used—Provide information about the NC sequences that inherit parameters from the specified site. Activate—Activate a site file. Parameters of an activated site will automatically be substituted as the system defaults for new NC sequences of the appropriate type. Another way of activating sites is associating them with the workcell. Show—Display information about an existing site. Select a site name from the menu.

• •

To Activate a Site

The Activate option in the SITE SETUP menu allows you to make a site active. Before being activated, the site must be added to the manufacturing model using the Create or Retrieve option. Only one site of a particular type can be active at a time. 1. Choose Activate. 2. Choose one of: Cur Workcell—Activate the site(s) associated with the current workcell. Use this option to quickly revert to the default sites for the workcell after activating some other site. In Session—Select a site other than the default site(s). Only the sites that have been created or retrieved in the current session will be available. Select a site name

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(or several names) from the namelist menu. Sites of the same type are mutually exclusive.

Activating a Site When you create an NC sequence, the parameters of the active site will be the default parameters. The system will look for an NC sequence specific active site first (for example, Milling), then for a generic active site. If neither is found, the system default parameters will be used. Note: When you activate an operation, the site(s) associated with the operation’s workcell are activated automatically.

To Associate a Site with a Workcell

1. When creating a workcell, choose Site from the CELL SETUP menu. To associate a site with an existing workcell, choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, Workcell, Modify, and select the workcell name. Then choose Site from the CELL SETUP menu. 2. Choose one of: Current Dir—Retrieve site files from the current directory. In Session—Use site files that have been created or retrieved in the current session.

3. Select a site type. Only the site types that are appropriate for the current workcell type will be listed. 4. The list of sites of the selected type appears in the menu. Select a site name. 5. Repeat the steps above to select more than one site, if needed, then select Done.

Associating a Site with a Workcell If you associate a site with a workcell, all NC sequences created in this workcell will inherit the parameters of this site. You can then modify individual NC sequence parameters on a case-by-case basis. If you modify a site associated with a workcell, or replace it with another site, all the NC sequence parameters inherited from this site (that is, those that have not been modified) will update automatically. You can associate more than one site with a workcell, because different types of NC sequences created on a workcell may require different parameter settings. However, only one site of a particular type can be associated with 155

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the workcell. The table below lists the site types that may be associated with the each workcell type.

Workcell Type Lathe

Site Types Generic Turning Holemaking

Mill

Generic Milling Holemaking

Mill/Turn

Generic Milling Turning Holemaking

WEDM

Generic WEDM

If both a sequence-specific and a generic site are associated with a workcell, the system will use the sequence-specific site for parameter inheritance.

Machinability Database
About Machinability Database Feed rate and spindle speed parameters for milling, turning, and holemaking can be initialized using the Machinability Database (MDB) files. MDB files can be created through the Mach DB option in the PARAM SETUP menu, or as ASCII files outside of Pro/ENGINEER. The expected format of these files is dependent on the NC sequence type. You can set up a machinability database directory using the configuration option: pro_mdb_dir

pathname

Always enter in the configuration file the complete pathname to avoid problems when working in different directories with Pro/ENGINEER. Example: 156

pro_mdb_dir /usr/users/mach_db The MDB files for milling, turning, and holemaking must be placed under the machinability database directory (or under the working directory if the machinability database directory is not set up) in subdirectories named “mill_db, “turn_db, and “drill_db, respectively. You will not be able to create an MDB file using the Mach DB option if the default subdirectory for it does not exist.

To Set Up MDB Files

1. Choose Mach DB from the PARAM SETUP menu. 2. The MDB SETUP menu appears with the following options: Create—Create a new MDB file. Modify—Modify an existing MDB file. Show—Display the selected MDB file in the Information Window.

3. After selecting an option from the MDB SETUP menu, specify an NC sequence type: Milling, Turning, or Drilling. 4. The UNITS INFO menu then appears with the options: Units—Set, modify, or show units for the MDB values. File—Create, modify, or show an MDB file. If you are creating a new file, the Pro/TABLE window will appear. For Modify and Show, the menu-driven search will be initiated in the appropriate directory (“mill_db, “turn_db, or “drill_db). When you create a new file, the Pro/TABLE window appears with the default file headers. Fill in the appropriate values. If you want to specify the same value as in the previous entry, leave the cell blank or put in a dash (-). If this parameter is to be ignored for a particular entry, type n/a. When you modify an existing file, it is also retrieved in a Pro/TABLE window. All the cells that were left empty will contain a dash (-). Modify the values as desired and exit Pro/TABLE. The new version of the MDB file will be saved. Although MDB files are created through model setup, they can eventually be used in any manufacturing model. When you create an NC sequence, you will have an option to look up an MDB file. This will initialize the feed and speed parameters based on the tool size, tool and workpiece material, cut depth.

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Machinability Database Units

If you check off Units when creating or modifying MDB files, the MDB UNITS menu will appear with the following options: • Feed—Specify the feed units. The options are: For Milling—Inch/tooth, Foot/tooth, Millimeter/tooth, Centimeter/tooth, Meter/tooth. The system default is Inch/tooth. For Turning and Drilling—Inch/rev, Foot/rev, Millimeter/rev, Centimeter/rev, Meter/rev. The system default is Inch/rev.

• • • •

Speed—Specify the speed units. The options are: Inch/min, Foot/min, Millimeter/min, Centimeter/min, Meter/min. The system default is Foot/min. Cut Depth—Specify the cut depth units (applicable for Milling and Turning). The options are: Inch, Foot, Millimeter, Centimeter, Meter. The system default is Inch. TL Width—Specify the tool width units (applicable for Turning only). The options are: Inch, Foot, Millimeter, Centimeter, Meter. The system default is Inch. TL Diam—Specify the tool diameter units (applicable for Drilling only). The options are: Inch, Foot, Millimeter, Centimeter, Meter. The system default is Inch. Note: Conversion of existing MDB files is not provided. that is, if you modify units of an existing MDB file, the values will stay the same. Default Units for the MDB files

UNITS Milling Turning Drilling

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FEED inch/toot h inch/rev

SPEED CUT DEPTH foot/min inch

TOOL WIDTH n/a inch

TOOL DIAM n/a n/a inch

HARDNESS Bhn

n/a

n/a

At the beginning of a Pro/ENGINEER session, the MDB units are set to system defaults (listed above). Once you change the units, this value will become the current default, that is, all the new MDB files will use this value. If you modify an MDB file whose units differ from the current MDB units, the system will issue a warning and prompt you to reset the current units to those of the file. If you confirm, the current defaults for MDB units will be reset. If you cancel, the units in the current MDB file will be changed to match the default units. The values will stay the same!

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If you select Show from the MDB SETUP menu and then check off Units, the Information Window will appear with the current default units for the appropriate MDB type (Milling, Turning, or Drilling). During an MDB file lookup, the proper conversion will be provided, if necessary, depending on the parameter units specified for the NC sequence (for example, MMPM), length units of the tool and workpiece (for example, mm), number of teeth, and so on.

Example: A Drilling MDB File

To Use MDB Files

You can use an MDB library file (“*.mdb) to set CUT_FEED and SPINDLE_SPEED for a milling, turning, or holemaking NC sequence. The file must already exist in the corresponding subdirectory (“mill_db, “turn_db, or “drill_db) of the machinability database directory, or of your working directory if the machinability database directory has not been set up. 1. Choose Retrieve from the MFG PARAMS menu. 2. Choose MDB Library. You will be prompted to supply necessary data about the cut and tool, using a Pro/TABLE window. Supply the values for all listed parameters. 3. Select an MDB file from a namelist menu.

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4. If the table lookup is successful, the CUT_FEED and SPINDLE_SPEED parameters will be set to values derived from the table, either directly or by linear (one- or twodimensional) interpolation. At the same time: For Milling, STEP_DEPTH will be set to AXIAL_CUT_DEPTH, STEP_OVER—to RADIAL_CUT_DEPTH For Turning, STEP_DEPTH will be set to CUT_DEPTH

Notes: You have to set up the tool before using the MDB Library. If you change any of the values on which the parameter selection depends, the parameters will not be updated automatically. You will have to go through the parameter retrieval process again to reflect the changes.

MDB Lookup Failure

• • • •

Modify Input—Edit the input parameters. Show Input—Examine the current input parameters. Show Error—Display the most recent error message produced by MDB lookup. Show Mach DB—Examine the MDB table currently in use.

Good Practice To minimize the number of parameters to initialize during an MDB file lookup, you can: • • • Assign workpiece material in Part mode using Set Up, Material. Workpiece hardness and condition will be automatically looked up in the material file. Provide values for the tool parameters Num_Of_Teeth (for milling) and Tool_Material. If using a tool model, set up tool material and number of teeth. Specify parameters STEP_DEPTH and STEP_OVER before using MDB library.

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If an MDB table lookup fails during NC sequence parameters retrieval, the MACH DB FAIL menu will appear with the following options:

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Milling General Information
About Milling NC Sequences To access Mill type NC sequences, you must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell (if the latter, choose MILL when starting to create an NC sequence). The following NC sequence types are available: • • Volume—2.5-Axis slice-by-slice milling used to remove material from a specified volume. Local Mill—Used to remove material left after a Volume, Profile, Conventional or Contour Surface, or another Local milling NC sequence (usually with a smaller tool). Can also be used to clean up material in specified corners. Surface Mill—3- to 5-Axis milling of horizontal or slanted surfaces. You are given a choice of several methods for defining the cut. Swarf Mill—5-Axis milling of a series horizontal or slanted surfaces by cutting with the side of the tool. Face—Facing down the workpiece. Profile—3- to 5-Axis milling of vertical or slanted surfaces. Pocketing—2.5-Axis milling of horizontal, vertical, or slanted surfaces. The walls of the pocket will be milled as with Profiling, the bottom—as the bottom surfaces in Volume milling. Trajectory—3- to 5-Axis milling, with the tool moving along a specified trajectory. Holemaking—Drilling, boring, tapping. Thread—3-Axis helical milling. Engraving—3- to 5-Axis milling, with the tool moving along a Groove cosmetic feature. Plunge—2.5-Axis rough milling of deep cavities by a series of overlapping plunges into the material, using a flat-bottom tool.

• • • • •

• • • • •

To Select Surfaces

There are several NC sequence types that require selecting surfaces to be milled in order to define cut geometry: Conventional and Contour Surface, Facing, Profiling, and Pocketing. These types will be jointly referred to as Surface Milling NC sequences.

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Surfaces to be milled are selected using the Surfaces option in the SEQ SETUP menu. They can be selected from: • • • • Model—Select continuous surfaces from the reference part. Workpiece—Select continuous surfaces from the workpiece. Mill Volume—Create or select a Mill Volume, then select all or some surfaces from this volume. Mill Surface—Create or select a Mill Surface. Specify which side of the surface to mill using Flip and Okay options (arrow shows the side). Select all or some patches from the milling surface. Note: In Assembly machining, the Workpiece option does not appear. The Model option enables you to select surfaces from any part in the manufacturing assembly. After you have specified from where the surfaces are to be selected, the
SELECT SRFS menu appears:

Add—Select surfaces to mill. If selecting from a Mill Volume or Mill Surface, you have a choice of: Select—Select surfaces to be milled. You can either select individual surfaces, or use the Pick Many option in the GET SELECT menu and draw a rectangular box on the screen by selecting its two diagonal points; all surfaces completely covered by this box will be selected. Select All—All surfaces included in the Mill Volume/Mill Surface definition will be milled.

Remove—Unselect previously added surfaces. You have a choice of: Remove Single—Unselect individual surfaces. Remove All—Unselect all previously added surfaces.

• •

Show—When you choose this option, all currently selected surfaces are highlighted in cyan. Change—Appears only when selecting from a Mill Volume or Mill Surface. Allows you to select or create another Mill Volume/Mill Surface, or modify the current one. You can then proceed adding and removing surfaces using the options above.

Surface—Select surfaces by choosing each one individually.

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Selecting a Loop of Surfaces
When selecting surfaces for a Profile NC sequence, the following additional options are available:

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Loop—Select a closed loop of surfaces by choosing a face they surround. If there is more than one loop of edges (for example, there is a hole in the selected surface), you will be prompted to select an edge to use. This option is especially helpful for Profiling. These options will also be available when you use Remove Single for Profiling. The following illustration shows selecting a loop of surfaces.

Select this surface.

Select this edge.

All side surfaces are selected.

Note: Selecting by Loop does not parametrically gather surfaces. For example, if you want to be able to replace the reference part with another family instance that has more, or fewer, surfaces than the original one, and have the tool path automatically update, use a Mill Surface created by Gather, Surf & Bnd.

Selecting Surfaces from a Quilt
When you select surfaces from a quilt, whether to machine or to use as check surfaces, you will have the means to specify which side of the quilt you wish to reference: • When selecting surfaces to be milled using Model or Workpiece, you can only select surfaces from one quilt. You will then be prompted to specify which side to use by flipping an arrow. When selecting check surfaces, you can select as many entire quilts and individual quilt surfaces as needed. Upon selecting Done Sel, these selections are highlighted one-by-one and you are prompted to specify the side by flipping an arrow. When an entire quilt is selected, it is considered to be a single selection, and you will only have to specify the side just once.

To Perform Gouge Checking

Pro/NC provides automatic gouge avoidance for all NC sequence types against the geometric references selected for cut geometry. For Volume milling using Mill Window, automatic gouge checking is performed against all the surfaces of the reference part. 163

Notes: If the HOLDER_DIAMETER and HOLDER_LENGTH parameter values have been supplied, holder dimensions will be used for gouge avoidance. Automatic gouge avoidance is not implemented for Mill type tools with Side_Angle > 0. Use Taper Mill tools for automatic degouging. The Check Surfs option in the SEQ SETUP menu, available for Conventional, Contour Surface, Trajectory, and Profile milling (and for Local Milling referencing a Conventional or Contour milling NC sequence), allows you to select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed, or unselect some of the surfaces selected automatically. Selecting this option brings up the SRF PRT SEL menu with the following options: • Add Ref Prts—A checkmark next to this option means that all surfaces of the reference part (or, in case of Assembly machining, of all reference parts) will be included as Check Surfaces. Sel Surf—Select or unselect individual surfaces using the SELECT SRFS menu, which allows you to add, remove, and show surfaces that will be used for gouge checking. Additional options will be available when adding surfaces or removing them using the Remove Single option: Surface—Select individual surfaces to add or remove. If you choose a surface that belongs to a quilt, the entire quilt will be selected. Use Query Sel to select just one patch of a quilt. Part—Add or remove all surfaces of a selected part.

Note: If you use a Mill Window, the system automatically performs gouge checking against all the surfaces of the reference part(s); therefore, the Add Ref Prts option is not available, and when you add surfaces using the Sel Surf option, reference parts are not selectable.

Gouge Checking Defaults The system automatically includes all surfaces of the reference part (or, in case of Assembly machining, of all reference parts) as Check Surfaces for the following types of NC sequences: • • • • • 3- to 5-Axis Conventional Surface milling 3- to 5-Axis Contouring Surface-by-Surface 3- to 5-Axis Cutline machining 3- to 5-Axis Surface milling by Projecting Tool Path 5-Axis Trajectory milling 164

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Local Milling By Previous Tool You can override this default by unselecting Add Ref Prts in the SRF PRT
SEL menu.

You can also use the following configuration options: • • mfg_auto_ref_prt_as_chk_srf no—To disable automatically including all reference part surfaces as Check Surfaces for the NC sequence types listed above (the default is “yes). chk_part_surfs_profpock yes—To automatically include all reference part surfaces as Check Surfaces for Profiling and Pocketing NC sequences (the default is “no).

To Perform 4-Axis Milling

When you create a 4-Axis milling NC sequence, the 4 Axis Plane option will appear in the SEQ SETUP menu in addition to all the other options appropriate for this particular NC sequence type. This is a plane to which the tool axis will be parallel. You can select a planar surface or select or create a datum plane. You can also specify values for lead angle and tilt angle of the tool axis with respect to the 4 Axis Plane, as well as enable variable lead angle control using the 4X_LEAD_RANGE_OPT parameter. The system will generate CL data as if for 5-Axis milling and then automatically recompute it so that the tool axis is always parallel to the specified plane. The following shows the difference in CL output between a 5Axis and a 4-Axis Conventional Surface milling NC sequence.

4- Axis Plane

5-Axis

4-Axis

!AL("About_Milling_NC_Sequences",0,`',`')

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To Specify Negative Stock Allowance Specifying negative stock allowance may be required in special cases, such as milling of electrodes. Negative stock allowance can be specified for the following NC sequence types: • • For Volume, Local, Conventional, Contour, and Pocket milling, negative stock allowance value must be less than Corner_Radius of the tool. For Profile and Trajectory milling, any negative value may be specified. !AL("About_Milling_NC_Sequences",0,`',`') To Customize the Tool Path in Milling

Generally, the system automatically generates a default tool path based on the cut geometry and manufacturing parameters. For more low-level control over the tool path, you can use the Customize option in the NC SEQUENCE menu. For all Milling NC sequence types, except Trajectory Milling, the system automatically generates an Auto Plunge and the default Automatuc Cut motion. You can either accept the motions automatically generated by the system (and supplement them with the Approach and Exit Tool Motions, if needed), or delete them and generate your own Automatic Cut motions, as well as Approach and Exit Tool Motions. For Trajectory Milling, cut geometry is not specified at the time of NC sequence setup; you have to use the Customize functionality to generate the Automatic Cut, Approach, and Exit Tool Motions.

Build Cut at the NC Sequence Level
When you create Automatic Cut motions, the Build Cut functionality lets you add or remove slices or cutting passes, specify approach and exit path, and so on. However, if you are satisfied with the default tool path generated by the system (which is based on the sequence parameters and geometric references), you can use the Build Cut option in the SEQ SETUP menu to access the Build Cut functionality at the NC sequence level, without having to go through the Customize user interface. This option is available only if the NC sequence’s tool path has not been customized. If you define Build Cut items at the NC sequence level, and then attempt to customize the tool path, the system prompts you first to delete the items defined at the NC sequence level. An Info Window opens with a list of items you must delete. The Build Cut functionality at the NC sequence level is available for Volume, Local, Profile milling, Conventional Surface milling, Contour Surface milling (including Surf/Surf, Cutline, and ProjToolPath), Face milling, and Pocketing.

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The Build Cut functionality at the NC sequence level is identical to that at the Automatic Cut motion level. !AL("About_Milling_NC_Sequences",0,`',`')

Tool Axis Control in Milling
About Variable Axis Control

The Axis Def option in the SEQ SETUP menu enables you to control the orientation of the tool axis for 5-axis Contouring and Conventional surface milling NC sequences, including Cut Line machining. There are three ways to control axis orientation: • Points on Surface—Select points at which to define the orientation of the tool axis; in the regions between selected points, Pro/NC will gradually interpolate the correct axis orientation for the tool. Axis orientation is interpolated using a weighted average of the tool axis orientations specified at the nearest selected points. If values have been specified for the parameters LEAD_ANGLE and TILT_ANGLE, these values will not be taken into consideration when interpolating the default axis orientation, but will be added/subtracted to/from that value after it has been calculated. For Cutline machining, you can also define tool axis orientation along the cutlines. Pivot Point—Select or create a datum point to be used as pivot point for the tool. The tool axis will always pass through this point while machining the surface(s). Pivot Curve—Select an open or closed loop of edges or curves that will be used to guide the tool axis. The tool axis will always pass through some point of the pivot curve while machining the surface(s). All entities that form the pivot curve must be tangent to each other. You can have the system automatically synchronize tool path with pivot curve or define your own synchronization. Point on Surface and Pivot Curve axis definitions can be used in 4-Axis Milling. For Points on Surface, specified tool axes will be projected onto the 4Axis Plane and then interpolated.

• •

To Define the Axis Orientation Using Points on Surface

1. When choosing the references that you need to define for the NC sequence, choose Axis Def from the SEQ SETUP menu. 2. Choose Pnts on Srf from the AXIS OPT menu. 3. Choose Add from the AXIS DEF menu. The AXIS DEF OPT menu appears with the following options:

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Along Cutline—(Available for Cutline Machining only) Specify the tool axis orientation along the cutlines. Edge—Specify the tool axis orientation along an edge or chain of edges. Location—Specify the tool axis orientation at a datum point. The datum point may be located anywhere on the surface being machined. Select or create a datum point at which to define the tool axis orientation. Drive Surf—Select a surface (or multiple surfaces) to adjust the tool axis orientation for the selected edges (optional).

4. Choose Edge and select edges for axis control. The edges must form a continuous chain. You will then be prompted to specify the tool axis orientation at the start and end of each edge using the AXIS DEF TYPE menu described following. If you selected a drive surface, the tool orientation along the edge will be the average of the two endpoint orientations adjusted by the shape of the drive surface. If you did not specify a drive surface, you will have to create additional control points along the edge using the Location option. 5. Choose a command from the AXIS DEF TYPE menu to indicate the tool’s orientation at the specified point: Along Z Dir—Specify the tool axis along the Z direction of the NC sequence coordinate system. Datum Axis—Select or create a datum axis to specify the orientation of the tool axis.

6. If you chose Datum Axis, select or create a datum axis to indicate the tool’s orientation at that location. 7. The DIRECTION menu appears. Choose Flip or Okay to indicate the direction of the tool axis. The axis orientation definition will be displayed as a magenta arrow originating at the specified location. 8. Repeat Steps 3 through 7 for every point at which you want to define the tool axis orientation.

Example: Axis Orientation Using Points on Surface Refer to the following graphic for an illustration of axis orientation definitions.

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Axis definition created using Edge and Along Z Dir.

Axis definition created using Location and Datum Axis.

To Define the Axis Orientation Using Points Along Cutlines

1. Follow Steps 1 through 3 in the previous procedure. 2. Choose Along Cutline and Done/Return from the AXIS DEF OPT menu. 3. The system highlights all the existing cutlines. Select a point along a cutline. 4. The ENTER VAL menu appears to let you specify this position as a parameter along the entire length of the cutline (that is, 0.00 is the start point of the cutline and 1.00 is the end of the entire cutline). The system also presents the parameter value corresponding to the selected point and displays it as an option in the ENTER VAL menu. You can either select this option, or choose Enter and type in another parameter value along the cutline. 5. After you specify the location along the cutline, choose a command from the AXIS DEF TYPE menu to indicate the tool’s orientation at the specified point. 6. Choose Add from the AXIS DEF menu and repeat Steps 2 through 5 for every point at which you want to define the tool axis orientation, then choose Done Sel. You can specify Drive Surfaces and apply them to axis definitions along cutlines, as you do for axis definitions along edges. Note: Because two different algorithms exist for interpolating axis definitions using Points on Surface, you must choose either Along Cutline or a combination of Edge and Location. If you want to change from one algorithm to the other, you must first remove all axis definitions of the current type.

To Change Axis Definitions

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The following options in the AXIS DEF menu allow you to manipulate existing Points on Surface axis definitions: • • • Remove—Delete an existing axis definition. Redefine—Redefine an existing axis definition. Show—Display all previously defined axis definitions. If you choose Remove, Redefine, or Show from the AXIS DEF menu, you will get a namelist menu of all the existing axis definitions (for example, AXIS DEF BY EDGE #1, DRIVE SURFACES #1, and so on). As you place the cursor over a name in the menu, the complete name appears at the bottom of the message window (this is useful if the name is too long to fit inside the menu), and the system highlights the corresponding geometry on the screen. Axis definitions appear as magenta arrows. Cutlines and chains of edges appear in magenta. Drive surfaces appear in cyan, with the corresponding edges or cutlines that reference them highlighted in magenta. If you choose Redefine and select an axis definition along the cutline, the
AXIS DEF REFS menu appears with the following options:

• •

Location—Select another point along the cutline and enter the new parameter value. Orientation—Change the tool axis orientation by using the AXIS DEF TYPE menu options. If you choose Redefine and select a Drive Surface definition, the DRV SRF
REFS menu appears with the following options:

• •

Surfaces—Reselect the drive surfaces. Axis Def Set—Modify the list of axis definitions that reference these drive surfaces. A checkmark menu appears with all the applicable axis definitions; select additional definitions by checking them off, or unselect some of the ones currently selected. Choose Done Sel when you are finished.

To Define the Axis Orientation Using Pivot Point

1. When choosing the references that you need to define for the NC sequence, choose Axis Def from the SEQ SETUP menu. 2. Choose Pivot Pnt from the AXIS OPT menu. 3. The PIVOT PNT menu appears with the following options: Define—Brings up the CR/SEL PVT menu to allow you to select or create a datum point to serve as a pivot point.

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Remove—Delete the existing pivot point. Show—Display the existing pivot point.

To Define the Axis Orientation Using Pivot Curve

1. When choosing the references that you need to define for the NC sequence, choose Axis Def from the SEQ SETUP menu. 2. Choose Pivot Curve from the AXIS OPT menu. 3. The PIVOT CRV menu appears with the options: Define—Brings up the CHAIN menu to let you select entities to define the pivot curve. All entities of the pivot curve must be tangent to each other. Remove—Delete the existing pivot curve. Show—Display the existing pivot curve. Adjust Tool—(Appears for Cut Line machining only.) Adjust the tool axis positions along the pivot curve by specifying synchronization points (synch points). Click for details.

To Specify Synch Points Along Pivot Curve

1. Define the pivot curve. 2. Choose Adjust Tool. 3. Check off the Preview option, if desired. If this option is checked off, the system will display the tool axis positions as you add synch points. 4. Choose Set Axis. The SYNCH menu appears with the following options: Add—Select pairs of synch points along the pivot curve and the cutlines. Remove—Remove a pair of synch points. Show—Show the pairs of synch points currently defined and the corresponding tool axis positions in cyan. You can either display them in turn by using the Next and Previous options, or use Show All.

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Redefine—Modify a pair of synch points. Select a synch line (that is, tool axis position) to change, by selecting anywhere on the line. Then specify new locations for the synch points, similar to when adding a new pair.

5. Choose Add. The system highlights the pivot curve. 6. Select a point on the pivot curve. 7. The system highlights a cutline and prompts you to select a point on that cutline. If the Preview option is on, the tool axis position appears as a red line after you select a point on the cutline. 8. Specify other pairs of synch points by repeating the two steps above. Choose Done Sel when finished.

Volume Milling
About Volume Milling A Volume milling NC sequence removes the material inside a Milling Volume slice-by-slice. All slices are parallel to the retract plane; the axial depth of cut (slice depth) is defined by the combination of STEP_DEPTH and WALL_SCALLOP_HGT parameters. The first slice is generated at slice depth below the top of the mill volume. In case the mill volume extends above the top of the workpiece, the first slice is generated at slice depth below the top of the workpiece, to avoid air machining. All planar surfaces inside the volume that are normal to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system produce additional slices across the whole volume; use the MIN_STEP_DEPTH parameter to control the minimum acceptable distance between slices. The step-over distance inside a slice can be controlled by the following parameters: STEP_OVER, NUMBER_PASSES, BOTTOM_SCALLOP_HGT, and STEPOVER_ADJUST. Note: If a nonzero PROF_STOCK_ALLOW is specified (or a BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW value is supplied), it will affect the depth of the last slice and of all the slices over horizontal surfaces. The following graphic illustrates the depth of the first slice for Volume milling.

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First slice is at slice depth below the top of mill volume.

First slice is at slice depth below the top of the workpiece.

Workpiece

Mill volume Mill volume No workpiece geometry

Some typical applications for Volume milling are: • • • • Facing down the workpiece General material removal on the outside of the workpiece Rough milling of a vertical slot or cut, or a blind slot with islands Pocket finishing by using the ROUGH_OPTION parameter value PROF_ONLY

To Create a Volume Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Volume and Done from the MILL SEQ menu. 3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Volume—Create or select the milling volume. Window—Create or select a Mill Window. This option and Volume are mutually exclusive. If you check off the Window option, then the checkmark next to the Volume option is automatically turned off, and the DEFINE WIND menu appears with the following options: Select Wind—Select a predefined Mill Window from a namelist menu. Redef Wind—Redefine the Mill Window used by the NC sequence. This option is only available if the window is created or selected.

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Create Wind—Create a new Mill Window. ScallopSrf—Select surfaces that will be excluded from scallop computation if WALL_SCALLOP_HGT or BOTTOM_SCALLOP_HGT is specified. Excld Surfs—Specify volume surfaces to exclude from profiling. If Mill Window is used, select surfaces from the reference part. Top Surfaces—Explicitly define the “top surfaces, that is, surfaces of a mill volume that can be penetrated by the tool when creating the tool path. This option has to be used only if some of the top surfaces of the volume are not parallel to the retract plane. If Mill Window is used, this option is not available. The window start plane will be used as the top surface. Appr Walls—Select side surfaces of a mill volume, or sides of the Mill Window, that can be violated during tool approach and exit. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Example: Volume Milling The following illustration shows a Mill Volume and corresponding tool path for a Volume NC sequence.

Specifying Approach Walls

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For Volume milling, the tool is supposed to always be inside the milling volume. In some cases, however, you may want to perform cutting by the side

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of the tool only, that is, to make tool plunge outside the material. The Appr Walls option in the SEQ SETUP menu allows you to select side surfaces of a mill volume that can be violated during tool approach and exit. The user interface for selecting these surfaces is the same as for other types of surface selection in Milling. If a Mill Window is used, then you will be prompted to select entities from the window curve (that is, the window outline in the start plane) rather than surfaces from the Mill Volume. Selected entities will be used as sides of the tool approach. If Approach Walls have been defined, the system will attempt to make an approach and exit for every slice through these walls and plunge outside material, as shown in the following illustration. The length of approach/exit extension is defined by the APPR_EXIT_EXT parameter plus tool radius. If the Approach Walls have been specified, the datum point, axis, or sketch used for approach or exit in Build Cut can be outside the milling volume. Profiling passes will not be created along the surfaces selected as Approach Walls. The following illustration shows specifying Approach Walls for Volume milling.

Select this wall of the volume using the Appr Walls option. APPR_EXIT_EXT + CUTTER/DIAM / 2

High Speed Machining High speed machining (both roughing and profiling) is available for 2.5-axis Volume sequences. To perform high speed roughing in Volume milling, set the ROUGH_OPTION parameter to ROUGH_ONLY and SCAN_TYPE to CONSTANT_LOAD. High speed roughing is based on the following principles:

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Constant cutting condition Constant chip load Approach from outside material Continuous tool engagement Minimization of sudden tool direction changes Reduction of repositioning moves To perform high speed profiling in Volume milling, set the ROUGH_OPTION parameter to PROF_ONLY and SCAN_TYPE to CONSTANT_LOAD. High speed profiling is based on the following principles:

• • • • •

Continuous tool engagement Minimization of sudden tool direction changes Reduction of repositioning moves User-specified minimum radius parameter for concave corners (the CORNER_ROUND_RADIUS parameter) Entry and exit moves using an arc or helical move

Automatic Cut Motions for Volume, Local, and Profile Milling
About Automatic Cut Motions The following Automatic Cut motion types are available for Volume, Local, and Profile milling: • • • • Automatic (Default)—Use all the slices generated by the system. Upto Depth—Use slices up to a certain depth only. From-To Depth—Use slices in a certain range of depths. Slice/Slice—Generate Automatic Cut motions by specifying depth of each slice. The first three options produce a single Automatic Cut motion each, no matter how many slices are generated. In Slice/Slice, each slice represents a separate Automatic Cut motion. You can use more than one option per an NC sequence; every time a new Automatic Cut motion will be added.

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Example: Automatic Cut Motion Types The following illustration shows Automatic Cut motion types for Volume, Local, and Profile milling.

Depth

Automatic (default) From depth First slice

Upto depth First depth Second slice Second depth

To Depth

Third slice

Third depth (select bottom plane) From-To depth Slice/Slice

To Create an Automatic (Default) Cut Motion

This is a default Automatic Cut motion: it includes all the slices automatically generated by the system. The number and depths of the slices are defined by the manufacturing parameters. When you choose Automatic, the following options are available: • • • Parameters—Modify manufacturing parameters for the current cut motion. Build Cut—Add or remove slices and specify approach and exit motions for each slice in the cut motion. Also allows you to perform region-by-region milling. Play Cut—Show the cut motion as it is currently defined.

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Info—Brings up the INFO ITEMS menu which provides the following information: Cut Motion—Displays the feature ID of the current cut motion and the cut motion parameters in the INFO window. NC Sequence—Displays feature info for the current NC sequence (feature ID, NC sequence type, reference coordinate systems, parameters) in the INFO window. Tool—Displays the tool ID, type, and parameters in the Information Window; a subwindow also appears, displaying the tool. When satisfied with the cut motion, choose Done.

To Create an Upto Depth Cut Motion

To Create a From-To Depth Cut Motion

To Create a Slice-By-Slice Cut Motion

1. Choose Slice/Slice and Done. 2. Choose Depth and specify the depth of the slice. You can also use the Parameters option to modify parameters for this particular slice. 3. Choose Play Cut to display the slice. Note: If at this point you choose Depth again, you will modify the depth of the current slice, not create a new one.

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This Automatic Cut motion will include slices from the system start and up to a specified depth. The same options will be available as for the default Automatic Cut motion, but you also have to specify the final depth.

This Automatic Cut motion will include slices in a specified range of depths. The same options will be available as for the default Automatic Cut motion, but you also have to specify the “From and “To depths.

This option allows you to explicitly specify the depth of each slice. Note that each slice will represent a separate Automatic Cut motion.

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4. Choose Done when satisfied with the current slice. 5. Choose Next Slice from the NEXT SLICED menu, and repeat steps 2 through 4 to define another slice. The Play Cut option always shows the current slice only. 6. When the desired number of slices has been generated, choose Done/Return from the NEXT SLICED menu. The Build Slice option, which replaces the Build Cut option for this cut motion type, allows you to define approach and exit motions for the current slice.

To Specify Depth

Depending on the cut motion type, you have to determine: • • • For Upto Depth motion—the depth of the last slice. For From-To Depth motion: From Depth—the depth of the first slice, To Depth—the depth of the last slice. For Slice/Slice motion—individual depth of each slice. The following options are available for specifying slice depth: • • Specify Plane—Select a planar surface or datum plane parallel to the retract plane. You will also have an option to make a datum plane “on the fly. Z Depth—Enter depth as a Z-axis coordinate with respect to the NC Sequence coordinate system. The Play Cut option allows you to display the cut motion as it is currently defined. You can then specify different depth value(s) if desired.

To Specify Approach and Exit Motions Using Build Cut

1. Choose Approach (Exit) from the BUILD CUT menu. 2. If By Region is checked off, the APPR EXIT TYPE menu will appear: Whole Volume—The approach (exit) motion will apply to all slices in all regions. Select Region—The approach (exit) motion will apply to the slices of a selected region only. Select the region by selecting on the appropriate slice boundary.

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3. Select an option from the APPR EXIT OPT menu: Datum Point—Create or select a datum point to be used as a start (end) point. The point will be projected normal to the retract plane on all applicable slices; these projections will be used as a start (end) point for each slice. Axis—Create or select an axis to be used as a start (end) point. The axis can belong either to the workpiece or to the design model, and must be normal to the retract plane. Sketch—Sketch the approach (exit) path for the tool in the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system. The approach path must finish (and the exit path— start) so that the tool lies completely inside the area of the cut. None—Cancel previous approach (exit) instructions.

The Build Cut Functionality

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The Build Cut option allows you to add or remove slices and specify approach and exit motions for each slice in the cut motion. It also allows you to specify whether you want to machine across the whole milling volume at a particular Z depth, or to completely machine a pocket before going to the next one (region-by-region milling). This functionality is available for Automatic, Upto Depth, and From-To Depth cut motion types, for Volume and Local milling. The following illustration shows an example of volume regions.

4 1

(Top basin)

3

2

When you choose Build Cut, the BUILD CUT menu appears with the following options:

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By Slice—Slices will be generated by intersecting the whole volume at a particular Z depth. By Region—The volume will be automatically broken into regions. Each region will be completely machined upto depth before going to the next region. Separate approach and exit paths can be specified for each region. Show Slices—Display the slices by marking their corners in cyan. You can either use the Show All option, all step through the slices using the Next and Previous options. Add Slice—Specify depth for a new slice using the Specify Plane and Z Depth options. Use the Update Slices option after adding slices. Remove Slice—Slice boundaries are displayed in cyan. Select a slice to remove by selecting on its boundary. Use the Update Slices option after removing slices. Update Slices—Recalculate the slices after adding or removing a slice. Show Regions—(Available only if By Region is checked off.) Show the volume regions by displaying their critical slices. You can either use the Show All option, or step through the regions using the Next and Previous options. Order Regions—(Available only if By Region is checked off.) Specify order of milling the regions using the Next Region and Done Order options. You do not have to order all the regions explicitly. The system will mill those you have ordered first, them mill all the leftover ones in the default order. Skip Region—(Available only if By Region is checked off.) Select regions that will not be milled. Approach—Specify the approach motions for each slice. Exit—Specify the exit motions for each slice. Undo—Delete a Build Cut action. A menu with all the actions created so far will appear; select an action to delete. Redo—Redefine a Build Cut action. A menu with all the actions created so far will appear; select an action to redefine, then respecify the action references (such as depth, sketch). Play Cut—Show the cut motion as it is currently defined. Info—Brings up the INFO ITEMS menu.

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Example: Defining Approach and Exit Motions The following illustration shows defining approach and exit using the Axis option.

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This axis is selected for approach and exit point.

The following illustration shows sketching approach and exit for Build Cut.
Approach sketch

Exit sketch

Local Milling
About Local Milling

There are three types of Local milling: • Prev NC Seq—Remove material left after a Volume, Profile, Surface, or another Local milling NC sequence, usually with a smaller tool. When you create a Local milling NC sequence, you will be prompted to select a reference NC sequence. The system will then compute the material left by the reference NC sequence and machine away this material only. After a Volume or Profile NC sequence, you can do region-by-region milling. If a Surface milling NC sequence is used as a reference sequence, a remainder surface, representing the leftover material, will be generated for this NC sequence. You can generate this remainder surface at the time of creating the parent NC sequence by setting the REMAINDER_SURFACE parameter to YES. The following illustration shows Local milling by reference.

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Volume milling performed with a large tool.

Local milling removes the leftover material.

Corner Edges—Specify corner(s) to clean up by selecting edges. The amount of material to remove will be calculated by the system based on the value of the CORNER_OFFSET parameter, or the “previous tool radius, that you supply. The following illustration shows Local milling using Corner Edges.
This material will be removed.

Select corner.

Previous radius (CORNER_OFFSET)

By Prev Tool—Calculates the remainder material on specified surfaces after being machined by a larger tool; then removes this material by the current (smaller) tool. The previous tool must be a ball end mill. You can either explicitly select surfaces to be machined, or use a Mill Window for surface selection. After the system calculates the default tool path, you can select a subset of surfaces to be machined, or customize the order of machining these surfaces. You can also define various types of approach and exit motions by using the APPROACH_TYPE and EXIT_TYPE parameters. Local milling is always performed using a spiral scanning algorithm, therefore, the ROUGH_OPTION and SCAN_TYPE parameters are inapplicable for this NC sequence type. If CUT_TYPE is set to UPCUT or CLIMB, one-direction milling will be performed. If CUT_TYPE is NONE (this value is applicable to Local milling only), the tool will clean up material by moving back and forth, as shown in the following illustration.

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UPCUT

CLIMB

NONE

To Create a Local Milling NC Sequence by Referencing a Previous NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Local Mill and Done from the MILL SEQ menu. 3. Choose Prev NC Seq and Done from the LOCAL OPT menu. 4. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 5. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Ref Sequence—Select a reference NC sequence, that is, the NC sequence to clean up after. Order—This option can be used to reorder patches of the remainder surface if the reference sequence is an Isolines Surface Milling NC sequence. Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. This option is applicable only if the reference sequence is a Surface Milling NC sequence. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 6. If a Volume, Profile, or Local Mill NC sequence is selected as reference sequence, select an Automatic Cut motion to be used. Only one cut motion can be selected. 7. If a Surface Milling NC sequence is selected as reference sequence, the LOCAL TYPE menu will appear with the options: CntrSrfLocal—The cut motions will be performed along the u-v surface lines. If the leftover surface consists of multiple patches, you will have control over the order of machining. Cnvnl Local—The cut motions will be parallel to the X-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system. If the leftover surface consists of multiple patches, the system 184

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will completely machine each of the patches before going to the next one (similar to SCAN_TYPE TYPE_3 in Conventional surface milling). The patches will be machined in a default order. 8. If the sequence type is CntrSrfLocal, and the leftover surface consists of multiple patches, you will be able to reorder them using the Order option in the SEQ SETUP menu. The ORDER PATCH menu will appear with the options: Define Order—Specify the order of machining by using the Next Surface option in the CNTR ORDER menu and selecting the next surface to machine. Choose Done Order when finished. You do not have to order all surfaces. Those surfaces that were not explicitly ordered (or defined as skipped, see the next option) will be machined at the end in some default order. Skip Patch—Select surfaces to be omitted from machining. Undo Skip—Select a surface previously specified as skipped to restore it in the machining sequence. Show—Display the current order of machining the surfaces. The first surface to be machined will be highlighted. Choose Next from the SHOW ORDER menu to highlight the next surface to be machined. Choose Done/Return to quit.

9. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 10. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

To Create a Local Milling NC Sequence Using Corner Edges

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Local Mill and Done from the MILL SEQ menu. 3. Choose Corner Edges and Done from the LOCAL OPT menu. 4. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 5. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Surfaces—Select surfaces to be milled during this NC sequence. Corner Edges—Specify corner(s) to clean up. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

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The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 6. Make sure the CORNER_OFFSET parameter is set to an appropriate value. 7. Selecting Corner Edges from the SEQ REFS menu will bring up the CORNER EDG menu: Suggest—Show possible corners based on the surface selection in the previous step. This option is for information purposes only: the corners to be milled have to be explicitly defined using the Define option below. Define—Define corners by either selecting surfaces that form a corner using the Surfaces option, or selecting the corner edges themselves using the Edges option. Redo—Reselect edges to define a corner. Remove—Remove corner definitions: Remove Single—Allows you to step through the specified corners using the Next and Previous options. Unselect a corner using the Accept option. Remove All—Unselects all corners defined so far. Show—Show all the currently defined corner edges.

8. After defining the corners, choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 9. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

To Create a Local Milling NC Sequence by Referencing a Previous Tool

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Local Mill and Done from the MILL SEQ menu. 3. Choose By Prev Tool and Done from the LOCAL OPT menu. 4. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 5. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Prev Tool—Specify the “previous (larger) tool, which will be used for calculating the remainder material. The previous tool must be a ball end mill. The user interface for specifying the “previous tool is the same as for specifying the current tool.

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Note: If you perform Local Milling by previous tool immediately after machining with a large tool, do not forget to select the Tool option in the SEQ SETUP menu and specify a smaller current tool. Surfaces—Select surfaces to be milled during this NC sequence. Window—Create or select a Mill Window. This option and Surfaces are mutually exclusive. If you use the Window option, then all the surfaces within the specified Mill Window will be selected. Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Machine Srfs—Specify a subset of surfaces to be machined or customize the order of machining. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 6. Selecting Machine Srfs from the SEQ REFS menu will bring up the MACHINE SRFS menu with the following options: Machine All—Machine all the surfaces selected to calculate the remainder material. This option is checked off by default. Select Surf—Select a subset off surfaces to machine. To use this option, first turn off the checkmark next to the Machine All option above. Order Surf—Customize the order of machining the surfaces. The ORDER PATCH menu appears with the following options: Define Order—Specify the order of machining by using the Next Surface option in the CNTR ORDER menu and selecting the next surface to machine. Choose Done Order when finished. You do not have to order all surfaces: when computing the CL data, the system will mill the ordered surfaces first, and then mill any leftover surfaces. Show—Show the current order of machining. Use the Next option in the SHOW ORDER menu to highlight the next surface to be machined. Preview—Show regions that will be machined.

7. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 8. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

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Surface Milling
About Surface Milling Use Surface Milling to mill horizontal or slanted surfaces. The selected surfaces must allow for a continuous tool path. There are several methods of defining the cut and generating the tool path: • • • Straight Cut—Mill the selected surfaces by a series of straight cuts. For 3-Axis NC sequences, you can also remove material in depth increments. From Surface Isolines—Mill the selected surfaces by following the surface u-v lines. Cut Line—Mill the selected surfaces by defining the shape of the first, last, and some intermediate cuts. When the system generates the tool path, it gradually changes the shape of the cuts according to surface topology. Projected Cuts—Mill the selected surfaces by projecting their contours on the retract plane, creating a “flat tool path in this plane (using the appropriate scan type), and then projecting this tool path back on the original surface(s). This method is available for 3Axis Surface Milling only. Depending on the selected method, you have to define the cut by specifying appropriate parameters and geometric references. When you redefine a Surface Milling NC sequence, you can change the Cut Type (that is, select a different method of defining the cut and specify the new parameters and references) and produce a different tool path. Certain manufacturing parameters have different values available for different Cut Types. If you change the Cut Type and the parameter value that you have previously specified is not available for the new Cut Type, the system sets this parameter to a value that is the default for the new Cut Type. If, however, a parameter value is available for both the old and the new Cut Type, the system does not change it. For example, if you redefine from Cut Line to Straight Cut and the SCAN_TYPE value is TYPE_SPIRAL, the system changes it to TYPE_1 because TYPE_SPIRAL is not available for Straight Cut. If, however, the SCAN_TYPE value is TYPE_ONE_DIR, the system retains this value.

To Create a Surface Milling NC Sequence

When you create a Surface Milling NC sequence, you are given a choice of several methods for defining the cut. Depending on the selected method, the tool path will be different. You can change the Cut Type (that is, select a different method of defining the cut and specify the new parameters and references) at any time when you redefine a Surface Milling NC sequence.

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1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Click Surface Mill. Select 3 Axis, 4 Axis, or 5 Axis if applicable. Click Done. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Surfaces—Select surfaces to be machined. Window—Create or select a Mill Window. Appears for 3-Axis NC sequences only. This option and Surfaces are mutually exclusive. If you use the Window option, then all the surfaces within the specified Mill Window will be selected. Close Loops—Specify loops to close for Window machining. Appears for 3-Axis NC sequences only. ScallopSrf—Select surfaces that will be excluded from scallop computation if SCALLOP_HGT is specified. Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Define Cut—Define the method of surface milling and specify the appropriate parameters. Axis Def—Control the orientation of the tool axis. Appears for 4- and 5-axis NC sequences only. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality. Approach/Exit—Specify the approach and exit moves.

The required options are selected automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 3. Select the surfaces to be milled (or define a Mill Window). 4. When you start to define the cut, the system opens the Cut Definition dialog box. Specify a method of defining the cut by selecting one of the following options: Straight Cut—Mill the selected surfaces by a series of straight cuts. From Surface Isolines—Mill the selected surfaces by following the surface u-v lines. Cut Line—Mill the selected surfaces by defining the shape of the first, last, and some intermediate cuts. When generating other cuts, the system gradually changes their shape to accommodate surface topology. Projected Cuts—Mill the selected surfaces by projecting their contours on the retract plane, creating a “flat tool path in this plane (using the appropriate scan 189

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type), and then projecting this tool path back on the original surface(s). This option is available for 3-Axis Surface Milling only. Depending on the selected method, the system displays the appropriate options in the lower portion of the Cut Definition dialog box. 5. Select the appropriate options in the Cut Definition dialog box and specify geometric references to define the cut according to the selected method. Click for details. When satisfied with the cut definition, click OK to close the Cut Definition dialog box and generate the tool path. 6. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. Use the Customize functionality, if needed, to adjust the tool path. 7. Click Done Seq or Next Seq when satisfied.

To Define a Cut Using Straight Cut Use this method to mill surfaces of a relatively simple shape. 1. In the top portion of the Cut Definition dialog box, select Straight Cut. 2. Select an option to define the direction of cuts: Relative to X-Axis—The direction of the cuts is defined by an angle from the x-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system. The initial value in the Cut Angle text box corresponds to that of the CUT_ANGLE parameter. You can change the direction by typing a different value. By Surface—The cuts are parallel to a plane. Select a planar surface or datum plane. By Edge—The cuts are parallel to a straight edge. Select an edge.

3. Click 4. Click

5. When satisfied with the cut direction, click OK.

Straight Cut Surface Milling Straight Cut surface milling NC sequences generate the tool path which will: • Completely machine the selected surface(s). If a surface is not bounded by walls on the outside, the tool will “straddle, that is, overrun the surface boundary by a half diameter.

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to preview the cut direction. , if necessary, to reverse the cut direction.

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Any inner protrusions, as well as the outer walls extending up from the surface, will be avoided automatically. The stock allowance, if any, will apply to the side walls as well. If a surface is selected from model, any slots or holes on the surface will be “patched: the tool path will be generated as if they were not there. If you want to eliminate negative Z moves of the tool (for example, when machining hard materials), use the ALLOW_NEG_Z_MOVES parameter. It is applicable for 3-Axis NC sequences only. If you want to remove material in depth increments, use the ROUGH_STEP_DEPTH parameter. It is applicable for 3-Axis NC sequences only. The following illustration shows handling inner loops and outer walls for Straight Cut surface milling.

Inner slot will be ignored. Outer walls will be avoided. Inner protrusion will be avoided.

Select this surface.

"Free" outer edges will be straddled.

Note: If an inner protrusion is surrounded by a slot, it will not be avoided automatically. Use Check Surfs to generate the correct tool path. For 3-Aixs Straight Cut milling, you can control the start point and direction of machining the surface by using a combination of CUT_TYPE, SPINDLE_SENSE, and CUT_DIRECTION parameters (see the following table ). The LACE_OPTION parameter must be set to NO.

Parameter Settings CUT_TYPE CLIMB SPINDLE_SENSE CW CUT_DIRECTION STANDARD CUT_TYPE UPCUT SPINDLE_SENSE CCW CUT_DIRECTION

Tool Path

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STANDARD CUT_TYPE UPCUT SPINDLE_SENSE CW CUT_DIRECTION STANDARD CUT_TYPE CLIMB SPINDLE_SENSE CCW CUT_DIRECTION STANDARD CUT_TYPE CLIMB SPINDLE_SENSE CW CUT_DIRECTION REVERSE CUT_TYPE UPCUT SPINDLE_SENSE CCW CUT_DIRECTION REVERSE CUT_TYPE UPCUT SPINDLE_SENSE CW CUT_DIRECTION REVERSE CUT_TYPE CLIMB SPINDLE_SENSE CCW CUT_DIRECTION REVERSE

You can select any type of end mill, including flat and radius end mills, for Straight Cut surface milling of convex surfaces. The gouge avoidance will be calculated automatically.

To Define a Cut Using Surface Isolines

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Use this method to mill a single surface, or several continuous surfaces. The machining direction is defined by the natural u-v contour of the surface to be milled. If multiple surfaces are selected, the machining direction is determined separately for each surface. 1. In the top portion of the Cut Definition dialog box, select From Surface Isolines. The system displays the names of the surfaces selected for milling in the Surface List list box. 2. Select a surface name in the list box to preview the cut direction. 3. For each selected surface, you are given a choice of two directions, determined by the u-v lines of the surface. Click , if necessary, to toggle between these directions.

4. If more than one surface is being machined, they will be milled in the same order as they are listed in the list box. You can reorder the surfaces using the following methods: Select a surface name in the list box, then click the Up Arrow and Down Arrow icons to move it up or down in the list.

5. If you click

6. When satisfied with the cut direction and the surface order, click OK.

Isolines Surface Milling For Surface Milling From Surface Isolines, the machining direction is defined by the natural u-v contour of the surface to be milled. If the surface to machine is at an angle with the coordinate system axes, you may want to use the From Surface Isolines option rather than Straight Cut. Isolines Surface Milling NC sequences generate the tool path which will: • Completely machine the selected surface(s). If a surface is not bounded by walls on the outside, the tool will “straddle, that is, overrun the surface boundary by a half diameter.

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Click

to reorder the surfaces by selecting them on the screen.

, the CNTR ORDER menu appears with the options:

Next Surface—Select the first surface to be milled. This option will highlight automatically after each selection allowing you to select surfaces in the order you want them to be milled. Done Order—Select this option when you have specified all the surfaces you want to be milled in a specific order. You do not have to order all the surfaces selected for milling: when computing the CL data, the system will mill the ordered surfaces first, and then mill any leftover surfaces.

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Any inner protrusions, as well as the outer walls extending up from the surface, will be avoided automatically. The stock allowance, if any, will apply to the side walls as well. Internal holes and slots will not be “patched. For 3-Axis milling, the tool will move over internal slots or holes at a constant Z level, plunging or retracting at the lower edge as necessary. For 4- and 5-Axis milling, the tool will retract at all inner edges. If you don’t want this to happen, use a Mill Surface, or select a surface from a Mill Volume. The following illustration shows using a Mill Surface for Isolines Surface Milling.

Select part surface.

Select a Mill Surface created using Copy and Fill All.

If you select more than one surface, the surfaces must allow for a continuous tool path. Each surface will be machined separately. You will be able to specify the machining direction independently for each of the selected surfaces. You will also be able to specify the order in which the surfaces will be milled. The following illustration shows specifying machining direction for multiple surfaces.

These surfaces were selected to change machining direction.

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To Define a Cut Using Cut Lines Use Cut Line Surface Milling to produce cuts shaped according to the surface topology. This option gives you more control over the actual shape of the cuts than the From Surface Isolines option. 1. In the top portion of the Cut Definition dialog box, select Cut Line. The system displays two tabbed pages, Cut Lines and Options, in the lower portion of the Cut Definition dialog box. 2. Select a Cut Line Style option to define whether you are machining an open or closed loop of surfaces. 3. Add cut lines by clicking the Plus (+) icon in the Setup Cut Lines area of the Cut Lines tabbed page. You can define cut lines by selecting edges or datum curves, as well as by sketching the cut lines and projecting on the surfaces to be machined. Once you define a cut line, its name and type are listed in the list box above the action buttons. 4. To delete a cut line, select it in the list box and click the Minus (-) icon. 5. To redefine a cut line, select it in the list box and click 6. To reorder cut lines: Select a cut line name in the list box, then click the Up Arrow and Down Arrow icons to move it up or down in the list. .

. The system displays a red arrow to indicate 7. To change the cutting direction, click the current cutting direction. Use the Flip and Okay options to specify the direction. 8. Click OK when satisfied with the cut line definitions.

Cut Line Definition Options in the Cut Definition Dialog Box When you select Cut Line as the Cut Type option, the system displays two tabbed pages, Cut Lines and Options, in the lower portion of the Cut Definition dialog box. The Cut Lines tabbed page contains the following options: • Machined Surfaces—Define the cut lines by selecting edges or curves that belong to the surfaces to be machined. 195

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Click to reorder the cut lines by selecting them on the screen. All the cut lines are highlighted in cyan. Select the cut line to machine first. You can proceed selecting the cut lines in the order you want them to be machined, or click Done Sel. The rest of cut lines will be machined in default order.

• •

Retract Plane—Define the cut lines in the Retract plane. Tool Extent—The system will generate a surface feature representing the zone of the selected surfaces that can be machined using the current tool and parameters. You will then be able to define the cut lines using the edges of this surface. The surface belongs to the NC sequence. This option is available for 3-Axis milling only, and it will not be available if a Side Mill tool is used. Alternate Surfaces—Select surfaces, other than surfaces to be machined, to be used for defining the cut lines. Once you select the entities to define the cut lines from these alternate surfaces, these entities will be projected in the direction normal to the alternate surface on the surfaces to be machined to form the cut lines. This option is available for 3-Axis milling only.

The Toolpath Method options specify the mechanism for computing the tool motion: • • • Automatic—The method is determined automatically. Tool Contact—A Cut Line represents the trajectory of the tool contact point. Tool Centerline— A Cut Line represents the trajectory of the tool center.

Use the Setup Cut Lines area of the Cut Lines tabbed page to add, remove, redefine, or reorder cut lines. The proper Cut Line Style option depends on whether you are machining an open or closed loop of surfaces: • Open Ends—Machine an open surface loop. In this case, the system will expect all cut lines to be open chains of edges, curves, or sketched entities. You will be able to adjust the ends of the chain if you use curves or sketched entities to create a cut line. Closed Loops—Machine a closed surface loop. In this case, the system will expect all cut lines to be closed loops of edges or curves. If the cut line is sketched, its projection on the selected surfaces must also form a closed loop. You will have to specify a start point for the cut motion by selecting on the cut line.

The Options tabbed page contains the following options: • • Auto Inner Cutlines—If this check box is selected, the system will attempt to use edges crossing all the specified synch lines as inner cut lines. Extend Cutlines to Boundary—If this check box is selected, the system will attempt to extend the cut lines up to the boundary of the surface. Use this functionality when a cut line does not extend the whole length of the surface selected for machining.

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Tool Center Curve—Calculate Machinable Area surface by based on the tool center locations when generating the tool path.

The Synchronize Cut Lines area of the Options tabbed page contains the tools for synchronizing cut lines: • Plus (+) icon—Define the synch lines between the cut lines. Once you add a Synchronizer, its name and type are listed in the Synchronize Cut Lines list box. —Redefine the Synchronizer selected in the Synchronize Cut Lines list box. Minus (-) icon—Delete the Synchronizer selected in the Synchronize Cut Lines list box. Auto Synchronize—If there are edges crossing all the selected cut lines, the system will attempt to automatically determine if they should be used as the synch lines. It will highlight all the synch lines when displaying the intermediate mesh for the tool path. If you are not satisfied with the automatically selected synch lines, clear the Auto Synchronize check box and select the appropriate synch lines manually, by using the Plus (+) icon in the Synchronize Cut Lines area of the Options tab.

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Cut Line Surface Milling Use Cut Line Surface Milling to machine a region between open or closed boundaries, called “cut lines. The “cut lines that you select or sketch determine the shape of the first and last passes in the tool path; passes will first mimic the shape of the edge or entity specified as the cut line, then gradually change shape as necessary to accommodate different surface topology. Notes: • You can perform Cut Line Surface Milling in step depth increments by using the OFFSET_INCREMENT and NUMBER_CUTS parameters. You can machine undercuts in a 3-Axis NC sequence using a Side Mill tool. The gouge avoidance for the entire tool with respect to cut surfaces will be calculated automatically. The retract motions generated by the system will be checked for gouging, with problem areas highlighted. Specify appropriate Approach and Exit motions if gouging is detected.

Example: Cut Line Machining The following illustration shows Cut Line machining with Open Ends cut lines.

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Select this chain as the end cut line.
1 2 3

Select this chain as the start cut line.

The following illustration shows Cut Line machining with Closed Loops cut lines.
part to machine

Select this contour as the start cut line (use Bndry Chain).

Select this contour as the end cut line (use Bndry Chain).

Select all the top surfaces.

In some cases, when the surface topology changes abruptly at some point between the start and end cut lines, you may need to specify intermediate cut lines. In some cases, inner cut lines can also be selected automatically by using the Auto Inner Cutlines option.

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The following illustration shows specifying intermediate cut lines.
End cut line

Inner cut lines

Start cut line

To Add a Cut Line

1. In the Setup Cut Lines area, on the Cut Lines tabbed page of the Cut Definition dialog box, select a Cut Line Style option (Open Ends or Closed Loops) and click Add. The Add/Redefine Cutline dialog box opens. 2. Select a Cut Line Type option: From Edges—Define the cut line by selecting edges either on the surfaces selected for milling, or on some other surfaces (specified using the Tool Extent or the Alternate Surfaces option). From Curves—Define the cut line by selecting preexisting datum curves. Projected—Sketch the cut lines in the retract plane (or specify another sketching plane). The system will project the sketched cut lines onto the surfaces to be machined. The projection direction is parallel to the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system. From Surfaces—Define the cut lines using surface boundaries. You will be prompted to select the surfaces using the SELECT SRFS menu options and then enter the offset value for the surface boundaries. This option appears for 4- and 5-Axis machining only.

3. Depending on the selected Cut Line Type option, select the edges, datum curves, surfaces, or sketch the cut lines. 4. For Open Ends cut lines, if you use From Curves or Projected, you can adjust the endpoints of the cut line by clicking Specify Ends. 5. For Closed Loops cut lines, click the Select Start Point button and select on the cut line to specify the start point for machining. If you select somewhere along a cut line

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entity (other than at an endpoint), you will be prompted to specify the placement of the point as a length ratio along the selected entity. The options in the ENTER VAL menu are: 0.000000 (corresponding to the first endpoint) 1.000000 (corresponding to the second endpoint) a value corresponding to the selected point Enter, which allows you to enter any length ratio along the entity

6. Click Preview to verify the cut line. 7. When satisfied, click OK. The system lists the name and the type of the newly defined cut line in the list box in the Setup Cut Lines area on the Cut Lines tabbed page of the Cut Definition dialog box.

Defining a Cut Line From Edges

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One By One—Select individual edges from the specified surfaces. Tangnt Chain—Select a chain of tangent edges by selecting an edge that is a part of a tangent chain. The edge must belong to the specified surfaces. Bndry Chain—Select boundaries of the specified surfaces. When you choose this option, the whole boundary of the specified surfaces highlights in cyan. The CHAIN OPT menu appears with the following options: Select All—Include all the highlighted edges. From-To—Select a start vertex (curve end), then an end vertex (curve end). One of the chains connecting these vertices highlights. Specify which chain you want to include using the Next and Accept options.

Surf Chain—Select a chain of edges that belong to the same surface. You will be prompted to select a surface, and then specify which edges to include using either the Select All or From-To options in the CHAIN OPT menu. Intent Chain—Select an edge. Based on this selection and the design intent criteria, the system selects a chain of edges. 200

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One of the methods of defining a cut line is using the edges of either the surfaces selected for milling, or of some other surfaces (specified using the Tool Extent or the Alternate Surfaces option). When you define a cut line From Edges, the CHAIN menu appears, providing the following methods of edge selection:

The Unselect option in the CHAIN menu allows you to cancel the previous set of selections.

To Adjust Ends of a Cut Line

For Open Ends cut lines, if you create them as From Curves or Projected, you may need to adjust the ends of the cut line to make it meet an edge correctly, especially for 4- and 5-Axis machining. 1. Click Specify Ends. 2. Use the following commands on the CUT ENDS menu: Start—Specify the end condition for the beginning of the cut motion. End—Specify the end condition for the end of the cut motion.

3. Use the following commands on the CUT START or the CUT END menu: On—Use the default start point or end point for the cut motion. Specify—Manually relocate the start point or end point for the cut motion. You can move the mouse and extend the starting segment, displayed in green. When you select a new location for the point, use the commands on the END DIM TYPE menu (Ext Length, Offset Plane, or Offset Csys) to specify the dimension type for the end.

4. When satisfied, click Done/Return on the CUT ENDS menu.

To Synchronize Cut Lines

1. Go to the Options tab of the Cut Definition dialog box and click the Plus (+) icon in the Synchronize Cut Lines area.

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You can customize synchronization between the cut lines (u-lines) by specifying synch lines (v-lines). If no synch lines are specified, the points on u-lines are matched according to the length ratio. If there are edges crossing all the selected cut lines, the system will attempt to automatically determine if they should be used as the synch lines. It will highlight all the synch lines when displaying the intermediate mesh for the tool path. If you are not satisfied with the automatically selected synch lines, clear the Auto Synchronize check box on the Options tab of the Cut Definition dialog box and select the appropriate synch lines manually, as described below.

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The Synchronization dialog box opens. 2. Select an option to define synch lines: From Edges—Select edges to be used as a synch line. From Curves—Select preexisting datum curves to be used as a synch line. Projected—Sketch a synch line in the retract plane (or specify another sketching plane). The system will project the sketched synch line onto the surfaces to be machined. The projection direction is parallel to the z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system. From Points—Specify synchronization points on the cut lines. Each cut line is in turn highlighted in red. Select a location on the cut line to place a synch point. Repeat for all the other cut lines. The system will create the synch line by connecting the synch points with straight linear segments.

3. Click OK. The system lists the name and the type of the newly defined synch line in the list box in the Synchronize Cut Lines list box on the Options tab of the Cut Definition dialog box.

Example: Specifying Synch Lines Select the edges shown below as synch lines. It is recommended to specify synch lines, rather than synch points, when a straight line connecting the synch points would not correspond to the natural flow of surfaces being machined.

To Define a Cut Using Projected Cuts

1. In the top portion of the Cut Definition dialog box, select Projected Cuts.

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Use Projected Cuts Surface Milling when you need more control over the way you scan the surfaces (for example, if you need to generate a spiral tool path).

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The system redisplays the lower portion of the Cut Definition dialog box to contain the Plus (+) and Minus (-) icons and a list box for defining the contours to be machined, as well as the following options for defining the contour offsets: On—The contour to be machined will coincide with the projected contour of the selected surfaces. Left—The contour to be machined will be constructed by offsetting the projected contour to the inside by the offset value (Cutter_Diameter/2 plus the Boundary Offset Value). Right—The contour to be machined will be constructed by offsetting the projected contour to the outside by the offset value (Cutter_Diameter/2 plus the Boundary Offset Value). Boundary Offset Value—The default offset is Cutter_Diameter/2. You can specify additional offset by typing a value in the Boundary Offset Value text box.

2. Click the Plus (+) icon to add the projected contours. The ADD CONTRS menu opens with the following options: Def Contrs—Select the contours to machine either by using the Select option and selecting the contours (all selectable contours are highlighted in cyan), or using the Select All option. Once a contour is selected, it is projected to the retract plane (the projected contour is displayed in magenta). Def Offsets—If you select this option, you can define the contour offsets by scrolling through all the contours being created. The CNTR OFFSET menu opens. Use the Next and Prev commands to scroll through the contours. Other commands on the CNTR OFFSET menu correspond to the options for specifying offset in the Cut Definition dialog box. As you choose Next and Prev, the current projected contour is highlighted in cyan (instead of magenta). As you choose Left, Right, or change offset, the projection is redisplayed to reflect the change. Once you define a contour, its name and offset are listed in the list box. 3. To delete a contour, select it in the list box and click the Minus (-) icon. 4. To redefine the offset of a contour, select it in the list box and use the On, Left, Right, and Boundary Offset Value options to change the offset. 5. When you have defined all the contours, click OK.

Example: Surface Milling by Projecting Tool Path The following illustration shows surface milling using projected tool path.

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Flat tool path pattern in retract plane.

Tool path projected back onto the surfaces.

To Specify Entry and Exit Moves

You can define automatic Entry and Exit moves for all types of Surface Milling NC sequences and for Swarf Milling. 1. When defining a Surface or Swarf milling NC sequence, select the Approach/Exit checkbox on the SEQ SETUP menu and click Done. The Entry/Exit Move dialog box opens. 2. Specify the Entry moves for First Cut and Each Cut, and Exit moves for Each Cut and Last Cut, by selecting options from respective drop-down lists. Click for details. If you select CUSTOM_ENTRY or CUSTOM_EXIT, you can define Main, First Alternate, and Second Alternate custom strategies for this move using the tabbed pages in the right half of the Entry/Exit Move dialog box. 3. You can save your Entry and Exit strategies by clicking the Save icon at the top of the Entry/Exit Move dialog box. By default, the file is saved in your working directory with the .apx extension. When defining Entry and Exit moves for a different NC sequence, you can retrieve a previously saved strategy file by clicking the Open icon at the top of the Entry/Exit Move dialog box. 4. When satisfied with your Entry and Exit move definitions, click OK.

The Entry/Exit Move Dialog Box The Entry/Exit Move dialog box contains two group boxes: • • Entry/Exit Type—Lets you select standard strategies for entry and exit. You can specify different entry strategies for Custom Strategies—Lets you define custom strategies for entry and exit.

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Above the group boxes there are the Open and Save icons, for saving and retrieving your Entry and Exit strategies. The OK and Cancel buttons are located below the group boxes. The Entry/Exit Type group box contains the following drop-down lists. Under Cut Entry Move: • First Cut—Select an entry move type for the first cut (approach move). The options are: NONE—No entry move. CUSTOM_ENTRY—Enter using the custom strategies, specified in the Custom Strategies group box for this cut type. If the Main strategy causes gouging, then the system uses the First Alternate strategy, and so on. If all the custom strategies cause gouging, then no entry move is created. AUTOMATIC—The system automatically determines the entry move type based on the surrounding geometry of the feature being machined. The entry moves are automatically degouged. If the first selected move type gouges the part, the system tries the next logical move type. If all the move types gouge the part, then no entry move is created. LINE_TANGENT—The tool enters in a line tangent to the cut. The length of the line is defined by the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter. HELIX—The tool enters along a helix. The geometry of the helix is defined by the HELICAL_DIAMETER and RAMP_ANGLE parameters. RAMP—The tool enters at an angle. The move is defined by the RAMP_ANGLE and CLEAR_DIST parameters. ARC_ENTRY—The tool enters along a horizontal arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc is located in a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system). The radius of the arc is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter. The angle of the arc is 180 degrees. ARC_TANGENT—The tool enters along a vertical arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc is located in a plane tangent to the cut and normal to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system). The move is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS and ENTRY_ANGLE parameters. LEAD_IN—The tool leads into the cut. The move is defined by the TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, LEAD_RADIUS, and ENTRY_ANGLE parameters.

Each Cut—Select an entry move type for each intermediate cut. The options are: NONE—No entry move.

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CUSTOM_ENTRY—Enter using the custom strategies, specified in the Custom Strategies group box for this cut type. If the Main strategy causes gouging, then the system uses the First Alternate strategy, and so on. If all the custom strategies cause gouging, then no entry move is created. AUTOMATIC—The system automatically determines the entry move type based on the surrounding geometry of the feature being machined. The entry moves are automatically degouged. If the first selected move type gouges the part, the system tries the next logical move type. If all the move types gouge the part, then no entry move is created. LINE_TANGENT—The tool enters in a line tangent to the cut. The length of the line is defined by the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter. HELIX—The tool enters along a helix. The geometry of the helix is defined by the HELICAL_DIAMETER and RAMP_ANGLE parameters. ARC_ENTRY—The tool enters along a horizontal arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc is located in a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system). The radius of the arc is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter. The angle of the arc is 180 degrees. ARC_TANGENT—The tool enters along a vertical arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc is located in a plane tangent to the cut and normal to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system). The move is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS and ENTRY_ANGLE parameters. LEAD_IN—The tool leads into the cut. The move is defined by the TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, LEAD_RADIUS, and ENTRY_ANGLE parameters. Under Cut Exit Move:

Each Cut—Select an exit move type for each intermediate cut. The options are: NONE—No exit move. CUSTOM_EXIT—Exit using the custom strategies, specified in the Custom Strategies group box for this cut type. If the Main strategy causes gouging, then the system uses the First Alternate strategy, and so on. If all the custom strategies cause gouging, then no exit move is created. AUTOMATIC—The system automatically determines the exit move type based on the surrounding geometry of the feature being machined. The exit moves are automatically degouged. If the first selected move type gouges the part, the system tries the next logical move type. If all the move types gouge the part, then no exit move is created. LINE_TANGENT—The tool exits in a line tangent to the cut. The length of the line is defined by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter.

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HELIX—The tool exits along a helix. The geometry of the helix is defined by the HELICAL_DIAMETER, RAMP_ANGLE, and PULLOUT_DIST parameters. The tool leaves the surface in a helical motion at CUT_SPEED until it reaches PULLOUT_DIST, then it retracts at RETRACT_SPEED. If you want the tool to exit completely by a helical motion, set the configuration option use_old_helical_exit to yes (the default is no). ARC_EXIT—The tool exits along a horizontal arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc is located in a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system). The radius of the arc is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter. The angle of the arc is 180 degrees. ARC_TANGENT—The tool exits along a vertical arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc is located in a plane tangent to the cut and normal to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system). The move is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS and EXIT_ANGLE parameters. LEAD_OUT—The tool leads out of the cut. The move is defined by the TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, LEAD_RADIUS, and EXIT_ANGLE parameters.

Last Cut— Select an exit move type for the last cut (exit move). The options are: NONE—No exit move. CUSTOM_EXIT—Exit using the custom strategies, specified in the Custom Strategies group box for this cut type. If the Main strategy causes gouging, then the system uses the First Alternate strategy, and so on. If all the custom strategies cause gouging, then no exit move is created. AUTOMATIC—The system automatically determines the exit move type based on the surrounding geometry of the feature being machined. The exit moves are automatically degouged. If the first selected move type gouges the part, the system tries the next logical move type. If all the move types gouge the part, then no exit move is created. LINE_TANGENT—The tool exits in a line tangent to the cut. The length of the line is defined by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter. HELIX—The tool exits along a helix. The geometry of the helix is defined by the HELICAL_DIAMETER, RAMP_ANGLE, and PULLOUT_DIST parameters. The tool leaves the surface in a helical motion at CUT_SPEED until it reaches PULLOUT_DIST, then it retracts at RETRACT_SPEED. If you want the tool to exit completely by a helical motion, set the configuration option use_old_helical_exit to yes (the default is no). ARC_EXIT—The tool exits along a horizontal arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc is located in a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system). The radius of the arc is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter. The angle of the arc is 180 degrees.

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ARC_TANGENT—The tool exits along a vertical arc tangent to the cut (that is, the arc is located in a plane tangent to the cut and normal to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system). The move is defined by the LEAD_RADIUS and EXIT_ANGLE parameters. LEAD_OUT—The tool leads out of the cut. The move is defined by the TANGENT_LEAD_STEP, NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, LEAD_RADIUS, and EXIT_ANGLE parameters. The Custom Strategies group box contains three tabbed pages, Main, First Alternate, and Second Alternate, for defining the custom strategies for each cut type.

To Define Custom Entry and Exit Strategies

1. Select the text box next to the appropriate cut type (for example, First Cut) on the Main, First Alternate, or Second Alternate tabbed page. Click Change. The A/E Strategies dialog box opens. 2. To define a new strategy, click New. The system displays the default strategy name, such as strategy 1, in the Name text box in the Strategy Definition group box. You can type a different name. 3. Build the custom strategy by selecting a segment type from the Type drop-down list in the Segment Definition group box, specifying the appropriate parameter values, and clicking Insert. The following segment types are available: Helix—The tool moves along a helix. You have to specify the following parameters: Radius, Ramp Angle, Height, and Direction (Left or Right). Line—The tool makes a linear move. You have to specify the following parameters: Length and Slope. Arc—The tool moves along an arc. You have to specify the following parameters: Radius and Angle.

As you insert segments, their names are displayed in appropriate order in the list box in the Strategy Definition group box.

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You can define Main, First Alternate, and Second Alternate custom strategies for any cut using the tabbed pages in the right half of the Entry/Exit Move dialog box. Note: You can only define custom strategies for a cut if you have selected CUSTOM_ENTRY or CUSTOM_EXIT for this cut type in the Entry/Exit Type group box in the left half of the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

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4. As you insert segments, their names are displayed in appropriate order in the list box in the Strategy Definition group box. If you select a segment name in the list box, the segment definition is displayed in the Segment Definition group box below. You can: Change the segment definition. To do this, change the segment type or parameter values and click again on the selected segment name in the list box. Insert another segment before the selected one by defining the segment type and parameters and clicking Insert. Delete the segment by clicking Remove.

5. The Available Strategies list box at the top of the dialog box lists all the custom strategies defined for this or any other move type. If you select a strategy name in this list box, the strategy definition is displayed in the Strategy Definition group box below. You can: Change the strategy definition by inserting or removing segments. Copy the strategy by clicking Duplicate (the strategy is copied with the default name such as strategy 1 copy), then change the strategy name and definition as needed. Delete the strategy by clicking Delete.

6. When satisfied with the custom strategy definitions, click OK to close the A/E Strategies dialog box and return to the Entry/Exit Move dialog box.

Swarf Milling
About Swarf Milling Swarf Milling is a different type of Surface Milling, which lets you machine a series of surfaces by cutting with the side of the tool. By default, Swarf Milling produces a slice-by-slice tool path, with the slice shape corresponding to the 5-axis geometry being machined. You can define other shape for the slices, if desired. At any point on the tool path, the tool is positioned tangent to the surface being machined. You can change the default axis definitions, as desired, by specifying a series of axis directions at a number of points selected. The default axis directions correspond to the machined geometry (the axes follow the boundary edges of the surfaces) or follow the ruling lines of the surfaces that are ruled. If you want to ignore the ruling lines of the ruled surfaces, set the IGNORE_RULINGS parameter to YES (the default is NO). You can also choose between two algorithms for the axis interpolation between the surfaces to be machined by using the AXIS_DEF_CONTROL parameter. Swarf Milling supports tapered tools, as well as the regular (cylindrical) ones.

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To Create a Swarf Milling NC Sequence

When you create a Swarf Milling NC sequence, you are given a choice of several methods for defining the cut. Depending on the selected method, the tool path will be different. You can change the Cut Type (that is, select a different method of defining the cut and specify the new parameters and references) at any time when you redefine a Swarf Milling NC sequence. 1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence. You must be in a 5-Axis Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Click Swarf Mill | Done. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Surfaces—Select surfaces to be machined. ScallopSrf—Select surfaces that will be excluded from scallop computation if SCALLOP_HGT is specified. Height—Specify a plane or surface for the tool tip to follow. Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Define Cut—Define the method of surface milling and specify the appropriate parameters. Axis Def—Control the orientation of the tool axis. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality. Approach/Exit—Specify the approach and exit moves.

The required options are selected automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 3. Select the surfaces to be milled. 4. When you start to define the cut, the system opens the Cut Definition dialog box. Specify a method of defining the cut by selecting one of the following options: Straight Cut—Mill the selected surfaces by a series of straight cuts parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system. The cuts are spaced evenly along the z-axis in STEP_DEPTH increments.

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From Surface Isolines—Mill the selected surfaces by following the surface u-v lines. The user interface is similar to defining the cut for a Surface Milling NC sequence. Cut Line—Mill the selected surfaces by defining the shape of the first, last, and some intermediate cuts. When generating other cuts, the system gradually changes their shape to accommodate surface topology. The user interface is similar to defining the cut for a Surface Milling NC sequence.

Depending on the selected method, the system displays the appropriate options in the lower portion of the Cut Definition dialog box. 5. Select the appropriate options in the Cut Definition dialog box and specify geometric references to define the cut according to the selected method. When satisfied with the cut definition, click OK to close the Cut Definition dialog box and generate the tool path. 6. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. Use the Customize functionality, if needed, to adjust the tool path. 7. Click Done Seq or Next Seq when satisfied.

Face Milling
About Face Milling The Face option allows you to face down the workpiece with a flat or radius end mill. You can select a planar surface, or coplanar surfaces, parallel to the retract plane. All inner contours in the selected faces (holes, slots) will be automatically excluded. The system will generate the appropriate tool path based on the selected surface(s).

To Create a Face Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Face and Done from the MILL SEQ menu. 3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Surfaces—Select a plane or several coplanar faces parallel to the retract plane.

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Start Point—Allows you to start machining at a specified corner of the selected face. The following options are available: Define—Select a datum point or vertex to override the system-defined start point. The corner closest to the selected datum point or vertex will be used. Remove—Revert to the system-defined start point. Show—Highlight the current start point (available only if a user-defined start point is specified). Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Using Parameters in Face Milling You can specify multiple cuts to depth using the STEP_DEPTH and NUMBER_CUTS parameters. The system will compute the number of cuts according to STEP_DEPTH, compare with NUMBER_CUTS, and use the greater value. If you want just one cut at full depth, you can set NUMBER_CUTS to 1 and STEP_DEPTH to a relatively large value (greater than thickness of the stock to be removed). The following illustration shows facing down the workpiece.
STEP_DEPTH = 10 (greater than part thickness) NUMBER_CUTS = 2

Note: For Assembly machining, or workpiece with no geometry, these parameters will be interpreted differently: NUMBER_CUTS will determine the amount of slices, and STEP_DEPTH—the offset between slices, that is, the first slice will be offset from the selected face by (NUMBER_CUTS-1)*STEP_DEPTH.

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Exit motion STEP_OVER Overtravel motions Approach motion

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The number of cuts per slice is determined in a similar way using the combination of the STEP_OVER and NUMBER_PASSES parameters. However, if NUMBER_PASSES is set to 1, the STEP_OVER value will be ignored and only one pass per slice will be made. This is helpful and meaningful only when a large enough tool is used.
APPROACH_DISTANCE + START_OVERTRAVEL + tool radius (for ENTRY_EDGE = LEADING_EDGE)

NUMBER_PASSES = 1 EXIT_DISTANCE + END_OVERTRAVEL + tool radius (for CLEARANCE_EDGE = HEEL)

The BOTTOM_STOCK_ALLOW parameter specifies the stock allowance on the surface being faced. The default, “-, sets the bottom stock allowance to 0. The tool path can be extended past the selected surface edges using the START_OVERTRAVEL and END_OVERTRAVEL parameters. The APPROACH_DISTANCE and EXIT_DISTANCE parameters apply to the first approach into a slice and the last exit from a slice, respectively. The APPROACH_FEED and EXIT_FEED can be specified for these motions if desired, otherwise, CUT_FEED will be used. All these parameters are measured with respect to a certain point of the tool, defined by the ENTRY_EDGE and CLEARANCE_EDGE parameter values, described following. The following graphic illustrates the approach, exit, and overtravel motions based on the parameter values.

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EXIT_DISTANCE + END_OVERTRAVEL START_OVERTRAVEL

END_OVERTRAVEL tool

END_OVERTRAVEL Reference part (selected face) APPROACH_DISTANCE + START_OVERTRAVEL ENTRY_EDGE = HEEL CLEARANCE_EDGE=LEADING_EDGE

The CLEARANCE_EDGE parameter specifies which point of the tool is to be used for measuring the exit motions and the overtravel motions when the tool leaves the material: • • • HEEL (default)—The heel of the tool. CENTER—The center of the tool. LEADING_EDGE—The leading edge of the tool. The ENTRY_EDGE parameter is similarly used to measure the motions where the tool approaches material. It has the same values as CLEARANCE_EDGE (LEADING_EDGE is the default). The following illustration shows the overtravel motion depending on CLEARANCE_EDGE.

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Reference part (selected face) Workpiece Tool

CLEARANCE_EDGE = HEEL

END_OVERTRAVEL

CLEARANCE_EDGE = CENTER END_OVERTRAVEL

CLEARANCE_EDGE = LEADING_EDGE

END_OVERTRAVEL

The entire part is used to calculate tool clearance. That is, when ENTRY_EDGE is LEADING_EDGE or CLEARANCE_EDGE is HEEL, the tool is tangent to the entire section of the part (as shown in the following illustration).

Tool

Part outline Cut motion

This NC sequence is intended to be used for facing down the workpiece; therefore, no gouge avoidance checking for internal islands or adjacent walls, will be performed.

Profile Milling
About Profile Milling Profile milling is used to rough or finish mill vertical or slanted surfaces. The surfaces selected must allow for a continuous tool path. The depth of the cut is defined by the depth of the selected surfaces. You can also use the AXIS_SHIFT parameter. Notes: To just make one profile pass around the part at full depth, make STEP_DEPTH greater than part thickness. 215

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To create a succession of profiling passes with horizontal offset, use the NUM_PROF_PASSES and PROF_INCREMENT parameters. The following illustration shows 3-Axis Profiling.

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Select all the side surfaces.

By default, the system will detect undercuts when degouging a 3-Axis profiling tool path. If you want to be able to machine an undercut, set GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE to TIP_ONLY. The following illustration shows machining an undercut.
part tool

GOUGE_AVOID_TYPE TIP_ONLY

3-Axis profiling will clean up the top horizontal edges of selected surfaces, as shown in the following figure. If there is another surface bounding the top edge, select it as a Check Surface to avoid gouging.

Topmost tool position (to clean up the edge)

Select these surfaces for gouge checking.

Surface being profiled (side view)

5-Axis surface profiling can be used for swarf cutting, as shown in the following illustration. The tool axis will stay tangent to the surface being machined. Set the AXIS_SHIFT parameter to a positive value.

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AXIS_SHIFT

To Create a Profile Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Profile from the MILL SEQ menu. Select 3 Axis, 4 Axis, or 5 Axis if applicable (the options available depend on the number of axes specified for the workcell). Choose Done. 3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Surfaces—Select surfaces to mill. ScallopSrf—Allows you to select surfaces that will be excluded from scallop computation if SCALLOP_HGT is specified. Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

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Pocket Milling
About Pocket Milling Pocketing can be used to finish mill after a Rough Volume operation, or for direct finishing. The surfaces selected must allow for a continuous tool path. The pocket may include horizontal, vertical, or slanted surfaces. The walls of the pocket will be milled as with Profiling, the bottom—as the bottom surfaces in Volume milling.

To Create a Pocket Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Pocketing and Done from the MILL SEQ menu. 3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Surfaces—Select surfaces to mill. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start user interface for all selected options in turn. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

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Example: Pocket Milling
Select all surfaces in the pocket (use Mill Volume).

Material left after Volume milling

Trajectory Milling
About Trajectory Milling Trajectory milling allows you to sweep a tool along any user-defined trajectory. It can be used for milling horizontal slots: the shape of the tool must correspond to that of the slot. To define the tool path, you must interactively specify the trajectory of the control point of the tool using the Customize functionality.

To Create a Trajectory Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Trajectory from the MILL SEQ menu. Select 3 Axis, 4 Axis, or 5 Axis if applicable (the options available depend on the number of axes specified for the workcell). Choose Done. 3. If you have specified the tool, site, coordinate systems, and retract surface at setup time, you do not have to select Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 4. If you choose Seq Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, and the following specific option: Check Surfs—Select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. If the tool comes in contact with a Check Surface, it will retract to avoid this surface, and then proceed to the next millable portion of the specified trajectory. Select the desired options and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

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When specifying the tool for 3-Axis Trajectory milling, selecting Set brings you the following options: Edit—Edit parameters file for a standard tool. Sketch—Sketch the tool section.

4. Choose Customize and interactively specify the Automatic Cut motions. Connect the Automatic Cut motions using the Approach and Exit Tool Motions. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path generated by the system. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Sketching the Tools for Trajectory Milling

The sketch represents half of the tool cross-section. The whole sketch must lie on one side of the axis of symmetry. The axis of symmetry must be vertical, with the sketch lying on the right. The section must be closed. For a sketched tool, you can specify a control point other than its tip by adding a coordinate system to the tool section sketch, as shown in the following illustration. The tool will then be swept so that its control point follows the specified trajectory. For standard (edited) tools, and for sketched tools with no control point specified, the tip of the tool will be used. The tip of a standard tool is determined by the tool’s control point. The tip of a sketched tool is determined as the lowest point of the tool section sketch (the lower-left if there are several equally low vertices). Note: Make sure to specify the tool offset option correctly when using a control point. For example, if you select side edges of the slot and place your control point on the periphery of the tool, choose None for the tool offset direction. Also make sure to select the cut direction depending on the orientation of the coordinate system used as the tool control point: when the tool travels along the trajectory, the X-axis must point towards the trajectory while the Y-axis is pointing up. The following illustration shows specifying a control point for a sketched tool.

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For 3-Axis Trajectory milling, you can either use standard tools, or sketch your own tool for the NC sequence. The tool is sketched as a revolved protrusion:

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Select these edges.

Tool control point Sketch this tool.

To Create Automatic Cut Motions for Trajectory Milling

The way cut motion is created depends on the cut motion type. The following procedure lists the steps common to creating all types of cut motions. For information on specific aspects of creating a cut motion, refer to the following procedures. 1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 3. Select the type of cut motion from the INTERACT PATH menu (Sketch, Edge) and Done. 4. The Cut option in the INT CUT menu is selected automatically. Select the appropriate options in the CUT ALONG menu, depending on the cut motion type, and create a cut motion. 5. Choose Ends if you want to adjust the ends of the cut motion. 6. Choose Corners if you want to apply corner conditions. 7. You can use the Check Surfs option to select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. 8. Choose Play Cut to display the cut motion as it is currently defined. The Info option brings up the INFO ITEMS menu. You can use the Parameters option in the INT CUT menu, if needed, to modify the cut motion parameters. 9. When satisfied with the cut motion, choose Done Cut. 10. If you want to define another cut motion, choose Next Cut from the NEXT SLICED menu, and repeat steps 3 through 9. When finished, choose Done/Return from the NEXT SLICED menu. If you use the same type of cut motion for a subsequent slice, the CUT ALONG menu settings will be modal. For example, to mill a horizontal slot in step 221

depth increments, you can define the edges, direction, and offset for the first cut motion only, and then just change the height for each subsequent cut motion. Note, however, that whenever you select Edge or Curve from the CUT ALONG menu, the Direction and Offset options will be selected automatically.

To Sketch a Cut Motion

1. Choose Sketch and Done from the INTERACT PATH menu. 2. The Sketch option in the CUT ALONG menu is automatically selected. Choose Done. 3. Set up the sketching plane and the sketcher reference plane. If Height is not specified, the cut motion will be located in the sketching plane. 4. Sketch the cut motion. Dimension and regenerate the sketch. Choose Done.

To Define a Cut Motion Using Edges or Curves

1. Choose Edge (Curve) and Done from the INTERACT PATH menu. 2. If you use Edge, select one of the following options: On/Offset—Drive the tool along selected edges. Fit—Fit the tool between surfaces adjacent to specified edges. This option is only applicable when using a ball endmill.

3. The Edge (Curve), Direction, and Offset options in the CUT ALONG menu are automatically selected. Choose Done. 4. The CHAIN menu appears with the options One By One, Tangnt Chain, Bndry Chain, Surf Chain, Select, and Unselect. Select edges to follow using the CHAIN menu options. All selected edges must form a continuous tool path. 5. Specify direction of trajectory using Flip and Okay, according to the red arrow. 6. Another red arrow appears. Specify the tool offset: None—The tool will follow the selected edges. Left—The cut motion will be offset to the left. Right—The cut motion will be offset to the right.

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The offset distance is half of the CUTTER_DIAM value. The direction of the offset is with respect to direction of trajectory, selected in the previous step; when you select an offset option, the red arrow will show the offset direction. Choose Done when satisfied.

Tip: Fitting the Tool Between the Surfaces

When you use a ball endmill in a 3-Axis Trajectory milling NC sequence, and create a cut motion using Edges, you can use the Fit option to fit the tool between surfaces adjacent to specified edges. Another way to produce a similar tool path (for any type of Mill tool) is to use Cut Line machining with Tool Extent. The following illustration shows fitting the tool between the surfaces when milling along an edge.

Select this edge using the Fit option and indicate Right for offset direction.

The following illustration shows fitting the tool between the surfaces using Cut Line machining.
Select this surface to machine.

Select this surface as Check Surface for Cut Line machining.

Select the edge of the surface generated by Tool Extent both as the Start and the End cut line.

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To Define a Cut Motion Using Surfaces

1. Choose Surface and Done from the INTERACT PATH menu. 2. The Surface, Direction, and Height options in the CUT ALONG menu are selected automatically. Choose Done. 3. Select surfaces to follow. The surfaces must allow for a continuous tool path. 4. Specify direction of cutting motion using Flip and Okay, according to the red arrow. 5. Specify height. 6. The cut motion will be created along the selected surfaces at the specified height.

To Specify Height

You can specify the height of the cut motion using the Height option in the
CUT ALONG menu. The height specification is mandatory if you use surfaces

to define the cut motion; for other types it is optional. When you choose Height, the HEIGHT menu appears with the options: • Add—Brings up the CTM DEPTH menu, containing the commands Specify Plane, Select, and Z Depth. To specify the height or depth of the cut motion, create or select a plane, select nonplanar surfaces, or enter a value for height with respect to the NC sequence coordinate system. The tool trajectory, when defined, will then be projected in the level of the selected surface or plane. Remove—Remove the currently used height reference. You will have a choice of selecting the reference(s) to delete using Remove Single, or deleting all references using Remove All. Show—Show the plane or surface that is currently used for height reference. If Z depth is used, the appropriate depth will be marked by a cyan rectangle enclosing the contour of the manufacturing model.

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Example: Specifying Height and Surfaces
Select bottom surface for Height.

Cut motion

Select all the inside surfaces (use Loop, select the bottom surface).

You can select nonplanar surfaces of the part for Height specification. These are the surfaces that will be machined by the end portion of the tool, rather than its side. The following shows an example of selecting surfaces to create the desired cut motion for 3-Axis Trajectory milling. Note: A Height plane will always override the location of CSYS in a Sketched Tool.

Example: Specifying Height and Check Surfaces
Check surface

Height surface

Cut motion Select this surface to create the cut motion. The tool fits within the selected surfaces.

Multi-Step and Multi-Pass Trajectory Milling

Multi-Step Trajectory Milling
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Multi-step Trajectory milling can be performed by specifying either the desired STEP_DEPTH (in which case the cuts will be repeated in these step depth increments), or the desired NUMBER_CUTS. If both are specified, the higher of the two numbers of cuts will be used. The last pass will coincide with the specified trajectory. The Start Height option in the CUT ALONG menu allows you to specify the height of the first pass. If Start Height is not specified, the top of the workpiece will be used. For Assembly machining, or workpiece with no geometry, you have to either specify the Start Height, or specify both the STEP_DEPTH and NUMBER_CUTS. In this last case, the parameters are interpreted differently: NUMBER_CUTS will determine the number of passes, and STEP_DEPTH—the offset between the passes, that is, the first pass will be offset from the specified trajectory by (NUMBER_CUTS1)*STEP_DEPTH. Note: The Start Height option is grayed out if neither STEP_DEPTH nor NUMBER_CUTS has been specified for the NC sequence. The user interface for specifying Start Height is the same as specifying Height.

Multi-Pass Trajectory Milling
Multi-pass Trajectory milling (a succession of trajectory passes with horizontal offset) can be performed by using the NUM_PROF_PASSES and PROF_INCREMENT parameters. The last pass will coincide with the specified trajectory.

To Create a 5-Axis Cut Motion Using Edges or Curves

1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 3. Choose Curve from the DRIVE ALNG menu. 4. The CUT MTN menu will appear with Define Cut already chosen, causing the CUTMOTION SETUP menu to appear as well. The following commands will be listed: Parameters—Modify manufacturing parameters for the current cut motion. Curve—Define the trajectory by selecting edges or datum curves to follow. The CHAIN menu appears with the options One By One, Tangnt Chain, Bndry Chain, Surf Chain, Select, and Unselect. Select edges or curves to follow using the CHAIN menu options. All selected edges or curves must form a continuous tool path.

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Height—Specify the height of the cut. Start Height—Specify the height of the first pass for multi-step Trajectory milling. Direction—Specify direction of trajectory using Flip and Okay, according to the red arrow. Check Surfs—Select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Axis Control—Apply additional control to tool axis orientation. Activates the AXIS CNTRL menu with the following options: Along Z—The tool axis will be parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system. Axis Def—Displays the AXIS DEF menu, which lets you add, remove, redefine, and show axis definitions at selected locations along the trajectory. Norm to Part—Select a control surface, which must be adjacent to one of the selected edges. The tool axis will be normal to the control surface. Corners—Specify the corner conditions. Offset—Specify the direction in which the cut motion will be offset (None, Left, or Right). The offset distance is half of the CUTTER_DIAM value. The direction of the offset is with respect to direction of trajectory; when you select an offset option, the red arrow will show the offset direction. Choose Done when satisfied. Matrl Side—Specify the material side using the Left and Right options in the MATRL SIDE menu. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality. Ends—Adjust the cut motion ends.

5. Choose Done from the CUTMOTION SETUP menu to begin specifying the cut. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn.

To Create a 5-Axis Cut Motion Using Surfaces

1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 3. Choose Surface from the DRIVE ALNG menu.

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4. The CUT MTN menu will appear with Define Cut already chosen, causing the CUTMOTION SETUP menu to appear as well. The following commands will be listed: Parameters—Modify manufacturing parameters for the current cut motion. Drive Surfaces—Define the trajectory by selecting surfaces that the tool will follow with its side. The surfaces must allow for a continuous tool path. From/To Control—If you do not want to machine all the selected surfaces, select edges to machine. The CHAIN menu appears with the options One By One, Tangnt Chain, Bndry Chain, Surf Chain, Select, and Unselect. Using the CHAIN menu options, select edges on drive surfaces. All selected edges must form a continuous tool path. The following illustration shows an example of using From/To Control.

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1. Select these two surfaces as drive surfaces. This portion of the second surface is also selected. To avoid machining it, use From/To Control.

Retract

Auto Plunge 2. Choose From/To Control and select these two edges.

Automatic Cut

Height—Specify the height of the cut. Start Height—Specify the height of the first pass for multi-step Trajectory milling. Direction—Specify direction of trajectory using Flip and Okay, according to the red arrow. Check Surfs—Select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Axis Control—Apply additional control to tool axis orientation. Another way to control to the tool axis orientation is by using the AXIS_DEF_CONTROL parameter. Corners—Specify the corner conditions. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality. Ends—Adjust the cut motion ends.

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5. Choose Done from the CUTMOTION SETUP menu to begin specifying the cut. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 6. Once you have specified the cut, the system displays the TRAJ PREVIEW menu with the following opitons: Preview—The system shows the edges on surfaces to be machined, and displys the tool axis orientation as vectors along these edges. From/To Control—Reselect edges on surfaces to machine, as described in Step 4. Axis Control—Apply additional control to tool axis orientation.

If a drive surface can not be machined without gouging, the system outputs the estimated value of possible gouge in the message area at the same time as the TRAJ PREVIEW menu appears. The surfaces being gouged are highlighted and the points of possible gouge are indicated. Note: Another way to call up the TRAJ PREVIEW menu is to select Preview from the
CUT MTN menu.

To Create Axis Definitions Along the Trajectory

1. Select the Axis Control option in the CUTMOTION SETUP menu. If defining the cut motion using edges or curves, choose Axis Def from the AXIS CNTRL menu. The system displays the AXIS DEF menu, which lets you add, remove, redefine, and show axis definitions. 2. Choose Add. 3. Select a point on a trajectory segment to place the axis definition. 4. Specify a parameter value along this segment to place the point, with 0 corresponding to the beginning of the segment and 1 to its end. The ENTER VAL menu will contain the value corresponding to your select point, as well as 0, 1, and the Enter option, which allows you to type a value you want. 5. Specify the tool axis orientation at selected point using one of the following options in the AXIS DEF TYPE menu: Along Z Dir—The tool axis will be parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system. Datum Axis—Select or create a datum axis to define the tool axis. Enter Value—Type the i, j, k values in the appropriate text boxes of the Axis Direction dialog box and click OK.

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Example: Adding Axis Definitions The following illustration shows an example of using the parameter AXIS_DEF_CONTROL in combination with adding axis definitions along the trajectory, to avoid gouging a nondevelopable surface.

Select all these surfaces as Drive Surfaces.

To avoid gouging this nondevelopable surface, set AXIS_DEF_CONTROL to FROM_AXES_AND_DRIVE_SURFACE and add these axis definitions.

To Create a 5-Axis Cut Motion Using Two Contours

1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 3. Choose Two Contour from the DRIVE ALNG menu. 4. The CUT MTN menu will appear with Define Cut already chosen, causing the CUTMOTION SETUP menu to appear as well. The following commands will be listed: Parameters—Modify manufacturing parameters for the current cut motion. Contour1—Sketch or select the first contour in the cut. Contour2—Sketch or select the second contour in the cut.

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Side Surfs—Indicate the contours of the cut by selecting side surfaces. This command is used in place of the Contour1 and Contour2 commands. Synch—Brings up the SYNCH menu for specifying points to synchronize the positions on Contour1 and Contour2. Direction—Specify direction of trajectory using Flip and Okay, according to the red arrow. Check Surfs—Select surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Corners—Specify the corner conditions. Offset—Specify the direction in which the cut motion will be offset (None, Left, or Right). The offset distance is half of the CUTTER_DIAM value. The direction of the offset is with respect to direction of trajectory; when you select an offset option, the red arrow will show the offset direction. Choose Done when satisfied. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality. Ends—Adjust the cut motion ends.

5. Choose Done from the CUT ALONG menu to begin specifying the cut. 6. The TRAJ OPT menu will appear in turn for Contour1 and Contour2; choose Sketch or Select to indicate the contour. 7. If you are creating synch points, the SYNCH menu appears with the following commands: Add—Select a location on a contour to place a synch point. Remove—Choose an existing synch point to delete. Show—Display existing synch points. Done/Return—Quit the SYNCH menu and return to defining the cut motion.

8. Choose Play Cut from the CUT MTN menu to display the cut motion. Note: If you get an error message “Cut motion cannot be created try adding more synch points.

To Adjust Cut Motion Ends

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After an Automatic Cut motion is created, its ends can be extended or trimmed using the following procedure.

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1. Choose Ends from the INT CUT menu. 2. Choose Start from the CUT ENDS menu to adjust the start point. 3. Choose one of: On—Place the start point of the cut motion at the start of the defined trajectory (the default). Specify—Move the start point along the defined trajectory. When you select this option, the start point of the cut motion starts following the mouse (along the cut motion, if trimmed, and tangent to the first segment, if extended). The new cut motion definition is temporary highlighted in green for better visibility.

4. If the cut motion is adjusted using Specify, select the dimensioning type: Arc Length—Enter arc length along the chain, i.e, length ratio of the added or subtracted segment to the original length of the cut motion. Positive value corresponds to extended cut motion, negative—to a trimmed one. Offset Plane—Select a plane to measure offset from, then enter the offset value. Positive value means that the offset is to the positive side of the surface (away from the solid material). Offset Csys—Select a coordinate system to measure offset from. Select axis along which to measure the offset, then enter the offset value. Positive value means the positive axis direction.

5. Choose End from the CUT ENDS menu to adjust the end point and repeat Steps 3 and 4.

To Specify Corner Conditions 1. Choose Corners from the INT CUT menu. 2. The CORNER COND menu appears with the following options: Add—Select corners to add corner conditions. Redefine—Respecify a corner condition. Delete—Allows you to select a corner condition to delete. Delete Last—Deletes the corner condition that has been added last. You can use this option more than once; when there are no more corner conditions left, the Delete Last option becomes inaccessible. Delete All—Deletes all the corner conditions.

3. When you choose Add from the CORNER COND menu, the CORNER ADD menu appears with the following options: 232

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Specify—Select points on the cut motion and specify type by selecting the appropriate option. After each selection, the corner condition will be added at the selected point. Choose Done Sel when finished. Automatic—Corner conditions will be automatically added at all the corners. Corner conditions will be added according to the following rules: All concave corners will be filleted. All convex corners on an outside contour of a part will be filleted. All convex corners on an inside contour of a part will be looped. If the system is unable to determine the type of the contour, you will be prompted to specify if this is in inside or an outside contour using the following options: Female Part—Inside contour. Male Part—Outside contour.

After the corner conditions are automatically added, you can review and change them using the AUTO SELECT menu: Next—Display the next assigned corner condition. Prev—Display the previous corner condition. Change Type—Specify a different corner condition type for the highlighted corner. Remove—Delete corner condition at the highlighted corner. Show All—Display all the currently added corner conditions. Straight corner conditions will be highlighted in yellow, convex—in red, and concave—in cyan. Info—List information about the highlighted corner condition type in the Message Window.

Corner Condition Types Corner conditions can be specified for the vertices of the cut motion created using the Edge or Curve option, to avoid gouging sharp corners. Wherever a corner condition is added, a small parallelogram will be incorporated in the cut motion: the tool will continue moving along the first entity, then return to enter tangent to the second entity. The size of the parallelogram is defined by the path parameter CORNER_LENGTH. If you add a corner condition along an entity or between two tangent entities, the angle of the parallelogram will be defined by the CORNER_ANGLE parameter; if the condition is at a vertex and the corner is sharp, the

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CORNER_ANGLE value will be ignored and the sides of the parallelogram will be formed as a continuation of the adjoining entities. The following graphic illustrates the CORNER_LENGTH and CORNER_ANGLE parameters.

CORNER_LENGTH CORNER_LENGTH

CORNER_ANGLE

The following corner condition types are available: • • • • • • Straight—Create a straight corner condition. Concave—Create a round corner motion for a corner that is concave. Convex—Create a round corner motion for a corner that is convex. Chamfer—A chamfer whose size is defined by the CHAMFER_DIM parameter, which represents the distance cut on each side of the corner. Fillet—Create a fillet corner motion. Loop—Create a loop corner motion. Available for convex corner conditions only.

Thread Milling
About Thread Milling Thread (helical) milling allows you to cut internal and external threads on cylindrical surfaces. When creating a Thread milling NC sequence, you will have to: • • • Use a tool of type THREAD_MILL instead of a regular milling tool. When setting parameters, specify THREAD_FEED, THREAD_FEED_UNITS, and THREAD_DIAMETER (optional). Define the thread by specifying whether it is external or internal, specifying the major or minor thread diameter, selecting cylindrical surface(s) to create the thread on, and specifying the machining and entry/exit parameters.

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To Create a Thread Milling NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Thread | Done. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Seq Setup. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu contains the following specific option: Define Cut—Specify the thread parameters and placement references by using the Thread Mill dialog box. The required options are selected automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 3. Click Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 4. Click Done Seq or Next Seq when satisfied.

The Thread Mill Dialog Box

The top portion of the Thread Mill dialog box contains the following icons and options: —Copy rules from a previously defined Thread Milling NC sequence. —Show the currently used rules.

Thread Style—Specify the thread orientation: • • Internal—For internal threads, you have to specify Major Diameter, located on the Define Thread tabbed page. External—For external threads, you have to specify Minor Diameter, located on the Define Thread tabbed page.

The middle portion of the Thread Mill dialog box contains four tabbed pages: Define Thread, Place Thread, Mill Thread, and Thread Entry & Exit.

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The Define Thread tabbed page contains the following options: • • Thread Hand—Specifies the thread hand: Righthand or Lefthand. Major Diameter—If the Thread Style is specified as Internal, type a value for the thread's major diameter. If you have specified a value for the manufacturing parameter THREAD_DIAMETER, this value appears as the default in the Major Diameter text box. Minor Diameter—If the Thread Style is specified as External, type a value for the thread's minor diameter. If you have specified a value for the manufacturing parameter THREAD_DIAMETER, this value appears as the default in the Minor Diameter text box. Thread Series—The possible values are: UNC, UNF, M_COARSE, M_FINE. Pitch—The thread pitch. Corresponds to the manufacturing parameter THREAD_FEED. Pitch Units—Corresponds to the manufacturing parameter THREAD_FEED_UNITS. The possible values are TPI (threads per inch), MM (millimeter per revolution), and INCH (inch per revolution). Thread Depth—Defines the thread depth: Auto—The system automatically determines the thread depth based on its placement references, and taking into consideration the tool parameters Insert_Length and End_Offset. Blind—Specify the initial and final depth for the thread by selecting planar surfaces or creating datum planes parallel to the retract plane.

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Diameter—Place threads on all the cylindrical surfaces (Internal or External) of a specified diameter. Collect On Surface—Place threads on all the holes or cylindrical bosses on a specified surface. Feature Parameter—Place threads on features that have certain parameter values. When you select this method, the Feature Parameter list box contains a list of all feature parameters associated with Hole and Cosmetic Thread features in the model. When you select a parameter name in the list, the Value text box below will contain a drop-down list of all the currently present values for this parameter. Select an operator

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The Place Thread tabbed page contains the options for thread placement. You can also set the order of machining for multiple threads. You can use the following methods of thread placement:

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(such as "=") and a value. The system displays the selected parameter and its value in the list box below and selects all features with the appropriate parameter value. • Datum Axes—Select the datum axes that belong to the holes or cylindrical protrusions where you want to place the threads. Placing threads by Diameter, Collect On Surface, and Feature Parameter implies specifying a rule for the placement surface selection. For example, if you cut an Internal thread and specify a diameter value, the system will search the model for the holes of this diameter. If you select a surface, the system will include all holes on this surface. If you specify a combination of rules, the system will look for holes that satisfy all of them; that is, if you specify a diameter value and select a surface, the system will include only the holes of the specified diameter that are located on the selected surface. The Datum Axes method lets you explicitly select and unselect datum axes, regardless of other rules used in thread placement. Once you have selected a thread placement method, click the Plus (+) icon to add references of the appropriate type (for example, select the diameters or datum axes). All the selected references are listed in the list box in the middle of the Place Thread tabbed page. To remove a reference, click the Minus (-) icon and select the reference to remove in the list box. If you place threads by Datum Axes, selecting the Thread patterned features checkbox and selecting an axis belonging to a pattern of features will place threads on all the features in this pattern. The lower portion of the Place Thread tabbed page contains the options for setting the order of machining for multiple threads: • Closest—The system determines which order results in the shortest machine motion time. You can click the Start hole/boss for scan selection arrow and select the first hole or boss to be machined. Pick Order—The threads are cut in the same order as the holes or bosses are selected. If one choice results in more than one hole or boss being selected (for example, Collect On Surface selection), these features are scanned by incrementing the Y coordinate and going back and forth in the X direction. Then the pick order is resumed.

The Mill Thread tabbed page describes the cut motion: • • Continuous—The thread is machined by one continuous cut motion, regardless of the number of inserts on the thread tool. Interrupted—For multiple insert threads, the thread is machined by a series of cut motions. A single full thread (plus the overlap value) covers the entire length of the tool. You can specify the overlap values: Thread Overlap—Type a value (in degrees) for thread overlap. If a value is other than 0 (the default), the start and end of the cut for each tooth are not coincident.

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Pickup Overlap— Type a value (in threads or degrees) for pickup overlap. If a value is other than 0 (the default), the next cut will start earlier than the coincident position. These options control where the material is relative to the tool:

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Climb— The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Corresponds to the CLIMB value of the CUT_TYPE manufacturing parameter. Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Corresponds to the UPCUT value of the CUT_TYPE manufacturing parameter. The following options define the beginning and end of the cut motion:

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Start Overtravel—Specifies the initial height of the tool above the start surface at the beginning of the tool path. End Overtravel— Specifies the height at the end of the tool path that the tool overtravels below the end surface. Thread Start Angle—Specifies the angle in the XY plane that determines where the thread mill starts to cut the thread.

Entry—Specify the type of the entry move. The values are: None—No entry move is generated. Helical—The tool approaches the start of the cut motion in a helical motion. Normal to Thread—The entry motion is a straight line normal to the cut motion.

Exit—Specify the type of the exit move. The values are: None—No exit move is generated. Helical— The tool exits the cut motion in a helical motion. Normal to Thread—The exit motion is a straight line normal to the cut motion. The following parameters define the Entry and Exit moves (the initial values correspond to those specified when defining the manufacturing parameters for the NC sequence):

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Approach Distance—Specifies the length of the entry move. Exit Distance—Specifies the length of the exit move.

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The Thread Entry & Exit tabbed page contains the options and parameters for defining the Entry and Exit moves:

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Lead Radius—The radius of the tangential circular movement of the tool when leading in or out. Entry Angle—Defines the angle of the helical entry motion. Exit Angle—Defines the angle of the helical exit motion. Normal Lead Step—The length of the linear movement that is normal to the tangent portion of the lead-in or lead-out motion. Tangent Lead Step—The length of the linear movement that is tangent to the circular lead-in or lead-out motion.

The lower portion of the Thread Mill dialog box contains the OK, Cancel and Preview buttons.

Cutter Compensation in Thread Milling To provide cutter compensation output in Thread milling, set the CUTCOM parameter to ON and specify a value for CUTCOM_REGISTER. The system will determine the cutcom direction (LEFT or RIGHT) based on the material side, which you specify using the Internal or External option in the Thread Mill dialog box, and the direction of the tool movement. In order to invoke cutter compensation, a linear motion in the XY-plane is required: • When APPROACH_TYPE or EXIT_TYPE is set to HELICAL or NONE, use the NORMAL_LEAD_STEP and TANGENT_LEAD_STEP parameters to specify the length of this linear motion. The linear motion will be created at the Z level of the initial (for approach) or final (for exit) point of the thread motion. The segment defined by TANGENT_LEAD_STEP will be tangent to projection of tool path at this point. If TANGENT_LEAD_STEP is not defined, the segment defined by NORMAL_LEAD_STEP will be normal to projection of tool path at this initial/final point; otherwise it will be normal to the tangent linear segment and attached to its end. Cutcom is invoked on the first linear move, and turned off on the last linear move. When APPROACH_TYPE or EXIT_TYPE is set to RADIAL, the CUTCOM statement will be placed on the radial approach or exit motion. The distance is determined by the APPROACH_DIST/EXIT_DIST value.

Example: Thread Milling The following illustration shows a Thread milling tool path.

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Helical tool path

Minor Diameter Tool

Start plane End plane Thread cylinder

The following illustration shows Approach and Exit motions for thread milling.
Radial exit motion Entry Angle

Helical approach motion

Exit Distance

Engraving
About Engraving Engraving NC sequences are generally created by the tool following a Groove cosmetic feature. The tool diameter determines the width of cut, and the GROOVE_DEPTH parameter determines the depth of cut. Engraving can be specified as 3- or 5-Axis. For 5-Axis Engraving, there are two ways to specify the tool trajectory: • • By selecting a reference Groove feature to follow. The tool axis will be normal to the surface that the reference Groove feature is projected onto. By selecting a set of edges for the tool to follow. In this case, you will have to select a control surface, that is, a surface that the tool axis will be normal to. The control surface must be a surface adjacent to one of the edges selected for the tool trajectory. For all other edges, the surface to the same side of the edge will be used as control surface.

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To Create an Engraving NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Engraving and Done from the MILL SEQ menu. 3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Groove Feat—Select a reference Groove feature. Edges—Select the edges for the tool to follow. Available for 5-Axis Engraving only. Must be used together with the following Norm Surf option. Norm Surf—Select a surface that the tool axis will be normal to. Available for 5Axis Engraving only. Must be used together with the Edges option above.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Plunge Milling
About Plunge Milling Plunge milling lets you roughly machine deep cavities by a series of overlapping plunges into the material. The tool makes its first plunge into the material along a predrilled axis, parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system, then retracts to the level specified by CLEAR_DISTANCE, moves over in the XY-plane and makes the next plunge. Distance between the successive plunges is controlled by the PLUNGE_STEP parameter. You can use flat and radius end mills, as well as plunge milling tools, to create Plunge milling NC sequences. Note: Ball end mills can not be used for Plunge milling.

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To Create a Plunge Milling NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Mill or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Plunge and Done from the MILL SEQ menu. 3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Surfaces—Select surfaces to mill. Window—Create or select a Mill Window. This option and Surfaces are mutually exclusive. If you use the Window option, then all the surfaces within the specified Mill Window will be selected. Start Axes—Specify predrilled axes to define the start point for every plunge region. Check Surfs—Select additional surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Build Cut—Access the Build Cut functionality.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality to adjust the tool path. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Specifying Start Axes

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Add—Select or create a datum axis to serve as a predrilled axis. Remove—Select a previously defined Start Axis to remove.

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Plunge milling tools can not cut with their centers. Therefore, in Plunge milling the tool makes its first plunge within a region along a predrilled axis, which must be located at the deepest point of the region. When you choose Start Axes from the SEQ SETUP menu, the system displays the START AXES menu with the following options:

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Remove All—Remove all Start Axis definitions. Show—The system highlights all Start Axes in cyan. You have to specify a Start Axis for each milling region. The system will then compute the tool path for the region based on the SCAN_TYPE and using the Start Axis as a start point.

Example: Plunge Milling

Select these surfaces.

Select these axes as Start Axes. CUT_ANGLE 90 PLUNGE_STEP

Mill Geometry About Mill Geometry

To create a milling NC sequence, you have to define geometry that you want to mill. Pro/NC provides several tools that let you define mill geometry as a separate feature, and then use this definition repeatedly for various NC sequences within the manufacturing model.

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The simplest way to define geometry for a Volume or a 3-Axis Conventional Surface milling NC sequence is by using a Mill Window, that is, by sketching or selecting a closed contour in the retract plane. All surfaces visible within the contour will be milled. Mill Windows are separate features that can be created at setup time, as well as at the time of defining an NC sequence. Another way to define a Volume NC sequence is a Mill Volume. This is the volume to be removed during an NC sequence. The tool will always be within the Mill Volume, that is, by default the tool can not penetrate any surfaces of the volume, except its top surfaces (at the time of creating an NC sequence, you can also explicitly specify side surfaces of a Mill Volume that can be violated during tool approach and exit). To define the Mill Volume, you can reference geometry of design model, sketch volume to be machined or excluded, intersect the volume with the workpiece or reference model, offset surfaces (for example, by tool radius). This set of tools can be used in any combinations to define a single Mill Volume. You can also select surfaces from a Mill Volume when defining Surface milling NC sequences (Conventional or Contour Surface milling, Facing, Profiling, and Pocketing). Another tool for defining a milling NC sequence is creating a Mill Surface. This is a user-defined surface quilt that can be referenced by Surface milling NC sequences or by Mill Volumes.

Mill Window
About Mill Window A Mill Window can either be defined during the time of creating an NC sequence, or predefined using the MFG GEOMETRY menu option Mill Window. To access this option, choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then Mfg Geometry. When you choose Mill Window from the MFG GEOMETRY menu, the DEFINE WIND menu appears with the options: • • Redef Wind—Redefine a pre-existing Mill Window. Select the window to redefine from a namelist menu. Create Wind—Create a new Mill Window.

To Create a Mill Window

1. Choose Create Wind from the DEFINE WIND menu. 2. Enter a name for the window. 244

3. The feature creation dialog box appears. The elements are: Csys—Specify the coordinate system. When you create an NC sequence, the NC Sequence coordinate system is the default. Plane—Specify the start plane, parallel to the XY plane of the coordinate system. When you create an NC sequence, the retract plane is the default. Window—Sketch or select a closed contour to define the window. Tool Side (Optional)—Specify how far the tool will go with respect to the window outline. The default is Tool In. Depth (Optional)—Specify the depth of the window. If you do not specify this, the system performs milling up to the surfaces visible from the Mill Window; through-all vertical and slanted surfaces will be milled up to the bottom of the reference part.

4. When you start defining Window, the MILL WIND menu appears with the following options: Sketch—Define the window by sketching a closed contour. The system uses the start plane as the sketching plane and orients the sketch so that the X-axis of the coordinate system points to the right, and the Y-axis points up. Select—Define the window by selecting edges or curves that form a closed contour. This contour is then projected on the start plane to form the window outline.

5. If you choose to redefine the Tool Side, the TOOL SIDE menu appears with the following options: To—The tool will always be completely within the window outline. The corresponding value in the dialog box is Tool In. On—The tool axis will reach the window outline. The corresponding value in the dialog box is Tool On. Past—The tool will go completely past the window outline. The corresponding value in the dialog box is Tool Past.

6. If you choose to define Depth, the WND DEPTH menu appears with the following options:

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Tool In

Tool On

Tool Past

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Define—Specify the window depth either by selecting a plane parallel to the start plane (Specify Plane), or by entering a Z value with respect to the window coordinate system (Z Depth). Remove—Remove the depth definition, that is, revert to the default depth. Show—Show the current depth definition. The system will display a cyan rectangle at the level of the current window depth.

To Use Reference Quilts

1. On the MANUFACTURE menu, click Machining > Mfg Setup > Ref Quilts. 2. Use the following options: Add—Select quilts (surface features) to use as machining references. Remove—Remove previously selected quilts. Show—Show selected quilts.

3. Click Done/Return when finished.

Mill Volumes
About Mill Volumes A Mill Volume can either be defined during the time of creating an NC sequence, or predefined using the MFG GEOMETRY menu option Mill Volume. To access this option, choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then Mfg Geometry. If defining the volume at setup time, you have to specify the upward direction: 1. Select a planar surface, or create/select a datum plane that will be parallel to the XY coordinate plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system. 2. A red arrow appears showing the current upward direction. Set the desired upward direction using Flip and Okay options.

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You can specify reference quilts to define the depth of your Mill Window. Use this functionality if the surfaces below the window contain multiple small patches at different depths (for example, geometry created as a result of IGES import).

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To Gather a Mill Volume

Gathering allows you to reference surfaces and edges of the design model. Generally, the gathering process includes several steps: 1. Select surfaces to be machined. The Select option provides multiple ways of surface selection, which are described below. All surfaces included in the volume definition will be “sewn together to form a single quilt, and the system will “close the volume automatically by extruding the boundaries of this quilt vertically up to the retract plane (or, if defining the volume at setup time, the plane selected for upward direction). 2. If selected surfaces contain inner loops (holes, slots), that you want to ignore, use the Fill option. You can fill loops by individually selecting them, or by selecting a surface to fill all internal loops on it. 3. If you want to ignore some outer loops or exclude some of the selected surfaces from the volume, use the Exclude option. 4. If you want to specify ways of “closing the volume, other than the default way described above, use the Close option. As you modify the surface quilt and closing instructions, the volume is recalculated. It can be displayed at any time using the Show Volume option. You can repeatedly redefine the volume by adding more references of a certain type, or removing certain references. Whenever you select references for gathering, the FEATURE REFS menu appears with the options: • • • Add—Select additional references (this is the only option available when you start defining the volume). Remove—Unselect some of the references. select surfaces or loops you want to unselect. Remove All—Unselect all references of the current type. For example, if the Bndry Srfs option is highlighted, choosing Remove All will clear the definition of bounding surfaces.

To Select Surfaces for a Mill Volume

When you choose Select for the first time and start selecting surfaces to be included in a volume definition, the following options are available:

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Surf & Bnd—Select one of the surfaces to be machined (“seed surface), and the bounding surfaces. The system will include the selected surface and all its neighboring surfaces until the ones selected as bounding. You will be prompted to select the seed surface immediately after you choose Surf & Bnd for the first time. Then use the following options: Seed Surface—Change the seed surface, if needed. Bndry Srfs—Select bounding surfaces. Bndry Loops—Add outer loops of edges to boundary.

• • •

Surfaces—Select continuous surfaces to be machined. All the selected surfaces will be included in the volume definition. Features—Select features to be machined. All the surfaces of selected features will be included in the volume definition. Mill Surf—Select a pre-defined Mill Surface from a namelist menu. Repeatedly choosing Select will bring up the GATHER SPEC menu with the options:

Type—Respecify the type (for example, Surf & Bnd instead of Surfaces). If you change the type, all previous selections will be discarded. Therefore, whenever you attempt to change the type, the system will prompt for confirmation. References—Reselect the feature references. This will bring up the SURF BND menu if the gather type is Surf & Bnd, and the FEATURE REFS menu in all other cases. Once the surfaces are selected, the other options in the GATHER menu become available. You can unselect surfaces, fill or exclude loops of edges, and otherwise enhance the volume definition created in the first step. The ways to do it depend on the option which you have used for surface selection: volumes gathered using Surf & Bnd follow different rules than those created using one of the other options. At any point, you can display the currently selected surfaces using the Show Select option. Outer (bounding) edges of selected surfaces will be displayed in yellow; inner (two-sided) and silhouette edges—in magenta.

Examples: Selecting Surfaces for a Mill Volume The following illustration shows using Surfaces vs. Surf & Bnd when gathering a Mill Volume:

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Select seed surface
Hidden

Mill Volume

hidden

Select bounding surfaces (use Query Sel for hidden surfaces). Surf & Bnd Select this surface. Mill Volume

Surface

The following illustration shows using the Features option when gathering a Mill Volume:
Select this feature.

The following illustration shows using the Mill Surf option when gathering a Mill Volume:

These surfaces are included in the Mill Surface. Select any one.

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To Exclude Surfaces and Outer Loops

The Exclude option is available only if you gather using an option other than Surf & Bnd (for example, Surfaces). It allows you to: • • Surfaces—Exclude some of the chosen surfaces by selecting each of them individually. This is especially convenient when gathering using Features or Mill Surf. Loops—Exclude outer loops. Use this option to delete unwanted portions of surfaces selected for gathering.

Example: Excluding Outer Loops The following illustration shows excluding outer loops:

Selecting this surface creates an unwanted portion of volume on the left, because its bottom is part of the same surface.

Mill Volume

Mill Volume

Exclude this loop.

To Fill Inner Loops

When you fill an inner loop of edges on a surface selected for gathering it is equivalent to “patching the base quilt of the Mill Volume. The volume will be built as if there was a smooth surface with no perforations. The Fill option brings up the GATHER FILL menu: • All—Fill all loops on a selected surface. Select a surface. All inner loops on this surface will be filled, whether they belong to bounding surfaces or not.

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Loops—Select loops to be filled. For each loop to be filled, you have to select only one edge. If you gather using Surf & Bnd, the edges must lie on the bounding surfaces. Select additional bounding surfaces if necessary.

Examples: Filling Inner Loops The following illustration shows filling loops when gathering using Surf & Bnd:

1) Select seed surface.

4) Fill this loop (Select edge of the hole). Mill Volume

The hole will not be milled.

2) Select four side surfaces as bounding.

3) Select surfaces of the hole (both halves) as bounding surfaces.

The following illustration shows filling loops when gathering using Surfaces:
This volume will not be milled.

Select this surface using Surfaces.

Mill Volume

The whole volume will be milled.

Edges of the internal loop are also extended upward.

Fill this loop.

The internal loop will not be considered when building the Mill Volume.

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Note: A loop can not be filled if it belongs to more than two adjoining surfaces.
This loop cannot be filled (suppress the feature before creating the volume). This loop can be filled.

To Close a Mill Volume

The system will close the volume automatically, by extruding the boundaries of the selected surface quilt vertically up to the retract plane (or, if defining the volume at setup time, the plane selected for upward direction). If you want to specify a different way to close the volume, select Close. The following options are available: • • • • Define—Create a closure definition to replace the one supplied by the system. Delete—Remove the current closure definition (revert to the system-supplied one). Redefine—Respecify the closure definition references when a user definition already exists. Show—Display the current closure definition. When you choose Define or Redefine, the following options are available: • • • Cap Plane—Select a planar surface or datum plane to be used for closing the volume. All Loops—All boundary loops in the current quilt will be extended to the cap plane. Sel Loops—Select loops to be extended to the cap plane. You have to select only one edge in each loop.

Example: Closing a Volume when Milling a Through Pocket When milling through pockets, you have to extend the edges at the bottom of the pocket downward, to indicate that the tool must go through, as shown in the following illustration: 252

Select top of workpiece as Cap Plane, then select top edge Select seed surface. using Sel Loops.

hidden The pocket is Select bounding extended down. surfaces (top and bottom). Select bottom of workpiece as Cap Plane, then select bottom edge using Sel Loops.

To Show a Mill Volume Definition After Gathering

The Show Volume option allows you to check the current volume definition, to see if you need to exclude more loops, close differently. The Mill Volume will be displayed in magenta. As you gather more references, the volume display will change. To view the changes, repaint the screen and select Show Volume again. After you choose Done from the VOL GATHER menu, the Mill Volume you have defined will be displayed in magenta. You can add and remove volumes to mill using Sketch, offset the sides, round some edges.

To Sketch a Mill Volume

1. Choose Sketch from the CREATE VOL menu. 2. If a volume is already present in the current definition, choose Add or Remove. Add will add a “protrusion to the current volume, Remove will subtract the sketched volume from the current volume (as a “cut). If no volume is present, a volume “protrusion will be automatically created. Note: Think of Sketch as creating a protrusion or cut in a part that consists of just the Mill Volume itself. 3. Choose options from the SOLID OPTS menu:

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Extrude—Creates a feature that is formed by projecting the section straight away from the sketching plane. Revolve—Creates a feature by revolving the sketched section around a centerline from the sketching plane into the part. Sweep—Creates a feature by sketching a trajectory and then sweeping a cross section along it. Blend—Creates a feature that consists of a set of planar sections that are connected by transition surfaces to form a solid. Use Quilt—Creates a feature by referencing a surface feature. Advanced—Creates a complex shape feature, for example, using datum curves or multiple trajectories. Solid—Default for the above forms; creates solid geometry. Thin—Creates a thin feature.

4. Choose attributes appropriate for the selected form, such as depth option, degrees of rotation. 5. Set up the Sketcher: select or create the sketching plane, choose the feature direction, specify the sketcher reference plane. 6. Sketch the section. Volume sections are sketched the same as for regular features (protrusions and cuts). Sketched entities can be aligned and dimensioned both to part geometry and to the entities of other volume “chunks. 7. Regenerate and choose Done. The volume is added or subtracted. The Sketch option can be used as many times as you like within a single volume definition.

Sketching a Mill Volume Mill Volume can be defined by sketching, very much like you create regular features (protrusions and cuts) in Pro/ENGINEER. If Sketch is selected as the first option from the CREATE VOL menu, the sketched volume will be automatically added. If a volume is already present in the current definition, you will have to specify if you wish to Add or Remove the volume you are about to sketch. Do not confuse removing volume by sketch, and removing workpiece material by machining. Since you are defining a volume to be machined, that is, subtracted from the workpiece, adding to this volume will increase the amount of material to be removed, and vice versa.

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Examples: Combining Sketch and Gather Sketch can be used after gathering part references to extend the Mill Volume, or to exclude some areas from milling. The following illustration shows an example of adding a sketched volume:

Section sketch (Use Edge) Use Gather, Surfaces, select this surface. Use Sketch, Add.

Resulting volume

Mill Volume

Milling NC sequence completed.

The following illustration shows an example of removing a sketched volume:

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Gather, Surf & Bnd Seed surface Bounding surfaces

Bottom edge

Mill Volume goes all the way through. Final Mill Volume

Sketch, Remove

Section sketch

To Trim a Mill Volume

A sketched volume can be trimmed by the reference model using the Trim option in the CREATE VOL menu. When you select Trim, the system will automatically subtract the reference model from the current volume definition. Only the remaining volume will be machined. To make sure there will be no gouging, this option can also be used after offsetting all surfaces. Note: Using Trim after defining the volume by gathering only does not make sense: Trim will use the same references as Gather does, so nothing will change.

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Example: Trimming a Mill Volume

Step 1: Sketch extruded Thru All volume. Make sure it is deeper than the pockets to mill. Section sketch Step 2: Remove extra volume outside the workpiece by sketching. This step can be omitted if TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE is set to YES. Section sketch

Step 3: Select Trim from the Create Vol menu. The reference part is subtracted from the volume to mill.

area to remove

Milling volume

The top surface and all three pockets will be machined in a single NC sequence, as shown.

Tip: Combining Sketch and Trim A sketched section does not have to correspond exactly to the desired Mill Volume. It can be sketched larger than needed, and then “trimmed to size using: • • The Trim option—To subtract the reference model from the sketched volume. The TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE parameter—To confine the volume to be milled to that inside the workpiece boundaries, in order to avoid air machining.

To Offset a Mill Volume

The options for offset are: • • Walls—All the side surfaces will be offset. Surfaces—Select surfaces to offset.

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• •

Tool Radius—The offset distance will be equal to the tool radius. Value—The offset distance will be user-defined. Enter the offset value. Note: In order to offset by tool radius, you have to create the volume at the time of creating the NC sequence, after the tool is specified.

• •

Horizontal—The bottom surface edges will be offset parallel to the XY plane. Tangential—The bottom surface edges will be offset tangent to the surface.

Offsetting a Mill Volume Gathered or sketched volume can be extended by offset. Because the tool is always inside the defined volume, this option can be used, for example, to clean the border edges of the workpiece. Note: In this case, make sure to set the parameter TRIM_TO_WORKPIECE to NO.

Machined volume Tool If the volume is offset by the tool radius, the border edge will be cleaned.

Example: Offsetting a Mill Volume

Horizontal

Tangential

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To Create Rounds on a Mill Volume

As a refining touch, you can create rounds on some of the volume edges. This is another way to simulate the tool geometry as it cuts the material.

To Copy a Mill Volume

The Copy Volume option in the CREATE VOL menu allows you to copy an existing volume definition as the “start point for defining a new volume, to avoid time-consuming repetitions.

To Shade a Mill Volume

In order to see a Mill Volume definition better, you can shade the volume. This functionality is available only at setup time (you cannot shade a volume when creating an NC sequence). 1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then Mfg Geometry. 2. Choose Mill Volume from the MFG GEOMETRY menu. 3. Choose Shade from the MILL VOLUME menu. 4. Select the name of the volume to shade. The screen is repainted to display only the shaded image of the selected volume. 5. Choose Continue from the CntVolSel menu to select another volume for shading, or choose Done/Return to finish.

To Modify a Mill Volume

1. Choose Mfg Setup > Mfg Geometry > Mill Volume > Modify Vol. 2. Select the name of the volume from the namelist menu. The current volume definition is displayed in magenta. 3. Use options from the CREATE VOL menu to change the volume as desired: add and remove pieces, offset. 259

During the time of creating an NC sequence, you can similarly modify a volume using the Modify Vol option in the DEFINE VOL menu.

Modifying a Mill Volume

Mill Volume is not a single feature: it is a set of features that will be referenced by a milling NC sequence. All “chunks of volume will be machined by generating a continuous tool path, but each “chunk of Mill Volume is considered as a separate feature. For example, if you gather references, add a sketched volume, and offset walls, three features will be added to the workpiece. After an NC sequence is created, one more feature is added to the workpiece. Mill Volumes, or their portions, can be deleted or suppressed by deleting/suppressing the appropriate feature(s) on the workpiece. Volume “chunks can be chosen by selecting on them (use Query Sel if necessary), or by feature number. Note: There is a special technique of reordering Mill Volumes. Click for details. You can modify any volume using the Modify Vol option under the MILL VOLUME menu. You can also modify dimensions of a volume (such as sketch dimensions, offsets, round radii), using the Modify Dim option. Select volume features as you would select regular part features (the volume must be unblanked first). When not needed, volume display can be turned off using the Blank option. After you choose it, the namelist menu of displayed volumes and Mill Surfaces appears; select the volume name. Blanked volumes can later be displayed again using the Unblank option.

To Rename a Mill Volume 1. Choose Set Up from the MANUFACTURE menu. 2. Choose Name, then Other. 3. Choose the volume by clicking on the screen (the volume must be unblanked). To select by menu, choose Quilt from the SELN OPTION menu, then select the volume name. 4. Enter the new name. The volume is renamed.

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Mill Surfaces
About Mill Surfaces A Mill Surface is a special surface feature, created by the set of techniques described below, which can be used in Surface milling NC sequences. Mill Surfaces can also be used to define Mill Volumes. You can use any combination of the tools in the SURF DEFINE menu to create a single Mill Surface. Note: Milling surfaces are a good tool for defining complex Mill Volumes.

To Create a Mill Surface

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then choose Mfg Geometry. 2. Choose Mill Surface from the MFG GEOMETRY menu. 3. Choose Create and enter a name for the surface. 4. When the SURF DEFINE menu comes up for the first time, the only option available is Add. It allows you to create the base patch of the Mill Surface. 5. Once the first surface patch is created, you can use other SURF DEFINE options: extend its edges, trim it, or add other patches and include them in the Mill Surface definition by merging. Note: Mill Surface can also be created “on the fly when defining a Surface milling NC sequence. The techniques are the same.

Adding Surface Patches The Add option in the SURF DEFINE menu brings up the SRF OPTS menu with the following options: • • • • Extrude—Create the surface by extruding the sketched section to a specified depth in the direction normal to the sketching plane. Revolve—Create the surface by rotating the sketched section by a specified angle around the first centerline sketched when sketching the section. Sweep—Create the surface as a result of sweeping a sketched section along a specified trajectory. Blend—Create a smooth surface connecting several sketched sections.

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• • • •

Flat—Create a planar datum surface by sketching its boundaries. Copy—Create a datum surface by copying surfaces of the reference part. Fillet—Create a surface-to-surface round between the surfaces of the reference part or between other patches of the Mill Surface. Advanced—Create a complex surface, for example, using datum curves, multiple trajectories. The Copy option is especially instrumental in Pro/NC, since it allows you to reference geometry of the design model.

Example: Gathering a Mill Surface The following illustration shows an example of gathering a Mill Surface using Surf & Bnd.
Select seed surface. Resulting Mill Surface

Select bounding surface.

NOTE: Surfaces are meshed for better visibility. You will not see the Mill Surface like this: it will be indicated by "open" edges displayed in yellow, and silhouette and intersection lines—in magenta.

To Create a Sloped Mill Surface

1. On the MFG GEOMETRY menu, click Mill Surface > Create and type a name for the Mill Surface. 2. On the SURF DEFINE menu, click Add > Advanced | Done > Sloped | Done. The Mill Surface for Slope Control dialog box opens with the following elements: Surfaces—Specify the set of surfaces to be initially included in the Mill Surface definition. Direction—Specify a direction for measuring the slope angle. 262

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Angle—Specify the slope angle. Steep/Shallow—Specify whether you want to keep the steep or the shallow side.

3. Define the Surfaces element. You can include the surfaces using any combination of the following options: Indiv Surfs—Select individual surfaces one-by-one. Surf & Bnd—Gather surfaces to be included by selecting the seed surface and the bounding surfaces. Loop Surfs—Include a closed loop of surfaces by selecting a face they surround. Quilt Surfs—Select a Surface feature (for example, an existing Mill Surface) to include all of its patches. Solid Surfs—Select a part to include all of its surfaces.

On the SURF SELECT menu, click Done when finished. 4. Define the Direction element using one of the following options: Plane—Select a plane. The system displays a red arrow normal to the plane. Finalize the direction by using the Flip and Okay options. Crv/Edg/Axis—Select a straight edge, curve segment, or a datum axis. The system displays a red arrow along the selected entity. Finalize the direction by using the Flip and Okay options. Csys—Select a coordinate system; then specify which of its axes to use. The system displays a red arrow along the selected axis. Finalize the direction by using the Flip and Okay options.

5. Define the Angle element by typing a value at the prompt. 6. Define the Steep/Shallow element using one of the following options: Keep Steep Side—The system keeps only those portions of the selected surfaces where the angle between the surface normal and the Direction vector is greater than the specified Angle value. Keep Shallow Side—The system keeps only those portions of the selected surfaces where the angle between the surface normal and the Direction vector is less than the specified Angle value.

7. Click Preview to view the Mill Surface. If satisfied, click OK.

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Sloped Mill Surfaces With Sloped Mill Surfaces you can easily adjust machining strategy for finish milling based on the orientation of the surface. When you need to machine a cavity, you may want to use Conventional Surface milling on the bottom of the cavity and other near-horizontal surfaces, and profile surfaces that are near-vertical, such as cavity walls. To automate surface selection for each of these machining strategies, use a Sloped Mill Surface. Indicate all the surfaces that you want to consider for machining (for example, all the surfaces inside a cavity, or even all the surfaces of the part), and specify a direction vector and the desired slope angle. The system filters selected surfaces based on the angular orientation of the surface normal with respect to the direction vector. You can then specify whether you want to keep the “shallow portion of the surfaces (for Conventional Surface milling), or the “steep portion (for Profiling). You can use similar technique when machining the outside of a part.

Example: Creating a Sloped Mill Surface 1. Create a parent Mill Surface by gathering all surfaces in the pocket, as shown below.
Bounding surfaces

Seed surface

The resulting Mill Surface is shown in blue in the next illustration. 2. Create a new Mill Surface using the Sloped option. To define the Surfaces element, use the Quilt Surfs option and select the parent Mill Surface. Use the Z-axis of the

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coordinate system to define Direction (the direction vector is shown in red) and type 45 to specify Angle.

3. Choose Keep Shallow Side. The resulting Mill Surface is shown in blue in the following illustration.

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4. To define a complementary Mill Surface for Profiling, repeat Step 2 and then choose Keep Steep Side. The resulting Mill Surface is shown in blue in the following illustration.

5. Create the NC sequences using the appropriate Sloped Mill Surface.

To Define Mill Surface as Machinable Surface 1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then choose Mfg Geometry. 2. Choose Mill Surface from the MFG GEOMETRY menu. 3. Choose Create and enter a name for the surface. 4. When the SURF DEFINE menu comes up for the first time, the only option available is Add. It allows you to create the base patch of the Mill Surface. Once the first surface patch is created, you can use other SURF DEFINE options: extend its edges, trim it, or add other patches and include them in the Mill Surface definition by merging. Note: Mill Surface can also be created “on the fly when defining a Surface milling NC sequence. The techniques are the same. 5. From SRF OPTIONS choose Advanced, and from ADV FEAT OPT, choose Machinable Area. The SURFACES: Machinable Area Dialog Box will open. 6. Define the following elements: Machine Srf, Check Srf, Tool Radius, Tool Axis. Note that Srf Option is already defined.

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7. After all elements have been defined you can examine the created surface by clicking the Preview button. Click the OK button to confirm that the surface has been created successfully.

Machinable Area Mill Surface There are cases where you may wish to add your own toolpath strategies to the internal surface model, An advanced mill surface type “by tool contact will give you access to the mechanisms that create explicit surface representations of the local machining remainder area and to the cutline milling machinable area. This mill surface is made available under the Advanced option of the mill surface definition. Elements defined that you define include: Selected Surface, Check Surface, Tool Radius, and Tool Orientation.

To Extend Edges of a Mill Surface

The Extend option allows you to extend all or specified edges of the current Mill Surface by a specified distance or up to a selected planar surface or datum plane.

To Merge Patches of a Mill Surface When you create additional patches using the Add option, they are not automatically included into the Mill Surface definition. You have to connect them with the base quilt (the one that includes the first added surface) by joining or intersecting.

To Trim a Mill Surface The Trim option allows you to access the Surface Trim functionality.

To Shade a Mill Surface

In order to better see a Mill Surface definition, you can shade the surface. This functionality is available only at setup time (you cannot shade a surface when creating an NC sequence).

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1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then Mfg Geometry. 2. Choose Mill Surface from the MFG GEOMETRY menu. 3. Choose Shade from the MILL SURFACE menu. 4. Select the name of the surface to shade. The screen is repainted to display only the shaded image of the selected surface. 5. Choose Continue to select another surface for shading, or choose Done/Return to finish.

To Modify a Mill Surface

1. Choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, Mill Surface, then Modify Surf. 2. Select the name of the Mill Surface from the namelist menu. The current surface definition is displayed. 3. Use options from the SURF DEFINE menu to change the surface definition. Note: A Mill Surface created or selected for a Surface milling NC sequence can be modified “on the fly using the Modify Srf option in the DEFINE SRF menu. All changes made at this time will stay after the NC sequence is completed. You can turn off the Mill Surface display using the Blank option. After you choose it, the namelist menu of displayed Mill Surfaces and volumes appears; select the surface name. A blanked Mill Surface can later be displayed using the Unblank option. Mill Surfaces can be renamed using the same procedure as Mill Volumes.

Modifying Mill Surfaces

A Mill Surface is not a single feature: rather, it is a name of a set of features which will be referenced by a Mill Volume or by a milling NC sequence. Each action used in creating a Mill Surface (adding, merging, extending) will produce a separate feature (similar to Mill Volumes). For example, if you add a surface, silhouette trim it, and then extend the edges, three features will be added to the workpiece.

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Mill Surfaces, or their portions, can be deleted or suppressed by deleting/suppressing the appropriate feature(s) on the workpiece. Features can be selected by clicking on the patches (use Query Sel if necessary), or by feature number. Dimensions of a Mill Surface can be modified using the Modify Dim option. Note: There is a special technique of reordering Mill Surfaces. Click for details. You can modify any Mill Surface using the Modify Surf option in the MILL SURFACE menu.

Turning About Turning NC Sequences
To access Turn type NC sequences, you must be in a Lathe or Mill/Turn workcell (if Mill/Turn, choose TURN when starting to create an NC sequence). The following NC sequence types are available: • Area—Define the area in the model cross section where you want the material to be removed. The tool path will be generated by scanning this area to remove material in step depth increments. Use for rough cut turning. 4 Axis Area—(Appears in 4-Axis workcells only.) Define the NC sequence the same as regular Area turning, above. The system will automatically generate the tool path for two synchronized heads. Profile—Interactively define the cut motion(s) by either sketching or using surfaces or datum curves. Groove—Turn narrow grooves using a tool with cutting edges on both sides and a pecktype motion. Thread—Cut threads on a lathe. Holemaking—Drill, bore, and so on. For each of the turning NC sequences, you define the cut geometry by creating or selecting a Turn Profile. The system will attempt to automatically determine the location of the area of the cut with respect to the Turn Profile; in case of ambiguity, it will prompt you to select the material side by flipping an arrow. The cut will be created on the opposite side of the Turn Profile. Depending on the type of NC sequence, you may then have to further define the cut by specifying the stock boundary and cut extensions.

• • • •

To Set Up the Coordinate System for Correct CL Output
In Pro/NC, the NC Sequence coordinate system must have the Z-axis colinear with the turning axis; thus the turning cut is sketched in the ZX plane. If 269

your post-processor requires XY input, set up separate Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems, with the Machine coordinate system axes pointing in the desired directions for correct post-processing. In this case the system will output CL data in the XY coordinates without the transformation vector (i,j,k). The following illustration shows setting coordinate systems for XY output.
NC Sequence coordinate system orientation

Machine coordinate system orientation

The Machine coordinate system can be created at any location and using any option, as long as its axes point in the appropriate directions. An easy way to create a Machine coordinate system by referencing the NC Sequence coordinate system is described below. 1. Orient the NC Sequence coordinate system so that the Z-axis is colinear with the turning axis and points away from the lathe headstock. 2. Create another coordinate system using the Offset option and select the NC Sequence coordinate system. 3. Choose Rotate from the MOVE menu. 4. Choose Y Axis and enter [-90]. 5. Choose Z Axis and enter [-90]. 6. Choose Done Move from the MOVE menu. The coordinate system is created. Note: If there is no translational offset, the NC Sequence coordinate system will not be visible after the Machine coordinate system is created. Use Sel By Menu for coordinate system selection. !AL("About_Turning_NC_Sequences",0,`',`')

To Define a Turning Envelope

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1. On the MANUFACTURE menu, click Mfg Model > Turning Envelope. The ROT ENVLP menu opens with the following commands: Create Envelope—Create a Turning Envelope of the reference part or the workpiece. Redefine Envelope—Redefine an existing Turning Envelope. You can either change the name of the envelope or redefine the envelope itself by using a different coordinate system. Delete Envelope—Delete an existing Turning Envelope.

2. Click Create Envelope. 3. Select what type of envelope you want to create: Ref Envlp—Create a Turning Envelope of the reference part. Stock Envlp— Create a Turning Envelope of the workpiece.

Click Done. The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. It contains the following elements: Name—The Turning Envelope is created with a default name, such as REF_ENVLP_00 or STOCK_ENVLP_00. To change the default name, select the Name element, click Define, and type the new name. Csys—Specify the coordinate system.

4. Select or create the coordinate system. The system generates the Turning Envelope by intersecting the rotational outline of the specified model with the XZ plane of the selected coordinate system. 5. Click Preview to view the Turning Envelope. 6. Click OK.

Using Turning Envelopes
Turning Envelopes are intended for use primarily when machining parts with a non-circular cross section. The system generates a Turning Envelope by rotating the reference part or the workpiece about the turning axis (that is, about the z-axis of the Turning Envelope coordinate system), and then intersecting the outside perimeter of the rotated shape with the XZ plane of this coordinate system. The resulting chain of entities can be used to define a Turn Profile or a Stock Boundary.

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You can also use the Turning Envelope functionality if you are machining a circular part with a very complex profile. To simplify defining the Turn Profiles for such a part, you can create a Reference Envelope and then define the Turn Profiles by using the Select Ref Envlp command and selecting the appropriate chains on the Reference Envelope.

To Define the Stock Boundary

1. On the INT CUT menu, click Stock Bound. 2. The ADD BOUND menu opens with the following commands: Select—(Available for Assembly machining only.) Select a workpiece whose cross section will define the stock boundary. If only one workpiece is present in the manufacturing model, it will be selected automatically. Sketch—Sketch the stock boundary. Pro/NC reorients the model so that the XZ plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system is parallel to the screen and displays the Sketcher side bar. Select the Sketcher references, sketch the outward boundaries of the cut, dimension as necessary, then click on the Sketcher side bar.

Stock Boundary and Cut Extensions

Note: Turning NC sequences intersecting workpiece boundaries can not be created on a manufacturing model with multiple workpieces, unless you define a stock boundary section. However, if a manufacturing model has multiple reference parts and a single workpiece, turning NC sequences can be created without sketching a stock boundary.

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Stock Envelope—Create a rotational envelope of the workpiece and use it as the stock boundary. Pro/NC will automatically use the NC Sequence coordinate system as the Turning Envelope coordinate system. Click for details.

The Turn Profile for Area and Groove turning is defined by specifying the final stock outline. The system then determines the area of the cut by extending the two endpoints of this outline in the specified direction up to the boundaries of the workpiece cross section. However, if the workpiece has no geometry, or in case of assembly machining, the system cannot make any assumptions as to the current workpiece outline. Therefore, you will have to explicitly define the stock boundary, that is, the outward boundaries of the cut, by using the Stock Bound option in the INT CUT menu. The graphic below illustrates how the cut area is determined.

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Stock boundary sketch Workpiece Cut extensions Cut sketch Cut sketch Cut extensions

Reference part Regular part manufacturing: the workpiece cross section is automatically used as stock boundary.

Cut area

Reference part Workpiece has no geometry: you have to sketch the stock boundary.

Defining the Stock Boundary in Part and Assembly Machining
With the Stock Bound option, you can sketch the outward boundaries of the cut for an Area or Groove turning NC sequence. In Assembly machining, you also have an option to select a workpiece whose cross section will define the stock boundary. For Assembly machining, or if the workpiece has no geometry, the Stock Bound option is selected automatically. It can also be used in regular part manufacturing if you don’t want to use the workpiece cross section to determine the area of the cut. Note: Since the area of the cut is determined using the workpiece cross section, it is recommended that you perform material removal for each NC sequence right after it is created, to avoid air machining in subsequent NC sequences. If you do not want to perform material removal, use the Stock Bound option to define the new stock outline.

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Example: Using Stock Boundary for Area Turning
Stock boundary sketch Cut extensions Cut sketch

Reference part

To Change the Stock Boundary Outline

You can change the stock boundary outline at any time; however, it will automatically cause the cut definition to be regenerated. The system will issue a warning and prompt if you want to continue. If you answer “yes, the STOCK BOUND menu will appear: • Add—Modify the stock boundary definition. You will have a choice of Select (for Assembly machining only), Sketch, and Stock Envelope options. If you use Sketch and the current stock boundary is sketched, the old sketch will be retrieved for you to modify (if you want to start a new sketch, use the Remove option first). Note that only one stock boundary definition can exist at a time; therefore, choosing Add actually replaces the old definition with a new one. Remove—Remove the stock boundary definition. In regular Part machining (when the workpiece has geometry), the system will the use the workpiece cross section as a stock boundary. In assembly machining, or if the workpiece does not have geometry, you have to supply another definition using the Add option. Show—Display the current stock boundary definition. Done—The system recalculates the cut area using the new stock boundary definition.

• •

To Define the Cut Extensions

Cut extensions have to be specified for Area and Groove turning NC sequences. They define the area of the cut and the approach of the tool. After you define the cut by either creating or selecting a Turn Profile, endpoints of

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the cut are highlighted, an arrow shows the default cut extension direction, and you are prompted to specify the cut extensions. You can do this by selecting options from the EXT DIR menu: • • • • • Positive Z—Extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint parallel to the turning axis, in the direction of the Z-axis of the NC sequence coordinate system. Negative Z—Extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint parallel to the turning axis, in the direction opposite to that of the Z-axis of the NC sequence coordinate system. Positive X—Extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint perpendicular to the turning axis, in the direction of the X-axis of the NC sequence coordinate system. Negative X—Extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint perpendicular to the turning axis, in the direction opposite to that of the X-axis of the NC sequence coordinate system. None—Do not extend the cut at the highlighted endpoint. None is generally used with facing NC sequences to specify no cut extension at the endpoint closest to the turning axis. The tool retracts once the cut reaches this endpoint. Note: If the cut endpoint for a facing NC sequence is located on the turning axis, you have to specify None for cut extension at this point.

To Adjust Cut Motion Ends

You can extend or trim the ends of a cut motion after selecting or creating the Turn Profile using the following procedure. 1. On the INT CUT menu, click Ends. 2. Click Start to adjust the start point. 3. Choose one of: On—Place the start point of the cut motion at the start of the defined trajectory (the default). Specify—Move the start point along the defined trajectory. When you select this option, the start point of the cut motion starts following the mouse (along the cut motion, if trimmed, and tangent to the first segment, if extended).

4. If the cut motion is adjusted using Specify, select the dimensioning type: Ext Length—Type the extension length along the chain, that is, length ratio of the added or subtracted segment to the original length of the cut motion. Positive value corresponds to extended cut motion, negative—to a trimmed one.

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Offset Plane—Select a plane to measure offset from, then type the offset value. Positive value means that the offset is to the positive side of the surface (away from the solid material). Offset Csys—Select a coordinate system to measure offset from. Select axis along which to measure the offset, then type the offset value. Positive value means the positive axis direction.

5. Click End to adjust the end point and repeat Steps 3 and 4.

To Specify Corner Conditions
1. On the INT CUT menu, click Corners. 2. The CORNER COND menu appears with the following options: Add—Select corners to add corner conditions. Delete—Allows you to select a corner condition to delete. Delete Last—Deletes the corner condition that has been added last. You can use this option more than once; when there are no more corner conditions left, the Delete Last option becomes inaccessible. Delete All—Deletes all the corner conditions.

3. When you choose Add from the CORNER COND menu, the CORNER ADD menu appears with the following options: Specify—Select points on the cut motion and specify type by selecting the appropriate option. After each selection, the corner condition will be added at the selected point. Choose Done Sel when finished. Automatic—Corner conditions will be automatically added at all the corners. You will be prompted to specify the desired type of corner condition for all concave corners, then for all convex corners.

After the corner conditions are automatically added, you can review and change them using the AUTO SELECT menu: Next—Display the next assigned corner condition. Prev—Display the previous corner condition. Change Type—Specify a different corner condition type for the highlighted corner. Remove—Delete corner condition at the highlighted corner.

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Show All—Display all the currently added corner conditions. Convex corner conditions will be highlighted in red, concave—in cyan. Info—List information about the highlighted corner condition type in the Message Window.

Corner Condition Types

Fillet—A fillet which can be added both at concave and convex corners. The fillet radius is defined by either the CONCAVE_RADIUS or the CONVEX_RADIUS parameter, depending on the type of the corner. Chamfer—A chamfer which can be added both at concave and convex corners. The chamfer size is defined by the CHAMFER_DIM parameter, which represents the distance cut on each side of the corner. The graphic below illustrates the corner condition types.
Tool path R Tool path

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Corner conditions can be specified for Area, Profile, and Groove turning, to avoid gouging sharp convex corners, as well as to easily add necessary fillets and chamfers at the time of machining. The following types of corner conditions are available in Turning:

d d

Part Fillet R = CONVEX_RADIUS

Part Chamfer d = CHAMFER_DIM

For Area turning, both the rough and profile passes will take the corner condition into account.

Profile pass

Rough passes

Part Chamfer corner condition added here.

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To Specify Local Stock Allowance

1. On the INT CUT menu, click Stock Allow. 2. Click Define. In Area, 4 Axis Area, and Groove Turning, you can specify separate local stock allowance for Rough and Profile cuts by using the Rough Portion or Profile Portion option, respectively. 3. Select a chain of entities on the Turn Profile by using the From-To option and selecting two vertices (or choose Select All), and enter a value for local stock allowance. The system displays the expected final tool pass by applying the values listed below and the local stock allowance you specified to the Turn Profile: For Rough Portion and for Profile Turning—Ends adjustments, corner conditions, ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW, Z_STOCK_ALLOW. For Profile Portion—Ends adjustments, corner conditions, PROF_STOCK_ALLOW, Z_STOCK_ALLOW.

4. Repeat Step 3 to apply other local stock allowances, or choose Done/Return to finish. Note: You can not apply more than one local stock allowance to the same entity. 5. The following options are available to manipulate existing local stock allowances: Modify—All local stock allowance values are displayed. Use the Dimension option, select a value you want to modify, and enter a new value. You can also modify the underlying parameter values: use the Parameter option, check off the stock allowance parameter(s) you want to modify, and enter the new value(s). Remove—Select the pair(s) of vertices where local stock allowance is specified (you can also use Select All). Once you remove a pair, stock allowance control reverts to parameter values. Info—Displays the expected final tool pass, along with stock allowance values.

Local Stock Allowance
In general, the amount of stock left after a rough cut or semi-finish NC sequence is controlled by the following manufacturing parameters: ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW, PROF_STOCK_ALLOW, and Z_STOCK_ALLOW. They specify the stock allowance for all the surfaces machined in this NC sequence. In some cases, however, you may need to specify a different value of stock allowance for certain surfaces; for example, to leave extra stock for subsequent grinding operations, or adjust stock allowance prior to heat treatment.

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You can specify local stock allowance by selecting a chain of segments on a Turn Profile and entering a value that will apply to this chain only. This functionality is available for Area, 4 Axis Area, Groove, and Profile Turning.

To Specify the Tool Orientation
The orientation of a Turning tool can be controlled by the NC sequence parameter TOOL_ORIENTATION. The default value for this parameter is 90 degrees, which in most cases orients the tool properly to machine the outside and face surfaces of the workpiece. To machine the inside surfaces of a cored workpiece, you may need to change the TOOL_ORIENTATION value to 0. The actual tool orientation is also affected by the turret head number (Head 1 or Head 2), as well as the holder type (Left or Right). You can preview the tool orientation in the Preview window of the Tool Setup dialog box. You can mirror the tool about its vertical axis by setting the Holder_Type parameter to Right. This allows you to perform back turning of diameters behind the shoulders of parts.

Holder_Type Right

Holder_Type Left

To Use Multi-Head Turning

If 4-Axis turning is available in the current workcell, the HEAD 1 and HEAD 2 options will allow you to specify which head is to be used for the NC sequence (HEAD 1 is the default). You can synchronize CL output of NC sequences created using Head1 with NC sequences performed on Head2 by using the Synchronize option in the MACHINING menu. If you perform 4 Axis Area turning, the HEAD1 and HEAD2 options are grayed out, because the system will automatically use both heads for this NC sequence. 279

To Create an Area Turning NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Area | Done. You must be in a Lathe or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have to click Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 3. If you click Seq Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC sequence types. Select the desired options and click Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 3. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Customize. 4. Select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 5. If the stock boundary is not defined, the system selects the Stock Bound command on the INT CUT menu. Specify the stock boundary. 6. The system selects the Turn Profile command on the INT CUT menu and displays the TURN PROFILE menu. Select or create a Turn Profile. 7. The system selects the Extensions command on the INT CUT menu and displays the EXT DIR menu. Specify the cut extensions. 8. You can use the other commands on the INT CUT menu: Ends—Extend or trim the ends of the cut section. Turning extensions will be applied to the adjusted ends of the cut section, as specified. Corners—Specify the corner conditions, if desired. Stock Allow—Specify local stock allowances, if desired. Parameters—Adjust the cut motion parameters, if necessary.

9. Click Done Cut. The system creates an Automatic Cut and a Follow Cut motion. 10. Create additional Approach and Exit motions, if needed, by selecting the appropriate options from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box. 11. When satisfied with the tool path, click OK. 12. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Done Seq or Next Seq.

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Area Turning
Area turning allows you to define the area in the model cross section where you want the material to be removed. The tool path will be generated by scanning this area to remove material in step depth increments. You can control how the intermediate reference part diameters are machined using the combination of the STEP_DEPTH and MIN_STEP_DEPTH parameters. Pro/NC will generate passes at STEP_DEPTH until a reference part diameter is located. It will then calculate the depth of a pass at this diameter plus stock allowance, and compare the distance between that pass and the previous one to MIN_STEP_DEPTH. If this distance is more than MIN_STEP_DEPTH, the system will make the pass along the diameter, and the scanning algorithm will start from this pass. If the distance is smaller than MIN_STEP_DEPTH, the diameter pass is ignored and the scanning algorithm continues from the previous pass. The MIN_STEP_DEPTH parameter values have the following meaning: • • • MIN_STEP_DEPTH = 0—Machine all diameters to stock allowance. This is the default (“-). 0 < MIN_STEP_DEPTH < STEP_DEPTH—Intermediate diameters will be machined to stock allowance if the distance from the previous pass is more than MIN_STEP_DEPTH. MIN_STEP_DEPTH = STEP_DEPTH—Only the final diameter will be machined to stock allowance. All the other passes will be at STEP_DEPTH distance from each other. If you specify MIN_STEP_DEPTH > STEP_DEPTH, an error message will be issued, and all the passes will be at STEP_DEPTH.

Example: Face Area Turning
The following illustration shows an example of face Area turning. Sketch the Turn Profile above the centerline representing the turning axis. Specify the cut extensions as shown.

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Positive X Turn Profile

None

Example: Outside Area Turning
The following example shows Area turning of the outside surfaces of the workpiece. In this example, the area of the cut is extended past the surface boundary of the reference model by adjusting the Ends of the Automatic Cut motion. 7. Define the Turn Profile by selecting surfaces of the reference part and specify the cut extensions as shown in the following illustration.
Positive X

Turn Profile Positive Z

8. On the INT CUT menu, click Ends > Start > Specify | Done. Use the mouse to extend the Turn Profile to the left, as shown in the following illustration. On the END DIM TYPE menu, click Ext Length and accept the default value.

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The resulting tool path is shown in the following illustration.

Example: Inside Area Turning
To turn the inside surfaces of a cored workpiece, set the TOOL_ORIENTATION parameter value to 0. Then define the Turn Profile and cut extensions as shown in the following illustration.

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Turn Profile Positive Z Negative Z

To Create a 4 Axis Area Turning NC Sequence

With the 4 Axis Area option, available in 4-axis workcells only, you can define an Area turning NC sequence with two synchronized heads simultaneously machining the area. 1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > 4 Axis Area | Done. You must be in a 2-turret Lathe or a Mill/Turn workcell. Note that once you click 4 Axis Area, the HEAD1 and HEAD2 options become unavailable, because the system will use both heads for this NC sequence. 2. Follow the procedure for defining an Area turning NC sequence. When you are finished, the system automatically generates the tool path for two synchronized heads.

Example: 4 Axis Area Turning

Tool path display in process

Tool path display completed

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To Create a Profile Turning NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Profile | Done. You must be in a Lathe or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have to click Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 3. If you click Seq Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC sequence types. Select the desired options and click Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 3. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Customize. 4. Select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 5. The system displays the TURN PROFILE menu. Select or create a Turn Profile. 6. By default, the cut motion will be offset from the Turn Profile by NOSE_RADIUS (if the OUTPUT_POINT parameter is set to CENTER). If you want the Turn Profile to represent the trajectory of the tool control point, rather than the finished geometry, on the INT CUT menu, click On/Offset > On. The cut motion will then coincide with the Turn Profile. 7. Adjust the cut motion ends, if needed, and specify corner conditions. You can also specify local stock allowances, if desired. Connect the cut motions using the Tool Motion functionality. 8. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path generated by the system. 9. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Profile Turning

Profile turning allows you to interactively specify the cut motion trajectory. When defining cut motions, the On/Offset option in the INT CUT menu provides you with the following choice: • Offset (default)—The turn profile represents the finished geometry, that is, the trajectory of the tip of the tool cutting material. This means that if the OUTPUT_POINT parameter is set to CENTER (the default), the cut motion will be automatically offset by NOSE_RADIUS in the appropriate direction from the specified trajectory (up for outside turning, down—for inside, to the right—for face turning). If OUTPUT_POINT is TIP, no offset will be applied.

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On—The turn profile represents the trajectory of the tool control point. No offset will be applied when creating the cut motion.

Example: Profile Turning
The following illustration shows Profile turning of outside surfaces using the Offset option.

Automatic Cut motion 2 Automatic Cut motion 1

To Create a Groove Turning NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Groove | Done. You must be in a Lathe or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have to click Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 3. If you click Seq Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC sequence types. Select the desired options and click Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 3. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Customize. 4. Select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 5. If the stock boundary is not defined, the system selects the Stock Bound command on the INT CUT menu. Specify the stock boundary. 6. The system selects the Turn Profile command on the INT CUT menu and displays the TURN PROFILE menu. Select or create a Turn Profile.

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7. The system selects the Extensions command on the INT CUT menu and displays the EXT DIR menu. Specify the cut extensions. 8. You can use the other commands on the INT CUT menu: Ends—Extend or trim the ends of the cut section. Turning extensions will be applied to the adjusted ends of the cut section, as specified. Corners—Specify the corner conditions, if desired. Stock Allow—Specify local stock allowances, if desired. Parameters—Adjust the cut motion parameters, if necessary.

9. Click Done Cut. The system creates an Automatic Cut and a Follow Cut motion. 10. Create additional Approach and Exit motions, if needed, by selecting the appropriate options from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box. 11. When satisfied with the tool path, click OK. 12. On the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Done Seq or Next Seq.

Groove Turning
Groove turning is performed with a different type of tool, which has cutting edges on both sides. Note that the tool origin is at the center of the left-side nose radius. For Groove turning, the tool always cuts normal to the groove bottom. The distance between two neighboring cuts is defined by the STEP_OVER parameter, the height of retract between the cuts (the system start level) is set to CLEAR_DIST. The final retract is controlled by the PULLOUT_DIST parameter. If you specify the ROUGH_OPTION parameter value as ROUGH_&_PROF, the tool will also make a profiling pass across the groove. The ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW and PROF_STOCK_ALLOW parameters define the amount of stock to be left for the finishing NC sequence.

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STEP_OVER System start level PULLOUT_DIST CLEAR_DIST

Profiling pass

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The SCAN_TYPE value TYPE_ONE_DIR allows you to start the rough grooving NC sequence at one side of the groove and move to the other side, while with TYPE_1 (the default) the tool starts in the middle and moves to each of the sides in turn. If you want to start from the other side, set CUT_DIRECTION to REVERSE. To ensure uniform stock allowance on the sides of the groove after the rough pass, set SCAN_TYPE to TYPE_1_CONNECT. The following illustration shows scan types for Rough Groove turning.
Profiling pass

42 1 35

Profiling pass

5 4 3 2 1

SCAN_TYPE TYPE_1

SCAN_TYPE TYPE_ONE_DIR

Peck Cycle
The peck cycle (illustrated by the following graphic) will be performed for rough groove turning only if the PECK_DEPTH parameter is set to a value other than 0 (0 is the default): 1. The tool is positioned at the CLEAR_DIST level above the top of the groove. 2. Cut to the PECK_DEPTH offset below the top of the groove. 3. Retract by PULLOUT_DIST. 4. Cut to the (PECK_DEPTH * 2) offset below the top of the groove, retract by PULLOUT_DIST. 5. If FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH is other than 0 (the default), the tool will retract all the way back to CLEAR_DIST upon reaching this depth below the top of the groove. After retracting, the tool will return rapidly and proceed cutting at peck increments. 6. Upon reaching the bottom of the groove (plus ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW, if any), the tool will dwell (if DELAY is not “-), retract back to the CLEAR_DIST level (8), step over (9), and continue from Step 1.

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CLEAR_DIST

1

PECK_DEPTH

2

PULLOUT_DIST

FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH

3 PECK_DEPTH 4

CLEAR_DIST

5 FULL_RETRACT _DEPTH 6

STOCK_ALLOW

CLEAR_DIST

CLEAR_DIST

7

8
STEP_OVER

Finish Groove Turning
To perform finish Groove turning, set the ROUGH_OPTION parameter to PROF_ONLY. The tool then starts at CLEAR_DIST above the top of the groove, goes down one side of the groove, cuts across the bottom, and retracts by PULLOUT_DIST, leaving a quality surface finish. The GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE parameter allows you to specify an intermediate retract when the tool goes along the profile. If it is set to CONTINUOUS, the tool will enter the groove on one side, cut across, and exit on the other side. If NO_BACKCUT (the default) is set, the tool will enter the groove on one side, retract at some intermediate point along the groove profile, enter on the other side and complete the cut. The retract point can be controlled by parameter SIDEWALL_OFFSET, which specifies the length of the second portion of the cut, that is, the distance between the point of retract and the end of the bottom of the groove. If the SIDEWALL_OFFSET is “- (the default), it will be ignored and the tool will retract at the midpoint of the bottom entity. The GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE and SIDEWALL_OFFSET parameters have the same effect on the profiling pass of a rough groove turning NC sequence (if ROUGH_OPTION is set to ROUGH_&_PROF). Note: Finish turning NC sequences created prior to Release 12.0 cannot be redefined. The following illustration shows Finish Groove turning.

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PULLOUT_DIST CLEAR_DIST CLEAR_DIST PULLOUT_DIST

SIDEWALL_OFFSET ROUGH_OPTION PROF_ONLY GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE CONTINUOUS ROUGH_OPTION PROF_ONLY GROOVE_FINISH_TYPE NO_BACKCUT

To Create a Thread Turning NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click NC Sequence > Thread | Done. You must be in a Lathe or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Specify the thread type by selecting Unified, Acme, Buttress, or General; the thread orientation by selecting Outside, Inside, or Face; and the output type by selecting ISO or AI Macro; then click Done. 3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 4. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific option: Turn Profile—Select or create a Turn Profile. The Turn Profile must consist of a single line, which represents the first tool motion. For an external thread, the line must correspond to the major diameter; for an internal thread—to the minor diameter. The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path automatically generated by the system. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or use the Customize functionality. Note: By default, thread cutting is performed in the negative Z-direction of the NC sequence coordinate system. To reverse the direction, use a right-handed tool. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Thread Turning
Thread NC sequences are used to cut threads on a lathe. The threads can be external and internal, blind and through. This NC sequence does not remove

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any material from the workpiece on the screen. The proper cutter path will, however, be generated. A Thread NC sequence is defined by sketching the first tool movement, which corresponds to the major diameter for an external thread and to the minor diameter for an internal thread. The final thread depth is calculated using the THREAD_FEED parameter. Pro/NC supports ISO standard thread output as well as AI Macro output. You can reference geometry of existing Thread cosmetic features, created in Part mode. It is especially convenient for blind threads.

Examples: Thread Turning
The following illustration shows defining a Thread NC sequence for an external blind thread.

Sketch this line.

The following illustration shows defining a Thread NC sequence for an internal through thread.
Use Edge

The following illustration shows referencing a Thread cosmetic feature.

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Use Edge

To Create a Facing Thread Turning NC Sequence
A facing thread NC sequence, consisting of a single radial tool move, can be created using the general procedure of creating a Thread Turning NC Sequence. Choose Face as the tread orientation option, and sketch the line representing the tool movement at the final thread depth off the face of the part. This NC sequence will output the OP / THREAD, FACE, and appropriate GOTO commands instead of THREAD/AUTO. You must specify a nonzero value for THREAD_FEED.

To Perform the Remainder Material Analysis
When turning complicated parts that contain a number of shoulders or small concave elements, it is likely that certain tools will not be able to completely machine a selected turn profile because of reach problems. In addition, poor slice distribution may result in larger material remainder values than those specified in the parameter settings. When displaying the tool path for a Turning NC sequence, you can now perform a color-coded graphical analysis of the remaining material. 1. Display the tool path. 2. In the PLAY PATH dialog box, click View > Show Remaining Material. The system highlights the portions of the Turn Profile where the tool path did not provide specified stock allowance and displays an error dialog box that explains the meaning of the different color-coded segments. If there is no remainder material left, the system displays a message "No under-machined regions found."

Turn Profile About Turn Profile
To define cut geometry for a Turning NC sequence, you have to create a Turn Profile. A Turn Profile is a separate feature (similar to a Mill Volume or Mill Window), which you can define either at setup time or when you define an

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NC sequence. You can then reference the Turn Profile in more than one Turning NC sequence. This functionality enables you to define the cut references once, and then use this definition to create rough, semi-finish, and finish NC sequences. You can predefine Turn Profiles by choosing the Turn Profile option in the
MFG GEOMETRY menu.

A Turn Profile defines the cut geometry for various types of Turning NC sequences in the following manner: • For Area and Groove turning, you must define the area of the cut by specifying the final stock outline; usually this is done by specifying the part edges or surfaces to be machined. You can use part edges or surfaces for rough cuts as well, since the amount of stock left after the rough cut for the finish cut is defined by the ROUGH_STOCK_ALLOW and PROF_STOCK_ALLOW parameters. For Profile turning, you must specify the trajectory of the cut motion for the tool. Then, if the OUTPUT_POINT parameter is set to CENTER (the default), the cut motion will be automatically offset by NOSE_RADIUS in the appropriate direction from the specified trajectory (up for Outside turning, down—for Inside, to the right—for Face). If OUTPUT_POINT is TIP, no offset will be applied. For Thread turning, you must specify the first tool movement, which corresponds to the major diameter for an external thread and to the minor diameter for an internal thread.

To Define a Turn Profile

When you choose Turn Profile from the INT CUT or the MFG GEOMETRY menu, the TURN PROFILE menu appears with the following options: • • • • Create Profile—Create a new Turn Profile. Select Profile—Select a predefined Turn Profile. Available only at the time of defining an NC sequence. Redefine Profile—Redefine an existing Turn Profile. Choose the profile name from a namelist menu. Delete Profile—Delete an existing Turn Profile. Available only at setup time. Choose the profile name from a namelist menu. To Create a New Turn Profile: 1. Click Create Profile. 2. Select a method of creating the Turn Profile by using one of the following commands on the CREATE PROFILE menu:

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Sketch—Sketch the profile in the XZ plane of the profile coordinate system. Select Surface—Select From and To surfaces, and specify on which side of the centerline the profile is to be located. The system creates the profile at the intersection of the selected chain of surfaces and the XZ plane of the profile coordinate system. Select Curve—Select segments of a datum curve. You must create the curve before you define the Turn Profile, for example, by using the Use Xsec option. With this option, you can also select segments of existing Turn Profiles. Section—The system generates a model cross section in the XZ plane of the profile coordinate system. Select From and To vertices of this cross section, then toggle the chain, if necessary. Select Ref Envlp—Select an existing Reference Envelope, then select From and To vertices to specify the desired portion of this envelope. Create Ref Envlp—Create a Reference Envelope, then select From and To vertices to specify the desired portion of this envelope.

The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. Depending on the selected method, it will contain some specific elements, as well as the following common elements: Name—The Turn Profile is created with a default name, such as TURN_PROF_000, TURN_PROF_001, and so on. To change the default name, select the Name element, click Define, and type the new name. Csys—Specify the coordinate system. This element is available only at setup time. When you create a Turn Profile while defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC uses the NC Sequence coordinate system. If you are creating the Turn Profile by selecting a Reference Envelope, Pro/NC uses the coordinate system of the Reference Envelope. Adjust Turn Profile—Trim or replace selected portions of the Turn Profile.

3. Define the required elements of the CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box. 4. Click Preview to verify the Turn Profile. Adjust the Turn Profile, if necessary. 5. Click OK.

To Define a Turn Profile by Sketching

1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Sketch | Done. The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens.

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2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system (at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system). Pro/NC reorients the model so that the XZ plane of the Turn Profile coordinate system is parallel to the screen and displays the Sketcher side bar. 3. Select the Sketcher references, sketch the Turn Profile, and dimension as necessary. The sketch must consist of a single chain of entities. Click Continue to exit Sketcher. 4. Specify the material side by using the Flip and Okay commands. The arrow must point towards the reference part. 5. Click OK.

Sketching a Turn Profile
When sketching a Turn Profile, keep in mind that the sketch must lie in the XZ plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system and completely on one side of the x-axis (either positive or negative). The default orientation of the model upon entering Sketcher is as follows: • • If the workcell is defined as Horizontal—with the z-axis pointing to the right and x-axis pointing up. If the workcell is defined as Vertical—with the z-axis pointing up and x-axis pointing to the right. However, you can sketch in any view orientation of the model provided the XZ plane is parallel to the screen and the sketch is completely on one side of the NC Sequence x-axis. The following illustration shows sketching the cut in various view orientations.

Section sketch

Section sketch

Section sketch

Define a Turn Profile by sketching using the Sketch option in the CREATE PROFILE menu: • For Area and Groove turning, sketch the final stock outline.

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• •

For Profile turning, sketch the cut motion. For Thread turning, sketch the first tool movement, which corresponds to the major diameter for an external thread and to the minor diameter for an internal thread. Multiple loops or chains are not allowed when sketching the Turn Profile, that is, the sketch can only contain one continuous chain of entities. However, you can sketch the final outline for Area or Groove turning so that it crosses the workpiece boundary (or the Stock Bound section) more than once, thus forming multiple machining areas.
Workpiece boundary Section sketch

To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting Surfaces

A Turn Profile can also be defined by selecting the start and end surfaces on the reference part. The system will then machine these two surfaces and all the surfaces in between. If you want to machine one surface only, select it twice. 1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Select Surface | Done. The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. 2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system (at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system). 3. Select the From surface. 4. Select the To surface. 5. Choose one of: Above CtrLn—The cut motion will be created above the centerline, that is, in the positive X area. Below CtrLn—The cut motion will be created below the centerline, that is, in the negative X area.

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6. Click Done. The system creates an internal cross section of the reference part in the XZ plane of the Turn Profile coordinate system and selects the appropriate chain of entities in this cross section (between the selected surfaces in either positive or negative X area) as the Turn Profile.

Example: Defining a Turn Profile by Selecting Surfaces
The following illustration shows Area turning using surfaces.
To surface

From surface

Cut extensions

To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting Curves

Turn Profiles are datum curves. With the Select Curve option, you can define new Turn Profiles by selecting segments from existing Turn Profiles. You can also select segments of other types of datum curves; however, these datum curves must lie in the XZ plane of the Turn Profile coordinate system. 1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Select Curve | Done. The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. 2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system (at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system). 3. Use the commands on the CHAIN menu to select segments of a datum curve, for example, of an existing Turn Profile. All segments must form a single continuous chain. Click Done. 4. Specify the material side by using the Flip and Okay commands. The arrow must point towards the material. 5. Click OK.

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To Define a Turn Profile by Section

If a reference part for turning has a complex contour, the process of defining the cut by selecting edges, or sketching and aligning, can be time consuming. You can accelerate this process by using the following technique. 1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Section | Done. The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. 2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system (at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system). Pro/NC generates a cross section of the model in the XZ plane of the Turn Profile coordinate system and displays it as a closed loop of cyan entities, with all vertices highlighted in green. 3. Select the From and To vertices on the model cross section. 7. Choose one of: Above CtrLn—The cut motion will be created above the centerline, that is, in the positive X area. Below CtrLn—The cut motion will be created below the centerline, that is, in the negative X area.

4. Click Done. Pro/NC displays a chain of entities between the selected vertices. 5. If the system selected the wrong portion of the cross section loop, click Toggle Profile. Pro/NC displays the new chain of entities. 6. On the SEL PROFILE menu, click Done/Return. 7. Click OK.

Example: Defining a Turn Profile by Section
The following illustration shows Area turning with the Turn Profile defined using Section.

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To vertex

From vertex

To Define a Turn Profile by Creating a Reference Envelope

Use this technique if your reference part has a non-circular cross section. 1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Create Ref Envlp | Done. The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. 2. If you are defining the Turn Profile at setup time, select or create the coordinate system (at the time of defining an NC sequence, Pro/NC automatically uses the NC Sequence coordinate system as the Turn Profile coordinate system). Pro/NC generates a Turning Envelope of the reference part and displays it as a closed loop of cyan entities, with all vertices highlighted in green. 3. Select the From and To vertices on the Turning Envelope. 9. Choose one of: Above CtrLn—The cut motion will be created above the centerline, that is, in the positive X area. Below CtrLn—The cut motion will be created below the centerline, that is, in the negative X area.

4. Click Done. Pro/NC displays a chain of entities between the selected vertices. 5. If the system selected the wrong portion of the Turning Envelope, click Toggle Profile. Pro/NC displays the new chain of entities. 6. On the SEL PROFILE menu, click Done/Return. 7. Click OK.

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To Define a Turn Profile by Selecting a Reference Envelope

This option is available only when you have defined a Reference Turning Envelope at setup time. You can then use this envelope to create multiple Turn Profiles by selecting appropriate chains of entities from the Turning Envelope. 1. On the CREATE PROFILE menu, click Select Ref Envlp | Done. The CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box opens. 2. Select the name of the Reference Envelope from the Names dialog box. Pro/NC displays the Turning Envelope as a closed loop of cyan entities, with all vertices highlighted in green. 3. Select the From and To vertices on the Turning Envelope. 8. Choose one of: Above CtrLn—The cut motion will be created above the centerline, that is, in the positive X area. Below CtrLn—The cut motion will be created below the centerline, that is, in the negative X area.

4. Click Done. Pro/NC displays a chain of entities between the selected vertices. 5. If the system selected the wrong portion of the Turning Envelope, click Toggle Profile. Pro/NC displays the new chain of entities. 6. On the SEL PROFILE menu, click Done/Return. 7. Click OK.

To Adjust a Turn Profile
You can trim or replace portions of a Turn Profile, for example, to eliminate undercut regions or to simplify avoiding small grooves. 1. In the CURVE: Turn Profile dialog box, select the Adjust Turn Profile element and click Define. The Adjust Profile dialog box opens. It contains the following adjustment options: Line Connect—Replace a chain on the Turn Profile with a straight line. Specify the chain to replace by selecting the From and To vertices.

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Trim in Z—Trim the Turn Profile by extending an entity from the selected vertex in the Z direction until it intersects the Turn Profile. Trim in X—Trim the Turn Profile by extending an entity from the selected vertex in the X direction until it intersects the Turn Profile. Trim to Corner—Extend two segments of the Turn Profile at selected endpoints until they form a corner.

2. To add an adjustment to the Turn Profile, select the desired adjustment option, click the Select arrow next to the Adjust Profile label, select the appropriate vertices on the Turn Profile, and click Add. The system displays the name of the adjustment in the list box at the top of the Adjust Profile dialog box. 3. Click Preview to view the adjusted Turn Profile. 4. To remove an adjustment, select its name in the list box at the top of the Adjust Profile dialog box and click Remove. 5. When satisfied with the adjustments, click OK.

Holemaking About Holemaking
A Holemaking NC sequence is created by selecting the cycle type and specifying the holes to drill by defining the Hole Set(s). The order of machining the holes is defined by the SCAN_TYPE parameter value; you can also build the traversal path between the selected holes either by sketching or by connecting the hole axes. A Hole Set includes one or more holes to be drilled; each Hole Set has a drilling depth specification or countersink diameter value associated with it. You can include more than one Hole Set in a single Holemaking NC sequence; this allows drilling of holes with different depth specifications, as well as having multiple countersink diameter values, within a single NC sequence. There are various methods of selecting the holes to be included in a Hole Set: • • • • • By selecting individual hole axes By including all holes on a specified surface By including all holes of a specified diameter By including all holes with a certain value of a feature parameter By including all holes with chamfers machinable by the current tool (for countersinking) 301

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By selecting individual datum points to mark the drill locations By including all datum points on a specified surface By reading in a file containing the datum points’ coordinates with respect to a specified coordinate system If you need to perform a series of Holemaking NC sequences on the same group of holes, you can define a Drill Group using the techniques above, and then reference this Drill Group when defining Hole Sets. This simplifies the selection process; you can also parametrically update all the NC sequences by modifying the Drill Group.

To Create a Holemaking NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a Lathe, Mill, or Mill/Turn workcell. 2. Choose Holemaking and specify the number of machine axes, if applicable. Choose Done. 3. Select the holemaking type and choose Done. 4. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 5. In addition to the common options, available for all the NC sequence types, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the following specific options: Holes—Select holes to drill by defining the Hole Sets. Check Surfs—Select the surfaces against which gouge checking will be performed. Use this option if there are obstacles (protrusions) along the traversal path between the holes. When the tool traverses from hole to hole and a motion will result in gouging a surface selected as Check Surface, the system will issue the CYCLE / OFF command after machining the previous hole, the tool will retract along Z axis to the height of CHK_SRF_STOCK_ALLOW above the obstacle height, and move at FREE_FEED in XY-plane to the location above the next hole, then reissue the CYCLE / ... statement. This functionality is available for all 3-Axis Holemaking NC sequences except Back boring.

The required options are checked off automatically. Select additional options, if desired, and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 6. The tool path is created automatically depending on the SCAN_TYPE parameter value. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path. If not satisfied, you can either modify the parameters, or choose Customize to specify the traversal path between the selected holes. 7. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

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Holemaking Cycle Types

The following holemaking types are available: • Drill—Drill a hole. Depending on the additional option selected, the following statement will be output to the CL file: Standard (default)—CYCLE / DRILL Deep—CYCLE / DEEP Break Chip—CYCLE / BRKCHP Web—CYCLE / THRU (for multiple plates) Back—A series of GOTO and SPINDLE statements to perform back spotting

• • •

Face—Drill a hole with an optional dwell at final depth to help assure a clean surface at the bottom of the hole. The CYCLE / FACE statement will be output to the CL file. Bore—Bore a hole to create a finish hole diameter with high precision. The CYCLE / BORE statement will be output to the CL file. Countersink—Drill a chamfer for a countersunk screw. The CYCLE / CSINK statement will be output to the CL file. If the Back option is selected together with Countersink, the system will perform back countersinking. Tap—Drill a threaded hole. Pro/NC supports ISO standard thread output. The CYCLE / TAP statement will be output to the CL file. Two additional options are available: Fixed—The feed rate is determined by the combination of thread pitch and spindle speed. Floating—Allows you to modify the feed rate using the parameter FLOAT_TAP_FACTOR.

Ream—Create a precision finish hole. The CYCLE / REAM statement will be output to the CL file.

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Tools Used for Holemaking Cycle Types
The table below summarizes which type of tool can be used for each cycle type:

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TOOLS

CYCLE TYPES Dri ll De ep Br ea kc hip • • We b Ba ck Fa ce Bo re Cou nter sink • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Tap Re am

Drill Countersink Tap Ream Bore Center Drill Back Spotting End Mill

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

Three and Five Axis Holemaking
3-Axis Holemaking is available from any type of workcell (Lathe, Mill, or Mill/Turn). When creating a 3-Axis Holemaking NC sequence, all holes must be oriented parallel to each other and normal to the retract plane. 5-Axis Holemaking allows you to drill holes with axes not necessarily normal to the retract surface. 5-Axis Holemaking is available only when you are in a 4- or 5-Axis Mill, or a Mill/Turn workcell. Note: 5-Axis Holemaking is allowed on a Mill/Turn workcell, even if it is defined as 2- or 3-Axis. Select Head1 Mill in the LATHE TYPE menu, and then select MILL from the SEL MENU when creating the NC sequence. If 4-Axis Turning is available, the HEAD 1 and HEAD 2 options in the TURN SEQ menu will allow you to specify which head is to perform the Holemaking NC sequence. For 5-Axis Holemaking, if you use a retract plane, the tool moves as shown in the following drawing: it rapids to the point defined by the CLEARANCE_OFFSET parameter above the intersection of the hole axis with the start surface, orients itself parallel to the hole axis, drills the hole (stopping at the offset defined by the CLEAR_DIST parameter), then retracts back to the CLEARANCE_OFFSET, and traverses to the next hole.

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Tool is positioned for drilling the second hole. CLEARANCE_OFFSET

Tool starts drilling.

Tool retracts after drilling Drilling cycle finished for the first hole. start surface for the first hole

after drilling.

start surface for the second hole
CLEAR_DIST

for drilling the second hole. CLEAR_DIST

If you define a retract surface of revolution for 5-Axis Holemaking, the tool retracts to this surface after drilling a hole, moves along this surface and normal to it to the point above the next hole, orients itself parallel to the hole axis, rapids to CLEAR_DIST, drills the hole, then retracts back to the retract surface.

To Set Up a Peck Table

1. Choose Peck Table from the PARAM SETUP menu or the MFG PARAMS menu. The PECK TABLE menu appears with the following options: Create—Bring up the Pro/TABLE editor to create a new peck table. An empty table of the proper format will be displayed. Modify—Bring up the Pro/TABLE editor to modify the peck table values. The current peck depth table will be displayed for editing. Delete—(Available only at setup time.) Delete the current peck table. You will be asked to confirm your command to delete the table. Show—Brings up the Information Window, displaying the values in the peck table.

2. Choose Create or Modify from the PECK TABLE menu. The Pro/TABLE editor window appears. Enter values for Low Diameter, High Diameter, Peck Depth Ratio, and Feed Rate. 3. When you are finished entering values, exit the Pro/TABLE editor and save the changes.

Peck Table

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For Deep Drilling, two additional options are available in the HOLE MAKING menu:

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Constant Peck—Causes the NC sequence to be executed using a single peck depth. Variable Peck—Causes a peck table to be used for controlling the peck depth. When using a peck table, the PECK_DEPTH parameter will not be included in the list of Cut Parameters. Variable peck depths are specified in a peck table as a function of tool diameter (CUTTER_DIAM). A peck table contains four parameters:

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Low Diameter—Low end of the tool diameter range. This value must be less than the tool diameter, and cannot be equal to the High Diameter. High Diameter—High end of the tool diameter range. This value must be greater than or equal to the tool diameter. Peck Depth Ratio—The ratio of the peck depth to the tool diameter. Feed Rate—The speed of the tool while drilling. If you have specified Variable Peck for the NC sequence, and the peck table has not been set up, you will not be allowed to quit the MFG SET UP menu unless you have entered values in the peck table. Peck tables can also be created, modified, or deleted at setup time.

Example: Peck Table
An example of a peck table is shown below:

LOW DIAMETER 0.600000 0.960000 -

HIGH DIAMETER 0.950000 1.100000 -

PECK DEPTH RATIO 0.400000 0.350000 0.300000 0.200000 0.100000 0.500000 0.400000 0.100000

FEED RATE

12.000000 12.000000 12.000000 12.000000 10.000000 8.000000 8.000000 8.000000

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This table will produce the following CL output:

$$-> SETSTART / 0.00, 0.00, 1.00 RAPID GOTO / -5.45, 2.15, 1.00 CYCLE / DEEP, DEPTH, 1.285409, STEP, 0.380000, $ STEP, 0.332500, STEP, 0.190000, IPM, 12.000000, $ STEP, 0.095000, IPM, 10.000000, CLEAR, 1.000000 GOTO / -5.45, 2.15, 0.00 CYCLE / OFF $$-> END / FINI

STEP value in the CYCLE command is calculated by multiplying PECK_DEPTH_RATIO by CUTTER_DIAM. Example: CUTTER_DIAM = .95

PECK DEPTH RATIO .5 .4 .3

STEP .95 * .5 = .475 .95 * .4 = .38 .95 * .3 = .285

To Define Hole Sets

The Hole Set option in the HOLES menu allows you to define and modify Hole Sets. If no Hole Sets have been defined, selecting it will immediately start creating a new Hole Set; otherwise, a selection menu will appear. Selecting an existing Hole Set name will allow you to modify this Hole Set, choosing the New Set option will allow you to create a new Hole Set. 1. Choose Hole Set from the HOLES menu. If the SEL MENU appears, choose New Set.

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2. The system displays the HoleSet dialog box. The upper portion of the dialog box contains six tabulated pages that provide means of hole selection: Axes—Specify holes by selecting individual hole axes. Groups—Select predefined drill groups. Points—Specify drill locations by selecting datum points or reading in a file with datum point coordinates. Diameters—Specify holes by entering diameter value(s). The system automatically includes all Hole or round Slot features of specified diameter(s). Surfaces—Specify holes by selecting surfaces of the reference part or workpiece. The system automatically includes all Hole or round Slot features located on selected surfaces. Parameters—Select holes with a certain parameter value.

3. Specify the holes to be drilled using any combination of methods listed above. See Combining Selection Methods for information on how to use more than one selection method for defining a Hole Set. Note: Selection by Points can not be used in combination with any of the other selection methods. 4. Click Depth to select the desired depth option and specify references as appropriate to the depth type. You can also use the following options, located in the lower portion of the Hole Set dialog box: Use Prev—Select a Hole Set used in a previous NC sequence. You can then modify this Hole Set for the current NC sequence. Auto Chamfer—If the checkmark is on, the system will automatically include all holes with chamfers that can be machined with the current tool, and automatically determine depth and direction for Countersink drilling. Start hole for scan—If the SCAN_TYPE parameter is set to SHORTEST or TYPE_SPIRAL, lets you select the first hole to be machined.

Note: If you set the CUT_DIRECTION parameter to REVERSE, this hole will be machined last. Direction for 5-axis drilling—Allows you to flip the direction of drilling for a selected axis (except axes selected with Auto Chamfer).

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Show rules used in selection—Displays an Info Window listing all the axes, surfaces, diameters, and so on, selected or explicitly unselected in the current Hole Set.

The Preview button at the bottom of the Hole Set dialog box highlights the axes or points selected so far, as well as the start and end surfaces, if appropriate. The drilling depth will be listed in the message window. 5. Click OK at the bottom of the Hole Set dialog box when finished selecting the holes. Hole Sets can be deleted using the Delete option in the HOLES menu. The Show option in the HOLES menu will highlight the axes included in a selected Hole Set, as well as start and end surfaces, if appropriate. The drilling depth will be listed in the message window.

Combining Selection Methods
Selecting holes by Diameters, Surfaces, Parameters, and Auto Chamfer implies specifying a rule for hole selection. For example, if you specify a diameter value, the system will search the model for the holes of this diameter and include them in the Hole Set. If you select a surface, the system will include all holes on this surface. If you specify a combination of rules, the system will look for holes that satisfy all of them; that is, if you specify a diameter value and select a surface, the system will include only the holes of the specified diameter that are located on the selected surface. The Axes method lets you explicitly select and unselect hole axes, regardless of other rules used in Hole selection. When you select Groups, the system copies the rules used for defining the selected Drill Group, as well as explicitly selected and unselected axes, into the current Hole Set, and applies them to the model according to the principles described above. Selection by Points can not be used in combination with any of the other selection methods.

To Define Depth

Blind—Drill from the start surface (or Z height) to specified depth. Specify the Start and End surfaces (by either selecting a surface or entering a Z depth). If you select the

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All Hole Sets (except for Countersink drilling), require specifying the drill depth type. To define the depth type and references, click Depth in the HoleSet dialog box. The system displays the Hole Set Depth dialog box. Use one of the following Hole Depth option buttons:

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checkbox next to the Use breakout distance option, the system adds the BREAKOUT_DISTANCE parameter value when calculating depth. • Auto—Depth of drilling is determined automatically, by referencing hole geometry. If the selected axis is associated with several coaxial hole features, the maximum depth will be selected as long as the tool fits inside the hole diameter.

Note: Auto depth is not available for Tap and Ream tools. • Thru All—Drill a through hole, from the retract surface all the way through the workpiece(s) or reference part(s) that the hole intersects. By default, all the reference parts and workpieces are used for depth calculation; you can unselect some of the parts, if desired, or explicitly select parts, by using the Select and Unselect buttons in the Hole Set Depth dialog box. Select All selects all the reference parts and workpieces. The Tool Depth option buttons, Shoulder and Tip, available for Blind and Auto drilling, determine if the drilling depth will be with reference to the shoulder or the tip of the tool.

Drill up to this

DTM1 Shoulder Tip

DTM1

To Define the Starting Point for Drilling
For each hole selected to be drilled, the system has to determine the starting point for drilling (output in the GOTO statement). This point is determined differently for different drilling types. For Countersink drilling, and for other types with the drill depth Blind, you have to specify the start surface. You can specify one of:

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Surface—Select a surface or create a datum plane whose intersection with the hole axis will be used as the starting point. Z Depth—Enter the Z coordinate with respect to the NC Sequence coordinate system. An imaginary plane will be created at this level and its intersection with the hole axis will be used as the starting point. For other depth types, the starting point will be automatically determined as the point of intersection of the axis with the topmost surface among the workpiece(s) and reference part(s) that the hole intersects. By default, all the reference parts and workpieces are used for determining the starting point; you can unselect some of the parts, if desired, or explicitly select parts, by using the Select and Unselect buttons in the Hole Set Depth dialog box. Select All selects all the reference parts and workpieces. When you select a hole to drill, the system will look for the appropriate surface among the selected parts, and use its intersection with the hole axis as the starting point.
Default starting point (both the workpiece and the reference part are considered; top of workpiece is used) New starting point (top of reference part is used)

Unselect the workpiece.

Selected axis

To Define Depth for Blind Drilling
For Blind drilling, after you specify the starting point you have to also define the end surface, to determine the drilling depth. Use one of: • Surface—Select a surface or create a datum plane to drill up to. If you select a nonplanar surface, the depth is defined by the point of intersection of this surface with the hole axis. Z Depth—Enter an offset value from the starting point (the offset will automatically point towards the workpiece, that is, in the negative Z direction).

To Select Holes by Axes
The Axes tab in the Hole Set dialog box enables you to select or unselect individual hole axes.

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Click Add and select hole axes to add them to the Hole Set. When you have a pattern of holes, it is not necessary to select all the hole axes. Select Pattern to indicate that you want all the pattern members to be drilled, then select any axis belonging to a pattern. You can drill only some holes in the pattern using the Single option. All axes currently included in the Hole Set are listed in the central list box. If you have selected holes using a different method (for example, Diameters), the names of these axes also appear on the Axes tab. To remove a previously selected axis from the Hole Set, highlight its name in the central list box and click Delete. Similar to adding axes, you can use the Pattern button to remove a whole pattern of holes.

To Select Holes by Surfaces
The Surfaces tab in the Hole Set dialog box enables you to include all holes on the selected surface.

Retract plane

Select this surface.

Click Add and select surfaces to add all holes located on these surfaces to the Hole Set. The names of selected surfaces are listed in the central list box on the Surfaces tab. To remove all holes located on a surface, select its name in the list box and click Delete. To remove some of the holes on a surface, use the Axes tab.

To Select Holes by Diameters
The Diameters tab in the Hole Set dialog box enables you to include all holes of a specified diameter. When you click Add, the Select hole diameter dialog box appears. It lists all the hole diameters present in the model. Select a diameter from the list, or click Select and select a cylindrical surface on the model to specify the diameter. The system adds all holes of the specified diameter to the Hole Set.

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The diameter values selected so far are listed in the central list box on the Diameters tab. To remove all holes of a specified diameter, select its value in the list box and click Delete. To remove some of the holes of a specified diameter, use the Axes tab.

To Select Holes by Feature Parameters
The Parameters tab in the Hole Set dialog box enables you to include holes that have certain parameter values. You can create and modify feature parameters in Part, Assembly, or Manufacture mode. When you go to the Parameters tab, the Feature Parameter list box contains a list of all feature parameters associated with Hole and Cosmetic Thread features in the model. When you select a parameter name in the list, the Value text box below will contain a drop-down list of all the currently present values for this parameter. 1. Select a name of parameter in the Feature Parameter list box. 2. Select an operator from the drop-down list. For parameter types Integer and Real, the operators available are: “=, “!=, “>, “<“. For other parameter types, the only operators available are: “= and “!=. 3. Select a value from the drop-down list, or type a value. 4. Click Add. 5. The system displays the selected parameter and its value in the list box below and includes all holes with the appropriate feature parameter values in the Hole Set.

To Select Holes by Points
Holemaking NC sequences can reference datum points instead of axes. If you specify a datum point, the system will create a temporary datum axis through this point and normal to a certain projection surface, which can be defined implicitly or explicitly as explained below. This axis will then be used to build the tool path. Notes: If you use the Points method, Auto drill depth is not available. The Points method can not be combined with other methods of hole selection. If you try using Points when some of the holes have already been selected using another method (or vice versa), the system will ask you if you want to discard the previous selections.

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There are three ways to select points for drilling: • • • By Points—Select individual datum points, or collect all datum points belonging to a feature. On Surface—Collect all datum points on selected surfaces. File—Specify a coordinate system to be used as origin for the datum point array file (the coordinate system is assumed to be Cartesian), then either read in a file with the datum points’ coordinates using the Browse button (the expected file extension is “.pts), or enter the coordinate values from the keyboard using the Edit button. The Edit button also allows you to edit an existing datum point array file after it has been read in. Projection surfaces are defined differently, depending on the points selection technique: • • On Surface—Surfaces selected for collecting the datum points will also be used as projection surfaces. By Points or File—For 3-Axis Holemaking, the projection surface is the retract surface. For 5-Axis Holemaking, you have to explicitly select projection surfaces. When selecting using By Points or File, entering a value for Maximum Distance lets you specify how far the points can be from the projection surfaces. If some or all of the input points are too far from projection surfaces, they will be disregarded and the system will issue a message.

To Define the Countersink Diameter
Depth for countersink drilling is defined by the start surface and the countersink diameter value, entered at the time of defining the Hole Set. Instead of entering a countersink diameter, you can specify that the system automatically finds all the applicable chamfers and makes the necessary calculations. Countersink diameter is the final diameter of the hole after drilling, measured in the start surface. Tool parameter Point_Angle defines the chamfer angle.
Start surface
Csink Diam

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To Use the Automatic Chamfer Selection
If your design model contains Chamfer features that you need to Countersink, you can automate the selection process by using the Auto Chamfer option, as described below. 1. Create a Countersink NC sequence and set up a tool with the Point_Angle corresponding to the chamfer geometry that you want to machine (see example). 2. When defining the Hole Set, select the checkbox next to the Auto Chamfer option in the Options section of the dialog box (this option is available for Countersink drilling only). 3. The system evaluates all the holes in the manufacturing model, and machines only those with chamfers corresponding to the Point_Angle of the current tool. The names of the axes to be machined are listed in the central list box of the Axes tab. Notes: • You can apply another rule if you want to narrow the selection. For example, if you want to machine only chamfered holes on a certain surface, use Surfaces and select the surface you want. If you change the tool to a one with a different Point_Angle, the system will automatically update the Hole Set to include the holes matching the new tool.

Example: Automatic Chamfer Selection
CHAMFER 30 x .2 CHAMFER 30 x .16

CHAMFER 45 x .2

Countersink sequence #1 use tool with Point_Angle 90

Countersink sequence #2: use tool with Point_Angle 120

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To Define Plates for Web Drilling

Web drilling enables you to drill holes through two or more plates, separated by a certain distance, with the tool moving with FEED_RATE while drilling a plate, and then making a RAPID motion along the tool axis to position above the next plate. If you perform Auto or Thru All drilling, the system will determine start and end of drilling for each plate based on the intersection of the hole axes with the parts selected for depth calculation. By default, all the reference parts and workpieces are used for depth calculation; you can unselect some of the parts, if desired, or explicitly select parts, by using the Select and Unselect buttons in the Hole Set Depth dialog box. Select All selects all the reference parts and workpieces. If you perform Blind drilling, the Hole Set Depth dialog box contains an extra section at the bottom, Plate Selection, which lists all the plates defined so far, and has the following buttons: • Add—Adds a new plate. Define the Start and End surfaces for a new plate, then click this button. The system adds the plate name to the list in the Defined Plates for Web Drilling box. Change—Changes the Start and End surfaces for an existing plate. Highlight the plate name in the Defined Plates for Web Drilling list box and respecify the Start and End surfaces for this plate, then click this button. Delete—Deletes the highlighted plate.

Back Spotting Specifics

The Back cycle allows you to perform back bore and countersink NC sequences with a special type of tool, called Back Spotting. Back drilling is always Blind. You have to specify a start surface or Z depth, and then either select a surface or enter an offset value to define the drilling depth. Unlike other types of drilling, the offset will automatically point in the positive Z direction. See the example for more information on setting up an NC sequence and resulting tool motions for Back drilling and countersinking.

Example: Back Spotting
The following illustration shows an example of setting up a Back Spotting tool based on geometry to be machined, and specifying the start and end depth for a Back Drill NC sequence. 316

Cutter_Diam 2.4 Length 4 Csink_Angle 30 Cutting_Offset 0.4 Body_Diameter 1.3 Insert_Length 0.6

Select this surface (hidden) as start surface. Type an offset value of 0.75 to specify drilling depth.

The resulting sequence of tool motions is shown in the following diagram.

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For Back Countersink drilling, you have to specify a start surface and a countersink diameter, similar to regular countersink drilling. The illustration below shows a Back Countersink NC sequence performed with the same tool as in the previous example.

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Select this face as the start surface (similar to the previous example). Type 2.2 for countersink diameter.

You can also use the Auto Chamfer option for Back Countersink drilling, in which case the system will automatically include all holes with chamfers that can be machined with the current tool, that is, with the chamfer angle corresponding to the Csink_Angle of the tool.

Drill Groups About Drill Groups

You can define groups of hole axes at setup time for later use in Holemaking NC sequences. Drill Groups allow you to: • • Simplify the hole selection. Once a Drill Group is defined, it can be selected for any Holemaking NC sequence by just selecting its name from a namelist menu. Modify Holemaking NC sequences by adding or excluding holes. Modifying a Drill Group will automatically update all NC sequences that reference this group.

Defining Drill Groups
To access the Drill Group functionality, choose Drill Group from the MFG GEOMETRY menu. The following options are available: • • • Create—Define a new Drill Group. Delete—Delete an existing Drill Group. Select the name of the group from a namelist menu. Modify—Modify a Drill Group definition.

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Blank—Blank a Drill Group which was previously displayed. Select a name (only unblanked Drill Groups are shown in the namelist menu), the axes are displayed in the default color (yellow). Unblank—Display a Drill Group as it is currently defined. Once you select a Drill Group name from the namelist menu, all axes included in the group are displayed in magenta.

To Define a Drill Group

1. Choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, then Drill Group. 2. Choose Create and enter a name for the Drill Group. 3. The system displays an abbreviated version of the Hole Set dialog box. It has four tabbed pages: Axes, Surfaces, Diameters, and Parameters, to let you select holes to be included in the Drill Group. The mechanism of hole selection for Drill Group is the same as when creating a Hole Set. 4. Click OK when finished. To display the Drill Group definition, choose Unblank and select the group name.

To Modify a Drill Group

Modifying a Drill Group will automatically update all NC sequences that reference this group. 1. Choose Mfg Setup, Mfg Geometry, then Drill Group. 2. Choose Modify and select the Drill Group name from the namelist menu. 3. The system again displays the abbreviated version of the Hole Set dialog box, as when defining a Drill Group, allowing you to select more holes or unselect some of them. Click OK when finished.

Using Drill Groups
When you select holes for a Holemaking NC sequence, the Drill Group tab in the Hole Set dialog box lets you select all holes included into an existing Drill Group. Drill Groups can not be modified at the time of creating an NC sequence. You can select more holes to be included in the Hole Set, but they will not be included in the Drill Group. You can also remove some of the holes from the

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Hole Set, either by adding more rules or by explicitly removing axes in the Axes tab. If a hole in the selected Drill Group is not selectable for the current Holemaking NC sequence (for example, its axis is not parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system for 3-Axis Holemaking), this hole will be ignored. The rest of the group, however, will be included. If a Drill Group is later modified, the Holemaking NC sequences that reference this group will be updated accordingly. The rules to remember are: • • If you remove a hole from a Drill Group, it will not be drilled. If you add a new hole to the Drill Group and the Customize functionality has not been utilized (that is, the holes are drilled according to the SCAN_TYPE), the NC sequence will be automatically updated to drill the new hole. If you add a new hole to the Drill Group and the Customize functionality has been utilized, the new hole will not be drilled until you adjust the Tool Motions.

Auto Drilling About Auto Drilling

Auto Drilling is an advanced way of creating Holemaking NC sequences. It is easy to use and reduces the time required to program multiple tool paths. The Auto Drilling user interface is based on a single dialog box. The system automatically identifies all the holes present in the model and lists them in a single table. You can customize the look of the table by selecting the parameters you want to display and changing the width of the columns. To create Holemaking NC sequences, you select the holes to machine, and specify which drilling method to use for each hole by selecting from a list of preset Hole Strategies. These Hole Strategies are based on Manufacturing UDFs. You can also edit the values of hole parameters, such as hole dimensions, upper and lower tolerances, or thread parameters. These values override the design part information when you are creating the Auto Drilling sequences.

To Create an Auto Drilling NC Sequence

1. On the MACHINING menu, click Auto Drilling.

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The system displays the Auto-Drilling dialog box, which shows the names of the default NC Sequence coordinate system and retract plane. You can select a different coordinate system or retract plane, if desired. 2. Click View > Auto-Drilling Table to list all the holes that can be auto drilled using this coordinate system and retract plane. The auto-drilling table lists the holes with their parameters, as well as the existing hole machining strategies. You can further filter the holes (for example, by specifying a starting surface or a diameter), edit hole parameters, or add more machining strategies. You can also customize the table format by selecting the parameters to display, and change the sorting order. 3. Select the hole(s) you want to machine; then select the desired drill method in the right pane and click << to apply this method to the selected holes. Proceed applying drill methods to machine all the holes. 4. Click OK to create the NC sequences. The system again displays the Auto-Drilling dialog box, which now shows all the NC sequences being created as a result of applying the drill methods. For each NC sequence, the system displays the pocket number, the tool name, the cycle type, the sequence name, as well as the minimum diameter and maximum length. You can reorder the NC sequences, if desired. 5. Click OK when finished.

To Select a Coordinate System and Retract Plane
You must specify the coordinate system (Program Zero) and retract plane to be used for Auto Drilling. The system automatically finds all the holes with the axes parallel to the z-axis of the specified coordinate system and lists them in the Auto-Drilling table. You can further filter these holes, if desired, and then apply drilling methods to some or all of them. 1. Click View > Select Csys. The Auto-Drilling dialog box displays the names of the currently selected coordinate system and retract plane in text boxes labeled NC Sequence Program Zero and NC Sequence Retract Plane, respectively. There is a Select icon next to each text box. There are also three buttons below the text boxes: Apply, Default, and Previous. The list box on the right contains all the previously specified combinations of the Program zero coordinate system and retract plane. 2. To change the coordinate system, click the Select icon and select a coordinate system on the screen (or create a new one). 3. To change the retract plane, click the Select icon use the following options in the Retract Selection dialog box: Select—Select a datum plane. It must be normal to the z-axis of the currently selected coordinate system.

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Along Z Axis—Type the offset value along the z-axis of the currently selected coordinate system.

4. You can also select an existing combination of the Program Zero coordinate system and retract plane from the list box on the right. 5. Click one of the three buttons below the text boxes: Apply—Accept the currently selected combination of the coordinate system and retract plane. Default—Use the default coordinate system and retract plane. Previous—Ignore the current selections and return to the previous Auto-Drilling table.

The Default Coordinate System and Retract Plane
When you create an Auto Drilling NC sequence, the system uses the current modal settings for the coordinate system and the retract plane. If you have specified different Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems, the system uses the NC Sequence coordinate system to filter holes according to the machining direction. If the NC Sequence coordinate system is not defined, the system uses the Machine coordinate system. Note: Unlike other types of NC sequences, you must define a valid combination of the coordinate system and retract plane before you select Auto Drilling from the MACHINING menu. You can later change your selections while defining the Auto Drilling NC sequence.

To Filter Rows
The Auto-Drilling table initially lists all the holes with the axes parallel to the z-axis of the specified coordinate system. You can apply further filtering rules to these holes, if desired. 1. Click View > Filter Rows. The Auto-Drilling dialog box displays three list boxes: the Filter by box, on the left, lists all the available filters; the middle box lists the values available for the filter selected in the left box; and the Selected Filters box, on the right, lists the currently selected filtering rules. There are three buttons between the middle and right boxes: >>, <<, and Preview; and three buttons below the list boxes: OK, Apply, and Cancel. 2. Select a name of the filter in the Filter by box. The central box is updated to list the values available for the current filter (for example, diameter of the holes present in the model).

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3. Select the desired value and click the >> button. The filtering rule appears in the Selected Filters box under the appropriate heading. 4. To view the holes that correspond to the current combination of filtering rules, click Preview. The system highlights the appropriate holes on the screen (move the dialog box, if necessary, to view the model). 5. To remove a filtering rule, select it in the Selected Filters box and click the << button. To remove all the filtering rules, select Default in the Filter by box. 6. To complete the filtering process, click one of the three buttons below the list boxes: OK—Accept the current filtering rules and return to the Auto-Drilling table. Apply—Apply the current filtering rules. Cancel—Ignore the current selections and return to the Auto-Drilling table.

Filters Available for Auto Drilling
The following filters are available: • • • • Surface—Filters holes based on their start surface. The middle list box contains a list of the existing start surfaces. Diameter—Filters holes based on their diameter. The middle list box contains a list of the existing hole diameters. Hole Style—Filters holes based on the assigned drilling method. The middle list box contains a list of the existing Hole Strategies. Parameters—Filters holes based on the specified parameter value. The middle list box contains a list of all feature parameters associated with Hole and Cosmetic Thread features in the model. When you select a parameter name in the list, the Value text box below will contain a drop-down list of all the currently present values for this parameter. Select the desired operator (for example, “!=) from the drop-down Operator list, and a value from the Value drop-down list to specify a relation. The system displays the resulting relation in the bottom list box. Status—Filters holes based on their machining status. If you select Incomplete, displays only those holes that have not been programmed. Default—Filters holes based on the machining direction of the coordinate system (equivalent to removing all the selected filters). If you specify a combination of filters, the system searches for holes that satisfy all of them; that is, if you specify a diameter value and select a surface, the system includes only the holes of the specified diameter that are located on the selected surface.

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To Edit Hole Parameters
You can edit the values of hole parameters, such as drilling depth, upper and lower tolerances, or thread parameters. These values override the design part information when you are creating the Auto Drilling sequences. 1. Click View > Edit Hole Dimensions or View > Edit Thread Parameters. While in Edit mode, you can toggle between editing the hole dimensions and the thread parameters by selecting either Edit Hole Parameters or Edit Cosmetic Thread Parameters in the right pane of the Auto-Drilling dialog box. The system displays the text boxes for the appropriate parameters in the right pane. 2. Select a hole in the Auto-Drilling table by clicking in the appropriate row. 3. To change the start surface, click the Select icon below the Start Surface label and select the desired surface on the screen. The surface name appears in the text box below the Start Surface label. 4. To edit other parameters, type the new values in the appropriate text boxes. 5. Click Apply to apply the new values to the selected hole. The system updates the fields in the Auto-Drilling table to reflect the new parameter values. 6. To revert to the design part parameters, select the hole in the Auto-Drilling table and click Reset. To reset only one parameter, select From Reference Model in the appropriate text box and click Apply.

To Apply Hole Strategies
You can specify which drilling method to use for each hole by selecting from a list of preset Hole Strategies. 1. Click View > Apply Drilling Method. 2. Select the hole(s) in the Auto-Drilling table. To select one or more holes, click in the appropriate row(s). To select a range of holes, select the first hole in the range, then hold down the SHIFT key and select the last hole in the range. Once you select a hole, its row is highlighted. To unselect a single hole and retain the rest of selections, click again in the highlighted row. 3. Select the Hole Strategy you want to apply to these holes. The existing Hole Strategies are listed in the right pane of the Auto-Drilling dialog box. You can browse through the directory structure to search for the Hole Strategies. By default, the search starts in the directory specified by using the configuration option autodrill_udf_dir <pathname>, or, if not specified, in your working directory. 4. Select one of the depth options on the Hole Strategies tab:

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From Table—The drill depth is defined by the Depth parameter in the AutoDrilling table. If you select this option, the Hole Strategy will have the <T> prefix when it is listed in the Hole Style field of the Auto-Drilling table. From Param—The drill depth is defined either by the table or by the UDF NC sequence, depending on the DEPTH_BY_TABLE parameter value. This feature parameter of type Yes or No must be assigned to the UDF NC sequence before you create the UDF. If the parameter is set to Yes, then the drill depth is defined by the Depth parameter in the Auto-Drilling table; if it is No, then the drill depth is defined by the UDF NC sequence. If you select this option, the Hole Strategy will have the <P> prefix when it is listed in the Hole Style field of the Auto-Drilling table. From Seq—The drill depth is defined by the UDF NC sequence. If you select this option, the Hole Strategy will have the <S> prefix when it is listed in the Hole Style field of the Auto-Drilling table.

5. Click << to apply the selected strategy to the highlighted holes. The system displays the name of the Hole Strategy with the appropriate depth prefix in the Hole Style field of the Auto-Drilling table and changes the Status field from Incomplete to Complete. 6. To remove a previously applied Hole Strategy, select the hole(s) in the Auto-Drilling table and click Remove. 7. To exit the Auto-Drilling dialog box and create the appropriate Holemaking NC sequences, click OK.

Defining Your Hole Strategies
You can define your Hole Strategies by creating Manufacturing UDFs based on Holemaking NC sequences. The Holemaking NC sequence used to define a UDF for Auto Drilling has the following characteristics: • • Can machine only one hole (including any coaxial holes, bores, countersinks, and so on) Cannot itself be created from a UDF (must be a regular Holemaking NC sequence) When defining the UDF, you must specify the following references: • • • • • operation—The operation. oper_csys—The Machine coordinate system. csys—The NC Sequence coordinate system. oper_retract—The Operation retract. retract—The NC Sequence retract. 326

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axis—The hole axis. start_surface—The start surface for the drilling sequence. The syntax of these UDF references must be exactly as shown above.

To Customize the Table
You can customize the look of the table by selecting the parameters you want to display and changing the names and width of the columns. 1. Click View > Customize Columns. The Auto-Drilling dialog box displays a list of available parameters, with a check box located to the left of each parameter label. Using the text box located to the right of the parameter label you can switch between two names for this parameter, one long and one short. This name will be used as a heading in the Auto-Drilling table. If you select short names, you can later manually change the width of the appropriate columns to make the table more compact. Immediately below the list of parameters there are two icons: Select All and Unselect All. Immediately below these icons there are three buttons: OK, Cancel, and Defaults. Parameters that are currently displayed in the Auto-Drilling table have their check boxes selected. 2. Select or clear the check boxes as desired, to specify which parameters are to be displayed in the Auto-Drilling table. You can use the Select All and Unselect All icons to speed up the selection process. 3. To change the name of a column, switch the parameter name by clicking the drop-down arrow next to the text box. 4. When finished, click one of the three buttons: OK—Accept the current selections and return to the Auto-Drilling table. The table display will be updated to reflect the new parameter selections and column widths. Cancel—Ignore the current selections and return to the Auto-Drilling table. Defaults—Use the default set of parameters and the default column widths.

To Reorder the NC Sequences Created by Auto Drilling
When you apply the drilling methods to the selected holes and click OK, the system redisplays the Auto-Drilling dialog box, and shows all the NC sequences being created as a result of applying the drill methods. For each NC sequence, the system displays the pocket number, the tool name, the cycle type, the sequence name, as well as the minimum diameter and

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maximum length. You can reorder these NC sequences both automatically and manually. 1. Click Auto Reorder to automatically reorder the NC sequences based on: a. Process order in UDF b. Limiting tool changes If the Consider Orientation checkbox is selected, the system will reorder based on the coordinate system associated with the holes being drilled. 2. To manually reorder the NC sequences, highlight the appropriate row(s), click Cut, then place the cursor in the new location and click Paste. The system inserts the row(s) immediately above the new cursor location. 3. Click Undo or Redo to roll the reordering changes back or forward. 4. Click OK when finished.

Wire EDM About Wire EDM NC Sequences
Wire EDM is the NC sequence performed by Wire Electric Discharge Machines. Pro/NC lets you create 2- and 4-Axis Wire EDM NC sequences, depending on the number of axes specified when defining the workcell.

To Create a 2-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence

Use 2-Axis Wire EDM NC sequences for any type of 2-axis contouring, including Wire EDM, flame cut, water jet, and laser. 1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a WEDM workcell. 2. The MACH AUX menu appears. If in a 4-Axis workcell, choose 2 Axis. 3. Choose Contouring and Done. 4. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have to select Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 5. If you choose Seq Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC sequence types. Select the desired options and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 5. Choose Customize and interactively specify the tool path. 328

General techniques for creating Automatic Cut motions in Wire EDM are similar to that in Trajectory Milling. You can automatically create Rough, Finish, and Detach motions referencing the same contour. You can also create No Core cut motions. Connect the cut motions using the Tool Motion functionality. 6. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path generated by the system. 7. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

Contouring and No Core Cut Motions
There are two general types of 2-Axis Wire EDM cut motions: • Contouring—The tool will follow a specified trajectory. You can create Rough, Finish, and Detach cut motions by referencing the same contour.

No Core—All material within a specified contour will be removed.

To Create Rough, Finish, and Detach Cut Motions

For 2- and 4-Axis Contouring, the INTERACT PATH menu is called WEDM OPT, because it contains additional options that allow you create Rough and Finish motions within the same NC sequence and using the same contour, as well as create separate Detach motions to cut off previously machined parts. These options also appear in the CUT ALONG menu for 2- and 4-Axis Contouring. If you check off the Rough option, a single Cut Motion will be created. If you also check off the Finish option, the system will additionally create as many

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Finish motions as specified by the NUM_PROFILE_PASSES parameter value. If the appropriate information is present in the register table, it will be used; if the information is missing, the remaining passes will be computed using the PROF_INCREMENT parameter value. Rough and Profile Cut Motions

ATTACH_WIDTH Approach move Contour of the part to be machined Rough cut motion 1st Finish cut motion 2nd Finish cut motion

REVERSE_DIST Thread Point

PROF_INCREMENT STOCK_ALLOW + SPARK_ALLOW + 0.5*CUTTER_DIAM NUM_PROFILE_PASSES 2

The APPROACH_MOVE parameter allows you to specify if the Approach move will be created (you must also select or create a start point for the Approach move using the Thread Point or Approach Point option in the CUT ALONG menu, described below). If you specify the machining offset (CUTCOM), the system automatically determines the correct application of CUTCOM, based on the location of the start point with respect to the contour to be machined, as shown in the following illustration.

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Example 1: Machine outside the contour (punch), start point outside the contour

Example 2: Machine outside the contour (punch), start point inside the contour Thread point Contour CUTCOM RIGHT Contour CUTCOM RIGHT reference part approach CUTCOM LEFT

reference part Thread point

approach CUTCOM RIGHT

Example 3: Machine inside the contour (die), start point outside the contour Thread point Contour CUTCOM LEFT Thread point Approach CUTCOM RIGHT

Example 4: Machine inside the contour (die), start point inside the contour

contour CUTCOM LEFT Reference part Approach CUTCOM LEFT

Reference part

Note: If CUTCOM_MOVE is specified, it will use the CUTCOM direction for the cut motion, as before. It is not recommended to specify CUTCOM_MOVE for cases 2 and 3 shown in the illustration above. The Connect moves between multiple cut motions are defined by the parameter CUT_MOTION_CONNECT. If you check off the Detach option, a Detach motion will also be created. It will have the same shape as the Rough motion for which it is created, with its length being equal to (REVERSE_DIST + ATTACH_WIDTH).

Example: Rough, Finish, and Detach Cut Motions
The following two illustrations show an example of creating multiple Rough cut motions within the same NC sequence and then cutting off the parts in a separate NC sequence referencing the previously created cut motions. The following illustration shows multiple Rough cut motions with Approach moves.

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REVERSE_DIST ATTACH_ WIDTH Thread Point

Approach move CUT_MOTION_CONNECT CUT_WIRE APPROACH_MOVE YES Rough cut motion

The following illustration shows Detach motions.
ATTACH_WIDTH + REVERSE_DIST

Detach cut motion Create the Detach motions using the Use Prev option, and reference the NC sequence shown in the previous illustration. APPROACH_MOVE NO

To Specify Thread Point and Approach Point

When you create Automatic Cut motions in Wire EDM, the CUT ALONG menu contains the following additional options: • Thread Point—Specify the point for threading in the wire by selecting or creating a datum point. By default (that is, unless you specify a separate Approach point using the option below), the Thread point is also used as a start point for the Approach move, as described above. Approach Point—Specify a datum point, other than the Thread point, to serve as a start point for the Approach move. If you specify both a Thread point and an Approach point, the system will load wire at the Thread point, invoke initial power, flush, and feed registers, move the wire directly to the Approach point, and then make the shortest move from the Approach point to the cut contour. The system will apply the number of cutcom points and invoke the cutcom and taper registers on this move.

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Example: Specifying Thread Point and Approach Point
Approach Point Thread Point Thread Point ATTACH_WIDTH + REVERSE_DIST

To Specify Taper Angle for 2-Axis Contouring

The Taper Angle option in the INT CUT menu, available for 2-Axis Contouring Wire EDM only, allows you to select pairs of points on the tool path: the first point is where the taper angle is turned on, and the second— where it is turned off. 1. Choose Taper Angle from the INT CUT menu. 2. The TAPER ANGLE menu appears with the options: Add—Add pairs of taper points. Remove—Delete a previously defined pair of taper points by selecting one of the points. Show—Display the currently defined pairs of taper points. Redefine—Modify location of taper points or the taper angle value.

3. Choose Add. 4. Select an option from the NOW/NEXT menu to specify when the tool axis position is to be changed: Now—At the selected point. Next—At the next GOTO point.

5. Select a point on the cut motion to specify where the taper angle is to be turned on. 333

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6. Select the appropriate option from the NOW/NEXT menu, if needed, and select another point on the cut motion to specify where the taper angle is to be turned off. 7. Choose Enter and enter a value for the taper angle for this pair of points. Previously specified values, if any, will be available for selection.

To Specify Corner Conditions

1. Choose Corners from the INT CUT menu. 2. The CORNER COND menu appears with the following options: Add—Select corners to add corner conditions. Redefine—Respecify a corner condition. Delete—Allows you to select a corner condition to delete. Delete Last—Deletes the corner condition that has been added last. You can use this option more than once; when there are no more corner conditions left, the Delete Last option becomes inaccessible. Delete All—Deletes all the corner conditions.

3. When you choose Add from the CORNER COND menu, the CORNER ADD menu appears with the following options: Specify—Select points on the cut motion and specify type by selecting the appropriate option. After each selection, the corner condition will be added at the selection point. Choose Done Sel when finished. Automatic—Corner conditions will be automatically added at all the corners. Corner conditions will be added according to the following rules: All concave corners will be filleted. All convex corners on an outside contour of a part will be filleted. All convex corners on an inside contour of a part will be looped. If the system is unable to determine the type of the contour, you will be prompted to specify if this is in inside or an outside contour using the following options: Female Part—Inside contour. Male Part—Outside contour.

After the corner conditions are automatically added, you can review and change them using the AUTO SELECT menu: 334

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Next—Display the next assigned corner condition. Prev—Display the previous corner condition. Change Type—Specify a different corner condition type for the highlighted corner. Remove—Delete corner condition at the highlighted corner. Show All—Display all the currently added corner conditions. Straight corner conditions will be highlighted in yellow, convex—in red, and concave—in cyan. Info—List information about the highlighted corner condition type in the Message Window.

Corner Condition Types

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Straight—Create a straight corner condition. Concave—Create a round corner motion for a corner that is concave.

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Corner conditions can be specified for the vertices of the cut motion created using the Edge or Curve option, to avoid gouging sharp corners. Wherever a corner condition is added, a small parallelogram will be incorporated in the cut motion: the tool will continue moving along the first entity, then return to enter tangent to the second entity. The size of the parallelogram is defined by the path parameter CORNER_LENGTH. If you add a corner condition along an entity or between two tangent entities, the angle of the parallelogram will be defined by the CORNER_ANGLE parameter; if the condition is at a vertex and the corner is sharp, the CORNER_ANGLE value will be ignored and the sides of the parallelogram will be formed as a continuation of the adjoining entities. The following graphic illustrates the CORNER_LENGTH and CORNER_ANGLE parameters.

CORNER_LENGTH CORNER_LENGTH

CORNER_ANGLE

The following corner condition types are available:

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Convex—Create a round corner motion for a corner that is convex. Chamfer—A chamfer whose size is defined by the CHAMFER_DIM parameter, which represents the distance cut on each side of the corner. Bisect—The tool makes a straight cut into the material, bisecting the angle between adjacent (non-tangent) edges. The length of the cut is defined by the CORNER_LENGTH parameter. Cutter compensation will be turned off for the corner creation motion and reactivated for the continuation of cut motion. This type of corner is used to allow the part to flex and spring back during subsequent assembly. Fillet—Create a fillet corner motion. Loop—Create a loop corner motion. Available for convex corner conditions only.

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Example: Corner Conditions
The following illustration shows straight and round corner conditions.

Straight corner condition Round (Loop) corner condition at convex corner

design part assembled to workpiece

cut motion with corner conditions displayed

To Create No Core Cut Motions

No Core cut motions remove all material within a specified contour. 1. Create a 2-Axis Wire EDM NC sequence, specify the tool and manufacturing parameters. 2. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 3. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 4. Choose No Core from the WEDM OPT menu. Select the type of geometric references to use (Sketch, Edge, or Curve) and choose Done.

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5. Use the Thread Point and Approach Point options in the CUT ALONG menu if you are not satisfied with the system default start point. To specify a Thread point or an Approach point, select or create a datum point, then choose Done/Return from the DEFN POINT menu. 6. Define a closed contour to be machined by either sketching or selecting edges or curves, based on the type of geometric references selected in step 4: For Sketch—Sketch a closed contour in the XY-plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system. For Edge—Select edges to define the area to be removed. The edges must form a closed contour. For Curve—Select curves to define the area to be removed. The curves must form a closed contour.

This contour will then be scanned according to the specified scan type (similar to a single slice in milling). 7. Choose Done Cut or Next Cut from the INT CUT menu.

Specifying a Start Point for No Core Cut Motions
When you create a No Core cut motion, the system calculates a default start point, based on the specified contour and the spiral step. You can specify a different start point for a No Core cut motion by using the Thread Point option in the CUT ALONG menu and creating or selecting a datum point; the system will then calculate the scan trajectory and the default start point, and move the wire from the user-defined start point (Thread point) to the default start point by tracing along the connection portions of the scan pattern.
Default start point

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User-defined start point RETURN_TO_START YES

If the RETURN_TO_START parameter is set to YES (the default is NO), the wire will return to the start point upon completing the cut motion. The connection move is defined by the CUT_MOTION_CONNECT parameter. When CUT_MOTION_CONNECT is set to CUT_WIRE (the

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default), the wire will be unloaded and fed at FREE_FEED rate along a straight line to the start point of the subsequent cut motion. If set to CONTINUOUS, the wire will move from the end of the No Core motion to the start point of the subsequent motion at the CUT_FEED rate. If you specify both a Thread point and an Approach point, the system will load wire at the Thread point, move it directly to the Approach point, and then use the Approach point as a user-defined start point.

To Use Previous Cut Motions

You can create new Automatic Cut motions by following previously created ones. When you choose Use Prev from the WEDM OPT menu, the USE PRV OPT menu will appear with the options: • By NC Seq—If you choose this option, a namelist menu of all applicable NC sequences will appear. Once you select an NC sequence name, all Automatic Cut motions present in this NC sequence will be listed in a checkmark menu. You can check off as many motions as you like, or use Select All. By Cut—If you choose this option, all applicable Automatic Cut motions in all the previously created NC sequences will be listed. You can select one Automatic Cut motion. When you redefine an Automatic Cut motion, the Ref Cut Mtn option in the CUT ALONG menu allows you to select a reference Automatic Cut motion using the same interface as the By Cut option above.

To Mirror Cut Motions

In Wire EDM, you can create Automatic Cut motions by mirroring previously created cut motions. The mechanism for selecting a cut motion to mirror is the same as when you create cut motions using the Use Prev option. Note: You cannot mirror a cut motion that was created using the Mirror option. 1. Choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu. 2. Choose Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 3. Choose Mirror from the WEDM OPT menu. Notice that Use Prev highlights automatically and all the other options become dimmed. Choose Done. 4. Using either By Cut or By NC Seq, select the cut motion to mirror from a namelist menu. The selected cut motion highlights on the screen.

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5. Select or create a plane to mirror about. 6. The mirror cut motion is created.

Example: Mirroring Cut Motions
The following illustration shows mirroring previous cut motions.

Reference cut motion

Create a datum Mirror cut motion plane created

To Create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence in Taper Angle Format

To create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC sequence with CL data output in XYZ / IJK format or using the STAN statement, follow the procedure below. 1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a 4-axis WEDM workcell. 2. Choose Taper Angle, 4 Axis, and Done from the MACH AUX menu. 3. If you have specified the tool, site, and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have to select Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 5. If you choose Seq Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC sequence types. Select the desired options and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 4. Choose Customize and interactively specify the tool path. You can automatically create Rough, Finish, and Detach motions referencing the same contour. 5. Choose Play Path to verify the tool path generated by the system. 6. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

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To Create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC Sequence in Head1/Head2 Format

To create a 4-Axis Wire EDM NC sequence with CL data output in Head1/Head2 format, follow the procedure below. 1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You must be in a 4-axis WEDM workcell. 2. Choose XY-UV Type, 4 Axis, and Done from the MACH AUX menu. 3. Choose Seq Setup from the NC SEQUENCE menu. The SEQ SETUP menu will include the following commands: XY Plane—Specify the bottom plane for Head2 output. UV Plane—Specify the top plane for Head1 output. Note: The XY Plane and UV Plane settings are modal. That is, you have to specify the top and bottom planes for the first 4-Axis WEDM NC sequence in the manufacturing model; for subsequent sequences, the system will automatically use the previous top and bottom planes unless you explicitly change them. The CTM DEPTH menu will appear twice to allow you specify both planes. Use: Specify Plane—To select or create a plane. Z Depth—To locate the plane by entering a value for depth with respect to the NC sequence coordinate system. Use Prev—To use a top or bottom plane from one of the previous NC sequences. Select the sequence name from a namelist menu.

4. Choose Customize, then select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 5. The INT CUT menu will appear with Cut already chosen, causing the CUT ALONG menu to appear as well, with Drive Surf already chosen. The following commands will also be listed: Thread Point—Select or create a datum point as the loading point for the wire and starting location of the tool path. Approach Point—Select or create a datum point as the alternate starting location of the tool path. The system will load wire at the Thread point, move it directly to the Approach point, and then start cutting from the point on the contour closest to the Approach point. Contour1—Sketch or select the first contour in the cut. Contour2—Sketch or select the second contour in the cut.

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Note: When creating the cut motion, the system will attempt to synchronize the entities in the two contours in the order they were sketched or selected: the first entity of the first contour with the first entity of the second contour, and so on. Keep this in mind when sketching or selecting the contours, or supply manual synchronization. Side Surfs—Indicate the contours of the cut by selecting side surfaces. This command is used in place of the Contour1 and Contour2 commands. Synch—Brings up the SYNCH menu for specifying points to synchronize the positions of Head1 and Head2. Direction—Indicate the direction the tool will travel in to make the cut. Offset—Specify the direction in which the cut motion will be offset.

6. Choose Done from the CUT ALONG menu to begin specifying the cut. 7. Select or create a datum point to use as the Thread point. If you selected Approach Point as well, select or create another datum point to use as the Approach point. 8. The TRAJ OPT menu will appear in turn for contour1 and contour2; choose Sketch or Select to indicate the contour. 9. If you are creating synch points, the SYNCH menu appears with the following commands: Add—Select a location on a contour to place a synch point. Remove—Select an existing synch point to delete. Show—Display existing synch points. Done/Return—Quit the SYNCH menu and return to defining the cut motion.

10. An arrow appears, originating at the start point that you created in step 7. Choose Flip or Okay to indicate the direction of the cut motion. 11. The SLOT OFFSET menu appears with the options None, Left, and Right. Choose an option to indicate the direction of the tool offset. 12. The INT CUT menu reappears; choose Show to display the cut motion. Note: If you get an error message “Cut motion cannot be created try adding more synch points.

Automatic Synchronization of Start and End Points
The start and end points of a 4-Axis Wire EDM Automatic Cut motion can be automatically synchronized using the AUTOSYNCH_START_END parameter, available both at the NC sequence and the Customize levels. This

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functionality applies to 4-Axis Automatic Cut motions defined using the Contour1/Contour2 or Side Surfs options. By default (AUTOSYNCH_START_END YES), the two heads will be automatically synchronized at the beginning and the end of each cut, as explained below.

2 As the cut starts, use default synchronization. Lower contour 1 At the beginning of cut, the start of the 1st contour is auto synchronized with the closest point of the 2nd contour.

Upper contour

4 At the end of cut, the end of the contour completed first is auto synchronized with the closest point of the other contour. 3 Here, the default synchronization is still used.

The illustration above shows how automatic synchronization works. The cut for the lower guide is the larger rectangular contour. The cut for the upper wire guide is the smaller contour. On the initial engagement of the wire to the lower contour, the upper contour will be synchronized automatically by finding the shortest distance between the two contours. As the wire goes around the profiles, they will automatically be synchronized by finding corresponding vertices on each. If the vertices are at tangent edges, you have an option to automatically synchronize the vertices between contours with the same number of entities by setting the AUTO_SYNCHRONIZE parameter to YES (the default is NO). You can also provide additional synchronization by manually specifying Synch points. As the wire approaches the end of the pass on the cut motion, the endpoint synchronization will take effect. In this example, the wire will complete the upper contour before the lower contour; therefore, a synchronization point will be automatically made to swing the lower wire in line with the upper wire using the shortest distance between the two contours. The wire will then step in to the next pass and repeat the process. Note: If an approach is made on a non-planar surface (for example, a cone), orienting the wire axis as described above may cause a gouge because the axis may not line up with the u-v lines of the surface. In this case, you will get a message: “WARNING: Approach is made on non-planar surface and may cause gouge. Based on this warning, you can either set AUTOSYNCH_START_END to NO or change the Thread (Approach) point.

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If you set AUTOSYNCH_START_END to NO, the start and end points of the upper and lower contours will be mapped by cut entities; therefore, the upper and lower contours will have different start and end points in XY.

To Set Up the Register Table(s)

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu. 2. Choose Param Setup from the MFG SETUP menu. 3. Choose Register from the PARAM SETUP menu. 4. The following options are available: Create—Create a new register table. Enter the name for the table, then edit it in Pro/TABLE. You have to store this table on disk using the Save option below in order to use it in other models. Modify—Modify an existing register table. In order to be modifiable, the table has to either be created in the model, or added to it using the Retrieve option below. Retrieve—Read an existing register table from disk to add it to the current manufacturing model. Save—Save a register table on disk to use it in another model. Delete—Delete an existing register table. Show—Display a register table in the Information Window. Select a register table name from a namelist menu. Only tables that exist in the model can be displayed. More than one register table can be added to the model. You can specify which table is to be used in an NC sequence by supplying the name of the table as the REGISTER_TABLE parameter value. At the time of defining the NC sequence, the Register option appears in the
MFG PARAMS menu. It brings up the CR/SEL RGR menu with the following

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Set Up—Brings up the REGISTER menu to allow you to create, read, or modify register tables. Select—Select an existing register table. This sets the REGISTER_TABLE parameter value. In order to be selectable, the table has to either be created in the model, or added to it using the Retrieve option.

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options:

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Register Tables
You can specify generator, cutcom, technology, offset, and flush registers, as well as taper and feed values, for Wire EDM NC sequences by using a register table. This allows you to set different register, taper, and feed values for each cut motion type (Approach, No Core, Rough, up to 16 Finish motions, and Detach). Register tables can be created either at setup time, or at the time of defining the NC sequence. Note: Cutcom and Taper registers are not supported for No Core motions. If a register table is specified for an NC sequence (either by setting the REGISTER_TABLE parameter or using the Select option in the CR/SEL RGR menu), then register values for each cut motion specified in the register table will be output to the CL data file. These values take precedence over the register values and feeds specified in the NC sequence parameters file.

To Set Up the Radius Substitution Table(s)

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu. 2. Choose Param Setup from the MFG SETUP menu. 3. Choose Radius Subst from the PARAM SETUP menu. 4. The RAD SETUP menu comes up with the following options: Create—Create a new radius substitution table. Enter the name for the table, then select the radial type: Concave or Convex. This table will be used for corners of the specified type only, and the appropriate suffix (“_cvv or “_cvx) will be added to the table name. The Pro/TABLE comes up; edit the table by entering the radius values as described in the reference topic. You have to store this table on disk using the Save option below in order to use it in other models. Modify—Modify an existing radius substitution table. In order to be modifiable, the table has to either be created in the model, or added to it using the Retrieve option below. Retrieve—Read an existing radius substitution table from disk to add it to the current manufacturing model. Save—Save a radius substitution table on disk to use it in another model. The file will be saved with the extension “.rdl. Delete—Delete an existing radius substitution table. Show—Display a radius substitution table in the INFO window. Select the table name from a namelist menu. Only tables that exist in the model can be displayed.

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Any number of radius substitution tables can be added to a model. To specify which table is to be used, choose Radius Subst from the MFG PARAMS menu either when setting up the NC sequence or when defining a cut motion. It brings up the CR/SEL RAD menu with the following options: • • Set Up—Brings up the RAD SETUP menu with the options described above. Select—Select existing radius substitution tables from a namelist menu: you can select one for the concave and one for the convex corners. In order to be displayed in the namelist menu, a table has to either be created in the model, or added to it using the Retrieve option. To perform radius substitution, choose Corners from the INT CUT menu, then Table Corners from the CORNER ADD menu. The corner radii on the tool path will be substituted according to the table values.

Radius Substitution Tables
Certain wire EDM machines are difficult to control when machining corners; as a result, parts are often overcut during initial passes that are created at a high power setting. Radius substitution allows you to modify selected reference part radii on a pass-by-pass basis, in order to achieve proper machining of the parts. Radius substitution is performed by setting up radius substitution tables and associating them with 2-Axis Wire EDM NC sequences at the time of creating the Rough and Finish cut motions. Radius substitution tables provide the value of the radius to be used in the toolpath generation depending on: • • • The type of the corner (concave or convex) The value of the radius of the selected contour to be machined The number of the pass (a Rough and up to 16 Finish) When a table is used, the corner to be cut is evaluated to determine its type and the current pass. The toolpath for that pass is modified to have the radius from the table rather than that of the contour. The table is interpolated for contour radii not explicitly listed. Value of 0 (zero) means substituting a sharp corner for the radius. There is no interpolation between 0 and another substitution value. When a column has zeros in it, sharp corners are substituted for all values up to that where a non-zero substitution radius is listed. In the example below, sharp corners will be substituted on the Rough pass for all radii up to 0.007.

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Auxiliary NC Sequences About Auxiliary NC Sequences
Auxiliary NC sequences produce a point-to-point tool path. They can be used to specify the connecting tool motions and change the tool axis orientation, if needed, between two machining NC sequences. They also allow you to access the on-machine probe functionality. Auxiliary NC sequences are available for any workcell type, and can be performed with any type of tool. You do not have to specify a tool for an Auxiliary NC sequence. You will be able to create Tool Motions even though no tool is specified.

To Create an Auxiliary NC Sequence

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You can be in any type of workcell. 2. Choose Auxiliary and Done. 3. If you have specified the site and coordinate systems at setup time, you do not have to select Seq Setup at this point, and can proceed directly to step 4. If you choose Seq Setup, the SEQ SETUP menu will contain the common options, available for all the NC sequence types. Select the desired options and choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all selected options in turn. 4. Choose Customize to specify the auxiliary tool motions (the only Tool Motion types available for Auxiliary NC sequences are Goto Point, Go Delta, Go Home, and Follow Sketch), or to access the on-machine probe functionality by inserting CL Commands in the Customize dialog box. 5. Choose Done Seq or Next Seq from the NC SEQUENCE menu when satisfied.

User-Defined NC Sequences About User-Defined NC Sequences
NC sequences and material removal features can be grouped, the same as part features. This functionality, in particular, allows you to create the NC sequences necessary to manufacture a group of features (design UDF) only once. You can then group these NC sequences (and material removal features, if desired), and place this manufacturing group in any other models containing the same reference features’ group.

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If you do not reference a design UDF, the information about the reference part will be stored with the group. If you then place the group in another manufacturing model containing the same reference part, you will have an option to automatically resolve the placement references. Note: If you include a child NC sequence in a group (for example, local milling), make sure the parent NC sequence is also included. Otherwise, the system will not know which NC sequence to reference when making the group.

To Define a Manufacturing UDF

1. Choose Utilities from the MACHINING menu, then UDF Library from the MFG UTILS menu. 2. Choose Create from the UDF menu. 3. Enter the name for the group. 4. Select an option from the UDF OPTIONS menu: Stand Alone—The UDF will be functional by itself. Subordinate—The UDF will be driven by the current model.

5. Define the UDF elements as you would when creating a group of part features. Select manufacturing features (NC sequences and material removal features) to be grouped. 6. If there is a features’ group referenced by selected NC sequences, the MFG UDF REF menu will appear: Design UDF—Use a reference group of features for resolving references. If only one design UDF is referenced, it will be selected automatically, otherwise select a group to use. Ref Part—Use the reference part for resolving references. For assembly machining, you will have to select a part. None—No reference information will be stored.

If no design UDF is referenced, the MFG UDF REF menu will not appear. In regular manufacturing, the reference part information will be automatically stored. In assembly machining, you will have to select a reference part to use. If you do not want to select a reference part, choose Done Sel without selecting a part. 7. When the group is successfully defined, the information is automatically stored. Note: If you have specified a reference design UDF, you will not be prompted for the corresponding placement references; they will be resolved automatically.

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Including Operations, Workcells, and Reference Superfeatures in a Manufacturing UDF
Operation and workcell features can also be included when creating a manufacturing UDF. When you place such a group: • The default names for the operation and workcell created in the new model will be OP_CPY### or MACH_CPY##, respectively (for example, OP_CPY010 and MACH_CPY01). All the parameters and tools associated with the workcell will be copied. If tools with the same IDs already exist in the new model, a message will appear and the workcell tools will not be copied. The NC sequences that referenced this operation and workcell in the original model will automatically retain these references.

Including Reference Superfeatures
If an NC sequence references a Mill Volume, Mill Surface, or Drill Group, there are two ways to define a group: • If you include the reference superfeature (Mill Volume, Mill Surface, or Drill Group) in the group definition, then, at the time of defining the group, you will be requested to enter prompts for the geometric references used to create this superfeature. When you make this group in another model, you will be prompted to select these references, and the superfeature of the same name (complete with all component features such as Gather, Trim) will be created in the new model, then the NC sequence will be created based on this superfeature. If you do not include the reference superfeature, then, at the time of defining the group, you will be requested to enter prompt for the superfeature itself. When you make this group in another model, you will be prompted to select a pre-existent superfeature of appropriate type, and the NC sequence will be created using the superfeature in the new model.

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Example: Manufacturing a Group of Features
Define a group of NC sequences and material removal features.

Use Design UDF

Make the group here. You will only be prompted for operation and workcell names, the coordinate system, and the retract plane offset.

To Place a Previously Defined Group in Another Manufacturing Model

1. Choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu. You can be in any type of workcell. Choose User Defined from the MACH AUX menu and enter the name of a previously defined group. ...or... From the MFG UTILS menu, choose Group > Create > From UDF Lib and retrieve the group by name. 2. As when placing a group of features, you will have to select if the group is to be Independent or UDF Driven, and will be prompted for the group elements. If the checkmark next to the Use CurOper option is on, all the NC sequences in the group will be placed in the currently active operation. If the Use CurOper option is not selected, you will be prompted to select a parent operation in the new model, unless the operation is included in the group. When all the prompts are answered successfully, the manufacturing group will be placed. Note: The Use CurOper option is available only for UDFs created in Release 16.0 and later. When you are answering the prompts for group elements, the WHICH REF menu will appear with the following options: Alternate—Select a reference for the current element. 349

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Same—Use the same reference as in the reference part. This option appears only if the group contains a reference part information, and this reference part is present in the current manufacturing assembly. Skip—Skip the current prompt without selecting a reference. After you have answered all the other prompts, the system will allow you to redefine the skipped element.

Note: The Skip option is not available for UDFs created prior to Release 16.0. 3. After the UDF placement is completed, a namelist menu of all NC sequences included in the group will appear. Check off the NC sequence(s) whose tool or parameters you want to modify (you can use Select All). The MOD NC SEQ menu will appear with the following options: Tool—Change the tool. Parameters—Modify the NC sequence parameters.

Choose Done when finished. 4. If some of the prompts have been skipped, the system starts the appropriate user interface to allow you redefine the skipped element. Then the GRP PLACE menu will appear with the following options: Redefine—Redefine all elements related to skipped prompts. Show Result—Preview the group. Info—Display information about the group being created in the Information Window.

Choose Done from the GRP PLACE menu to finalize the group. 5. The group is placed in the new model.

Example: Using a Manufacturing UDF with Pro/PROGRAM
This example illustrates creation and use of a manufacturing UDF with imbedded logic, which chooses a tool for drilling based on the diameter of the hole and decides between reaming and boring to finish the hole. It also includes the use of the Evaluate functionality to capture geometry from the reference part into the UDF.

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1: Center Drilling

2: Deep Drilling

3: Reaming

4: Boring

5: Countersinking

The manufacturing model shown in the illustration above has five NC sequences defined: • • • • • Center drilling Deep drilling Reaming Boring Countersinking It also has the following relations set up for the workpiece:

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These relations: • • • Set the diameter of the hole based on the results of Evaluate Set the value of a user-defined parameter “bore_ream based on the value of the hole diameter Select a drill based on the value of the hole diameter To utilize this logic, define a manufacturing UDF (group). Include the workcell and all the five NC sequences. Create the group using the Subordinate and Pro/Program options (using Subordinate ensures that model relations are carried into the UDF). Enter prompts required to place the NC sequences. Note that both Bore and Ream NC sequences are included in the UDF. The system is going to determine which one to perform based on Pro/PROGRAM logic.

How to Set Up the Bore/Ream Choice
1. Choose Edit Design from the PROGRAM menu. 2. Before FID 117 (Ream NC sequence), add the line:

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IF BORE_REAM = fl"REAM" 3. Before FID 160 (next NC sequence, Bore), add the lines: ENDIF IF BORE_REAM = fl"BORE" 4. After FID 160, add the line: ENDIF 5. Save and exit from Pro/PROGRAM editor. 6. Incorporate changes into the model by typing “y in response to the prompt. 7. Choose Normal and Done from the REGEN TYPE menu. Retrieve another model and place the group there using the Group option from the MFG UTILS menu. Choose UDF Driven and Read Only, then follow the placement prompts. Regenerate the model. You can now modify the diameter of the hole in the new model (regenerate twice) and see how the system performs different NC sequences and selects a different tool based on the built-in logic.

The Customize Dialog Box About the Customize Dialog Box

When you choose Customize from the NC SEQUENCE menu, the system displays the Customize dialog box. The box enables you to create, modify, and delete the Tool Motions and CL Commands. At the same time, the system displays the NC sequence CL file, as it currently looks, in the NCL File window. Depending on the type of NC sequence, the system may have automatically generated some default Tool Motions (for example, Auto Plunge, Automatic Cut), based on the parameter values and selected geometry. In this case, the Tool Motions will be listed in the upper portion of the Customize dialog box. You can redefine these motions, as necessary, or delete them and create new ones. For other NC sequence types (such as Trajectory Milling, Profile Turning, or Wire EDM), you have to explicitly create all the Tool Motions; therefore, when you first enter the Customize dialog box, its upper portion contains only the <end of tool path> line. Creating a new Tool Motion or CL Command adds it to the list in the upper portion of the Customize dialog box. To select an item (Tool Motion or CL Command) in the upper portion of the Customize dialog box, click on it. To select multiple items, click on the first one, then hold the <SHIFT> or <CTRL> key and click on the last one; the

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system highlights these items, and all items in between, in the list box. It also highlights the portion of the toolpath on the screen corresponding to all the selected items, and highlights the first and the last CL lines for the block of selected items in the NCL File window. The tool is positioned at the beginning of the first selected Tool Motion. The middle portion of the Customize dialog box contains the following buttons: • Insert—Add a Tool Motion or CL command before the selected item in the list box above. Select the type of entity to insert from the drop-down list to the right of the Insert button, then click Insert. Copy—Copy the selected Tool Motion(s) and CL command(s) and place them on the Clipboard, to insert them at a different control point. Paste—Insert the contents of the Clipboard at a specified control point. Cut—Remove the selected Tool Motion(s) and CL command(s) and place them on the Clipboard, to insert them at a different control point. Delete—Remove the selected Tool Motion(s) and CL command(s). Modify—Modify dimensions associated with the selected Tool Motion. Redefine—Change the selected Tool Motion or CL command. Params—Modify parameters of the selected Tool Motion. Clipboard—Show the current contents of the Clipboard. The bottom portion of the Customize dialog box contains the OK and Cancel action buttons.

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Tool Motions
You can insert the following types of Tool Motions: • • • • • Automatic Cut—Reference model geometry to generate the path followed by the tool while actually cutting workpiece material. Follow Sketch—Set up the sketching plane and sketch the tool path. GoTo Point—Go to a datum point or to a point on the tool path. For 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences, you can also specify the tool axis orientation. Go Delta—Allows you to specify tool motions in terms of increments along the axes of the NC sequence coordinate system (with respect to the current position of the tool). Go Home—Go directly to the Operation HOME point (if specified, using the Home option, when creating the operation).

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Plunge—Create a plunge before another Tool Motion. The tool will move horizontally (that is, at its current Z depth) straight to the location directly above the start of the selected motion and then plunge down. Retract—Go from the current location vertically up to the retract plane. Appr Along Tool Axis—Create an approach motion along the tool axis. Appears for 4and 5-axis NC sequences only. Exit Along Tool Axis—Create an exit motion along the tool axis. Appears for 4- and 5axis NC sequences only. Tangent Approach—Create an approach motion tangent to the Automatic Cut motion Tangent Exit—Create an exit motion tangent to the Automatic Cut motion. Normal Approach—Create an approach motion normal to the direction of the Automatic Cut motion. Normal Exit—Create an exit motion normal to the direction of the Automatic Cut motion. Lead In—Approach the Automatic Cut motion tangentially, along an arc of specified radius. Lead Out—Exit from the current point tangentially to the Automatic Cut motion along an arc of specified radius. Helical Approach—Create a helical approach motion. This option is available for Milling NC sequences, except Thread milling. For Thread milling, you can automatically generate helical approach exit motions using the APPROACH_TYPE parameter. Helical Exit—Create a helical exit motion. This option is available for Milling NC sequences, except Thread milling. For Thread milling, you can automatically generate helical exit motions using the EXIT_TYPE parameter. Generally, you create the Automatic Cut motions first, and then connect them using other types of tool motions. Notes: The Tool Motion functionality is slightly different for Holemaking NC sequences. For Automatic Cut motions composed of closed loops, an approach motion will reset the start point of the loop.

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To Create a Control Point

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A control point is an internal datum point on the tool path that you can reference as a target point for tool motions. Control points can be created “on the fly as necessary when creating tool motions. Whenever you need to reference a control point (to define a Follow Sketch motion, specify the portion of an Automatic Cut motion to follow), the CTRL PNT menu will appear with following options: • • Select—Select an existing control point. Create—Create a control point by selecting a point on an Automatic Cut motion. A datum point is created at the select point; you will also see a tiny axis that is tangent to the Automatic Cut motion at the control point. The point and axis will be displayed only while in the Customize mode. Once a control point is created, you will be able to select it for reference in other steps. There are no dimensions connected to a control point, its location is determined by the select point.

To Create an Offset Control Point

1. Press the Offset button in the appropriate dialog box. 2. The Offset From Goto Point dialog box appears. 3. Enter offsets along the axes of the NC Sequence coordinate system. 4. Click OK to create the offset point, Cancel—to quit. The Reset button resets all the offsets to 0.

Offset Control Points
It may be desirable that the tool comes close to the final point at high speed, and then changes speed just for the final motion to the point. To achieve this, you can create on-the-fly a point “offset from your final destination point, and use this new point as a target for the current motion. This functionality is available for the following types of tool motions: • • • • GoTo Point Plunge Tangent Approach Normal Approach

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To Create an Automatic Cut Motion
The types of Automatic Cut motions depend on the type of the NC sequence; refer to the topic describing NC sequences of a particular type for information on the Automatic Cut motions for this NC sequence. Once an Automatic Cut motion is generated, you can incorporate it in the tool path fully or partially. 1. Select Automatic Cut from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The system displays the menus appropriate for creating Automatic Cut motions within the current NC sequence type. Create an Automatic Cut motion. The system creates an implicit Follow Cut motion that follows the Automatic Cut motion from start to end. 3. If you want to the tool to follow only certain portions of the Automatic Cut motion, or to change the Follow Cut parameters, redefine the Follow Cut motion. Click for details. 4. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

Implicit Tool Motions
In order to automate the process of customizing a tool path as much as possible, the following Tool Motions are implicitly created in Milling: • • A Retract motion is implicitly created before an Automatic Cut motion if other tool motions are already present. An implicit Plunge motion (Auto Plunge) is created where the tool automatically plunges to the beginning of an Automatic Cut. If you are not satisfied with the implicitly created motions, you can delete or redefine them.

To Redefine a Follow Cut Motion

When you create an Automatic Cut motion, the system creates an implicit Follow Cut motion that follows the Automatic Cut motion from start to end. If you want to the tool to follow only certain portions of the Automatic Cut motion, or to change the Follow Cut parameters, redefine the Follow Cut motion. 1. Select the Follow Cut motion in the list box at the top of the Customize dialog box and click Redefine. 357

The Follow Cut dialog box opens. 2. Redefine the Follow Cut motion as needed. You can: Change the Follow Cut limits, that is, specify the start and end points for the tool, to make it follow only a portion of the Automatic Cut motion. Reverse the cut direction. Modify the Follow Cut motion parameters. Split the Follow Cut motion into multiple segments. Add other Follow Cut motions (for example, following a different portion of the same Automatic Cut motion). Remove some of the segments of the Follow Cut motion.

3. Click OK to finish redefining the Follow Cut motion and close the Follow Cut dialog box. If you created multiple segments of a Follow Cut motion, they will all be listed in the Customize dialog box below the Automatic Cut motion that they follow.

The Follow Cut Dialog Box

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Split—Split the selected segment of the Follow Cut motion into multiple segments. Add—Add a Follow Cut motion segment. When you click Add, the system adds a default Follow Cut motion that follows the Automatic Cut motion from start to end. Click Redefine to change the Follow Cut limits as needed. Remove—Delete the selected segment of the Follow Cut motion. Redefine—Redefine the selected segment of the Follow Cut motion. The middle portion of the Follow Cut dialog box contains the options for redefining a Follow Cut motion:

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Name—Displays the name of the selected Follow Cut segment. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you can not modify it. Click to preview the Follow Cut segment as it is currently defined. next to the Name label

Follow Cut Limits—Change the start and end points of the Follow Cut motion:

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The top portion of the Follow Cut dialog box contains a list box with the names of all the Follow Cut motion segments. Below this list box there are the following action buttons:

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First Point—Specify a different start point for the Follow Cut motion. You can select or create a datum point on the tool path, or select Start of Cut to make the Follow Cut segment start at the Start point of the Automatic Cut motion. Second Point— Specify a different end point for the Follow Cut motion. You can select or create a datum point on the tool path, or select End of Cut to make the Follow Cut segment end at the End point of the Automatic Cut motion.

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Reverse Cut Direction—Select this option to reverse the direction of the Follow Cut motion. Follow Cut Parameters— Edit the Follow Cut motion parameters. Click the Right arrow next to the label to expand this field; then click the Feed, Spindle, or Coolant button to open the appropriate dialog box and edit the parameter values. Once you redefined a Follow Cut segment, click Apply to finalize the changes you made. To discard these changes, click Reset.

To Split a Follow Cut Motion

1. Select the Follow Cut motion segment in the list box at the top of the Follow Cut dialog box and click Split. The Create Split Point dialog box opens. 2. Click Add and select a point on the tool path where you want to split the Follow Cut motion. The system creates a datum point at the selected location. 3. If you want to split the Follow Cut motion into more than two segments, repeat Step 2 to create additional split points. 4. Once a split point is created, you can select its name in the list box at the top of the Create Split Point dialog box and click one of the following buttons: Remove—Delete the selected split point. Move—Move the selected split point. The system highlights the selected point. Select the new location on the tool path.

5. Click Preview to view the results. If satisfied, click OK.

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If you need to insert a CL command (for example, GOTO/x,y,z) in the middle of a Follow Cut motion, it is recommended that you split the Follow Cut motion first.

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To Create a Follow Sketch Motion

Follow Sketch motions let you sketch the tool path that the tool will follow. You can change the tool axis orientation at selected points along the sketch for 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences. 1. Choose Follow Sketch from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Follow Sketch dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. Click Sketch to sketch the tool motion. The sketching plane setup depends on the following selection: If the Control Point option button is selected, you will be prompted to select or create a control point. The sketching plane will pass through the specified control point. The axis belonging to the control point will lie horizontally in the sketching plane. If the Setup Plane option button is selected, use the regular sketcher setup technique to select or create the sketching plane and the Sketcher orientation reference.

5. Once the model is reoriented, sketch the tool motion. The SKETCHER menu will contain two additional options, specific to sketching the Tool Motions: Tool Kerf—Creates a construction circle with the diameter equal to the Cutter_Diam of the tool, centered at the location you select on the screen. You can reference this entity when sketching the tool path. CL Command—Insert CL commands along the sketched tool path. You will be prompted to select location for the CL commands by selecting on a sketched entity. Then supply the contents of the CL command using the Sketcher CL Command dialog box. The system places a Sketcher point at the location of the CL command. If you later modify the sketch, the CL command placement will be determined by the new location of this point entity. Note: Sketcher CL commands are listed in the Customize dialog box under the Follow Cut motion they belong to. They are indented to show that their placement is controlled by the sketch. To modify placement of such a command, redefine the Follow Sketch motion and modify dimensions of the point entity corresponding to the CL command. 6. Choose Done from the SKETCHER menu. 7. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can also change the tool axis orientation at selected points along the sketch using the Specify Axis button. The AXIS DEF menu then appears with the following options: 360

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Add—Add an axis orientation definition. Remove—Remove an axis orientation definition. Redefine—Respecify the axis orientation at an existing location. Show—Display existing axis definitions. The SHOW menu appears with the listing of existing axis definitions (Axis Def #1, Axis Def #2, ...). Placing the cursor over a definition name in the menu displays the corresponding axis definition as a cyan vector, which disappears once you move the cursor away from the menu item.

To add an axis definition, choose Add and select a point on the sketched tool motion where you want to specify the tool axis orientation. Once you selected a point, you will be prompted to enter a parameter value along the entire sketch (with the start point of the sketch 0.0 and the end point 1.0). The parameter value corresponding to your selection will appear as an option in the selection menu, or you can choose Enter and enter another value. Once you specified the location, the DEFINE AXIS menu will appear with the following options: Along Z Dir—The tool axis will be parallel to the Z-axis of the Machine coordinate system. Datum Axis—Select or create a datum axis that the tool axis will be parallel to, then specify the axis direction using Flip and Okay options. Enter Value—Specify tool axis orientation be entering i,j,k values with respect to the Machine coordinate system.

8. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

Example: Using Tool Kerf and CL Command
The following is an example of using the Tool Kerf and CL Command functionality in Follow Sketch motions.

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Sketching plane

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To produce the tool path shown above, where the tool machines the edge and stops right before touching the part to check gauge, create a Follow Sketch motion, as shown in the following illustration.
1. Add Tool Kerf entities and dimension as needed.

2. Sketch two tool motion segments between the Tool Kerf entities' centers.

3. At the Tool Kerf center, add CL Command: PPRINT / CHECK GAUGE STOP

The resulting CL data is listed below:

To Create a Follow Sketch Motion in Holemaking
You can sketch the traversal path between the holes’ axes by following the procedure below. 362

1. Choose Follow Sketch from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Follow Sketch dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. Click the Sketch button to sketch the tool motion. The location of traversal path will depend on the following: If the At Retract Plane option button is selected, the traversal path will lie in the retract plane. If you later modify the retract plane height, the traversal path will update automatically. If the Specify Plane option button is selected, you will have to select a plane parallel to the XY plane of the NC Sequence coordinate system and enter offset from this plane in the indicated direction. The traversal path will lie in the offset plane.

As you start sketching, all selected holes are automatically marked by Sketcher points at the selected axes’ locations. The sketched path may contain as many entities as you want. If the sketched path passes through the Sketcher point that marks a selected axis, this hole will be drilled (you do not have to break the sketched entity at this point, or align it to the hole axis—the system will automatically make these assumptions). All entities included in the same sketch are parts of a single Tool Motion segment. A valid sketch must pass through at least one hole axis. 5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion. The following illustration shows sketching the traversal path.

To Create a Connect Motion
Connect the hole axes by selecting them in the same order you want them to be drilled. As you select an axis, the current tool location is connected with this axis by a straight line parallel to the retract plane. Each selection creates a separate Connect segment. Note that the level of a Connect segment is determined by the level of the endpoint of the previous segment.

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Previous path segment

Sketch

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The following illustration shows creating the traversal path using the Connect option.
Select this axis.

To Redefine the Connect Motions
The Redefine button in the Customize dialog box allows you to respecify any of the traversal path segments created so far. When you choose Redefine, a namelist menu of the Tool Motion segments appears. Select a segment you want to redo. The selected segment and all the subsequent Tool Motion segments temporarily disappear. • • If it is a sketched segment, you can re-specify your sketching plane, then sketch the tool path (note that the old sketch is deleted automatically). If it is a Connect segment, select a hole axis to go to. Once you are finished, the rest of the tool path is regenerated. The subsequent Connect segments may change depending on modifications to the current segment. If you redefine a segment immediately preceding a sketched one, it is your responsibility to place the end of the segment being redefined at the beginning of the next sketched segment, or to redefine the sketched segment as well. The following illustration shows modifying the traversal path.
Select this axis.

Redefine DRL CONN #3.

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To Create a GoTo Point Motion

GoTo Point motions enable the tool to go to any datum point (not just a control point). You can restrict moves along some of the axes of the NC sequence coordinate system. For 4- and 5-Axis NC sequences, you can also change the tool axis orientation. 1. Choose GoTo Point from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Goto Point dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. Click Specify Point to create or select the control point. The CR/SEL POINT menu appears with the options: Select—Select an existing control point or datum point. Create—Create a new control point or datum point: On Toolpath—Create a new control point by selecting on the tool path. Datum Point—Create a new datum point using the regular functionality for creating datum points. The datum point will belong to the workpiece in Part machining, and to the manufacturing assembly in Assembly machining. 5. The Specify Offset button allows you to specify a target point offset from the control point created using the Specify Point button, described above. 6. The next portion of the dialog box allows you to restrict moves along some of the axes of the NC Sequence coordinate system: If the Simultaneous option button is selected, then, depending on whether the X axis, Y axis, or Z axis checkbox is selected or unselected, the tool is allowed or disallowed to move along this axis. By default, all the axes are allowed; the tool then moves directly from the current position to the target point. If some of the axes are disallowed, the final tool position is computed based on the current point and the axes allowed. For Turning, only the X axis and Z axis buttons will appear in the dialog box. If the Z First option button is selected, the tool moves along the Z-axis from the current position to the level of target point; it then moves using all remaining available axes to the target point (for Turning, this is the X-axis; for other types of NC sequences, this is the XY plane). If the Z Last option button is selected, the tool moves along the X-axis (for Turning), or in the XY plane (for other types of NC sequences), from the current position to the location of the selected point, and then moves along the Z-axis to arrive at selected point.

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7. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can also change the tool axis orientation at target point: Along Z Axis—Use the default orientation of the tool (parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system). Use Previous—Use the previous tool orientation. Specify New Axis—Click Specify Axis and select an edge or axis that the tool axis will be parallel to, or a surface that the tool axis will be normal to. Finalize the tool orientation using Flip and Okay options; note that the red arrow must point from the tool tip towards the toolholder.

8. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Go Delta Motion
Go Delta motions enable you to specify tool motions in terms of increments along the axes of the NC sequence coordinate system (with respect to the current position of the tool). 1. Choose Go Delta from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Go Delta dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. Enter offsets along the axes of the NC Sequence coordinate system. The Reset button resets all the offset values to 0. 5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can also change the tool axis orientation at target point: Along Z Axis—Use the default orientation of the tool (parallel to the Z-axis of the NC Sequence coordinate system). Use Previous—Use the previous tool orientation. Specify New Axis—Click Specify Axis and select an edge or axis that the tool axis will be parallel to, or a surface that the tool axis will be normal to. Finalize the tool orientation using Flip and Okay options; note that the red arrow must point from the tool tip towards the toolholder.

6. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

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Modifying the Go Delta Increments
You can later modify all the increments for a Go Delta motion using the Modify button in the Customize dialog box. The Go Delta increments can also be included in relations. To find out the dimension symbols corresponding to the Go Delta increments, use the Seq Info option, choose List and select the GO DELTA motion from the menu. The information displayed will include the increment values and dimension symbols assigned to the increments.

To Create a Go Home Motion
Go Home motions make the tool go directly to the Operation HOME point (if specified, using the Home option, when creating the operation). 1. Choose Go Home from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Go Home dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button. 5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Plunge Motion
1. Choose Plunge from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Plunge dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. The Specify Offset button allows you to specify a target point offset from the start point of the Tool Motion that you plunge to. 5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button.

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6. Edit the Clear Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed. 7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

Plunge Motions
Plunge motions make the tool plunge before a selected Automatic Cut motion (or another approach motion). The tool will perform the following motions: • Move at RAPID speed along the retract surface to the location directly above the start point of the next Tool Motion. This location is determined as follows: In case of a retract plane, the projection of the start point of the next Tool Motion on the retract plane. In case of a retract surface of revolution, the intersection of the tool axis at the start point of the next Tool Motion with the retract surface.

Plunge at RAPID speed to the location offset from the start point of the next Tool Motion by (CLEAR_DIST + a), where a is an extra offset value, which depends on the type of NC sequence. It is: STEP_DEPTH—For Volume, Local, Face, Profile, Pocket, and Trajectory milling. ROUGH_STEP_DEPTH—For Conventional Surface milling. OFFSET_INCREMENT—For Surface-by-Surface Contour milling and Cutline machining. 0—For all other types of NC sequeences.

Move at PLUNGE_FEED to the start point of the next Tool Motion.

To Create a Retract Motion
A Retract motion makes the tool go from the current location vertically up to the retract plane. 1. Choose Retract from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Retract dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box.

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4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button. 5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Tangent Approach Motion
Tangent Approach motions let you make the tool approach an Automatic Cut motion (or another approach motion) in the direction tangent to the motion at its start point. The length of the approach motion is determined by the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter value. 1. Choose Tangent Approach from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Tangent Approach dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, Coolant, and Cutcom buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. The Specify Offset button allows you to specify a target point offset from the start of the selected Automatic Cut motion. 5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button. 6. Edit the Approach Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed. 7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Tangent Exit Motion
Tangent Exit motions let you make the tool exit from the current point in the direction tangent to the Automatic Cut motion at this point. The length of the exit motion is determined by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter value. 1. Choose Tangent Exit from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Tangent Exit dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button. 5. Edit the Exit Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed.

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6. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Normal Approach Motion
Normal Approach motions let you make the tool approach an Automatic Cut motion (or another approach motion) in the direction normal to the motion at its start point. The length of the approach motion is determined by the APPROACH_DISTANCE parameter value. 1. Choose Normal Approach from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Normal Approach dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, Coolant, and Cutcom buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. The Specify Offset button allows you to specify a target point offset from the start of the selected Automatic Cut motion. 5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button. 6. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates from which side the tool will approach the control point. 7. Edit the Approach Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed. 8. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Normal Exit Motion
Normal Exit motions let you make the tool exit from the current point in the direction normal to the Automatic Cut motion at this point. The length of the exit motion is determined by the EXIT_DISTANCE parameter value. 1. Choose Normal Exit from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Normal Exit dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. Edit the Exit Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed. 5. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button.

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6. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates the exit direction. 7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Lead In Motion
1. Choose Lead In from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Lead In dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, Coolant, and Cutcom buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button. 5. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates from which side the tool will approach the control point. 6. Edit the Entry Angle, Tangent Lead Step, Normal Lead Step, and Lead Radius values in the corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the text box. 7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

Lead In and Lead Out Motions
Lead In motions let you make the tool approach an Automatic Cut motion (or another approach motion) tangentially along an arc of specified radius. The radius of the arc is determined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter value, the lengths of the preceding linear segments—by TANGENT_LEAD_STEP and NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, the angle of the arc is defined by the ENTRY_ANGLE parameter value. Lead Out motions let you make the tool exit from the current point tangentially to the Automatic Cut motion along an arc of specified radius. The radius of the arc is determined by the LEAD_RADIUS parameter value, the lengths of the linear segments—by TANGENT_LEAD_STEP and NORMAL_LEAD_STEP, the angle of the arc is defined by the EXIT_ANGLE parameter value. The following diagram illustrates Lead In and Lead Out motions.

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NORMAL_ LEAD_STEP TANGENT_ LEAD_STEP Lead In Lead Out TANGENT_ LEAD_STEP EXIT ANGLE Automatic Cut motion

LEAD_RADIUS ENTRY_ANGLE

To Create a Lead Out Motion
1. Choose Lead Out from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Lead Out dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button. 5. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates the exit direction. 6. Edit the Exit Angle, Tangent Lead Step, Normal Lead Step, and Lead Radius values in the corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the text box. 7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Helical Approach Motion
Helical Approach motions let you make the tool approach an Automatic Cut motion (or another approach motion) along a helix. The ENTRY_ANGLE parameter defines the angle of the helical approach motion. CLEAR_DIST controls the height of the helical approach motion. 1. Choose Helical Approach from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Helical Lead In dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, Coolant, and Cutcom buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button.

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5. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates from which side the tool will approach the control point. 6. Edit the Entry Angle, Clear Distance, Normal Lead Step, and Lead Radius values in the corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the text box. 7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create a Helical Exit Motion
Helical Exit motions let you make the tool exit an Automatic Cut motion (or another exit motion) along a helix. The EXIT_ANGLE parameter defines the angle of the helical exit motion. PULLOUT_DIST controls the height of the helical exit motion. 1. Choose Helical Exit from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Helical Lead Out dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. If this is a 4- or 5-Axis NC sequence, you can specify the tool axis orientation using the Specify Axis button. 5. Select the arrow direction using the Left and Right option buttons. The arrow indicates the exit direction. 6. Edit the Exit Angle, Pullout Distance, Normal Lead Step, and Lead Radius values in the corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the text box. 7. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create an Approach Motion Along Tool Axis
You can create the Approach motions Along Tool Axis for 4- and 5-axis NC sequences. 1. Choose Appr Along Tool Axis from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Approach for Along Tool Axis dialog box appears. 373

3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. Edit the Approach Distance, Clear Distance, and Pullout Distance values in the corresponding text boxes, if needed. If the Use Default checkbox underneath a parameter text box is selected, the system will automatically assign a value to this parameter. If you clear the checkbox, you will be able to edit the parameter value in the text box. 5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Create an Exit Motion Along Tool Axis
You can create the Exit motions Along Tool Axis for 4- and 5-axis NC sequences. 1. Choose Exit Along Tool Axis from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The Exit for Along Tool Axis dialog box appears. 3. Edit the Tool Motion parameters, if desired, using the Feed, Spindle, and Coolant buttons in the top portion of the box. 4. Edit the Exit Distance value in the corresponding text box, if needed. 5. The Preview button allows you to preview the tool motion defined. Click OK if satisfied, Cancel—to quit creating the tool motion.

To Specify Parameters for a Tool Motion
By default, tool motion parameter values are inherited from the NC sequence parameters. You can change the parameter values for a tool motion by using the following procedure. 1. Press the appropriate button (Feed, Spindle) in the Tool Motion dialog box. 2. Another dialog box pops up with input fields for all parameters in the selected group. For example, if you press Spindle for a Tool Motion in a Volume milling NC sequence, the Spindle Parameters dialog box will contain input fields for: Spindle Speed Spindle Control Spindle Sense Max Spindle RPM

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Range Number Spindle Range

Each of the input fields contains the current parameter value. Inherited values are shown in parentheses. 3. You can either enter the new value directly in the corresponding input field, or press the down arrow to the right of the input field to select from a drop-down list of values. For FEED_RATE, for example, you can either enter numeric values, or use one of the following keywords: APPROACH, EXIT, RETRACT, PLUNGE, CUT, FREE (only those that are applicable for the current NC sequence will appear in the drop-down list in the dialog box). 4. When finished modifying the parameters, press OK in the dialog box used for editing. The new parameter values will appear in the read-only fields in the Tool Motion dialog box. When you change Feed or Machine parameters at the Tool Motion level, the appropriate statements (SPINDL, COOLNT, CUTCOM, or FEDRAT) will be output in the CL data file before the GOTO commands of the Tool Motion. If you insert a CUTCOM, SPINDL, or COOLNT statement using the CL Command functionality, it will overwrite the Tool Motion parameter value from the insertion location to the end of the Tool Motion.

To Insert a CL Command
You can insert a customized CL command anywhere along the tool path. You can either select a location on the tool path, or insert a command at the current tool position. Additional location options, Near Datum Point and On Surface, are available if you associate the CL Command with a Follow Cut motion. In order to do this, highlight the name of the Follow Cut motion in the list box at the top of the Customize dialog box before inserting the CL command. 1. Choose CL Command from the drop-down list in the Customize dialog box, and click Insert. 2. The CL Command dialog box opens. 3. Select location for the CL command by using the following option buttons: Current—The CL command will be output at the current tool position. On Tool Path—Click Select and select a location on the tool path. You can select anywhere on the tool path as it is defined so far. For WEDM NC sequences with multiple passes, you can place the CL command on all the passes in the selected location, or on some of the passes, by using an

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additional button, Multi Passes. When you click Multi Passes, the Select Passes dialog box opens with a list of all the passes and the Select All and Unselect All icons. Select the passes where you want to insert the CL command and click OK. If you use Select All, and later add some more passes, the CL command will be placed on the new passes as well. Near Datum Point—The CL command will be placed on the tool path at the closest location to a datum point. You can either create a datum point, or select an existing point. On Surface—The CL command will be placed on the tool path relative to selected surface(s). You can also select whether you want the CL command to be placed on the First Pass, Last Pass, or All Passes.

4. Specify the command contents using one of the following methods: Place the cursor in the Command text box and type the command, line-by-line. Note that this method does not provide syntax checking. Click Menu and compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the syntax menus and typing values in response to the system prompts. Click File and read in a file containing the CL command lines. The browser window will appear to let you select the file name. The expected file extension is “.cmd.

Notes: You can edit the contents of the Command text box at any point by placing the cursor in it and using the keyboard. If you supply more than one command line, they will be treated as a “block, that is, you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command lines.

5. The Preview button inserts the command line(s) in the CL file at the selected location to let you preview the result. Click OK to insert the command at selected location, Cancel—to quit inserting the command.

CL Commands
The CL Command option in the drop-down list of the Customize dialog box allows you to add the specific post-processor words required for correct NC output. These commands will be output to the NC sequence CL file. If you add a tool motion command, the corresponding motion will be also shown in the tool path display on the screen. When typing values for CL commands, you can input model parameters, preceded by an ampersand(&) sign. If there is a corresponding parameter defined in relations, its value will be used in the CL command. If the parameter is not found, the system will prompt you for the parameter’s type

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and value, and this parameter will be added to the relations. This way, the CL command can be changed at the top level (through Relations).

Modifying CL Commands
Once you insert a CL command, its first line appears in the list in the upper portion of the Customize dialog box. You can modify both the contents and the placement of a previously added user-defined CL command by selecting it in the list and clicking Redefine. This will bring up the CL Command dialog box. Use the same techniques for specifying the new location or editing the contents, as when inserting a CL command. Note: This way, you can also modify contents of a Sketcher CL command (that is, a command added while creating a Follow Sketch motion). However, if you modify placement of such a command, it will no longer be connected with the sketch. To modify placement of a Sketcher CL command and retain associativity, redefine the Follow Sketch motion and modify dimensions of the point entity corresponding to the CL command. You can also copy, cut, paste, and delete previously added CL commands by using the appropriate command buttons in the Customize dialog box.

Customizing the Operation Tool Path About Customizing the Operation Tool Path
The following options allow you to apply more control to the tool path at the operation level: • • • Output Order—Specify order of tool path output for the NC sequences. Synchronize—Synchronize output of NC sequence tool paths. CL Command—Add CL commands along the tool path. You can place CL commands on specific instances of a pattern and Pro/NC will remember the commands parametrically. Note: These options apply to the current operation. Before selecting these options, activate the operation whose tool path you want to customize.

To Reorder Output of NC Sequence Tool Paths

The Output Order option in the MACHINING menu allows you to specify the order of tool path output for the NC sequences within the operation. This 377

affects the order of CL data output only. It does not reorder the NC sequences in the feature list; use the Reorder functionality to change the order in which the NC sequences are regenerated. 1. Choose Output Order. 2. Choose Define from the OPER ORDER menu. 3. The following options are available: By Rule—NC sequences included in the operation will be sorted automatically: By FeatList—Output NC sequences in the same order as they appear in the feature list. By Tool—Minimize the tool changes. All tools used within the operation will be listed in the ORDER TOOL menu. You will be prompted to select the tools in desired order. The system will output the tool paths for all NC sequences using the first selected tool, then move to the next tool. NC sequences using the same tool will be output in the order they appear in the feature list. By Pick—Explicitly specify the order of output by selecting NC sequence names from the ORDER PICK menu. The Info option in the OPER ORDER menu displays the current order of the NC sequence output. The following information is provided for each NC sequence: • • • • • • Order of CL data output Sequence type Sequence number in the model Tool ID Feature number Feature ID

To Synchronize Output of NC Sequence Tool Paths

1. Choose Synchronize.

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The Synchronize option in the MACHINING menu allows you to synchronize output of NC sequence tool paths created using HEAD1 and HEAD2 options in the MACH AUX menu. These options are available for 4-Axis Turning and Holemaking.

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2. Select which head will control the spindle speed by selecting HEAD1 or HEAD2 from the HEAD SELECT menu. 3. The system displays the SYNCH OPER menu with the following options: Define—Select a group of NC sequences, first on Head1 and then on Head2, to be synchronized with each other. Remove—A namelist menu of synchronized groups of NC sequences appears. Select a group to remove. Synch Points—Define synchronization points (synch points) for CL output of synchronized NC sequences. Click for details.

4. Choose Define. 5. The system displays the HEAD1 NCSEQ menu containing the names of all NC sequences created using Head1. Put checkmarks next to NC sequences you want to synchronize with sequences on Head2 (you will have the options to Select All and Unsel All), then choose Done Sel. 6. The system displays the HEAD2 NCSEQ menu containing the names of all NC sequences created using Head2. Again, select the NC sequences to synchronize and choose Done Sel. 7. The system creates a synchronized group with a default name (SYNCHRONIZE #1, SYNCHRONIZE #2).

To Specify Synch Points

1. Choose Synch Points from the SYNCH OPER menu. 2. A namelist menu of synchronized groups of NC sequences appears. Select a group where you want to define synch points. 3. The system displays the tool paths of synchronized NC sequences and the SYNCH POINTS menu with the following options: Add—Define pairs of synchronized points on tool paths for Head1 and Head2. Move—Modify location of an existing synch point. Select a synch point, then select a new location for it on the appropriate tool path. Remove—Remove a pair of synch points. Select a synch point. The system highlights the second synch point in the pair and prompts you for confirmation. Show—Show the synch pairs currently defined. You can either show them in turn by using the Next and Previous options, or use Show All.

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4. Choose Add. 5. The system displays the tool paths for Head1 in cyan. Select a point on the tool path. 6. The system displays the tool paths for Head2 in cyan. Select a point to be synchronized with the first point. 7. Repeat Steps 4 through 6 to define other pairs of synch points.

To Insert a CL Command

You can insert a customized CL command anywhere along the tool path. For your convenience, separate options allow you to insert CL commands at the beginning and at the end of the tool path, or at the current tool position. 1. Choose Create from the CL COMMAND menu. 2. The LOCATE CMD menu appears with the options: Select—Select on the tool path to specify the command placement. Beginning—The CL command will be output before the first cutter position of the NC sequence (or the first cutter position of the operation if you are optimizing an operation tool path). End—The CL command will be output after the last cutter position of the NC sequence (or the last cutter position of the operation if you are optimizing an operation tool path).

3. The CL file in the Info Box is scrolled to the appropriate line. The CREATE CMD menu appears with the options: Add—Enter the command using one of the following options: Menus—Compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the syntax menus. Keyboard—Enter the command line-by-line using the keyboard. This method does not provide syntax checking, as opposed to the method above. From File—Read in a file containing the CL command lines. The file must have an extension “.cmd. Edit—Brings up a system window to allow you to edit the command using the system editor. No checking as to the syntax, is done at this point. Show—Display all the lines currently included in the user-defined command in an Information Window (separate from the NCL File Window containing the CL file).

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4. Enter the command line(s) using the options above, then choose Done from the CREATE CMD menu. The command line(s) are inserted in the CL file at the selected location. Notes: • If you add more than one command line at a certain point, they will be treated as a “block, that is, you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command lines. Only one CL command can be specified as located at the beginning or end of the tool path (it can have multiple lines). Therefore, if you try to repeatedly select the Beginning or End option, a message will inform you that a command already exists at this location, and you can modify it. Add the appropriate lines to the existing CL command using the Command option in the MODIFY CMD menu, described below.

Adding CL Commands at the Operation Level

When you choose CL Command from the MACHINING menu, the current CL data file is displayed in the NCL File window, and the CL COMMAND menu appears with the options: • • • • • Create—Insert a new user-defined command. Modify—Modify placement or contents of an existing user-defined command. Copy—Copy an existing user-defined command to another location. Delete—Delete an existing user-defined command. Find—Search for CL text strings or locate previously entered user-defined commands.

To Modify a CL Command

You can modify either the contents or the placement of a previously added user-defined CL command by following the procedure below. 1. Choose Modify from the CL COMMAND menu. 2. Locations of the previously added user-defined CL commands are highlighted in cyan and all the commands are listed in a namelist menu. You can select a command by either selecting on the screen or from the menu. Once a command is selected, it is simultaneously highlighted on the screen and in the menu. Choose Done Sel if that is the command you want. 3. The MODIFY CMD menu appears with the options:

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Placement—Relocate the command using the LOCATE CMD options described above. Command—Add more lines or edit the command text using the CREATE CMD options described above.

4. Check off either one or both options and choose Done. If both options are checked off, the system will start the appropriate user interface in turn.

To Find a CL Command

1. Choose Find from the CL COMMAND menu. 2. The FIND COMMAND menu appears with the following options: Enter String—Enter a string to search for. The system will search through all the commands in the Info Box (both system-generated and user-defined). You can view the results using the Next, Previous, and Show All options in the SHOW DATA menu. UserDefCmd—Find a previously inserted user-defined CL command. A namelist menu with all the inserted commands appears. Put checkmarks next to the command(s) you want to find, or choose Select All to display all the command locations.

If a block of commands has been added, only the first command will appear in the search list, followed by the number of lines in the block. For example, if you choose “FEDRAT/1.000000, IPR (2 lines) from the namelist menu, locations of all two-line blocks starting with the “FEDRAT/1.000000, IPR command will be shown, even if the other commands in the block are different.

To Delete a CL Command
You can only delete user-defined CL commands, that is, the CL commands previously added by using the Insert CL Command option. 1. Select a user-defined CL command. 2. Click NCL File > Delete CL Command. 382

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A command location is not marked by a control point, and is normally invisible. A quick way to display all the CL command locations along the tool path is to choose Delete. This will highlight all the points where CL commands are added. To find a particular CL command, use the Find option in the CL COMMAND menu. You can also use this option to search through the whole CL file for a particular command (for example, to check values, or to determine where to insert a user-defined command).

3. The system deletes the selected command from the CL file listing.

To Copy a CL Command

Instead of adding a new command, you can copy an existing CL command to a new location by following the procedure below. 1. Choose Copy from the CL COMMAND menu. 2. A namelist menu with all the inserted commands appears. Select a command you want to copy. A block of commands is selected by the first command and number of lines. The system will highlight in red the location where the selected command or block is currently inserted (that is, where it will be copied from). 3. Select a new location on the tool path. The command is added, with a cyan point indicating the new location.

CL Data About CL Data
Cutter Location (CL) data files are generated from the cutter paths specified within Pro/NC NC sequences. Each NC sequence generates a separate CL file. You can also create a single file for a whole operation. These CL data files can then be passed to machine-specific or generic post-processors for NC tape generation or DNC communications.

To Write CL Data to a File

When writing CL data to a file, you have an option of immediately postprocessing the data and creating an MCD file, or writing a CL file, which can be post-processed later. 1. Choose Output from the CL DATA menu. 2. Choose one of: Select Set – Select a set of NC sequences. Select One – Select an NC sequence. Selecting an operation (using the Operation option in the SELECT FEAT menu) will output merged CL data of all NC sequences included in the operation.

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3. Choose File to print the CL data to a file. 4. Choose an option from the OUTPUT TYPE menu: CL File – Generate a CL data file. Type a filename, or press ENTER to accept the default filename generated by the system. MCD File – Generate an MCD file. If you select this option, the system will first generate a CL file (you will be prompted for the file name), and then post-process it. This option is not available with the Batch option below. Interactive – Perform toolpath computation within your current session. Batch – Perform toolpath computation as a separate process in batch mode.

Default CL File Names
The CL file name format is CLfile.ncl.#, where CLfile is the name of the file, # is the version number. CL file extension can be set to something different than “.ncl. Use the configuration file option: ncl_file_extension Notes: File extension length is limited to 3 characters. If you specify a longer file extension, it will be truncated and a warning will be issued. Do not change the CL file extension if you are using a default post-processor, a dedicated post-processor, or a post-processor created with Pro/NCPOST. When you output CL data to a file, the system generates a default name for this file, based on the following rules: • • If you output CL data for an operation, the default name will be the operation name. For example, if the operation name is OP010, the default CL file name is op010.ncl.1. If you output CL data for an NC sequence that has a name, the default name will be the NC sequence name. For example, if the NC sequence name is volume01, the default CL file name is volume01.ncl.1. If you output CL data for an NC sequence that does not have a name, the default name will be seq#####, where ##### is the sequence number. For example, for the 5th NC sequence in the manufacturing model, the default CL file name is seq00005.ncl.1. If you output CL data for a set of NC sequences, the default name will be the set name. For example, if the set name is nc_set, the default CL file name is nc_set.ncl.1. You can customize the default CL file name for an operation or NC sequence using the NCL_FILE parameter at the appropriate level. If the NCL_FILE

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file_extension (without ncl ext)

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parameter is set to something other than the default (-), the system will use the parameter value as the default name for CL data output (and add the extension and version number to it). When the system suggests a default name, you can either accept it by pressing ENTER, or type a different name. The system will add the extension and version number to the name you typed.

To Create a Set of NC Sequences

1. Choose CL Data > Output > Select Set. 2. Choose Create from the OUTPUT SET menu. 3. Enter a name for the set. 4. The system brings up a namelist menu containing all operation and NC sequence names. Put the checkmarks next to the NC sequences you want included in the set. When you select or unselect an operation makes the system automatically select or unselect all the NC sequences in this operation. You can also use the Select All and Unsel All options. 5. Choose Done Sel when finished selecting NC sequences.

Sets of NC Sequences

When outputting CL data, you generally select either a single NC sequence, or an operation, which outputs to a single file CL data for all the NC sequences in this operation. The Select Set option in the OUTPUT menu allows you to output to a single file CL data of only certain NC sequences within an operation, or even NC sequences that belong to different operations, by creating sets of NC sequences. Note: When outputting a set of NC sequences, you have to add the appropriate connection moves, if needed. When you choose Select Set from the OUTPUT menu, the system displays the OUTPUT SET menu with the following options: • • Create—Create a new set of NC sequences. Modify—Modify an existing set of NC sequences: Name—Enter a new name for the set. Content—Add or remove NC sequences by selecting or unselecting them, similar to when creating a set. 385

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Delete—Delete an existing set of NC sequences (this option deletes the name of the set; it does not affect the NC sequences themselves). Info—Display information about the NC sequences included in a set. Output—Output CL data for a set of NC sequences.

To Output CL Data for a Set of NC Sequences

1. Choose CL Data > Output > Select Set. 2. Choose Output. 3. Select a name of an existing set from the namelist menu. 4. Choose the desired output type option (such as File or Display) from the PATH menu, then follow the appropriate procedure, as if outputting a single operation or NC sequence.

To Process CL Data on a Remote Machine

The Batch option in the OUTPUT TYPE menu allows you to perform the tool path computation in the background, as a separate process, and even on a separate host machine, which lets you do other work while the tool path computation occurs. It is your responsibility to avoid working on a model until its toolpath computation is complete. The Queue Manage option in the CL DATA menu enables you to perform management of the jobs in the queue: • • • • Delete—Enables deletion of jobs that you have submitted. Fetch—Enables fetching of completed jobs. Update—Shows status of all jobs in queue. Close—Closes the dialog box. Remote batch processing requires a separate Pro/ENGINEER license. The host machine for remote toolpath computation must have prorembatch and proremd executables installed, and certain environment variables set. This is done automatically at installation time when you designate a machine as a remote host for processing CL data.

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To enable toolpath computation on a separate host machine, set up the following configuration option on your machine:
prorembatch_queue_manager

proc_name:host:0:proc_num:1

where: proc_name = the processor name (any descriptive name) host = the remote machine hostname 0 = type of transport, always set to 0 proc_num = RPC number of processor (must match the PRORB_RPCNUM environment variable on remote machine; if you specify 0, the system will use the default RPC number) 1 = version of queue manager, currently 1

To Input a CL Data File

You can “play an existing CL file by reading it in. The system will display the corresponding tool path. 1. Choose Input from the CL DATA menu. 2. Enter the filename of the CL file. Note: If the first feature in a CL data file is a 4-axis Wire EDM NC sequence, and the file contains any NC sequence other than a Wire EDM NC sequence, the input process will be quit.

To Display CL Data for an Operation, NC Sequence, or a Set of NC Sequences

You can display the tool path for an operation or an NC sequence by following the procedure below. 1. Choose Output from the CL DATA menu. 2. Choose one of: Select Set—Select a set of NC sequences. Select One—Select an NC sequence or operation.

3. Choose Display from the PATH menu to display the tool path on the screen.

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4. Use the DISPLAY CL menu options to customize the tool path display and click Done. Click for details. If you are displaying tool path for an operation, all NC sequence tool paths will be displayed in turn. Synchronized display for HEAD1 and HEAD2 will be used for 4-Axis turning where appropriate. VERIFY and PROBE statements will be graphically simulated during CL data display. When displaying the tool path, the solid line represents the tip of the cutter as it cuts the material (kerf display is available for certain NC sequence types). The tool path displayed as a dotted line corresponds to the RAPID movements (that is, when FREE_FEED is 0). If you specify a nonzero FREE_FEED, rapid traverse will be displayed as a solid line. Notes: In some cases, the display may not reflect the exact coordinates in the generated Pro/CLfile. You can display tool motions in different colors according to their feed values. The configuration option cl_arrow_scale allows you to control the size of the tool path arrow. The default is 1. If you set it to 0, the arrows will not be displayed. Specifying any other positive number will scale the arrow accordingly. You can abort the cutter path display at any time by clicking on the STOP sign in the bottom-right corner of the Pro/ENGINEER window.

The DISPLAY CL Menu

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Tool—Depending on whether the checkmark is on or off, display or do not display the tool. Disp Cycles—Appears only for Holemaking NC sequences and Thread Turning. If the checkmark is on, all the tool motions included in the CYCLE command or in the thread cycle will be displayed. If the checkmark is off, a simplified display will be used. Status Box—When you display the tool path, additional information appears in the Info Box, such as the feedrate, the spindle speed, the current XYZ coordinates of the tool, the current IJK coordinates of the tool axis. This option causes the cutter coordinates in the Info Box to update with each GOTO statement, to reflect the intermediate cutter positions during the tool path display.

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The DISPLAY CL menu contains the following options:

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StopAtStart—Makes the tool stop at the beginning of the tool path, to allow you check the cutter location coordinates in the Info Box. Choose Continue from the CL CONTROL menu when you are ready to proceed displaying the tool path. Compute CL—Forces the system to recompute the CL data at this time; if this option is not selected, the system will use CL data stored in the “manufacturename.tph file and only recompute it if you made changes affecting the CL data (such as changing the manufacturing parameters or model geometry) after the tool path has last been stored by the system. The next two options represent two ways to control the frequency of consecutive tool displays on the tool path. They are mutually exclusive; the one that you select last will be used.

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Time Increment—Puts the tool display in the real time mode. Enter a value for the time increment (in seconds) between two consecutive tool displays. Cutter Step—Displays the tool at uniform distances along the tool path. Enter a value for step size (in the units of the workpiece). If you enter a large value for step size, the tool will be displayed at the GOTO locations only. Notes: If a solid tool model is used when creating the NC sequence, you will have an option to display model geometry instead of the default tool. Once you display a tool path, Pro/NC will remember the options used and select them as defaults when next displaying a tool path within the manufacturing session. If the options last used are inapplicable for a particular NC sequence type (for example, you used Kerf display before, and now are displaying a Turning tool path), the system will automatically reset the default as appropriate. Once you have set up the CL display environment, choose Done CL. The tool path is displayed according to the specified options. Then the CL CONTROL menu appears with the following options:

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Position—Select a point along the tool path. The tool will be positioned at this point. Next—The tool is displayed at the location corresponding to the next GOTO command. Prev—The tool is displayed at the location corresponding to the previous GOTO command. CL Measure—Access the Pro/ENGINEER Measure functionality to compute tool interference, clearance. If a solid tool model is used, its geometry can be selected for measuring. If the tool is defined by a parameter file, it will be temporarily converted into a “dummy part whose geometry is defined by the appropriate tool parameters: the tool section for a turning tool will be extruded by 0.1 of the tool length; for all other tool types the tool section will be revolved around the center axis. Time Increment and Cutter Step—The same as in the DISPLAY CL menu.

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Continue—Proceed with the tool path display from the current position of the tool. Done—Display the tool path for the next NC sequence, or, if only a single NC sequence is present, exit the CL CONTROL menu. Quit—Exit the CL Control menu. This command will appear only if multiple NC sequences are present. Note: The tool will always be displayed while you move it using the CL CONTROL menu options, even if the Tool checkmark in the DISPLAY CL menu was turned off. Once you choose Continue from the CL CONTROL menu, the tool display will again be controlled by the CL display environment. You can interrupt the cutter path display at any time by clicking on the STOP sign in the lower-right corner of the Pro/ENGINEER window.

To Display Tool Path for an NC Sequence

You can display the cutter path and a simulation of the tool prior to completing the NC sequence, to verify the tool path and make a visual check for interference with fixtures and model features. All simulated tool dimensions represent the parameters defined during tool setup. All tools except turning appear three dimensional in isometric or trimetric views. When you choose Play Path from the NC SEQUENCE menu, the PLAY PATH menu appears with the following options: • Compute CL—Forces the system to recompute the CL data at this time; if this option is not selected, the system will use CL data stored in the “manufacturename.tph file and only recompute it if you made changes affecting the CL data (such as changing the manufacturing parameters or model geometry) after the tool path has last been stored by the system. Screen Play—Display the tool path on the screen and view the contents of the CL data file using the PLAY PATH dialog box. Click for details. Play Steps—Appears only if the tool path has been customized. Allows you to display the tool path step-by-step. Use Continue to display the next step, Quit—to quit the display process. NC Check—Access the NC Check functionality. Gouge Check—Access the Gouge Check functionality. Available for Milling NC sequences only.

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To Rotate or Translate CL Data

1. Choose CL Data, Output, and select the NC sequence or operation. You can also select a set of NC sequences. 2. Choose Rotate or Translate from the PATH menu. 3. Choose the NC Sequence coordinate system axis to rotate or translate about from the CL TRANSF menu. 4. Enter a value for rotation or translation. 5. Choose File or Display from the PATH menu. CL data rotations and translations are cumulative. You can repeat Steps 2–4 as many times as necessary to change the CL output location. To change rotation or translation value back to 0, choose Quit from the CL TRANSF menu.

Rotating and Translating CL Data
CL data can be rotated and translated before sending it to file or displaying it on the screen. It is especially useful for machining patterned features.

Example: Translating CL Data
Create a milling NC sequence. CL data for the milling NC sequence without translating

CL data translated along Y-axis by the amount of pattern dimension increment

To Mirror CL Data

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1. Choose CL Data, Output, and select the NC sequence or operation. You can also select a set of NC sequences. 2. Choose Mirror from the PATH menu. 3. Select a plane, or create a datum, to mirror the CL data about. 4. The CL data is mirrored. Choose File or Display from the CUT PATH menu.

Mirroring CL Data
CL data can also be mirrored before sending it to file or displaying on the screen.

Example: Mirroring CL Data
Create a milling NC sequence Mirror CL data about this datum

To Scale CL Data

The Scale option in the PATH menu allows you to scale CL data before displaying it or writing to a file. 1. Choose CL Data, Output, and select the NC sequence or operation. You can also select a set of NC sequences. 2. Choose Scale from the PATH menu. 3. Enter the scaling factor. 4. The CL data is scaled. Choose File or Display from the CUT PATH menu.

To Output CL Data in Different Units

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When an NC sequence is created, the CL data is generated in the units of the workpiece. Later, however, CL data can be output in any units. 1. Choose CL Data, Output, and select the NC sequence or operation. You can also select a set of NC sequences. 2. Choose Units from the PATH menu. 3. Select the units for CL data to be output in from the LENGTH menu. 4. Choose File from the PATH menu. Note: You can use only standard units. The Other unit option is inapplicable for CL data output.

To Edit CL Data Files

The Edit option in the CL DATA menu allows you to edit CL data for an operation, or view CL data for an NC sequence. Changes to CL data are played back only when the CL data for the operation is output. When editing an operation, you will be asked if you want to create a new file. This will output the current CL data for this operation in a file (you will be prompted for the file name), and then bring it up for editing in a text window at the top of the screen. If you answer [n], you can edit an existing CL file for this operation (you will be prompted for the file name). In this case, however, it is the file and not the current operation data that will be edited. For example, if some changes occurred to the CL data after it was last output, these changes will be lost for editing. It is therefore recommended to output the CL data to a new file, to make sure that all the latest changes are reflected. Operations remember changes on a per NC sequence basis; if the CL data for one of the NC sequences in an operation changes, the other NC sequences will not be affected. Note: The first four lines of a CL file act as a header, and must be kept intact if the file is to be read in during editing or inputting CL data. Changing or reordering these lines will cause an error message to appear. The editor commands available are: • • • Insert File—Insert a move into the CL file, before the current line. Save File—Save the CL file (as is). You can enter a different file name. Show Path—Show tool path from the start of file to the current position.

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Show Edits—Bring up the Information Window, listing all of the changes that have been made in the CL data file. The information will include the line number, the editing function that was performed, and the CL commands that were added. Clear Edits—Delete any changes you have made to the CL data file. Screen Edit—Enter the screen editing mode. Insert—Add any valid line to the CL file, before the current line. Append—Add any valid line to the CL file, after the current line. Delete—Delete the specified number of lines, starting from the current line. Enter the number of lines to delete (the default is 1). If you enter 0, no lines will be deleted. Change—Change the current line. The CL command must be the same. Copy Text—Copy lines in the CL file to another location. Select the range of lines to copy by entering the first and the last line number (to copy one line only, enter its number for both prompts). Then enter the number of the destination line. Move Text—Move lines in the CL file to another location. Works the same as Copy Text, the difference being that with Move Text selected lines will be deleted from the original location. Search/Repl—Start the automatic replacement procedure. Step—Move through the CL file step-by-step, displaying tool and path for every line on your way. Jump—Move directly to the specified line without displaying the tool path. The tool will be immediately displayed in its new position. Position—Position the file by line number or by selecting a point. When you choose Position, you will have two options: Line—Position the cursor in the CL file (and the tool on the screen) by entering the line number to go to. The valid range is shown in the prompt. Pick—Select an approximate point on a surface being machined where you want to position the tool. The system will interpolate the coordinates of your selection to determine the nearest available tool location. It will then display the tool coordinates in the prompt and ask for confirmation. If you answer [y], the tool will be moved to this location and the cursor positioned on the appropriate line in the CL file. If you answer [n], the position will not be changed; and you can make another selection.

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Next—Go to the next line. Prev—Go to the previous line. FF—Search forward to a particular text pattern.

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Rew—Search backward to a particular text pattern. Measure—Access the Pro/ENGINEER Measure functionality to compute tool interference, clearance. This works similar to the CL Measure option in the CL CONTROL menu. NC Check—Access the NC Check functionality. As you step through the file, the cutter location updates accordingly. The STOP sign is displayed at the right end of the message window. You can click on it at any moment to interrupt scrolling the file and stop at the current cursor position. In Holemaking NC sequences, for deep and break chip cycles, the cycles will be displayed as you edit the CL file.

To Perform Screen Editing of CL Data

The screen editing mode allows you to use the cursor, arrow keys, and some built-in functions directly in the text editor window. 1. Choose Screen Edit from the CL EDIT menu. 2. Edit the CL data using the following function keys: <F2>—ToggleInput—Alternates between editing and browsing. In browse mode, you can walk through the file but cannot change it. In edit mode, the whole line that your cursor is on will be highlighted and you can edit it by typing. <F5 >—Line#—Display/remove line numbers in front of the lines. <F6>—DelLine—Delete the current line (edit mode only). <F7>—Cut—Cut the highlighted lines (edit mode only). To highlight several lines, press the LEFT mouse button and hold it down while dragging the mouse across the file. <F9>—Search—Search for a text string. Enter the string. The file is repositioned with the cursor on the first occurrence of the search pattern.

You can use the mouse to position the cursor and move through the file using the arrow keys, <PgDn> and <PgUp>, scroll bar at the side of the window. 3. When done, hit <F1> or <ESC> to quit the screen edit mode and return to the CL EDIT menu. Whichever key you use, all changes made in the screen edit mode will stay in the file. If you do not want to keep the changes, choose Quit from the CL EDIT menu. Note: If you are running on a SUN workstation, you may need to modify your “.xinitrc file to allow the use of function key <F1> by your applications. 395

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To Perform Search/Replace

The automatic replacement procedure allows you to search the CL data file for a text pattern and replace all or some occurrences with another string. 1. Choose Search/Repl from the CL EDIT menu. 2. Choose All or Some. 3. Enter the search string. 4. Enter the replacement string. 5. If you have chosen All, all the occurrences of the search string will automatically be replaced. If Some has been chosen, each occurrence will be highlighted in turn. Use one of: Replace—Replace the highlighted string. Skip—Move to the next occurrence without replacing the current one. Done—Stop the search/replace process.

To Perform CL Data Gouge Checking

1. Choose Gouge Check from the CL DATA menu. 2. The SEL/CR NCL menu appears with the options: Select—Select a preexistent CL file to run from a namelist menu. Create—Create a new file. Select an NC sequence or operation, then enter a name for the CL file.

3. The SELECT SRFS menu appears. Select the surfaces you want to check for gouging. The following options are available: Add—Select surfaces to check for gouging. You can select: Surface—Individual surfaces. Part—All surfaces on a part.

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Gouge checking capabilities are provided to allow you a quick check of CL data for Milling NC sequences.

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Remove—Unselect some of the selected surfaces. You can also use the Surface and Part options above. Remove All—Restart the surface selection process. Show—Show the surfaces selected so far. The surfaces will be highlighted in blue.

4. Choose Done/Return from the SELECT SRFS menu when finished selecting surfaces. 5. Choose Run from the GOUGE CHECK menu to start the gouge checking process. You can interrupt this process at any time by clicking on the STOP sign at the right end of the message window. If you press the STOP sign, the following options will be available: Continue—Continue gouge checking. Abort—Abort gouge checking. Show—Show gouges detected so far.

6. If no gouges are detected upon completing the check, the system will inform you with a message. Otherwise, the first detected gouge will be shown and the SHOW GOUGE menu will appear with the following options: Show All—Show all detected gouges. Next—Show next gouge. Previous—Show previous gouge. Info—Output clearance between the tool and check surfaces, as well as information about all detected gouges, to a file. The number of decimal places output for cutter position will be defined by the configuration option “mfg_xyz_num_digits (this option also defines the number of decimal places when outputting tool coordinates in CL data files). If this option is not specified, the default number of decimal places for Gouge Checking is 4.

7. You can check another NC sequence by choosing Filename from the GOUGE CHECK menu and selecting or creating another CL file. The Surfaces option in the GOUGE CHECK menu allows you to add or remove surfaces to check for gouging. You can also change the accuracy of system calculations by selecting Tolerance and entering the gouge tolerance value. The smaller the tolerance value, the greater the accuracy. Note: The tolerance value specified for Gouge Checking should not be less than the
TOLERANCE value used when creating the NC sequence. A good “rule of thumb is to set

the gouge check tolerance to 1.5 times the NC sequence tolerance for the tool path being checked. The Step option in the GOUGE CHECK menu allows you to change the step size for gouge checking (that is, the tool positions where gouge checking is performed). You can either enter a value for step size, or let the system automatically calculate the value to maximize the speed of display. Entering a smaller step size will increase the number of gouge check positions. 397

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8. Choose Done/Return from the GOUGE CHECK menu when finished.

To Specify an NC Alias

1. Choose Mfg Setup from the MANUFACTURE or MACHINING menu, then choose CL Setup. 2. Choose NC Alias from the CL SETUP menu. The NC ALIASES menu appears with the following commands: Modify—Bring up the Pro/TABLE editor to define aliases. Retrieve—Choose from a list of previously saved “.ncd files. Bring a previously saved NC alias table into the model. Save—Save the NC alias table in the current directory. NC alias tables are saved with the extension “.ncd. Show—Bring up the Information Window to list all of the NC aliases specified for the manufacturing model.

3. Choose Modify. The Pro/TABLE window appears. The table contains two columns, labeled “CL Command and “User Command. The CL commands that are supported for aliasing are listed under “CL Command. 4. For each supported CL command that you want to assign an alias to, enter the alias in the corresponding cell in the “User Command column. 5. Exit Pro/TABLE and save the file.

NC Aliases
The NC Alias option in the CL SETUP menu enables you to establish aliases for CL commands. NC aliases are useful if the post-processor that you are using does not support the default CL commands output by Pro/ENGINEER; the NC aliases will substitute a command you have provided into the CL data. The NC alias may also include additional CL data associated with the command, as well as dimensions, user-defined parameters, and text. NC aliases are saved in a file with the extension “.ncd. NC alias files will be stored automatically whenever the manufacturing model is saved. Four CL commands are supported for aliasing: MFGNO, PARTNO, LOADTL, and TURRET. You cannot enter additional CL commands into this list to assign them aliases. NC aliases employ functionality similar to that of drawing notes: you can specify dimensions, parameters, or other fields to be output in the CL command.

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For example:

CL Command (system default) LOADTL

User Command (NC alias) MACRO_LOAD : &nc_full_arg with &d1 and &param1 and &param2

where: • • • “LOADTL is the default CL command output by Pro/NC. For this example, the complete output statement is: “LOADTL / 3, LENGTH, 5.0. “MACRO_LOAD is the CL command being substituted for “LOADTL. “&nc_full_arg is the output which follows the “/ in the output. In this example, it is “3, LENGTH, 5.0. The individual fields in this string can be output using “&nc_arg[arg_num] (with “arg_num beginning at 1). For instance, “&nc_arg2 would output “LENGTH. “d1 is a dimension value. “param1 / “param2 are user-defined parameters; “& indicates that their values should be displayed (as in drawing notes). For this example, the value of “param1 is “BLUE and the value of “param2 is “GREEN. The output in the CL data file will read: “MACRO_LOAD : 3, LENGTH, 5.0, with 10.00 and BLUE and GREEN Note: When using Pro/TABLE to define an NC alias, it must be contained on a single line.

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To Include Pre- and Post-Machining Files
You can include user-defined macros, like setting the post-processor registers, at the very beginning and the very end of a CL file, using two parameters: PRE_MACHINING_FILE—Enter the name of the file you want to be included at the very beginning of the CL file (after the PARTNO, MACHIN, and UNITS commands). POST_MACHINING_FILE—Enter the name of the file you want to be included at the very end of the CL file. Filenames are entered without the extension, and should have the extension “.ncl, or the default CL file extension if specified in the configuration file. The contents of these files will be included in the CL file of the current NC sequence between “$$ —> BLOCK_START and “$$ —> BLOCK_END. These

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contents will be ignored when reading a CL file using the Input option in the CL DATA menu. Notes: • • Both these files are included into a CL file before it goes to the post-processor. If you set the Startup and Shutdown files at the operation level, these files will be added only when outputting CL data for the operation. The Startup file is output right after the PARTNO, MACHIN, and UNITS commands, before the pre-machining file for the first NC sequence; the Shutdown file is output at the very end of the CL file, after the postmachining file for the last NC sequence.

To Convert a CL File
1. In the directory where your CL file resides, type: pro_ncl_cvt 2. Enter the CL file name. 3. Enter a different name for the output file.

Converting CL Files
The Pro/ENGINEER editor can handle lines up to 80 characters long. Therefore, the CIRCLE statements and GOTO statements with an axis (i, j, k vector) will be broken in two lines, with the continuation character ($) output automatically at the end of the first line. Before sending CL files to the post-processor, you may need to convert them to the format without the continuation character using the “pro_ncl_cvt command.

Using the PLAY PATH Dialog Box
About the PLAY PATH Dialog Box

When you display a tool path, the system opens the PLAY PATH dialog box. The collapsible upper portion of this dialog box lists the cutter location (CL) data for the NC sequence or operation. You can save this CL data in a CL file or an MCD file directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box, by clicking the appropriate option in the File menu. The lower portion contains the following buttons:

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Name

Description

Play Back Stop Play Forward Go To Previous CL Record Rewind Fast Forward Go To Next CL Record

Display the tool motion going back from the current position of the tool. Stop displaying the tool path. Display the tool motion going forward from the current position of the tool. Go to the previous CL record in the file.

Rewind to the start of the tool path. Fast forward to the end of the tool path. Go to the next CL record in the file.

The Tool Clearance button lets you access the Measure functionality, to compute tool interference, and clearance. If a solid tool model is used, its geometry can be selected for measuring. If the tool is defined by parameters, it will be temporarily converted into a “dummy part, with geometry based on the appropriate tool parameters. The Position Cutting Tool button lets you select a point on the tool path to position the cutting tool. To position the cutting tool at a certain CL data line, click NCL File > Position Tool. At the bottom of the dialog box, there is a slider to adjust the display speed. Moving the slider to the right makes the display faster; moving it to the left slows the display. The Close button closes the PLAY PATH dialog box. When displaying the tool path, you can make the tool stop at certain points by adding break points. You can also insert customized CL commands, such as the specific post-processor words required for correct NC output, at desired locations within the CL file. When you save the CL data, these commands will be output to the CL file. If you add a tool motion command, the

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corresponding motion will be also shown in the tool path display on the screen.

To Display the Tool Path 1. When defining an NC sequence, on the NC SEQUENCE menu, click Play Path > Screen Play. The system opens the PLAY PATH dialog box and displays the cutting tool simulation in the initial location. 2. Click the Play Forward button to start playing the tool motion. The system starts scrolling through the CL data file, moving the tool to reflect its current position on the screen. The solid red line represents the tip of the cutter as it cuts the material. 3. Click the Stop button to stop the tool motion display. The tool also stops upon reaching a break point placed in the CL file (indicated by a red downward arrow appearing to the left of the CL record). Use the other tool positioning options in the PLAY PATH dialog box, as needed. 4. You can save the current tool path to a CL or an MCD file. To do this, click File > Save or File > Save As MCD, respectively. 5. To finish displaying the tool motion and close the PLAY PATH dialog box, click Close.

To Add a Break Point When displaying the tool motion, you can make the tool stop at certain points by adding break points in the CL file listing. 1. In the CL data listing, select a line where you want the tool to stop. 2. Click NCL File > Add break point. 3. The system indicates the break point by placing a red downward arrow to the left of the selected CL line. When you play the tool motion, the tool stops upon reaching the break point line. You can, for example, click Tool Clearance at this point, to measure tool interference or clearance. To resume playing the tool path, click the Play Forward button again.

Manipulating Break Points When you add break points in a CL file listing, the system indicates them by placing a red downward arrow to the left of the appropriate CL line. When 402

you play the tool path, the tool stops upon reaching the break point line in the CL data listing. To display the tool motion without stopping at break points, click NCL File > Suppress all break points. The break point information, however, will be retained; when you click NCL File > Resume all break points, all the break points will reappear. To delete an existing break point, select the appropriate line in the CL data listing, then click NCL File > Delete break point.

To Position the Tool When you play the tool path, the position of the cutting tool on the screen corresponds to the position of the cursor in the CL data listing in the top portion of the PLAY PATH dialog box. To change the tool position, use one of the following methods: • • Click the Position Cutting Tool button in the lower portion of the PLAY PATH dialog box and select a point on the tool path to position the cutting tool. Select a line in the CL data listing, then click NCL File > Position Tool to position the tool at this line.

To Insert a CL Command You can insert a customized CL command anywhere along the tool path. Use this functionality to add the specific post-processor words required for correct NC output. 1. Click NCL File > Insert CL Command. The CL Command dialog box opens. 2. To select location for the CL command, click on the screen or a line in the CL file listing. and select either a point on the tool path

3. Specify the command contents using one of the following methods: Place the cursor in the Command text box and type the command, line-by-line. Note that this method does not provide syntax checking. Click Menu and compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the syntax menus and typing values in response to the system prompts. Click File and read in a file containing the CL command lines. The browser window will appear to let you select the file name. The expected file extension is “.cmd. 403

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Notes: You can edit the contents of the Command text box at any point by placing the cursor in it and using the keyboard. If you supply more than one command line, they will be treated as a “block, that is, you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command lines.

4. The Preview button inserts the command line(s) in the CL file at the selected location to let you preview the result. Click OK to insert the command at selected location, Cancel— to quit inserting the command.

Using Parameters in CL Commands When typing values for CL commands, you can input model parameters, preceded by an ampersand(&) sign. If there is a corresponding parameter defined in relations, its value will be used in the CL command. If the parameter is not found, the system will prompt you for the parameter’s type and value, and this parameter will be added to the relations. This way, the CL command can be changed at the top level (through Relations).

To Delete a CL Command

1. Choose Delete from the CL COMMAND menu. 2. All the CL command locations are indicated by cyan points and all the commands are listed in a namelist menu. You can select a command by either selecting on the screen or from the menu. Once a command is selected, it is simultaneously highlighted on the screen and in the menu. Choose Done Sel if that is the command you want. If the selected location contains a block of commands, the whole block will be deleted. A single command can be deleted from the block using the Modify option.

To Redefine a CL Command You can only redefine user-defined CL commands, that is, the CL commands previously added by using the Insert CL Command option. 1. Select a user-defined CL command. 2. Click NCL File > Redefine CL Command.

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To delete a previously inserted user-defined command, follow the procedure below.

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The CL Command dialog box opens. 3. To select a new location for the CL command, click tool path on the screen or a line in the CL file listing. and select either a point on the

4. To edit the command contents, use one of the following methods: Place the cursor in the Command text box and edit the command. Note that this method does not provide syntax checking. Place the cursor in the Command text box and delete the current contents. Then, click Menu and compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the syntax menus and typing values in response to the system prompts. Place the cursor in the Command text box and delete the current contents. Then, click File and read in a file containing the CL command lines. The browser window will appear to let you select the file name. The expected file extension is “.cmd.

Note: If you do not delete the contents of the Command text box before using the Menu or File option, you will create additional command lines. From then on, these lines will be treated as a “block, that is, you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command lines. 5. The Preview button lets you preview the result. Click OK to complete redefining the command, Cancel—to quit.

To Save CL Data in a File When you display a tool path, you can save the current CL data in a CL file or an MCD file directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box: 1. On the top menu bar of the PLAY PATH dialog box, click File. 2. Click one of the following options: Save—Output CL data to a CL file, with the name corresponding to the name of the Tool Path feature. Save As—Output CL data to a CL file with a different name. Type the new name in the browser window. Save As MCD—Post-process CL data and output it as an MCD file. The Post Processor Options window opens. Select the desired options and click Output.

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Subroutine Programming About Subroutine Programming

Subroutine programming enables you to create NC sequences, place them as macros at the beginning of the CL file, and then call them from the main body of the CL file as many times as needed. This enhancement reduces the size of CL files, making them easier for the controller to handle and for the programmer to read and edit. Typical applications include tombstone work, multiple parts setup on a pallet, and turbine impellers where each blade is the same. When you select Subroutines from the MACHINING menu, the SUBROUTINES menu appears with the following options: • • • • Create—Create a new subroutine pattern. Redefine—Redefine a subroutine pattern. Delete—Delete a subroutine pattern. Info—Obtain information about subroutine patterns.

To Create a New Subroutine Pattern

1. Choose Create from the SUBROUTINES menu. 2. To select NC sequences to be patterned, place a checkmark next to their names in the namelist menu (which also provides Select All and Unselect All options). Choose Done Sel when finished. 3. The system displays the Subroutines dialog box. 4. The top portion of the dialog box contains the option buttons and checkboxes that allow you to specify the type of subroutine pattern and desired CL output format: If you select the Group option button, the sequences you have selected will be patterned as a group. This means that the selected sequences and all the sequences in between form a patterned internal group. If you select Individual, each selected sequence is patterned individually; the sequences in between are not affected. If you select the Absolute option button, CL data for the subroutine will be output in absolute mode. If you select Incremental, the system will output the MODE/INCR and MODE/ABSOL commands for each NC sequence that is placed in a subroutine.

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If you select the Multax checkbox, the system will output transformed CL data rather than outputting Rotate Table commands. If you select the Copy CL checkbox, the system will output CL data without the subroutine definitions and calls. Redefine a pattern to use this option if you want to temporarily suppress subroutine pattern definitions in CL output. 5. The 1st Direction tab lets you define the pattern in the first direction:

5. The 2nd Direction tab lets you define the pattern in the second direction. It contains the same options as the 1st Direction tab, except the Csys option button is replaced by None, which means no pattern in this direction (this is the default). 6. The Fixture tab lets you increment the fixture offset register value. If you select Use Fixture Compensation, the system will output the “SET/OFSETL, n command for each patterned sequence, where n is the fixture offset register number, defined as follows: Initial Register specifies the fixture offset register number for the first instance. 1st Direction Increment specifies the incremental value for each subsequent instance in the first direction. 2nd Direction Increment specifies the incremental value for instances in the second direction. This text box only appears if the subroutine pattern is bidirectional. If you click Custom, the system displays the Subroutine Fixture Offsets Setup dialog box, where it lists all instances of the pattern (based on the number of instances in each direction), and current register numbers for each instance (based on the values for Initial Register, 1st Direction Increment, and 2nd Direction Increment).

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Pattern Type—Use one of the following option buttons: Translate—Translate the CL data along the axes of the base coordinate system. Type the translation values in the X value, Y value, and Z value text boxes. Rotate—Rotate the CL data about one of the axes of the base coordinate system. Specify the desired axis by selecting the X, Y, or Z option button. Type the rotation value in the Angle text box. Csys—This option enables you to select or create coordinate systems for placing instances of the subroutine. The system calculates the correct TRANS/ROTATE statements for each instance, based on the location of the coordinate system specified for this instance with respect to the base coordinate system. Click Select to create, select, remove, or show the coordinate systems. Base Coordinate System—Specify which coordinate system, Machine or NC Sequence, is to be used as the base coordinate system for patterning CL data. Number—Specify the number of instances in the first direction.

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Select an instance where you want to customize the fixture offset and type the new value in the Fixture Offset text box. The Reset button resets all the offsets back to default values. Click OK to finish customizing the offsets. 7. Click OK in the Subroutines dialog box to create the subroutine pattern. Note: NC sequences included in a subroutine pattern cannot be selected for another subroutine pattern. Redefine the existing pattern instead.

Limitations
If subroutines are present, the following limitations on modifying CL data exist: • • The CL Edit functionality lets you display and scan CL data, but you cannot modify it. The CL Command option in the MACHINING menu will be disabled.

Examples: Subroutine Programming

Example 1: Group vs. Individual
If an operation contains four NC sequences, and you selected sequences 1 and 3 for subroutine patterning with number of instances equal to two, the output will look like this:

Group CALSUB / 1 CALSUB / 2 CALSUB / 3 CALSUB / 1 CALSUB / 2 CALSUB / 3 SEQ4

Individual CALSUB / 1 CALSUB / 1 SEQ2 CALSUB / 3 CALSUB / 3 SEQ4

Example 2: Incremental Output

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If Incremental is selected, the system outputs two additional commands, MODE/INCR and MODE/ABSOL, for each NC sequence that is placed in a subroutine. This triggers the post processor to process and output the data as incremental moves (the output in the subroutine is still absolute):

DEFSUB / 1 MODE / INCR GOTO ... MODE / ABSOL ENDSUB (absolute output)

To Redefine a Subroutine Pattern

1. Choose Redefine from the SUBROUTINES menu. 2. Select the name of the pattern to redefine. 3. The REDEF SUB menu appears with the following options: Sequences—Reselect sequences to be included in the pattern. Pattern Def—Brings up the Subroutines dialog box to let you redefine the pattern.

4. Select the desired option(s) from the REDEF SUB menu, then choose Done. The system will start the user interface for all the selected options in turn.

NC Post-Processing About NC Post-Processing

gpost (default)—Use the G-Post™ post-processors provided by Intercim Corporation. 409

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Pro/NC generates cutter location (CL) data files in an ASCII format that need to be post-processed to create Machine Control Data (MCD) files before any machining operation occurs. Each Pro/NC module includes a standard set of NC post-processors that can be executed directly or modified using an optional module. You can control which post-processing module to use by setting the configuration option ncpost_type. The values are:

ncpost—Use the Pro/NCPOST post-processors. Other post-processors are certified for use with Pro/NC CL data files.

External Post-Processors
The following post-processors are certified for use with Pro/NC CL Data files:

Post-Processor CAM-POST® IntelliPost® NC Post Plus™

Supplied by ICAM Technologies Corporation Software Magic, Inc. CAD/CAM Resources, Inc.

Other post-processor reading APT should also, with little additional code, be able to process Pro/NC CL files.

Execution of the Post-Processor
From within Pro/NC, you can: • • • Select which post-processor to use. Execute post-processors with option to run CL file. Execute post-processors with options directly upon output of tool path.

To Generate a CL File and an MCD File at the Same Time

1. On the CL DATA menu, click Output. 2. Select an NC sequence. Selecting an operation (using the Operation option in the SELECT FEAT menu) will output merged CL data and MCD of all the NC sequences included in this operation. 3. Click File to create the CL and the MCD file. 4. The OUTPUT TYPE menu opens with the following options: CL File—Generate a CL data file only. MCD File—Generate a CL file and then post-process it into an MCD file.

5. Select MCD File and click Done.

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6. Type a filename. The files will be named <fname>.ncl.# for the CL file and <fname>.tap for the MCD file (where <fname> is the name you typed and # is the version number). 7. The PP OPTIONS menu opens with the following options: Verbose—Start the verbose display of post-processing. Trace—Trace all macros and CL records in the listing file. MACHIN—Use the post-processor file for the machine specified in the MACHIN statement of the CL file. If this option is not checked off, you will be prompted to select a post-processor from the namelist menu of all available post-processors. PID—If this option is checked off, you will be prompted for the process identification string. The string should not contain any spaces.

8. Select the desired options and click Done. 9. The post-processor is started with the specified options. The post-processed file will be named <fname>.tap, where <fname> is the name of the CL file being processed.

To Generate an MCD File from an Existing CL File

1. On the CL DATA menu, click Post Process. The system opens a browser window with a listing of CL data files, starting from the current directory. 2. Select a CL file name. The PP OPTIONS menu opens. 3. Select the desired options and click Done. 4. The post-processor is started with the specified options. The post-processed file will be named <fname>.tap, where <fname> is the name of the CL file being processed.

CL Output About CL Output
A subset of the Automatically Programmed Tools (APT) commands is automatically sent by Pro/NC to a CL data file. These commands are shown below with their associated parameters and definitions. Other commands can be included in the CL data files using the Edit or CL Command functionality. Please refer to your post-processor documentation for description of the commands available. 411

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Supported CL Data Commands
$$—any line or portion of a line preceded by “$$ is a comment or command for the use of Pro/NC.

Command CALSUB/a

Description

Attributes where: a=subroutine name.

CIRCLE/ x, y, z {, i, j, k} , r

output for circular interpolated tool movement

COOLNT / type, pressure

where: type = ON, OFF, FLOOD, MIST, TAP, or THRU. pressure = LOW, MEDIUM, or HIGH (if the value for the COOLANT_PRESSURE parameter is NONE, it will not be output).

CUTCOM / LEFT {,n}

where: LEFT, RIGHT = the direction of cutter compensation offset. n = the number of the register of the machine controller that holds the tool compensation data. If CUTCOM_REGISTER is 0, it is not output.

CUTCOM / RIGHT {,n}

CUTCOM / OFF CYCLE / type output for Holemaking cycles

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DEFSUB / a

start of a subroutine definition

where: a = subroutine name (by default, the number of the corresponding NC sequence).

DELAY / t

where: t = delay in seconds

ENDSUB

end of a subroutine definition where: f = feedrate value in the specified units. units = units for feedrate. Can be FPM, IPM, FPR, IPR, MMPM, MMPR.

FEDRAT/f,units

FEDRAT / INVERS, AUTO

specifies the inverse time feed rate, or the rate of rotation, for machines with rotary axes (if you set INVERSE_FEED to YES) output at the end of an NC sequence with inverse time feed rate.

FEDRAT / INVERS, OFF

FINI

last statement in the program. where: a = flush register (if specified)

FLUSH / ON, a

FROM / x, y, z {, i, j, k}

where: x, y, z—coordinates of the tool control point. i, j, k—the tool axis vector.

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GENRTR / genrtr register

GOTO / x, y, z {, i, j, k}

where: x, y, z—coordinates of the tool control point. i, j, k—the tool axis vector.

HEAD / n, OPTION, #

output for multiple turrets

HEAD / BOTH

output before a pair of synchronized NC sequences.

HEAD / OFF

output after a pair of synchronized NC sequences.

LINTOL / r

where: r—the value of the manufacturing parameter LINTOL. Used by postprocessor for interpolation. Will be output only if the LINTOL parameter value is other than dash (-).

LOADTL / n, LENGTH, l, OSETNO, o

where: n = TOOL_POSITION (defined using the tool table). If the tool is not included in the tool table, its TOOL_ID (as set in the parameters file) will be used. LENGTH, l = gauge length value for a tool. Will be output only if GAUGE_Z_LENGTH is other than dash (-). OSETNO, o = tool offset change specified in the tool table (if any).

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MACHIN / name, m

where: name = the NC sequence parameter MACH_NAME m = the NC sequence parameter MACH_ID

MODE/INCR and MODE/ABSOL

output inside subroutine definitions to make the post transform the subroutine data into incremental data.

MODE/MILL and MODE/TURN

output for the Mill/Turn centers.

MULTAX / ON

puts the post-processor in the multi-axis output mode (to process the i,j,k vector). When in multiaxis output mode, Pro/NC outputs the i,j,k vector even when the tool is in 0, 0, 1 orientation.

OP / THREAD, TURN, DEPTH, totdepth, TPI, thread_feed, MULTRD, t, CUTS, c, FINCUT, n, CUTANG, a

ISO output for Thread Turning.

where: DEPTH, totdepth = the depth of cut for the thread. TPI (or MMPR, or IPR), thread_feed = thread pitch (parameters THREAD_FEED_UNITS, THREAD_FEED). MULTRD, t = number of threading starts in multiple start threading. CUTS, c = the number of times the tool is positioned to a multiple cut (parameter NUMBER_CUTS). FINCUT, n = the number of passes made at the final thread 415

depth (NUMBER_FIN_PASSES). CUTANG, a = angle at which the tool begins the cut (INFEED_ANGLE).

OP / THREAD, NOMORE PARTNO

designates the end of ISO thread output part name

PIVOTZ / z2, z1, z2, z1, z1 PPRINT

output for 4-Axis Wire EDM only. output model information. In order to issue this command, you have to set up the PPRINT table. probe statements. next motion statement will be a rapid traverse feed. rotational transition between the Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems if CL_DATA_MODE is TRANS_ROTABL

z2 = the highest mid-point of the surfaces traversed

PROBE / ON, OFF, RANGE, CALIB RAPID

ROTATE / AAXIS|BAXIS| CAXIS, INCR, a, CLW|CCLW

where: AAXIS, BAXIS, CAXIS—rotate about X, Y, or Z axis respectively. a = rotation angle value. CLW = clockwise motion. CCLW = counter-clockwise motion.

SET / OFSETL, n and SET / OFSETL, OFF

where: n = FIXT_OFFSET_REG output only if the FIXT_OFFSET_REG parameter value is other than dash (-).

SPINDL / RPM, s, CLW|CCLW, MAXRPM, m, 416

RANGE, r SPINDL / SFM or SMM, v, CLW| CCLW, MAXRPM, m, RANGE, r

SPINDL / ON

SPINDL / OFF

SPINDL / PARLEL, XAXIS|ZAXIS (Mill/Turn milling only)

m = MAX_SPINDLE_RPM. If MAX_SPINDLE_RPM is set to dash (-), “MAXRPM, m will not be output. r = range value (SPINDLE_RANGE). Can be LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH. If SPINDLE_RANGE is NUMBER, then r is equal to the RANGE_NUMBER parameter value. If SPINDLE_RANGE is NO_RANGE, “RANGE, r will not be output. PARLEL indicates which axis the milling spindle is parallel to.

STAN / a, [ LEAD | LAG, b ], [ NOW | NEXT ]

output for tool axis in Wire EDM, if CL_OUTPUT_MODE is set to TAPER

NOW—Update the tool axis position at the current point (available for 2-Axis Wire EDM only). NEXT (default)—Update the tool axis position at the next GOTO point.

THREAD/AUTO, x1, y1, z1, TO, x2, y2, z2, TPI, thread_feed, AT, percent, DEEP, depth, LAST, n, TYPE, 0, totdepth, angle, IPM, ipm, FEDTO, d, x, TIMES, t, OFSETL, n, o

AI Macro output for Thread Turning,

where: TPI(or MMPR, or IPR), thread_feed = thread pitch (parameters THREAD_FEED_UNITS, THREAD_FEED).

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AT, percent = the percentage of remaining metal to be removed with each pass (PERCENT_DEPTH). DEEP, depth = determines the final programmed thread depth (STOCK_ALLOW). LAST, n = the number of passes made at the final thread depth (NUMBER_FIN_PASSES). TYPE, 0, totdepth, angle = provides thread depth and infeed angle. IPM, ipm = feedrate used during each threading cycle. FEDTO, d = the clearance distance from the workpiece. x = IN (internal thread), OUT (external thread—default), FACE (facing thread). TIMES, t = the number of threading starts. OFSETL n = the number of times the tool is positioned to a multiple cut. o = offset distance between each of the cuts.

TRANS / x, y, z

linear translation between the Machine and NC Sequence coordinate systems if CL_DATA_MODE is TRANS_ROTABL. Will be commented out if the FIX_OFFSET_REGISTER parameter value is other than dash (-). output for turning NC sequences, and for Mill and Holemaking NC sequences performed on lathes and Mill/Turn centers, instead of

TURRET / n, XAXIS, x, ZAXIS, z, OSETNO, o

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LOADTL. “XAXIS, x and “ZAXIS, z will only be output if GAUGE_X_LENGTH and GAUGE_Z_LENGTH for the tool are other than dash (-). UNITS / u length units used for the NC sequence (INCHES, MM, etc.) probe statements.

VERIFY / CORNER, PNT, RCTNGL, ROUND, XYZ

CL Output for Holemaking Cycles
If the configuration option “cycle_format is set to “fixed, the following output will be generated for all Holemaking cycles: CYCLE / type, z, f, units, t, r, i where: type = DRILL, DEEP, BRKCHP, THRU, FACE, CSINK, TAP, BORE, REAM, OFF. z = the depth to feed the tool to. f = feedrate. units = units for cycle feedrate. Can be IPM, IPR, MMPM, MMPR. t = threads per inch (applies to TAP cycle only). r = rapid to r depth. i = depth increment (applies to DEEP cycle only). If the configuration option “cycle_format is set to “couplet (the default), the CL output for Holemaking cycles is described below.

DRILL Cycle
Output when using the cycle type options Drill, Standard. CYCLE / DRILL, DEPTH, a, IPM, b, CLEAR, c, RAPTO, d, RETURN, e where: a—The depth value calculated by Pro/NC.

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IPM—Given by the parameter CUT_UNITS. b—The value of CUT_FEED. c—Given by CLEAR_DIST. d—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional). e—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane.

DEEP Cycle
Output when using the cycle type options Drill, Deep. The deep cycle allows for incremental steps into a deep hole. CYCLE / DEEP, DEPTH, a, STEP, b, IPM, c, CLEAR, d, RAPTO, e, RETURN, f where: a—The depth value calculated by Pro/NC. b—Given by PECK_DEPTH. IPM—Given by the parameter CUT_UNITS. c—The value of CUT_FEED. d—Given by CLEAR_DIST. e—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional). f—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane.

BREAKCHIP Cycle
Output when using the cycle type options Drill, Break Chip. The breakchip cycle is similar to the deep cycle, except that the retraction at each increment does not come all the way out of the hole. A full retraction out of hole is also allowed. CYCLE / BRKCHP, DEPTH, a, STEP, b, IPM, c, CLEAR, d, RAPTO, e, RETURN, f, DWELL | BACK | REV, g, TIMES, h where: a—The depth value calculated by Pro/NC. b—Given by PECK_DEPTH.

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IPM—Given by the parameter CUT_UNITS. c—The value of CUT_FEED. d—Given by CLEAR_DIST. e—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional). f—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane. h—Provides a full retract out of hole as in deep cycle; calculated based on FULL_RETRACT_DEPTH/ PECK_DEPTH. The choice of DWELL, BACK, and REV is as follows: • • If the parameter INTER_RET_HEIGHT is programmed, the chipbreak couplet will be: BACK, g (“g is the value of INTER_RET_HEIGHT) If INTER_RET_HEIGHT is “- and a non-zero DELAY is programmed, the couplet will be: DWELL, g—if DELAY_UNITS is SECONDS REV, g—if DELAY_UNITS is REVS (“g is the value of DELAY)

THRU Cycle
Output when using the cycle type options Drill, Web. It enables you to drill holes through two or more plates, separated by a certain distance, with the tool moving with FEED_RATE while drilling a plate, and then making a RAPID motion along the tool axis to position above the next plate. CYCLE / THRU, DEPTH, a1, a2, a3, ..., IPM, b, CLEAR, c, RAPTO, d, RETURN, e where: a1—The depth value of the first plate, calculated by Pro/NC. a2—The depth value to top of the second plate, calculated by Pro/NC. a3—The depth value of the second plate, calculated by Pro/NC. IPM—Given by the parameter CUT_UNITS. b—The value of CUT_FEED. c—Given by CLEAR_DIST. d—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional). e—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane.

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FACE Cycle
Output when using the cycle type option Face. It is essentially the same as the drill cycle, except face allows for an optional dwell at depth. CYCLE / FACE, DEPTH, a, IPM, b, CLEAR, c, RAPTO, d, RETURN, e, DWELL | REV, f where: a—The depth value calculated by Pro/NC. IPM—Given by the parameter CUT_UNITS. b—The value of CUT_FEED. c—Given by CLEAR_DIST. d—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional). e—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane. f—The value of DELAY. DWELL or REV will be based on DELAY_UNITS set to SECONDS or REVS, respectively.

COUNTERSINK Cycle
Output when using the cycle type option Countersink. Allows the addition of a chamfered edge to a hole. It also provides for dwell at depth to assure good finish. CYCLE / CSINK, DIAMET, a, TLANGL, b, IPM, c, CLEAR, d, RAPTO, e, RETURN, f, DWELL | REV, g where: a—The outside diameter of the chamfer (Csink Diam). b—The value of the countersink tool parameter POINT_ANGLE. IPM—Given by the parameter CUT_UNITS. c—The value of CUT_FEED. d—Given by CLEAR_DIST. e—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional).

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f—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane. g—The value of DELAY. DWELL or REV will be based on DELAY_UNITS set to SECONDS or REVS, respectively.

TAP Cycle
Output when using the cycle type options Tap and either Fixed or Floating. Allows the creation of a threaded hole. Floating tap cycle allows a modified feed rate other than that given by the combination of thread pitch and spindle speed. CYCLE / TAP, DEPTH, a, TPI | MMPR | IPR, b, CLEAR, c, RAPTO, d, RETURN, e where: a—The depth value calculated by Pro/NC. TPI | MMPR | IPR—Determined by THREAD_UNITS. b—The value of THREAD_FEED. c—Given by CLEAR_DIST. d—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional). e—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane.

BORE Cycle
Output when using the cycle type option Bore. Used to create a finish hole diameter with high precision. In order to assure good quality finish, there are provisions to allow dwell at depth and to back an asymmetric tool away from the finished wall before retraction. CYCLE / BORE, DEPTH, a, IPM, b, CLEAR, c1, c2, RAPTO, d, RETURN, e, ORIENT, f, DWELL | REV, g where: a—The depth value calculated by Pro/NC. IPM—Given by the parameter CUT_UNITS. b—The value of CUT_FEED. c1—Given by CLEAR_DIST.

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c2—Given by JOG_DIST, if programmed. d—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional). e—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane. f—Given by ORIENT_ANGLE, if programmed. g—The value of DELAY. DWELL or REV will be based on DELAY_UNITS set to SECONDS or REVS, respectively.

REAM Cycle
Output when using the cycle type option Ream. An alternative for creating a precision finish hole. It creates the good surface finish by feeding out of the hole with the spindle turning. CYCLE / REAM, DEPTH, a, IPM, b, CLEAR, c, RAPTO, d, RETURN, e, DWELL | REV, f where: a—The depth value calculated by Pro/NC. IPM—Given by the parameter CUT_UNITS. b—The value of CUT_FEED. c—Given by CLEAR_DIST. d—Given by RAPTO_DIST; allows for further rapid advance as measured from CLEAR_DIST toward the cycle control point (optional). e—Given by PULLOUT_DIST; allows for an optional return to a point other than the CLEAR_DIST (optional). If programmed at 0, retract to the retract plane. f—The value of DELAY. DWELL or REV will be based on DELAY_UNITS set to SECONDS or REVS, respectively.

CL Output for Circular Interpolation
You can specify circular interpolation for tool motion in Pro/NC by using the parameter CIRC_INTERPOLATION. If POINTS_&_ARC or ARC_ONLY is specified, the CL file will contain the following lines for each arc or circle encountered:

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GOTO / x, y, z

CIRCLE / x, y, z, i, j, k, r GOTO / x, y, z x, y, z x, y, z . . . x, y, z The GOTO statement preceding the CIRCLE command specifies the start point of the arc. The following GOTO statements specify the points on the arc, the last line specifying the arc end point. For POINTS_&_ARC, the number of points output is controlled by the tolerance (the smaller the tolerance, the greater the number of points). For ARC_ONLY, a minimum number of points, determined by the NUMBER_OF_ARC_PTS parameter value, is output. Note: The GOTO statements have the format shown above if the tool axis is parallel to the Z-Axis of the Machine coordinate system; otherwise, the tool axis vector will also be output. The CIRCLE command specifies circular interpolated tool movement, where: x, y, z—Coordinates of the center. i, j, k—Plane vector. r—Radius. The plane vector determines the plane and direction using the “right hand rule:
i j k Plane Direction

0 0 0 0 1 -1

0 0 1 -1 0 0

1 -1 0 0 0 0

XY XY ZX ZX YZ YZ

CCW CW CCW CW CCW CW

APT Format
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If CIRC_INTERPOLATION is set to APT_FORMAT, the CL output for each arc or circle encountered will be in the auxiliary format: INDIRV / i, j, k TLON GOFWD / (CIRCLE / x, y, z, r), ON, (LINE / x1, y1, z1, x2, y2, z2) where: i, j, k—The unit vector. x, y, z—Coordinates of the circle center. r—Circle radius. x1, y1, z1 and x2, y2, z2—Coordinates of the two points defining the exit line.

Helical Interpolation
Helical interpolation is provided for Thread Milling. Output format uses CIRCLE with differing Z coordinates at the start and end point. Difference in Z values is based on the thread pitch and the fraction of the distance travelled around the helix. For the CIRCLE statement, Z dimension used is the same as the initial point. Sample output is shown below: ... FEDRAT / 12.000000, IPM GOTO / 8.198000, 0.000000, -0.625000 FEDRAT / 8.000000, IPM CIRCLE / 8.000000, 0.000000, -0.625000, $ $$ 1ST ORBIT 0.000000, 0.000000, 1.000000, 0.198000 GOTO / 8.198000, 0.000000, -0.583333 CIRCLE / 8.000000, 0.000000, -0.583333, $ $$ 2ND ORBIT 0.000000, 0.000000, 1.000000, 0.198000 GOTO / 8.198000, 0.000000, -0.541667 FEDRAT / 12.000000, IPM ...

Synchronized Output for XY-UV 4-Axis Wire EDM
The following commands apply to 4-Axis Wire EDM output:

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Command SET/ UPPER, a, LOWER, b

Description Indicates the Z values of the upper and lower contours. “a and “b are real numbers.

CLDIST / c

Indicates the distance that the top head is above the upper contour n

LOAD / WIRE, n

Indicates that wire “n should be threaded. “n is an integer.

GENRTR / n

Indicates the power setting for subsequent motions.

SYNCTR / NEXT, n

Indicates a position where the two heads should be located simultaneously. There will be matching statements in the output of each head.

SYNCTR / LOWER|UPPER

Indicates that subsequent motions will be for lower or upper contour respectively.

UNLOAD / WIRE

Indicates that the wire should be cut.

OPSTOP

May be added automatically to indicate an optional stop.

NC Check About NC Check

NC Check is a dynamic simulation of material removal on the computer screen. It allows you to view a step-by-step simulation of material removal as the tool is cutting the workpiece.

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Do not confuse the automatic material removal simulation with the NC Check process:

Material Removal Permanently removes material from the workpiece; creates a new feature. Is based on a set of assumptions and may produce simplified representation of material removal, depending on the NC sequence type.

NC Check Simulates material removal for display purposes only; does not create geometry. Always takes into account the actual tool path and shape.

NC Check can be performed: • • At the time of creating an NC sequence (from the PLAY PATH menu) to check the current tool path. From the CL DATA menu after the NC sequence or operation is created. You will be prompted for a CL file name. At this point, you can either select an existing file, or create a new one. When editing CL data. You can control which NC Check simulation module to use by setting the configuration option nccheck_type. The values are: • • vericut (default)—Use Vericut™ provided by CGTech. nccheck—Use Pro/NC-CHECK.

Modifying NC Sequences About Modifying NC Sequences
NC sequences and material removal features can be deleted, suppressed, or resumed, as any other workpiece or assembly features. These topics describe specific techniques of modifying, redefining, and patterning NC sequences and material removal features.

To Modify an NC Sequence

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1. Choose Modify from the MFG UTILS menu and NC Sequence from the MOD PROCESS menu. or Choose Modify from the MANUFACTURE menu, then choose Mod NC Seq from the MFG MODIFY menu. 2. Select the NC sequence to be modified from the namelist menu. 3. The MOD NC SEQ menu appears with the following options: Tool—Modify the tool used for the NC sequence. You can retrieve another tool or modify parameters of the current tool. Dimensions—Modify the Tool Motion dimensions. Select which Tool Motions you want to modify using the namelist menu (you can select all). The appropriate dimensions are displayed. Select the dimension you want to modify and enter a new value. Parameters—Modify parameters of the NC sequence. You can also modify parameters of any or all Automatic Cut motions. Select which parameters you want to modify by checking the appropriate entries in the namelist menu (you can select all). If more than one NC sequence component is selected at once, you can only use the Set option, otherwise you will have the regular MFG PARAMS menu options. Motion Params—Modify parameters of the Tool Motions.

4. Choose Done/Return from the MOD NC SEQ menu when finished. 5. Regenerate the manufacturing model.

Modifying Parameters of Multiple Automatic Cut Motions
If several NC sequence components (e.g., the NC sequence itself and some of the Automatic Cut motions) have been selected for modifying parameters, a multi-column table will appear in the Param Tree dialog window to let you simultaneously modify parameters of any or all the components selected.

To Change a Parameter Value for All Cut Motions at Once
If you want to change a parameter to the same value for all the selected components, you can use the following shortcut. It copies the contents of the highlighted cell and applies this value to all cells in the current row. 1. Type the new value in a cell (for example, in the first column). 2. Choose Edit > Copy. 3. Choose Edit > Paste Row. 429

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4. The system changes the parameter values for the whole row, that is, in all the columns of the table.

To Redefine an NC Sequence

The MFG UTILS menu option Redefine allows you to modify how an NC sequence is created. When the NC sequence has children (e.g., material removal), you will be prompted to delete all the children before proceeding with the NC sequence redefinition. Note: If an NC sequence has been patterned, it cannot be redefined. Use Del Pattern first. 1. Choose Utilities from the MACHINING menu, then choose Redefine.

2. Choose NC Sequence from the SELECT FEAT menu and select the NC sequence to be redefined. 4. Select from the following options in the REDEF NC SEQ menu: Attributes—Allows you to redefine the NC sequence attributes, such as 5 Axis to 4 Axis, Holemaking cycle type (e.g., Drill to Tap). After redefining the Attributes, you will have to redefine References as well. References—Brings you directly to the NC SEQUENCE menu. You can redefine sequence references, change the tool motions. Operation—Specify another parent operation and workcell for the NC sequence. The operation must be older than the NC sequence (reorder the features first, if necessary). The system will also check that the NC sequence is compatible with the workcell type.

The NC sequence will be recreated using the new definitions. If any changes are made to the NC sequence that cause its regeneration to abort, then the redefining process will abort and the NC sequence will return to its original references. Note: If you want to just redefine References of an existing NC sequence, you can choose NC Sequence from the MACHINING menu and then select the name of the NC sequence from the namelist menu.

To Reorder an NC Sequence

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The order in which NC sequences are regenerated can be changed through NC sequence reorder. Choose Reorder from the MFG UTILS menu and follow the regular procedure for reordering features.

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Note: If you want to just change the order of outputting CL data for the NC sequences within an operation, it is not necessary to reorder the NC sequences themselves. The Output Order functionality provides multiple ways of reordering the tool path output: by pick, as well as sorting by tool. Reordering an NC sequence means moving the whole set of features associated with the NC sequence (tool motions) to the new location in the workpiece feature sequence. Note: If you reorder an NC sequence for which a material removal feature has been created, the material removal feature will not be reordered automatically. The material removal feature must also be reordered if it is to immediately follow the NC sequence. All features associated with an NC sequence form an internal NC group. The NC sequence feature is ordered first and the Tool Path feature, containing all Tool Motions,is ordered last. Cut motions can be reordered within the NC sequence (to select a cut motion, use Sel By Menu and feature number), but no Cut Motion or Tool Path feature can be reordered to a place outside its NC group. Similarly, no other feature can be reordered to fall inside an NC group. If you try to enter a location within an NC group, an error message: “Can not insert into this group of features, will appear and you will be prompted to enter another location. Mill volumes and surfaces can also be reordered using the Reorder option in the MFG UTILS menu. The whole set of features included in the volume/surface will be moved to the specified position in the workpiece feature sequence. To select a volume/surface for reordering, you can either select its first feature (base volume or quilt), or use Sel By Menu and select the volume/surface name.

To Suppress or Delete Mill Volumes and Surfaces

When suppressing or deleting features in a manufacturing model, two additional options will appear in the SELECT FEAT menu to simplify the selection process: • • User Def Vol—Select a name of a Mill Volume from the namelist menu to suppress or delete all features included in the Mill Volume. User Def Srf— Select a name of a Mill Surface from the namelist menu to suppress or delete all features included in the Mill Surface.

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Patterning NC Sequences About Patterning NC Sequences

You can create patterns of NC sequences using the Pattern option in the MFG UTILS menu. These patterns can be either Coordinate or Reference (similar to Dimensional and Reference patterns in regular Pro/ENGINEER): • Coordinate patterns are created using the Csys Pattern option by translating or rotating CL data with respect to either the NC Sequence or the Machine coordinate system. Reference patterns are created using the Ref Pattern option. This type of pattern can be created only if the NC sequence to be patterned references a patterned feature (e.g., Holemaking). Info about patterns is shown in the Manufacture Info. A pattern can be deleted using the Del Pattern option in the MFG UTILS menu. Note: Operations cannot be patterned.

Patterning NC Sequences with Tool Motions
Note: If an NC sequence has Tool Motion features, it cannot be reference patterned. You can create Coordinate patterns of NC sequences that have Tool Motion features. You can also create a regular Dimensional pattern of an NC sequence if it contains a Tool Motion with dimensions that can be used to drive the pattern. If you try to pattern an NC sequence that has Tool Motions, the system creates an internal local group containing these features and patterns this local group. If the NC sequence references another feature, such as Mill Volume or Drill Group, two situations are possible: 1. If the reference feature immediately precedes the NC sequence in the feature list, the system will prompt you if you want to include the reference feature in the pattern or not. 2. If there are other features in between the reference feature and the NC sequence, the system will issue a warning and the reference feature will not be patterned. If you want the reference feature to be patterned along with the NC sequence, reorder it to be immediately before the NC sequence in the feature list before creating the pattern.

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To Create a Coordinate Pattern of an NC Sequence

1. Choose Utilities from the MACHINING menu, then choose Pattern. 2. Select the NC sequence to pattern. 3. Choose Csys Pattern and Done. 4. Select patterning type in first direction by choosing Rotate or Translate from the PAT TYPE menu. If you have chosen Translate, choose either NCSeq Csys or Mach Csys and enter displacements in X, Y, and Z directions. If you have chosen Rotate, enter rotation angle, then specify which coordinate system to use, and which axis to rotate about, by selecting options from the ROT TYPE menu.

5. Enter total number of instances in this direction. 6. Select patterning type in second direction, or if you want a unidirectional pattern, choose None. If you want a bidirectional pattern, repeat actions in steps 4 and 5 for the second pattern direction. 7. You can abort the patternization of an NC sequence about a coordinate system by choosing Quit from the PAT TYPE menu. Note: Patterning in second direction will use the same coordinate system as specified for the first direction. If you select for patterning an NC sequence that already has a pattern defined, an error message will appear. You can modify the existing pattern, or delete the existing pattern using the Del Pattern option and then define a new pattern.

Coordinate System Patterns
Coordinate patterns can reference either the NC Sequence or the Machine coordinate system. They can be unidirectional or bidirectional. For each direction you can specify either displacement along the X,Y,Z axes, or rotation about any axis. When the pattern is created, appropriate CL paths are generated and can be displayed or written to file by choosing CL Data > Output and selecting the patterned NC sequence.

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Using Relations
You can use relations when specifying displacements and rotation angles. For example, when prompted to enter displacement in the Y direction, you can enter: STEP_OVER:FID_# / 2 (where # is the internal feature ID of the NC sequence) All displacements and rotation angles will be treated as dimensions and assigned dimension IDs; number of instances will be treated as an integer parameter (similar to the number of instances in Pro/ENGINEER feature patterns). All the pattern information (including the pattern type, dimension and parameter values and IDs, and relations used, if any) will be listed in the NC Sequence info.

To Create a Rotary Table Pattern of an NC Sequence

When creating a rotational pattern of an NC sequence, you have an option to use an Index table. Index tables currently work for rotation about one axis with patternization in one direction. Note: The Index Table patterns can be created only with respect to the Machine coordinate system. 1. Choose Utilities from the MACHINING menu, then choose Pattern. 2. Select the NC sequence to pattern. 3. Choose Csys Pattern and Done. 4. Choose Rotate from the PAT TYPE menu as the patterning type in first direction. 5. Enter the rotation angle. 6. Choose Mach Csys, Index Table, and the axis to rotate about from the ROT TYPE menu. 7. Choose None as the patterning type in second direction. 8. Enter the number of instances. The pattern is created. If you use a Rotary table, CL Data for all instances of the pattern will be displayed at the same location (that of the first instance), with the NC Sequence coordinate system rotating appropriately for each instance.The following graphic illustrates the difference in CL Data display depending on the ROT TYPE option used.

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Tool moves from instance to instance.

Coordinate system rotates for each instance.

Rotate CL

Index Table

To Modify a Coordinate Pattern of an NC Sequence

1. Choose Modify from the MANUFACTURE menu, then choose Mod Pattern. 2. Select NC sequence to modify the pattern. 3. Choose appropriate options from the PAT MODIFY menu: First—Modify the first pattern direction. Second—Modify the second pattern direction. Num Inst—Modify only the number of instances in the selected direction. If the number of instances is modified to 1, the pattern in this direction will be deleted. All Opts—Modify all options for this direction. If you choose it, the PAT TYPE menu comes up.

4. Choose Done from the PAT MODIFY menu. 5. Depending on the selected option, either enter number of instances, or select the patterning type and enter all the necessary values. Only one pattern direction can be modified at a time. To modify the second direction, choose Mod Pattern again.

To Create a Reference Manufacturing Pattern
1. Choose Utilities from the MACHINING menu, then choose Pattern. 2. Select an NC sequence that references a patterned feature, or an Automatic material removal feature that references a patterned NC sequence.

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3. Choose Ref Pattern, and Done. 4. The pattern is created automatically. To Reference pattern a Milling NC sequence that uses a Mill Volume or Mill Surface, you have to pattern the Mill Volume/Mill Surface first. For example, to perform Volume milling on a pattern of slots, follow the procedure below.

Reference Patterns
A Reference manufacturing pattern can be created when the NC sequence to be patterned references a patterned feature. The functionality is similar to creating Reference patterns of features in regular Pro/ENGINEER. NC sequences with a sketched cut section may be Reference patterned only if the section sketch for the NC sequence is created with Use Edge and references edges of a patterned feature. Note: If silhouette edges are used by the sketch, the Reference pattern will not be created. For Turning, the work-around would be to use datum curves. After an NC sequence is patterned (using either pattern type), an Automatic material removal feature based on it can be reference patterned. Reference manufacturing patterns cannot be modified using the Mod Pattern option. They automatically follow the pattern of the referenced feature.

To Reference Pattern a Volume Milling NC Sequence
1. Create a Mill Volume by referencing slot geometry. You can either Gather, or Sketch with Use Edge. 2. Reference pattern the volume. Choose Utilities, Pattern, Sel By Menu, and select the volume name. 3. Create a Volume milling NC sequence by selecting the original volume. 4. Reference pattern the milling NC sequence.

To Create a Dimension Pattern of an NC Sequence
Dimension patterns of NC sequences can be created if the NC sequences contain a Tool Motion with dimensions that can be used to drive the pattern.

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Changing Feed Colors About Changing Feed Colors
The Feed Color option in the CL SETUP menu (accessible by choosing CL Setup from the MFG SETUP menu) allows you to display tool motions in different colors depending on the feed value. The system default feed ranges and the corresponding colors are: • • • • • • • • Rapid—Yellow (motions corresponding to the RAPID command) Default—Red (feeds not falling into any of the specified ranges) < 20—White 20-40—Blue 40-60—Green 60-80—Cyan 80-100—Magenta > 100—Orange You can at any time modify both the range limits and the color corresponding to a certain range.

To Change a Feed Color

The procedure below shows you how to use a different color to display a certain feed range. You can not mix your own colors for this purpose; the system will let you choose from a built-in set of predefined colors. You can set the same color to more than one range, if desired. 1. Choose Feed Color from the CL SETUP menu. 2. Choose Set Colors. The COLOR/RANGE menu appears; for each feed range, the current color definition is shown in a small window inside the menu button. 3. Select which feed range color you want to modify. 4. You will have eight preset color definitions to choose from: Color 1—Red Color 2—Yellow

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Color 3—White Color 4—Blue Color 5—Green Color 6—Cyan Color 7—Magenta Color 8—Orange

5. Choose a color definition. It will be used to display tool motions in the appropriate range of feeds.

To Change a Feed Range

1. Choose Feed Color from the CL SETUP menu. 2. Choose Set Range. The COLOR/RANGE menu appears; for each color definition, the current feed range is shown. 3. Select which feed range you want to modify. 4. Enter the minimum value for feed range (the current minimum value is shown as default in the prompt). Entering [0] will make the range start with a “less than sign. 5. Enter the maximum value for feed range (the current maximum value is shown as default in the prompt). Entering [0] will make the range start with a “greater than sign. 6. The new feed range is shown in the COLOR/RANGE menu. All tool motions in the specified feed range will be displayed in the color shown in a small window inside the menu button.

Model Tree About Model Tree
You can display a graphical hierarchy of a manufacturing model in the form of a Model Tree Window. 438

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When modifying range limits, keep in mind that ranges cannot overlap. If you try to enter a minimum or maximum value that falls into any of the currently specified ranges, the system will not accept it. Therefore, the order of modifying range limits is important: for example, if you have two ranges, 20-40 and 40-60, and want to modify them to be 20-30 and 30-60, modify the 20-40 range first.

When you create or retrieve a manufacturing model, the system displays the Model Tree Window.

To Display the Manufacturing Features
1. Choose Tree > Show. 2. Put the checkmark next to Features. By default, the system displays all the manufacturing features in the Model Tree window. 3. Choose Tree > Expand > All to see all the manufacturing features at all levels.

To Select the Features to Display
1. Choose Tree > Show > MFG Features. 2. The system displays the MFG Features Filter dialog box. Put a checkmark next to the feature type(s) you want to appear in the Model Tree Window: Operation Workcell Sequence Mfg Geometry Material Removal Show all features—If you select this option, the checkmarks next to all the opitons above disappear. The Model Tree Window will contain all the features (including regular Pro/ENGINEER features) in the manufacturing assembly and in all the components.

3. Press OK to display the selected feature types in the Model Tree Window.

To Display the Manufacturing Parent/Child Relationships
1. Choose Tree > Show. 2. Put the checkmark next to Mfg Owner. 3. The Model Tree Window displays the name of the parent in square brackets after the name of each manufacturing feature. For example, the operations will list the name of associated workcell, the NC sequences—the name of the parent operation.

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The Add/Remove Columns dialog box in Pro/NC contains an additional option, Machining Params, which allows you to add columns with the manufacturing parameter values to the Model Tree Window.

To Add Manufacturing Parameters
1. Choose Tree > Columns > Add/Remove. 2. Under the Type panel, scroll to the Machining Params filter. All the parameter names appear in the Available panel below. Selecting one of the filters below Machining Params (such as Names. Feeds, Cut Options) will display only the appropriate subset of the parameter names. 3. Select a parameter name in the Available panel and move it to the Current panel by pressing the << button. After selecting all the parameters you want to add, press the OK button. To remove an unwanted parameter from the Model Tree Window, select it in the Current panel and move it to the Available panel by pressing the >> button.

Process Information About Process Information
These topics describe various ways of delivering information about your manufacturing process and producing in-process documentation.

To Output Manufacturing Information

1. Choose Info > Manufacturing from the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar. 2. The system displays the Manufacturing Info dialog box. 3. Select the type of report you want using the option buttons in the top portion of the dialog box: Manufacturing Model—Output information about the whole manufacturing process. You can configure types of information to output using the Filter button. All operations and all NC sequences will be output according to their current Filter configurations. NC sequences will be sorted by operations. Operation—Output information about selected operation(s). Select the operation names from the list box. You can configure types of information to output using the

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Filter button. All NC sequences included in the selected operations will be output according to the current Filter configuration for the NC sequence. NC Sequence—Output information about selected NC sequence(s). You can configure types of information to output using the Filter button. Manufacturing Geometry—Output information about the following types of manufacturing geometry (select the desired type from the Geometry Type drop-down list): Mill Window—Output information about Mill Windows existing in the model. Mill Volume—Output information about Mill Volumes existing in the model. Mill Surface—Output information about Mill Surfaces existing in the model. Turn Profile—Output information about Turn Profiles existing in the model. Drill Group—Output information about Drill Groups existing in the model. Machined Geometry—Output information about machined geometry. Hole Set—Output information about Hole Sets existing in the model. Process Refs—Output information about process references. Route Sheet—Output the route sheet. Click for details.

4. Use the Screen and File checkboxes to specify if you want to output information on the screen, to a file, or both. 5. Click Apply to output information. 6. Click Close to close the Manufacturing Info dialog box.

To Set Up Filter Configuration

1. Click Filter in the Manufacturing Info dialog box. 2. The system displays the Manufacturing Information: Filters dialog box. 3. Select one of the option buttons in the top portion of the dialog box: Manufacturing Model—Set Filter configuration to output information about the whole manufacturing process. Operation—Set Filter configuration to output information about operations. NC Sequence—Set Filter configuration to output information about NC sequences.

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4. The system displays the applicable filters in the middle portion of the dialog box. If a filter has a checkmark next to it, this type of information will be output. Select and clear the checkboxes as appropriate to set up the desired Filter configuration (you can use the Select All and Unselect All buttons to speed up the process). 5. Click Apply to set the Filter configuration. 6. Click Close to return to the Manufacturing Info dialog box.

To Generate a Route Sheet
1. Choose Info > Manufacturing from the top bar of the Pro/ENGINEER Main Window. 2. Select the Route Sheet option button in the Manufacturing Info dialog box. 3. The system displays the route sheet in an editor window. You can edit the route sheet as desired, then save it. The route sheet is saved in the current directory as manufacturename.ppl. The default route sheet consists of three sections. The first section identifies the route sheet by supplying the design model name. You can edit the route sheet to add the name of the author in the first section. The second section describes the NC sequences for a particular manufacturing process. The route sheet lists the description of the machining NC sequences, the volume of material removed by each NC sequence, the time it takes to set up for the NC sequence (entered by choosing Setup Time from the FIX SET menu when defining a fixture setup), and the time to perform each NC sequence. You can edit the route sheet to add the tool name and additional set up time. The third section consists of totals for removed volume, set up time, and run time. You can edit the route sheet to account for additional set up time.

Route Sheet
A route sheet is a list of all NC sequences performed on the workpiece and the associated setup and cutting times for a particular manufacturing process. The route sheet can be edited within Pro/NC, as well as outside, using the system editor.

To Create a Customized Report on a Manufacturing Process
1. Choose Report from the MODE menu. 2. Choose Create and enter the report name. 3. Select the paper size.

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4. Choose Views from the REPORT menu and enter the name of the manufacturing assembly as a model name. 5. Proceed creating views and detailing the report as desired. 6. Choose Table from the REPORT menu. Create a table. 7. Define the repeat regions using the Repeat Region option in the TABLE menu. 8. Choose Enter Text option in the TABLE menu. Enter the table headings using the Keyboard option. Use the Report Sym option to enter the report symbols in the repeat region cells. 9. To fill in the table, choose Repeat Region from the TABLE menu, then Update Tables.

Using Pro/REPORT in Pro/NC
You can generate customized reports on your manufacturing processes using the Pro/REPORT functionality. Pro/REPORT allows you to access manufacturing parameters for documentation and customize the report format to suit your specific needs. For more information on using Pro/REPORT and the complete list of parameters available, refer to the appropriate help topics in the Drawings domain. Parameters specific to Pro/NC are listed in the table below.

Parameter Name &mfg.oper.name &mfg.oper.User Defined &mfg.oper.workcell.name &mfg.oper.workcell.User Defined &mfg.oper.workcell.head.head_number &mfg.oper.workcell.head.tooltbl.tool_id &mfg.oper.workcell.head.tooltbl.tool_pocket. tool_comment &mfg.oper.workcell.head.tooltbl.tool_pocket. tool_position &mfg.oper.workcell.head.tooltbl.tool_pocket. tool_register &mfg.oper.workcell.head.tooltbl.User Defined &mfg.oper.workcell.turret.holder_size &mfg.oper.workcell.turret.index &mfg.oper.workcell.turret.indexable

Definition Lists the operation names. Lists the specified operation parameters. Lists the workcell names. Lists the specified workcell parameters. Displays the workcell head number. Lists the tools in the turret. Lists the tool comments for the turret. Lists the tool pocket locations in the turret. Lists the tool registers in the turret. Lists the specified tool parameters. Lists the holder sizes for the turrets. Lists the turret indices. Lists the turret indexability.

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&mfg.oper.workcell.turret.offset_reg &mfg.oper.workcell.turret.orient &mfg.oper.workcell.turret.standard &mfg.oper.workcell.turret.tool_name &mfg.oper.ncseq.name &mfg.oper.ncseq.User Defined &mfg.oper.ncseq.cutmtn.name &mfg.oper.ncseq.cutmtn.User Defined

Lists the offset registers for the turrets. Lists the turret orientation. Lists the turret standard. Lists the tool names for the turret. Lists the NC sequence names. Lists the specified NC sequence parameters. Lists the cut motion names. Lists the specified cut motion parameters.

You can access any manufacturing parameter for an operation, NC sequence, or cut motion by selecting User Defined at the appropriate level and entering the parameter name.

Examples: Creating a Customized Report on a Manufacturing Process
Example 1: Tool Listing Example 2: Accessing NC Sequence Parameters

Example 1: Tool Listing
To produce the tool listing for a manufacturing model, define your repeat regions as shown in the following illustration (enter report symbols into cells as shown).

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Outer region

Inner region

TOOL LISTING for &asm.name OPERATION mfg.oper.name MACHINE TOOL COMMENT POCKET #

mfg.oper.workcell.name mfg.oper.workcell.head.tooltbl.tool_pocket.tool_id mfg.oper.workcell.head.tooltbl.tool_pocket.tool_comment mfg.oper.workcell.head.tooltbl.tool_pocket.tool_position

The resulting table may look like the one shown below.

TOOL LISTING for SUPPORT_PLATE OPERATION OP010 MACHINE Makino TOOL T0001 T0003 T0003 OP020 Cincy D0004 A0010 COMMENT 1" FEM 0.550 Std Tooling 0.550 Std Tooling POCKET # 12 13 2 5 7

Example 2: Accessing NC Sequence Parameters
To produce a listing of all NC sequences along with selected parameters, define your repeat regions as shown in the following illustration (enter report symbols into cells as shown).

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Outer region

Inner region

OPERATION mfg.oper.name

SEQUENCE NAME mfg.oper.ncseq.name

TOOL

FEED

COOLANT

mfg.oper.ncseq.tool_id

mfg.oper.ncseq.cut_feed mfg.oper.ncseq.coolant_option

Note: To enter TOOL, FEED, and COOLANT symbols in the example above, choose Report Sym from the ENTER CELL menu, then choose mfg, oper, ncseq, User Defined, and type tool_id, cut_feed, or coolant_option, respectively.

The resulting table may look like the following.

OPERATION OP010

SEQUENCE NAME 1: Volume 2: Cleanup 3: Profile

TOOL T0001 T0003 T0003 D0004 A0010

FEED 12 10 15 8 9.5

COOLANT FLOOD OFF OFF FLOOD OFF

OP020

6: Holemaking 8: Countersink

Naming Conventions About Naming Conventions
The following naming conventions are used in this optional module:

.asm .aux .cel .cmd .dat

Assembly file Auxiliary parameter data file Machine parameter data file File containing the CL command lines to insert Data files created for editing, such as relations data 446

.drl .drw .edm .gph .grv .inf .memb .mfg .mil .mtn .ncd .nck .ncl .plt .ppl .ppr .prt .ptd .sec .shd .sit .tph .tpm .trn

Holemaking parameter data file Drawing file Wire EDM parameter data file User-defined feature file (including workcells) Mill grooving parameter data file Information data file Assembly member information file Manufacturing process file Milling parameter data file Tool motion parameter file CL syntax alias file NC Check image file CL data file (including pre- and post-machining files) Plot file Route sheet data file PPRINT settings table file Part file Part family table file Section file Shade display file Site parameter data file Tool path storage file Tool parameter file Turning parameter data file

Expert Machinist
Getting Started with Expert Machinist About Expert Machinist
A typical Expert Machinist process may contain the following basic steps: 1. Set up the NC Model. Bring in the reference model and create stock. 2. Set up the database. It may contain such items as machine tools, cutting tools, fixture configurations, or machining templates. This step is optional. If you do not want to set up all your database first, you can go directly into the machining process and later define any of the items above when you actually need them. 3. Define an operation. An operation setup may contain the following elements: Operation name

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Machine tool Program Zero (coordinate system for CL output) Stock material specification Fixture setup FROM and HOME points Names used in Cutter Location (CL) data output and PPRINT Operation comments

You have to define a machine tool and a Program Zero coordinate system before you can start creating machining features. Other setup elements are optional. 4. Define the machining features for the specified operation. Machining features establish what material needs to be removed from the stock to achieve the reference model geometry. Each closed volume of material to be removed comprises a separate machining feature. Define the machining features in the order you want them machined (one exception: create an Entry Hole feature after you have created the closed feature for which you need it). As you define machining features, the system allocates the appropriate material to be removed, and calculates the subsequent feature geometry based on existing machining features. 5. Create tool paths for each machining feature. Once the features are defined, you can machine them, that is, create the appropriate tool paths, at any time and in any order. You can also machine the features by applying predefined machining templates. These templates represent certain frequently used machining strategies; each strategy contains a complete set of the machining options and values that you would normally define when machining a feature. 6. After you have defined all the machining features and created the appropriate tool paths, output the complete operation to a CL file and postprocess it, or output the tool path data directly in the MCD format.

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Operation setup (including the machine tool and Program Zero coordinate system) Tool (provided the tool type is compatible with the machining feature type)

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Modal Settings
Most of the machining setup elements are modal: that is, all subsequent machining features will use this setting until you explicitly change it. Among those are:

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Program Zero coordinate system within the machining feature (for the first machining feature, the Program Zero coordinate system specified at the time of setting up the operation will be implicitly used, unless you explicitly specify another one)

To Create a Machining Process
1. On the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, click File > New (or click the Create new object icon). The New dialog box opens. 2. Select the Manufacturing option under Type. 3. Select the Expert Machinist option under Sub-Type. 4. Unless you want to accept the default, type a name for the new machining process in the Name text box. 5. Click OK. 6. The system displays the Model Tree and adds the Expert Machinist-specific menus to the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar. Use the NC Setup menu commands to define the NC model and the operation.

To Retrieve a Machining Process
1. On the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, click File > Open (or click the Open icon). The browser window opens. 2. By default, all files are listed in the browser window. To narrow the search, choose Manufacturing from the Type drop-down list. The browser window then lists all the process files in the Manufacturing family of products, that is, all the objects that have the “.mfg extension (including Cast, Mold, Sheet Metal manufacturing, and so on). If you have various types of manufacturing processes, and want to filter out inapplicable types, select NC Assembly from the Sub-type list. The browser window then lists all the Assembly manufacturing models, both for the Expert Machinist and Pro/NC processes. 3. Select the name of the process to retrieve from the browser window. The system displays the NC model and the Model Tree, and adds the Expert Machinistspecific menus to the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar. Note: In order to retrieve processes into the Expert Machinist application by default, set the configuration option assy_mfg_open_mode to feature. Otherwise, the system opens the process using the Pro/NC application (you will see the MANUFACTURE menu instead of the Expert Machinist-specific menus and icons). To switch to the Expert Machinist application, on the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, click Applications > Expert Machinist.

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To Create a New NC Model

1. On the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, click NC Setup > NC Model > Create Model. 2. Type the NC Model name, or press RETURN to accept the default name. The system opens a new Pro/ENGINEER window, the NC MODEL menu with the Add Ref Model option already selected, and the browser window listing all parts and assemblies in the current directory. 3. Select the reference model in the browser window. The system retrieves the selected model and displays it in the Pro/ENGINEER window. 4. Define stock by using one of the following commands: Create Stock—Create a new part by selecting a default billet or bar and specifying stock allowance with respect to the reference model. Retrieve Stock—Retrieve an existing stock part and assemble it to the reference model.

5. On the NC MODEL menu, click Done. The system closes the Pro/ENGINEER window used for defining the model and displays the NC Model in the original window.

The NC MODEL Menu Commands

Add Ref Model—Retrieve an existing Pro/ENGINEER part or assembly to machine it. This part or assembly is called a reference model, because the machining process will reference its geometry. If you add more than one reference model, you have to assemble subsequent reference models to the first one. Replace Ref Model—Replace a reference model with another member of the same family. Delete Ref Model—Remove a reference model from the NC model. Create Stock—Create a new part by selecting a default billet or bar and specifying stock allowance with respect to the reference model. Retrieve Stock—Retrieve an existing part and assemble it to the reference model. Modify Stock—Modify the stock shape or size.

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The following commands are available on the NC MODEL menu:

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Delete Stock—Remove a stock part from the NC model.

Tip: Creating NC Models
NC models are assemblies. You can create them outside of an Expert Machinist machining process, as well as during NC Setup. Once you store an NC model to disk, you can use it in more than one machining process. To create an NC model outside of a machining process: 1. On the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, click File > New (or click the Create new object icon). The New dialog box opens. 2. Select the Assembly option under Type. 3. Select the NC Model option under Sub-Type. 4. Unless you want to accept the default, type a name for the new NC model in the Name text box. 5. Click OK. 6. Proceed creating the NC model using the NC MODEL menu commands. 7. When finished, store the NC Model on disk by clicking the Save icon on the top toolbar. The model is saved in a file called <modelname>.asm, where <modelname> is the name of the NC model. To retrieve a previously created NC model into a machining process: 1. On the Pro/ENGINEER menu bar, click NC Setup > NC Model > Add Model. 2. The browser window opens listing all models of type Assembly and sub-type NC Model present in the current directory. 3. Select the NC model in the browser window. The system retrieves the selected model and displays it in the Pro/ENGINEER window.

To Replace a Reference Model

You can replace a reference model of type Part by a member of the same part family. 1. On the NC MODEL menu, click Replace. 2. Select the reference model to replace.

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3. INSTANCES menu opens with a list of instances (including the generic part) and two

additional options Show Table and Edit Table. 4. Select the replacement instance from the menu. 5. Regenerate.

Part Family Tables in Expert Machinist
The Replace option in the NC MODEL menu lets you replace a reference model by a member of the same part family. You can create machining features for one member of the family, and then generate tool paths for other members by replacing the reference model and regenerating the manufacturing model. When you replace a reference model and regenerate the stock, the tool paths and material removal are updated according to the new model. You can now output the NC or MCD data for machining the new reference model.

Creating and Modifying Stock To Create Stock

While you are creating or redefining stock, it is displayed in cyan. Whenever the edges of the stock coincide with the edges of the reference model, they are displayed in green. The system also displays in red a default Stock Origin coordinate system. This coordinate system is used for default placement of stock with respect to the reference model, as well as for specifying plus (+) and minus (-) allowances and for using Modify Outline techniques. As you modify the stock shape, size, allowances and so on, the system dynamically updates the stock display. 1. On the NC MODEL menu, click Create Stock. The Create Stock dialog box opens. 2. Use the options in the Setup Stock area of the dialog box to specify the stock shape and size. 3. For custom-size stocks, use the options in the Stock Size area of the dialog box to modify the stock size, if necessary. 4. When in Envelope mode, modify the stock allowances as needed by clicking the Allowances field in the Options area of the dialog box. 5. If you are not satisfied with the default stock placement with respect to the reference model, click the Modify Outline field in the Options area of the dialog box. You can 452

then rotate stock about the axes of the Stock Origin coordinate system, or align the axes of the Stock Origin coordinate system to the entities of the reference model geometry. 6. As you modify the stock allowances or outline, you can use the Undo, Redo, and Undo All buttons to cancel or repeat your changes. 7. When satisfied with the stock shape, size and location, click OK. 8. Type the name for the stock part, or press RETURN to accept the default name. The system closes the Create Stock dialog box and displays the stock in green.

The Create Stock Dialog Box
The Setup Stock area of the Create Stock dialog box contains the following options. • Default Billet—Create a billet-shaped stock. The Stock Instance drop-down list contains the following options: Envelope—The stock size is based on the envelope of the reference model; that is, the system generates the smallest billet-shape outline that totally encloses the geometry of the reference model. If, at a later time, you modify the shape or size of the reference model and switch back to Envelope mode, the system will update the stock size based on the new reference model geometry and the stock allowance values (as specified using the Allowance Rules option, described below). Custom—Specify the stock dimensions by typing values in the Stock Size area of the Create Stock dialog box. You can then use the Allowance Rules option to locate stock with respect to the reference model. Standard sizes, such as 10x10x10 or 10x10x20—The system lists only those standard sizes that are large enough to completely encase the reference model. You can modify the stock dimensions by typing values in the Stock Size area of the Create Stock dialog box. You can also set up your own default stock sizes by modifying the dimensions of the system-supplied stock parts. These parts are located in the directory <loadpoint>/text/ncmdl_data, where <loadpoint> is the Pro/ENGINEER load point directory.

Default Bar—Create a bar-shaped stock. The Stock Instance drop-down list contains the following options: Envelope—The stock size is based on the envelope of the reference model; that is, the system generates the smallest bar-shape outline that totally encloses the geometry of the reference model, while the stock axis is coincident with the axis of revolution of the reference model. If the reference model has no axis of revolution, the system places the Stock Origin coordinate system at one of the vertices. Use the Modify Outline options, if needed, to move the stock origin to a desired location. If, at a later time, you modify the shape or size of the reference model and switch back to Envelope mode, the system will update the stock size based on the new 453

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reference model geometry and the stock allowance values (as specified using the Allowance Rules option, described below). Custom—Specify the stock dimensions by typing values in the Stock Size area of the Create Stock dialog box. You can then use the Allowance Rules option to locate stock with respect to the reference model. Standard sizes, such as 10x10 or 10x20—The system lists only those standard sizes that are large enough to completely encase the reference model. You can modify the stock dimensions by typing values in the Stock Size area of the Create Stock dialog box. You can also set up your own default stock sizes by modifying the dimensions of the system-supplied stock parts. These parts are located in the directory <loadpoint>/text/ncmdl_data, where <loadpoint> is the Pro/ENGINEER load point directory.

Other—Retrieve a previously created stock part (of any shape and size). For example, you can retrieve a part that has been partially machined elsewhere, and bring it into the current NC Model. You can also use the Open icon in the Setup Stock area of the Create Stock dialog box to access this functionality.

For billet-shaped stock: Length—The stock dimension along the x-axis of the Stock Origin coordinate system. Width—The stock dimension along the y-axis of the Stock Origin coordinate system. Thickness—The stock dimension along the z-axis of the Stock Origin coordinate system.

For bar-shaped stock: Length—The stock dimension along the z-axis of the Stock Origin coordinate system. Diameter—The stock bar diameter.

Allowances—Click this option to expand the Allowances area of the dialog box, which lets you specify Allowance Rules and change current stock allowances. 454

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The Stock Size area of the Create Stock dialog box contains the stock dimensions. When you create stock using the Envelope option, the dimensions are listed for information purposes; you cannot modify them. For other types of stock, you can modify the stock dimensions by typing a value in the appropriate text box.

The Options area of the Create Stock dialog box contains the following options.

Modify Outline—Click this option to expand the Modify Outline area of the dialog box, which lets you change the position of the stock with respect to the reference model by rotating the axes of the Stock Origin coordinate system or aligning them to the reference part geometry.

The lower part of the Create Stock dialog box contains the following buttons: • • • • • • Undo—Cancel the latest change to the stock. You can click this button repeatedly, canceling a series of previous changes. Redo—Repeat the last canceled change to the stock. You can click this button repeatedly, recreating the cancelled changes in the same order they were made initially. Undo All—Cancel all changes to the stock that you made since you opened the Create Stock dialog box. OK—Complete creating or modifying stock and close the Create Stock dialog box. Cancel—Quit creating or modifying stock and close the Create Stock dialog box. Preview—Display the stock geometry as it is currently defined.

Example: Creating a Default Billet
This example shows creating a Default Billet Envelope stock for the reference model shown in the following illustration.

1. On the NC MODEL menu, click Create Stock.

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The Create Stock dialog box opens. The default options are Default Billet and Envelope. The system creates a default billet just big enough to enclose the reference model, as shown in the next illustration. Stock edges are displayed in green where they coincide with the reference model edges, otherwise in cyan. The Stock Origin coordinate system is displayed in red.

2. Click Allowances in the Options area of the dialog box. The Allowances area of the dialog box opens, with the Allowance Rules option selected by default. 3. To add a .4 stock allowance at the top (that is, along the positive z-axis of the Stock Origin coordinate system), type 0.4 in the plus (+) text box for Thickness. The system dynamically updates the stock display, as shown in the next illustration.

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4. Click OK. 5. Type the name for the stock part, or press RETURN to accept the default name. The system closes the Create Stock dialog box and displays the NC model with the stock in green, as shown in the next illustration.

To Modify Stock Allowances
Stock allowances are added along the Stock Origin coordinate system axes. For Length, Width, and Height, typing a value in the plus (+) textbox specifies the stock allowance on the positive side of the corresponding axis, while typing a value in the minus (-) textbox specifies the stock allowance on the negative side of the same axis. There is only one textbox for Diameter stock allowance (for a Default Bar stock). 1. Click the Allowances field in the Options area of the Create Stock dialog box. The Allowances area of the dialog box expands. It contains the following options: Allowance Rules—Define the minimum stock allowances with respect to the reference part envelope. This option is primarily used with Envelope stocks. Current Allowance—Show the current stock allowance values. For Custom stocks, you can redistribute the current extra material among the stock faces, that is, shift the stock with respect to the reference model. For Envelope stocks, the current stock allowances are listed for information purposes only; you cannot change them. For Default Bar stocks, the Diameter stock allowance is also listed for information purposes only.

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2. For Envelope stocks, select Allowance Rules and type the desired stock allowance values in the plus (+) and minus (-) textboxes for Length, Width, and Thickness, and in the Diameter textbox. As you change a value, the system adds the stock allowance along the appropriate axis of the Stock Origin coordinate system (x-axis for Length, y-axis for Width, and z-axis for Thickness) and updates the stock display. 3. For Custom stocks, you can also specify Allowance Rules, if desired. This does not directly affect the stock size. However, if you define Allowance Rules for a Custom stock and later modify the Stock Size, the system will not let you decrease the stock dimensions to violate these rules. For example, if your reference model length is 10.000 inches, and you specified both a plus (+) and minus (-) stock allowance for Length as 0.500, the system will not let you decrease the Length value in the Stock Size area of the dialog box to less than 11.000 inches. 4. For Custom stocks, you can change current stock allowances to shift the stock with respect to the reference model. To do this, select Current Allowance and type the desired value in one of the textboxes, for example, in the plus (+) textbox for Length. The system updates the value in the second textbox and shifts the stock (in this example, along the x-axis of the Stock Origin coordinate system).

To Modify Stock Outline
You can change the position of the stock with respect to the reference model by rotating the axes of the Stock Origin coordinate system or aligning them to the reference part geometry. 1. Click the Modify Outline field in the Options area of the Create Stock dialog box. The Modify Outline area of the dialog box expands. It contains the following options: Rotate—Rotate stock about the axes of the Stock Origin coordinate system. Align Axis—Align the axes of the Stock Origin coordinate system to the entities of the reference model geometry. If the Move to axis checkbox is selected, the Stock Origin coordinate system will be moved to the selected reference, otherwise it is rotated about its origin to align the direction of the coordinate system axis with the selected reference.

2. Click Rotate, select an axis option (X, Y or Z), and move the slider below to the desired angle. The current slider position is shown in the Value text box. You can also type the desired rotation angle in the Value text box. The system rotates the stock and displays the Stock Origin coordinate system in the new orientation. 3. Click Align Axis, select an axis option (X, Y or Z), select or clear the Move to axis checkbox, as necessary, then click the button with the Select arrow. The GEN SEL DIR menu opens with the following commands: 458

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Plane—Use a plane normal to specify direction. Crv/Edg/Axis—Use a straight edge or curve segment or a datum axis to specify direction. Csys—Use a coordinate system axis to specify direction.

4. Click the command you want on the GEN SEL DIR menu and select an entity on the reference model. Then use the Flip and Okay commands to reverse or accept the direction (shown by a red arrow). The system moves the stock and displays the Stock Origin coordinate system in the new position.

Operations To Create an Operation

1. Click NC Setup > Operation. The Operation Setup dialog box opens. It contains the default settings for the operation name and output parameters. To change the default name, type the new name in the Operation Name text box. Note: If you already have defined some operations for the current machining process, click the New icon at the top of the dialog box to start creating a new operation. 2. Select or create a machine tool. If you have set up some machine tools prior to creating the operation, their names appear in the NC Machine drop-down list. To create a machine tool, click the Machine button. 3. Define the Program Zero. Click next to the Program Zero text box and select or create a coordinate system. Once the Program Zero is defined, the name of the coordinate system appears in the Program Zero text box, and clicking the Show button next to it will highlight the coordinate system on the screen. 4. Use any of the other, optional, elements of operation setup, if needed. You can: Click Fixture Setup to assemble and set up the fixtures. Select a name of the stock material type and condition, if you have a preset Material directory structure.

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You have to create an operation before you can start defining machining features. When creating the operation, the required elements are the machine tool name and the Program Zero coordinate system.

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On the From/Home Locations tab, specify datum points to serve as FROM and HOME locations. On the Output tab, change the output parameters or type the operation comments, to be output using PPRINT.

5. Click OK to finalize creating the operation and close the dialog box. 6. If you want to immediately create another operation, click Apply, and then click the New icon at the top of the Operation Setup dialog box.

The Operation Setup Dialog Box

Operation Name—The operation name identifies the operation within the manufacturing process. The default operation names have the format OP010, OP020, where the number gets automatically incremented by the system. You can type any name. NC Machine—The name of the machine tool used to perform the operation. If you have set up some machine tools prior to creating the operation, their names appear in the NC Machine drop-down list. To create or redefine a machine tool, click the Machine button. In the lower portion of the Operation Setup dialog box there are three tabs: General, From/Home Locations, and Output. They contain the following elements: The General tab

Defaults—Opens the Expert Machinist - Defaults dialog box, which lets you specify the default template to be used for machining of every type of feature. You can launch the Template Manager directly from the Expert Machinist - Defaults dialog box, to create the templates you need. As you save new templates to disk, you can read their names into the appropriate lists in the Expert Machinist - Defaults dialog box by clicking the Refresh icon at the top of the dialog box. Other icons at the top of the dialog box let you save the default settings to a file (with the .tda extension), which can be later retrieved into a different operation; read a previously saved file into the current operation; and reset all the default template types to Unspecified. Notes: The name of a .tda file can not be longer than 31 characters and must all be lowercase. Expert Machinist uses the concept of a modal tool; that is, once you specify a cutting tool, all subsequent machining features will use this tool until you explicitly change it. (Look in the Index for details on other modal settings in Expert Machinist.)

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The Operation Setup dialog box contains the following elements:

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Therefore, when you use a Default template to create a Tool Path, the system does not copy the tool information from the template; instead, it uses the modal tool. • • Program Zero—Select or create a coordinate system used for NC output and for other machining references. Stock Material—Select a name of the stock material. Note: You have to set up the material directory structure up front; otherwise, the only option available in the Stock Material drop-down list is Unspecified. The From/Home Locations tab • FROM Point—Create or select a datum point to serve as the FROM location. Once set, the name of the datum point appears in the text box. Clicking Show highlights the datum point on the screen. Clicking Remove cancels the FROM setting. HOME Point—Create or select a datum point to serve as the HOME location. Once set, the name of the datum point appears in the text box. Clicking Show highlights the datum point on the screen. Clicking Remove cancels the HOME setting. The Output tab • • • Part Name—The part name, output with the PARTNO command, as well as using PPRINT. You can type any name. Clicking Reset sets it back to the system default. NCL File Name—The default name for the operation cutter location (CL) data file. You can type any name. Clicking Reset sets it back to the system default. Comments—Type the operation comments in the text box below. These comments can be output using PPRINT.

To Define Program Zero
To define Program Zero, you have to create or select a coordinate system, which will define the orientation of the stock on the machine and act as the origin (0, 0, 0) for CL data generation. The Program Zero coordinate system can belong to the reference model, stock, or the NC Model assembly; it can be created in Part or Assembly mode, outside of Expert Machinist, or directly at the time of defining Program Zero. Program Zero for an operation or a machining feature is specified in a similar way, as described in the following procedure. 1. To define Program Zero at the operation level, click Program Zero in the Operation Setup dialog box. To define Program Zero at the feature level, click Program Zero in the appropriate machining feature dialog box (for example, Pocket Feature).

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2. The MACH CSYS or the SEQ CSYS menu, respectively, appears with the following commands: Create—Select which model the coordinate system will belong to, then create the coordinate system. Select—Select an existing coordinate system, either by selecting on the screen or by using the Sel By Menu command. Use Prev—Lets you select a coordinate system used for an earlier operation or machining feature.

3. Click Done. If you click Show, the operation Program Zero is highlighted in red; if you specify a different Program Zero at the feature level, it is highlighted in magenta.

Program Zero Usage
You can define Program Zero at the operation level or at the machining feature level: • Operation Program Zero—Specified at the time of operation setup; acts as the default origin for the NC output. All machining features created within a certain operation will use the same operation Program Zero. Feature Program Zero—Specified at the time of defining a feature; defines the orientation of the stock on the machine and affects the tool path creation, such as retract and cut feed direction. The feature Program Zero coordinate system must be oriented in a certain way, as described in the following section. If you do not explicitly define a feature Program Zero, the system will implicitly use the operation Program Zero to define the orientation of the stock on the machine and generate tool path. However, the Program Zero setting is modal, that is, once you specify a separate Program Zero for a feature, it will stay for all subsequent features until you change it. If the operation and feature Program Zeroes are different, then, upon creating the tool path for a feature, all the cutter location (CL) data will be transformed and output in the coordinates of the operation Program Zero coordinate system. If the z-axes of the two coordinate systems are not parallel, the tool orientation vector (i,j,k) or table rotation will be provided. This functionality allows you to postprocess 3-axis operations to be performed on the 5-axis machines. Note: You can specify that the linear and rotational transitions between the two Program Zero coordinate systems be output in the CL file, instead of transforming all CL coordinates, by using the Multiple Axis Output options in the Machine Setup dialog box.

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Z-axis Orientation
The Program Zero coordinate system at the feature level should be oriented so that the positive z-axis points away from the holding fixtures of the machine. For example, on a vertical milling machine, the positive z-axis points up, away from the table surface. The following illustration shows the z-axis orientation for milling.

Machine Tools To Create a Machine Tool

1. Click NC Setup > Machine Tool Manager. Another way to access this functionality is to click the Machine button in the Operation Setup dialog box. The Machine Tool Settings dialog box opens. It contains the default settings for the machine name, type, and parameters. You can click OK or Apply at this point to create a machine tool with default name and parameters, and no cutting tools associated with it. Note: If you already have defined some machine tools for the current machining process, click the New icon at the top of the dialog box to start creating a new machine tool. 2. To change the machine name, type the new name in the Machine Name text box. 3. To change the number of axes, use the Number of Axes drop-down list. 4. To change the parameters, use the tabs located in the lower portion of the dialog box. 5. To set up the cutting tools for the machine, click the Cutting Tool Setup button located on the Cutting Tools tab. You can also set up the tools later by clicking NC Setup > Cutting Tool Manager. 6. Click OK to finalize the machine tool creation and close the dialog box. 7. If you want to immediately create another machine tool, click Apply, and then click the New or the Open icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box.

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You can save the current machine tool, along with its parameters, by clicking the Save icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box. You can then use the Open icon at the top of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box to create a new machine tool with the same parameters, whether in this or in another NC process.

Machine Tool Settings
A machine tool is identified by the following elements: • Machine Name—The machine name identifies the machine tool within the manufacturing process. The default machine names have the format MACH01, MACH02, where the number gets automatically incremented by the system. You can type any name. When you save the machine tool data on disk, the system uses the Machine Name as a filename (with the .cel extension). • • • • Machine Type—The machine type is Mill. Number of Axes—Can be 3 Axis (default), 4 Axis, or 5 Axis. CNC Control—The controller name (optional). Location—The location of the machine tool (optional). The tabs on the Machine Tool Settings dialog box enable you to specify the following parameters of a machine tool.

The Output tab Post Processor Options • PP Name—The name of the default postprocessor associated with the machine. Type the name in the text box. The Reset button lets you change the name back to the system default. ID—The postprocessor ID. PPRINT—Opens the PPRINT menu to let you set up your PPRINT options. CL Command Output Options • FROM—Specifies how the FROM statement will be output to an operation CL data file: Do Not Output (default)—No FROM statements are output. If a From point is specified, its location is output as a GOTO statement at positioning feed. Only At Start—A FROM statement is output at the beginning of the file. It corresponds to the location of the From point, if specified, or to the first location on 464

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the tool path for the first machining feature. All other tool paths are added to the operation without a FROM statement. At Every Tool Path—FROM statements are output at the beginning of each tool path for a machining feature. For the first tool path, this FROM statement corresponds to the location of the operation From point, if specified, or to the first location on the tool path for this machining feature.

LOADTL—Controls the output of the LOADTL command in the operation CL data file: Modal (default)—The LOADTL command is output at the beginning of CL data for a feature tool path only if a tool change is needed. Not Modal—Outputs the LOADTL statement at the beginning of each feature tool path, regardless of whether the tool is the same or changed.

COOLNT/OFF—Controls the output of the COOLNT/OFF statement. Output (default)—The COOLNT/OFF statement is output at the end of each feature tool path. Do Not Output—COOLNT/OFF is output only once, at the end of the file.

SPINDLE/OFF—Controls the output of the SPINDL /OFF statement. Output (default)—The SPINDL /OFF statement is output at the end of each feature tool path. Do Not Output—SPINDL /OFF is output only once, at the end of the file.

Use Rotate Output—If this option is not selected (default), all CL data is transformed and output in the coordinates of the Program Zero coordinate system. When you select this option, the system outputs the applicable TRANS and ROTABL commands to specify linear and rotational transformations. Only select this option when indexing to a new table position is desired. Rotation Output Mode—Available only when Use Rotate Output is selected. Controls output of ROTABL statements. The values are: Incremental (default) and Absolute. In Absolute mode, zero position is defined by the Program Zero. Rotation Direction—Available only when Use Rotate Output is selected. Allows you to specify that rotation is performed in a particular direction (this may occur when there is an obstruction in one rotation direction but not another). The values are: Shortest (default)—Make the shortest possible move to the new position.

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Multiple Axis Output Options These options become accessible when you set Number of Axes to 4 Axis.

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CLW—Always rotate in the clockwise direction. CCLW—Always rotate in the counterclockwise direction.

Rotation Axis—Specify the rotation axis: A-Axis or B-Axis (default).

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Tool Center—Cutter location (CL) data is output with respect to the tool center. Tool Edge—Cutter location (CL) data is output with respect to the cutting edge of the tool. If you select this option, type the desired value in the Safe Radius text box. This value represents the smallest concave corner radius that can be safely machined, and must be slightly bigger than the radius (Cutter Diameter/2) of the biggest tool on the machine. The Adjust Corner drop-down list gives you a choice of corner condition options for convex corners: Straight—When passing a convex corner, the tool path consists of two straight segments extended until they intersect. Fillet—When passing a convex corner, the tool path consists of two straight segments connected with an arc. Automatic—The system adds a fillet corner condition at all the convex corners on the outside contour of the part, and a loop corner condition at all the convex corners on the inside contour of the part.

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Maximum Speed—Maximum allowable spindle speed for the machine tool (optional). Type the maximum speed value in RPM (revolutions per minute). Horsepower—Spindle horsepower (optional).

Feed Units—Select the rapid feed rate units from the Rapid Traverse drop-down list. The values are: IPM (default)—inches per minute MMPM—millimeters per minute

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Cutter Compensation When you expand this field, the Output cutter position options become available:

The Spindle tab

The Feed tab

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Feed Limits—Type the value of the feed rate used for rapid traverse in the Rapid Feed Rate text box (optional).

The Cutting Tools tab • Tool Change Time—Time needed for changing a tool, in seconds (optional). Type the value in the text box, or use the UP and DOWN arrows next to the text box to increase or decrease the value, respectively. The Cutting Tool Setup button opens the Tool Setup dialog box to let you set up the cutting tools associated with the machine tool.

The Travel tab Lets you specify the travel limits for the machine tool: X-Axis Travel, YAxis Travel, and Z-Axis Travel. Specifying these values is optional. Values for the travel limits along the axes should be the actual dimensions that indicate the extent of the machine tool workspace relative to the Program Zero coordinate system. For example, if a machine tool is 60 inches wide, and the origin of the Program Zero coordinate system is located halfway between the ends, specify the travel limits for X-Axis Travel as follows: type -30 in the left text box and 30 in the text box on the right. If you display or otherwise output the CL data for a machining feature that exceeds the limitations of the machine tool where it is defined, the Information Window will appear, listing the values of the limits that have been exceeded and their corresponding actual values.

The Comments tab Type the comments associated with the machine tool in the text box (optional).

To Set Up a PPRINT Table
1. On the Output tab of the Machine Tool Setup dialog box, click PPRINT. The PPRINT menu appears with the following options: Create—Create a new PPRINT table. Modify—Modify the current PPRINT table. Retrieve—Retrieve an existing PPRINT table from the current working directory.

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Save—Save the current PPRINT table for later use. You will be prompted for the name of the file. The file will have an extension “.ppr and will be stored in the current working directory. Show—Show the current PPRINT settings.

2. If the table has not been set up, the Modify option will be grayed out. Choose Create. If you have previously set up a PPRINT table, you can either change your former settings using the Modify option, or start with a clean table using Create. The system displays the Activate PPRINT dialog box. It contains all the items that can be output through PPRINT. Whether an item will be output or not is determined by the flag value. The default flag value for all items is “NO. Change it to “YES if you want the item to be output. 3. To change the flag value, highlight the item or items in the PPRINT table by clicking on them once, then click on the appropriate action button (Yes or No), located in the lowerleft portion of the dialog box. To unselect an item, click on it once more. You can also use the Select All and Unselect All icons located in the lower-right portion of the dialog box. 4. To supply comments for an item, highlight it and type the comment in the Comments text box. When you highlight an item with an existing comment, the comment is displayed in the Comments text box. While editing a comment, you can revert to the previous value by clicking the drop-down arrow next to the Comments text box. 5. Click OK to finish setting up the PPRINT table.

The PPRINT Table
To output some model information to the CL files, you have to set up a PPRINT table for this model. This table contains all the items that can be output through PPRINT. Whether an item will be output or not is determined by the flag value. The default flag value for all items is “NO. Change it to “YES if you want the item to be output. You can add an optional comment to be output along with the item. Note: Comments are limited to 69 characters or less. Whenever you output CL data to file, the system will check the PPRINT table. If any flag is set to “YES and the appropriate information is available, the corresponding PPRINT command will be output to the CL file. The following items are output once per CL file: • • • • PART_NAME DATE_TIME SCALE TRANSLATE

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ROTATE The following items are output once per operation:

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OPERATION_NAME OPERATION_COMMENTS LAYER_NAME UDF_NAME TOOL_TABLE ONLY_OUTPUT_USED_TOOLS The following items are output once per feature:

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NC_SEQUENCE_NAME — The machining feature name. NC_SEQUENCE_COMMENTS — Comments associated with the machining feature. FEATURE_ID SEQUENCE_TYPE — The machining feature type. CUTCOM_REGISTER SPINDLE_SPEED CUT_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS ARC_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS FREE_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS RETRACT_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS PLUNGE_FEEDRATE_&_UNITS SCAN_TYPE RETRACT_HEIGHT NUMBER_OF_SLICES The following items are output once per LOADTL or TURRET statement:

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TOOL_NAME TOOL_POSITION_NUMBER

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TOOL_COMMENTS TOOL_PARAMETERS TOOL_OFFSET_NUMBER CHAMFER_LENGTH CORNER_RADIUS CSINK_ANGLE CUTTER_DIAM DRILL_DIAMETER DRILL_LENGTH END_ANGLE END_OFFSET GAUGE_Z_LENGTH GAUGE_X_LENGTH HOLDER_TYPE INSERT_LENGTH LENGTH LENGTH_UNITS NOSE_RADIUS NUM_OF_TEETH POINT_ANGLE SHANK_DIAMETER SIDE_ANGLE SIDE_WIDTH TOOL_MATERIAL TOOL_ORIENTATION TOOL_TYPE

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Cutting Tools About Setting Up Tools
You can set up the cutting tools in advance, as part of the NC setup, and then select the appropriate tool when machining a feature, or create tools on the fly at the time of machining. Whenever you access the Cutting Tool Manager, the system displays the Tool Setup dialog box, which enables you to create, modify, and delete tools, as well as to review the tools already defined for the current machine.

To Set Up Cutting Tools
To access the Cutting Tool Manager, do one of the following: • • On the top menu bar, click NC Setup > Cutting Tool Manager (this option becomes available after you set up an operation and a machine tool). On the Cutting Tools tab of the Machine Tool Settings dialog box, click Cutting Tool Setup. At the time of machining a feature, click next to the Cutting Tool text box in the feature-specific machining dialog box (for example, Pocket Milling). Either of these actions opens the Tool Setup dialog box, with its name preceded by the name of the current machine tool. From the Tool Setup dialog box, you can create, modify, and delete tools, as well as review the tools already defined for the current machine.

The Tool Setup Dialog Box

The upper portion of the Tool Setup dialog box contains the Tool Table for the current machine. The Tool Table defines the correspondence between a descriptive tool name (Name) and its location on the machine, that is, its pocket number (Number). You can optionally supply a value for the gauge length register (Offset) and comments output for the tool (Comments). Each machine tool has its own Tool Table. When you select a Tool Table entry in the upper portion of the Tool Setup dialog box, the system updates the middle and lower portions to display this tool’s parameters and section sketch.

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The middle portion of the Tool Setup dialog box contains the Tool Preview window, with the current tool section sketch, and the text boxes for defining the following tool elements: • Name—A descriptive tool name (for example, BALL125), which uniquely identifies the tool with a certain set of parameter values. The tool name is used throughout Expert Machinist to identify the tool. You can store the tool’s parameters in a text file and then retrieve it to use in a different manufacturing process. The tool Name serves as the name for this parameter file, therefore, all the operating system’s restrictions for file names apply to Name (for example, it cannot contain spaces or periods). The name must be less than thirty-two alphanumeric characters long. Note: The tool name can not contain hyphens (-). Underscores (_), however, can be used. • Type—Select one of the predefined tool types available in Expert Machinist. Tool types correspond to the type of the machine tool and of the machining feature (for example, you will need a milling tool to mill a Pocket; to machine a Hole Group feature, you can use both milling and drilling tools). The tool type, in turn, defines the tool’s cross section and, therefore, the set of parameters you have to specify for the tool. Material—Specify the material that the tool is made of. Units—Length units of the tool. The default length units of a tool are those of the stock. If you change the Units, this will affect the actual tool dimensions. The lower portion of the Tool Setup dialog box contains three tabs: Geometry, Settings, and Speeds & Feeds. The Geometry tab contains the text boxes for defining the Geometry parameters, that is, parameters that specify all the dimensions of the tool. These dimension values are used in calculating the tool path and material removed, and should accurately reflect the actual tool dimensions and length units. Some of the parameters are required for defining the tool's cross section, others are optional. The actual parameter names in this category depend on the tool Type. The Settings tab contains the text boxes for defining some of the tool table elements and various optional parameters that define tool properties other than geometry: • • • • Tool Number—Corresponds to the Number field of the Tool Table, which defines the tool's pocket number. Offset Number—Corresponds to the Offset field of the Tool Table, which supplies a value for the gauge length register. Tool gauge lengths (Gauge X Length and Gauge Z Length)—Optional parameters used to create length qualifiers in the LOADTL or TURRET statements. Comments—A text string that will be stored along with the tool parameters and output with the tool table using PPRINT. If you want the tool table to show this comment, click Edit > Table Comments in the top menu bar of the Tool Setup dialog box, and select the Use TOOL_COMMENT parameter option. If you want the tool table to show a 472

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comment different than the tool Comments parameter string, click Edit > Table Comments, select New Comment, and type in a new comment string. The Speeds & Feeds tab lets you supply cutting data (feed, speed, axial and radial depths) for roughing and finishing with this tool, based on the stock material type and condition.

To Set Up the Material Directory Structure
Expert Machinist lets you select the cutting tools and set up feeds and speeds based on the stock material and condition. To utilize this functionality, you have to set up a certain directory structure before you start defining your operations and tooling. Expert Machinist stores all the cutting tool data in a Tooling directory, which is specified by using the pro_mf_tprm_dir configuration option. For example, you can set this configuration option as follows: pro_mf_tprm_dir /home/users/toolcrib

Expert Machinist will then place all the tool parameter files (.tpm files) in the /home/users/toolcrib directory. To set up the material directory structure, create a subdirectory called materials in your Tooling directory. Spell the directory name exactly as shown. Under the materials directory, create subdirectories corresponding to your stock materials and conditions. For example, you can create subdirectories steel20, steel30, aluminum, and so on. Your material directory structure setup is now complete. When you later define an operation or a cutting tool, the system will list the available material subdirectories for you to choose from. When you save the cutting tool data, the system will store the tool geometry parameters in a .tpm file in the Tooling directory, and create a .tpm file with the same name, containing the feeds and speeds data, in the appropriate material subdirectory. This feeds and speeds data can be used to initialize the values in the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Note: If you do not use the pro_mf_tprm_dir configuration option, the system will use your current working directory as the Tooling directory.

Example: Setting Up the Material Directory Structure
1. Designate your Tooling directory by setting the configuration option: pro_mf_tprm_dir /home/users/toolcrib

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2. In the toolcrib directory, create a subdirectory and name it materials. 3. In the materials directory, create subdirectories for all your materials and conditions. For example, create three subdirectories: steel20, steel40, and aluminum. Your Material directory structure is now complete. Now, when you start Expert Machinist, you will have your three material subdirectories listed when you set up an operation (for stock material), and when you set up the cutting tools. If, for example, you specified your stock material as steel20, and then created a mill tool with the Name ball25, your directory structure will look as follows: -home --users ---toolcrib ----ball25.tpm (the file containing tool geometry parameters) ----materials -----aluminum -----steel20 ------ball25.tpm (the file containing tool feeds and speeds) -----steel40

To Add a New Tool
1. On the Tool Setup dialog box menu bar, click File > New. 2. The system fills in the fields in the dialog box with the default values: Name is a default name in the format T0001, T0002, and so on. Type is the first one in the list of the currently applicable tool types. Material has a default value of dash (-). Units are the same as the length units of the stock. Parameters that appear on the Geometry tab are defined by the tool Type. Required parameter fields contain a system-supplied default value, optional parameters have a default value of dash (-). On the Settings tab: Tool Number is incremented by 1 with respect to the last one currently in the Tool Table; Offset Number is blank; other, optional, parameters have a default value of dash (-). On the Speeds & Feeds tab, the Stock Material value is that of the stock material specified in the Operation Setup dialog box; the cutting data fields are empty.

3. If you want to set up a tool of a different type, click on the arrow next to the Type parameter and select the appropriate value. The system displays the parameter names and default values for the new tool type. 4. Modify the parameter values, if desired. The Revert button restores the initial values. 474

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5. Click Preview to display the tool section based on the current parameter values. The Tool Window button opens a separate, bigger, window with the tool section. 6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until satisfied with the tool section. 7. Click Apply to add the new tool to the Tool Table. 8. To save the tool parameters and cutting data, click File > Save tool.

To Specify the Cutting Data for the Tool
Note: In order to be able to specify the cutting data for a tool, you have to first set up the Material directory structure. 1. Go to the Speeds & Feeds tab of the Tool Setup dialog box. 2. Select stock material. The Stock Material drop-down list corresponds to your Material directory structure. The value displayed by default is that of the stock material specified in the Operation Setup dialog box. 3. You can supply separate data for Rough and Finish cutting. Select an Application: Roughing or Finishing. 4. Type the desired values in the text boxes for Speed, Feed, Axial Depth, and Radial Depth. The drop-down list on the right of each text box lets you change the units, as needed. You can also switch between the English and metric unit systems by selecting the appropriate option in the Properties group; this will change the options available in the units' drop-down lists. 5. Repeat Steps 3 and 4 for the second Application. 6. Save the tool. The system stores the cutting data in the appropriate Material subdirectory, in the <name>.tpm file, where <name> is the tool Name. 7. If you want to use the tool to cut a different material, repeat Steps 2 through 6. The system uses the cutting data supplied for the tool when initializing the values in the Tool Path Properties dialog box.

To Retrieve Tool Parameters
1. On the Tool Setup dialog box menu bar, click File > Open Tool Parameters File. 2. The system displays the browser window, which lists all the files with the .tpm extension in the directory defined by the pro_mf_tprm_directory configuration option. If the pro_mf_tprm_directory configuration option is not set, the search starts in your current working directory. 3. Select a file name from the browser window and click Open. 4. The system searches the Tool Table for the Name of the tool being retrieved:

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If not found, the system appends the tool at the end of the Tool Table. Number (pocket number) is incremented by 1 with respect to the last one currently in the Tool Table. The Offset field is left blank. If the system finds a tool in the current Tool Table that has the same name and the same parameters as the one being retrieved, it highlights the appropriate Tool Table entry and displays its parameter values and section sketch. If the name belongs to a tool that already exists in the current Tool Table but has a different set of parameters, the system issues a warning and queries you if you want to overwrite an existing tool. If you confirm, it highlights the appropriate Tool Table entry and displays the tool’s new parameter values and section sketch.

At the same time, the system looks for a .tpm file with the same name in the Materials subdirectory corresponding to the stock material (as specified in the Operation Setup dialog box). If found, it retrieves the cutting data stored in this file into the appropriate Speeds & Feeds tab fields. Note: When you retrieve a tool parameters’ file, its type must correspond to the Type value in the Tool Setup dialog box; otherwise, the system will issue an error message and the tool will not be retrieved.

To Add a Sketched Tool
You can use sketched tools for Free Form machining. 1. On the Tool Setup dialog box menu bar, click Edit > Sketch. 2. The system increments the pocket Number by 1 with respect to the last one currently in the Tool Table and generates a default Name for the tool. The Offset field is left blank. 3. Modify Name as desired. 4. Click Sketcher. 5. The system starts the Sketcher user interface and opens a new window. Sketch the tool section.

To Modify an Existing Tool
1. Highlight the appropriate entry in the Tool Table. 2. The system updates the lower portion of the Tool Setup dialog box to display this tool’s parameters and section sketch. 3. Enter new values for parameters you want to modify. 4. Click Preview to display the tool’s section based on the new parameter values. 5. When satisfied, click Apply to update the Tooling database.

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To Delete a Tool
1. Highlight the appropriate entry in the Tool Table. 2. On the Tool Setup dialog box menu bar, click Edit > Delete. 3. The system deletes the current table entry.

To Save Tool Parameters
1. Select the tool you want to save by highlighting the appropriate Tool Table entry. 2. On the Tool Setup dialog box menu bar, click File > Save tool. 3. The system saves the tool parameters in a text file called <name>.tpm, where <name> is the tool Name, in the directory defined by the pro_mf_tprm_dir configuration option. If you have supplied the cutting data, that is, the speeds and feeds for the tool, this data is stored in a <name>.tpm file in the appropriate Materials subdirectory.

To Create a Tool Model
1. Create a new Pro/ENGINEER model of type Part, and give it the name of the tool. Reproduce the tool geometry by using the appropriate construction features (protrusions, cuts, and so on). 2. Create a coordinate system to represent the tool origin, that is, the tool control point. This is the point that will follow the tool path computed for machining a feature. Make sure the z-axis of the coordinate system is pointing in the upward direction (into the tool). Change the coordinate system’s name to “TIP (use Set Up, Name). 3. Establish associativity between the model’s dimensions and tool’s parameters. There are two ways to do this: Modify appropriate dimension symbols to exactly correspond to the parameter names. Choose Modify from the PART menu, then choose DimCosmetics and Symbol. Select the feature to display dimensions, then select dimension text and enter the new symbolic name, for example, Cutter_Diam. Add parameters to the model with the names exactly corresponding to the tool parameter names. This method is convenient when you want to define the tool parameters directly in the tool assembly (for example, Cutter_Diam for an insert drill, not for a drill bit). Notes: • In some cases, parameter names do not exactly match the labels in the Tool Setup dialog box. For example, spaces are generally replaced with underscores. Sometimes, the

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parameter name is truncated. To find out the exact parameter name, look in a .tpm file for the appropriate type of tool. • Parameter names are case-insensitive. For example, when modifying a dimension symbol or adding a model parameter for Cutter Diameter, you can use Cutter_Diam, cutter_diam, or CUTTER_DIAM; the system will recognize either of these strings as a tool parameter name. If an assembly is to be used as a tool model, you can modify dimension symbols or add parameters to any of the component parts as well as to the assembly itself.

Solid Tool Models
All Expert Machinist needs to know about a tool is its parameters. It creates a tool path and displays the default tool based on the values in the .tpm file. However, you can enhance the CL data display and interactively check for interference by showing a “real tool. In order to do this, design your tool as a regular Pro/ENGINEER model (part or assembly), and then establish associativity between this model’s dimensions and the tool parameters. When such a tool is used, you will see the real tool model instead of the default tool simulation. This is also another way to create your tool library.

Standard Library
If you have a Pro/LIBRARY license, you can also use the standard tool library of solid tools. It contains common tools (mills, taps, and drills) of sizes corresponding to ANSI standards. For more information, refer to the TOOLING LIBRARY Catalog.

To Use a Tool Model
To use a tool model in Expert Machinist, you have to retrieve the tool using the Open Tool Library option. The system will look up the tool model and read appropriate dimension values into the tool parameter file. In the Tool Preview window of the Tool Setup dialog box, and when displaying a tool path, you will see the actual tool model, not a default tool. 1. On the Tool Setup dialog box menu bar, click File > Open Tool Library. 2. Choose By Reference or By Copy: By Reference—Direct associativity with the library model will be established. You will not be able to modify the tool parameters for a particular machine tool by using the Tool Setup dialog box. If the tool model in the library is later modified, all the manufacturing data will be updated upon regenerating the manufacturing process.

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By Copy—The tool information will be copied into the manufacturing process. The tool parameters for a machine tool can be modified using the Tool Setup dialog box; the library model will not be changed. If the library model is later modified, it will not affect this manufacturing process. If some of the parameters are missing in the tool model, the system will prompt you for the missing values.

3. Select a tool model name from the browser window. 4. The system reads in the tool parameters from the model (the model name is used as the tool Name).

Using Assembly as a Tool Model
If an assembly is used as a tool model, the system will search the assembly first, and then all the component parts in the same order as they were assembled (that is, the first component will be searched first), for the tool parameters and origin data. Once a parameter is set, all values for the same parameter found later will be ignored. In other words, the top-level assembly parameters take precedence over component parameters, and after that the precedence is determined by the order of assembly. If, after all components are searched, some of the tool parameters are missing, an error message will appear and you will be asked to select another tool (if using the tool By Reference) or to supply the missing values (if using the tool By Copy).

Machining Features About Machining Features
Machining features establish what material needs to be removed from the stock to achieve the reference model geometry. Each closed volume of material to be removed comprises a separate machining feature. Define the machining features in the order you want them machined (one exception: create an Entry Hole feature after you have created the closed feature that you need it for). Use the proper machining feature type depending on the shape of the volume, and on the combination of Hard and Soft Walls bounding this volume. Hard Walls are surfaces of the reference model; Soft Walls are surfaces of the stock. The bottom surface of the volume is called the feature Floor; again, it is called a Hard Floor if this is a surface of the reference model and a Soft Floor if this is a surface of the stock. The following feature types are available: • • Face—An open volume with a Hard Floor, completely surrounded by Soft Walls. Slab—An open volume with a Hard Floor, surrounded by Soft Walls. Unlike the Face feature, the Slab may contain islands (bosses) on its Floor, or partial Hard Walls. 479

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Pocket—A closed volume with a Hard Floor, completely surrounded by Hard Walls. The Floor may contain protruding bosses (islands). Through Pocket—A closed volume with a Soft Floor, completely surrounded by Hard Walls. Step—An open volume with a Hard Floor, surrounded by one continuous chain of Hard Walls and one continuous chain of Soft Walls. The Floor may contain protruding bosses (islands). Profile—An open volume with a Soft Floor, surrounded by one continuous chain of Hard Walls and one continuous chain of Soft Walls. Channel—An open volume with a Hard Floor, surrounded by alternating chains of Hard and Soft Walls. Slot—An elongated volume with a Hard Floor, completely surrounded by Hard Walls, with full radii on two opposite ends. Through Slot—An elongated volume with a Soft Floor, which can be either completely surrounded by Hard Walls, or have one chain of Soft Walls. Boss Top—Material left on top of a boss, for example, located inside a Pocket or Step feature. Flange—An open volume with a Hard Floor, surrounded by Soft Walls, and containing a single large boss or void in the middle, so that only a relatively thin flange is being machined. O-Ring—A special case of a Slot feature, which has a Hard Floor and two chains of Hard Walls at a constant offset from each other (that is, a cross section of this feature is constant throughout). The hard walls can be of any shape as long as they meet these requirements. In other words, this feature is a continuous closed groove or slot. Hole Group—A pattern of holes to be drilled. Entry Hole—A hole predrilled before machining a closed volume (such as a Pocket, Through Pocket, or Slot), to be used for the tool entry. Once the features are defined, you can machine them, that is, create the appropriate tool paths, at any time and in any order.

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To Create a Machining Feature
1. On the top menu bar, click NC Create > Features and select the option corresponding to the feature type. Or, click the icon corresponding to the feature type on the toolbar. The machining feature dialog box (for example, Pocket Feature) opens. 2. Define the elements of the machining feature dialog box, as needed. Usually, you are required to select the Floor surfaces; other elements are optional. 480

3. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan.

To Adjust Feature Boundaries
1. In the machining feature dialog box (for example, Pocket Feature), click .

The system reorients the model so that the XY-plane of the Program Zero coordinate system is parallel to the screen. All the walls become Sketcher entities; they are displayed in cyan. 2. Use the SKETCHER menu options to delete some entities or sketch new ones. 3. If the Intent Manager option is not selected, click Regenerate once the sketch is completed. 4. Click Done to return to the machining feature dialog box. 5. Click Preview to display the feature. All the Sketcher entities that you created while adjusting feature boundaries become the feature Walls. If you use edges of the reference model, or sketch, these entities become Hard Walls. If you use edges of the stock, these entities become Soft Walls. Use the Adjust Soft Walls option to change the type of Walls, if needed.

Example: Adjusting Feature Boundaries
The reference model in this example contains two superimposed slots that you want to machine as three separate Slot features. To create the Slot features, you will have to adjust feature boundaries. Create the first Slot feature: 1. Select the bottom of the slot as the Floor surface. The system creates a Slot feature as shown in the following illustration.

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Select this surface.

2. Click to adjust feature boundaries. The system reorients the model and displays the Sketcher grid. All the feature walls become Sketcher entities; they are displayed in cyan, with vertices highlighted in yellow. Delete the entities corresponding to the walls of the thin slot, as shown below.

Delete these entities.

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3. Sketch two Tangent End arcs to close the contour, as shown below.

Sketch these arcs.

4. On the SKETCHER menu, click Done. The system creates a Slot feature as shown in the next illustration. The Hard Walls are highlighted in red.

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To machine the thin slot, create two more Slot features, each with one Soft Wall: 1. Create the second Slot feature. Select the same surface (the bottom of the slot) as the Floor surface. The system creates the Slot feature consisting of two contours left after the first Slot, each with a Soft Wall, as shown in the next illustration.
Select this surface.

2. Click to adjust feature boundaries, and delete the entities corresponding to one of the contours. The system creates a Slot feature as shown in the next illustration. The Hard Walls are highlighted in red, the Soft Wall in cyan.

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3. Create the third Slot feature. Select the same surface (the bottom of the slot) as the Floor surface. The system creates the Slot feature, with a Soft Wall, containing the material left after creating the first two Slot features.

To Adjust Soft Walls
1. In the machining feature dialog box (for example, Pocket Feature), click Adjust Soft Walls element. The system highlights all the feature walls, both Hard and Soft, in magenta. 2. Use the following options on the SELECT SRFS menu: Add—Select feature wall surfaces to change them to Soft Walls. Remove—Select feature wall surfaces to change them to Hard Walls. Show—Highlight the Soft Walls in cyan. Hard Walls stay highlighted in magenta. next to the

3. Click Done/Return to return to the machining feature dialog box.

To Adjust Feature Depth
1. In the machining feature dialog box (for example, Profile Feature), click Adjust Feature Depth element. The system opens the WND DEPTH menu, with the Define option selected automatically, and the WIND DEPTH menu. 2. Use the following options on the WIND DEPTH menu: Specify Plane—Select a planar surface, or create a datum plane, normal to the zaxis of the Program Zero coordinate system, to specify the new Floor of the feature. Z Depth—Type a value along the z-axis of the Sequence Program Zero coordinate system. next to the

3. Once you have adjusted the feature depth, you can use the following options on the WND DEPTH menu: Show—Highlight the surface currently defining the feature depth in cyan. Remove—Remove the depth adjustment. The original Floor of the feature is restored.

4. Click Done/Return to return to the machining feature dialog box.

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To Machine a Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the appropriate machining dialog box, corresponding to the feature type. 3. Specify the cutting tool, define the machining method and options, and type the values in the machining dialog box, as needed. For more information on machining a feature of specific type, get help for the machining dialog box corresponding to the feature type. Every machining dialog box contains a Tool Path Properties button. It opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, where you can specify feeds and speeds, as well as general machining, entry/exit, and cut control options. 4. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Once you have completely defined the tool path for the feature, you can save this machining strategy as a template, and then apply the template to other features of the same type. To save the current machining strategy as a template, click next to the Tool Path Name text box, then type the template name in the New Name text box of the Save As dialog box and click OK. Note: When you save a machining strategy as a template, it is automatically saved with the Prompt for a tool option; that is, the template contains no cutting tool information and the system prompts you to select or define the cutting tool at the time you apply the template. If you want to modify the template to always use a specific tool, open the template in Template Manager and change it there. 6. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar type feature, click Next. This will finalize the creation of the current tool path (equivalent to clicking OK), and then prompt you to select a feature to be machined using the current settings, similar to the Mimic Toolpath functionality.

To Set Tool Path Properties

1. In a feature machining dialog box (for example, Pocket Milling), click Tool Path Properties.

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The Tool Path Properties dialog box opens. It contains five tabs: Machine Options, Feed Rates, Clearance, Entry/Exit, and Cut Control. Each tab lists the options and values that define your machining strategy. Initially, the Tool Path Properties dialog box contains either the default system values, or, if you are placing a machining template or mimicking a Tool Path, the values from the template or the original Tool Path, respectively. 2. On the appropriate tabs of the Tool Path Properties dialog box, select the desired options and type values, as needed. On the Feed Rates tab, each feed rate has two fields: the first one lists the available methods of specifying this feed rate, the second one is a text box with the actual value: RAPID—The system will output the RAPID command for these moves. The corresponding Feed Rate text box is then empty and grayed out. Enter—Type the desired value in the corresponding Feed Rate text box. From Tool—The system retrieves the cutting data stored with the tool. This option is available only if the tool contains associated cutting data. The corresponding Feed Rate text box lists the retrieved value and is grayed out.

The Speed setting on the Machine Options tab and the Depth of Cut and Stepover settings on the Cut Control tab also have a From Tool option, which utilizes the cutting data stored with the tool. 3. When you have changed all the necessary settings, click OK. The system closes the Tool Path Properties dialog box and brings you back to the feature machining dialog box, where you can verify you selections by clicking Play Path.

To Mimic a Tool Path

1. On the top menu bar, click NC Create > Tool Paths > Mimic a Toolpath. 2. Select the Tool Path feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. Click OK. 3. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box (only features of the same type as the one machined by the selected tool path are listed). As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the appropriate machining dialog box, with all the settings in this dialog (except the cutting tool name) copied from the original Tool Path feature. Note: Expert Machinist uses the concept of a modal tool; that is, once you specify a cutting tool, all subsequent machining features will use this tool until you explicitly 487

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Use the Mimic Toolpath functionality when you have an existing tool path and want to use the same settings on a similar type feature.

change it. (Look in the Index for details on other modal settings in Expert Machinist.) Therefore, when you mimic a tool path, the system does not copy the tool information from the Tool Path feature that you mimic; instead, it uses the modal tool. 4. Change the cutting tool and the selected options, and modify the parameters, if needed. 5. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 6. Click OK to complete machining the feature. Once the new tool path is created, it is completely independent from the original tool path.

Face Features To Create a Face Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Face. The Face Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Face1 (the system increments the number for the next Face feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature (that is, the top surface of the reference model). Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining.

2. Select the Floor surface. On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. 3. Change Program Zero, if needed. Click next to the element to display the current setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Soft Walls in cyan. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

To Machine a Face Feature
1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. 488

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The system opens the Face Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as FACE1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Face Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Face Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Face Milling dialog box contains the following options. Machining Mode • Rough—Face down the stock and leave stock according to the Rough to value.

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Finish—Finish mill the reference model surface(s). When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Cut Motion These options define the cut direction:

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One Direction—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cut, the tool returns to the opposite side, to start the next cut in the same direction. Back and Forth—The tool continuously machines the Face feature, moving back and forth. At the end of a pass, it retracts and moves to the beginning of the next pass, unless the Reverse Multiple Passes option is selected. Spiral—Generates a spiral cutting path. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

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Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Cut Angle—Defines the angle between the cut direction and the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system for One Direction and Back and Forth cut motion types. The default is 0, which means that the tool cuts parallel to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. To change the cut direction, type the new value in the Cut Angle text box. Motion Between Cuts These options describe the way the tool makes the horizontal connections between the cutting motions:

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Clear Part—The tool clears the Soft Walls when exiting and entering the material for each cut. Stay in Cut—The tool stays engaged in material between cuts. Clear Part on Last Cut—If Stay in Cut is selected, this option will make the tool clear the part on the final cut of each pass. These options describe whether the tool retracts when connecting the cutting motions:

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Stay Down—The tool does not retract between the cut motions. Retract—The tool retracts at the end of a cut motion and goes to the beginning of the next cut motion at retract height (as defined by the Clearance tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box).

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The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Face Milling dialog box contains the following options: • Reverse Multiple Passes—If Back and Forth is selected, this option will reverse the Cut Angle on successive passes. Use this option to perform continuous back and forth machining between passes. Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Example: Face Machining
If you select a tool with Cutter Diameter bigger than the width of the stock, the tool will make a single cut at each depth, as shown in the illustration below.

Slab Features To Create a Slab Feature

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. Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu 1. On the toolbar, click bar: click NC Create > Features > Slab. The Slab Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Slab1 (the system increments the number for the next Slab feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard.

2. Select the Floor surface(s). On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. 3. Use the other elements, if needed. Click next to the element to display the current setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

Example: Creating a Slab Feature
To machine the top of the part shown in the illustration below, create a Slab feature. Select the top face of the reference model as the Floor surface.

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Select this surface.

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The system creates a Slab feature as shown in the next illustration. The walls of the two islands on the top face are Hard Walls; they are highlighted in red. The outer boundaries of the stock are Soft Walls; they are highlighted in cyan.

To Machine a Slab Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Slab Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as SLAB1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

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The middle portion of the Slab Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. next to the Cutting Tool text box. This To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Slab Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Slab Milling dialog box contains the following options. Roughing Rough Slab—Remove the material inside the Slab feature using rough milling and leaving stock according to the Floor Stock and Wall Stock values: • • Floor Stock—Stock to be left on the Floor surfaces. Wall Stock—Stock to be left on the Hard Walls. Finishing • Finish Floors—Finish mill the Floor surfaces. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Back Off Walls—When you do rough milling and finish floors within the same tool path, you can keep the tool off the walls by a specified additional distance while the Floor is being finished. You can then finish the walls later. This option becomes available when both the Rough Slab and Finish Floors options are selected and the Finish Walls option is cleared. When you select this option, type the back-off distance in the text box to the right.

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Finish Walls—Finish mill the Hard Walls. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Cut Motion These options define the cut direction:

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One Direction—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass, the tool returns to the opposite side, to start the next pass in the same direction. Back and Forth—The tool continuously machines the Step feature, moving back and forth. At the end of a pass, it retracts and moves to the beginning of the next pass, unless the Reverse Multiple Passes option is selected. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

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Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Cut Angle—Defines the angle between the cut direction and the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. The default is 0, which means that the tool cuts parallel to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. To change the cut direction, type the new value in the Cut Angle text box. Clean Up Cut—Cleans up the Hard Walls after the rough cut and before the finish cuts, to remove scallops left by the rough cut. Type the value for the minimal amount of stock to be removed by this cut in the Stock text box to the right. Connect Motions These options describe the way the tool makes the horizontal connections between the cutting motions:

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Clear Part—The tool clears the Soft Walls when exiting and entering the material for each cut. Stay in Cut—The tool stays engaged in material between cuts. These options describe whether the tool retracts when connecting the cutting motions:

Stay Down—The tool does not retract between the cut motions.

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Retract—The tool retracts at the end of a cut motion and goes to the beginning of the next cut motion at retract height (as defined by the Clearance tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box). The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Slab Milling dialog box contains the following options:

Reverse Multiple Passes—If Back and Forth is selected, this option will reverse the Cut Angle on successive passes. Use this option to perform continuous back and forth machining between passes. Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Pocket Features To Create a Pocket Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Pocket. The Pocket Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Pocket1 (the system increments the number for the next Pocket feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard.

2. Select the Floor surface(s). On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return.

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next to the element to display the current 3. Use the other elements, if needed. Click setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

To Machine a Pocket Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Pocket Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as POCKET1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Pocket Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 497

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4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Pocket Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Pocket Milling dialog box contains the following options. Roughing Rough Pocket—Remove material inside the pocket using rough milling and leaving stock according to the Floor Stock and Wall Stock values: • • Floor Stock—Stock to be left on the Floor of the pocket. Wall Stock—Stock to be left on the walls of the pocket. Finishing • Finish Floors—Finish mill the Floor of the pocket. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Back Off Walls—When you do rough pocket milling and finish floors within the same tool path, you can keep the tool off the walls by a specified additional distance while the Floor is being finished. You can then finish the walls later. This option becomes available when both the Rough Pocket and Finish Floors options are selected and the Finish Walls option is cleared. When you select this option, type the back-off distance in the text box to the right. Finish Walls—Finish mill the walls of the pocket. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. Corners Only—Clean up the corners with a smaller tool after removing material from the pocket with a large tool. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Cut Motion These options define the way the tool scans the horizontal cross-sections of the pocket:

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One Direction—Cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cut, the tool retracts and returns to the opposite side of the pocket, to start the next cut in the same direction. Back and Forth—Continuously machines the pocket, moving back and forth. Spiral—Generates a spiral cutting path. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

• •

Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Cut Angle—Defines the angle between the cut direction and the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system for One Direction and Back and Forth cut motion types. The default is 0, which means that the tool cuts parallel to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. To change the cut direction, type the new value in the Cut Angle text box. Clean Up Cut—Cleans up the walls of the pocket after the rough cut and before the finish cuts, to remove scallops left by the rough cut. Type the value for the minimal amount of stock to be removed by this cut in the Stock text box to the right. Top Entry These options describe the way the tool enters the pocket:

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Plunge—The tool enters the material vertically. Ramp—The tool enters at Ramp Angle to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. You can customize the Ramp Angle by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Helix—The tool enters along a helical path. You can customize the helical entry by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Type the new values for the Helix Angle and the Radius of the helix (the default for which is calculated by the system based on the size of the part). Entry Hole—The tool enters along a predefined entry hole. To use this option, you must first create and machine an Entry Hole feature for this pocket. The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Pocket Milling dialog box contains the following option:

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Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Through Pocket Features To Create a Through Pocket Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Thru Pocket. The Through Pocket Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Thru Pocket1 (the system increments the number for the next Through Pocket feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Walls—Select the side surfaces to be machined. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard. Adjust Feature Depth—Adjust the Floor depth of feature (by default, a Through Pocket extends all the way through the stock). To specify a different Floor depth, select a surface, a datum plane, or type a value along the z-axis of the feature-level Program Zero coordinate system.

2. Select the walls of the pocket. Use the following commands on the SURF/LOOP menu: Surface—Select the wall surfaces individually. Loop—Specify a closed loop of surfaces by selecting a face they surround. If there is more than one loop of edges (for example, there is a hole in the selected surface), you will be prompted to select an edge to use.

3. On the SURF/LOOP menu, click Done. 4. On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return.

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next to the element to display the current 5. Use the other elements, if needed. Click setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 6. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

Example: Creating a Through Pocket
The illustration below shows creating a Through Pocket feature by using the Loop option on the SURF/LOOP menu:

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1. Select the top surface. 2. Select an edge that belongs to one of the pocket walls. The resulting Through Pocket feature is shown in the next illustration (Hard Walls are shown in red):

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To Machine a Through Pocket Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Through Pocket Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as THRU POCKET1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Through Pocket Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 502

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3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. next to the Cutting Tool text box. This To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Through Pocket Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Through Pocket Milling dialog box contains the following options. Wall Machining • • • Rough—Remove material inside the pocket using rough milling and leaving stock on the walls of the pocket according to the Rough to value. Finish—Finish mill the walls of the pocket. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Cut Motion These options define the way the tool scans the horizontal cross-sections of the pocket: • One Direction—Cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass, the tool retracts and returns to the opposite side if the pocket, to start the next pass in the same direction. Back and Forth—Continuously machines the pocket, moving back and forth. Spiral—Generates a spiral cutting path. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

• •

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Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Cut Angle—Defines the angle between the cut direction and the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system for One Direction and Back and Forth cut motion types. The default is 0, which means that the tool cuts parallel to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. To change the cut direction, type the new value in the Cut Angle text box. Clean Up Cut—Cleans up the walls of the pocket after the rough cut and before the finish cuts, to remove scallops left by the rough cut. Type the value for the minimal amount of stock to be removed by this cut in the Stock text box to the right. Top Entry These options describe the way the tool enters the pocket:

• •

Plunge—The tool enters the material vertically. Ramp—The tool enters at Ramp Angle to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. You can customize the Ramp Angle by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Helix—The tool enters along a helical path. You can customize the helical entry by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Type the new values for the Helix Angle and the Radius of the helix (the default for which is calculated by the system based on the size of the part). Entry Hole—The tool enters along a predefined entry hole. To use this option, you must first create and machine an Entry Hole feature for this pocket. The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Through Pocket Milling dialog box contains the following option: Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

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Step Features To Create a Step Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Step. The Step Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Step1 (the system increments the number for the next Step feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard. Adjust Feature Depth—Adjust the Floor depth of feature. Select a surface, a datum plane, or type a value along the z-axis of the feature-level Program Zero coordinate system.

2. Select the Floor surface(s). On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. 3. Use the other elements, if needed. Click next to the element to display the current setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

To Machine a Step Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK.

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The system opens the Step Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as STEP1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Step Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Step Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Step Milling dialog box contains the following options. Roughing Rough Step—Remove the material inside the Step feature using rough milling and leaving stock according to the Floor Stock and Wall Stock values:

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Floor Stock—Stock to be left on the Floor surfaces. Wall Stock—Stock to be left on the Hard Walls. Finishing

Finish Floors—Finish mill the Floor surfaces. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Back Off Walls—When you do rough milling and finish floors within the same tool path, you can keep the tool off the walls by a specified additional distance while the Floor is being finished. You can then finish the walls later. This option becomes available when both the Rough Step and Finish Floors options are selected and the Finish Walls option is cleared. When you select this option, type the back-off distance in the text box to the right. Finish Walls—Finish mill the Hard Walls. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Cut Motion These options define the cut direction:

• •

• •

One Direction—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cut, the tool returns to the opposite side, to start the next cut in the same direction. Back and Forth—The tool continuously machines the Step feature, moving back and forth. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

• •

Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). These options define the cutting direction:

• •

Follow Hard Walls—The tool follows the shape of the Hard Walls. Straight Line—The tool cuts straight at a constant angle to the Program Zero coordinate system. Cut Angle—Defines the angle between the cut direction and the x-axis of the feature-level Program Zero coordinate system if Straight Line is selected. The default is 0, which means that the tool cuts parallel to the x-axis of the

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Program Zero coordinate system. To change the cut direction, type the new value in the Cut Angle text box. Clean Up Cut—Cleans up the Hard Walls after the rough cut and before the finish cuts, to remove scallops left by the rough cut. Type the value for the minimal amount of stock to be removed by this cut in the Stock text box to the right. Connect Motions These options describe the way the tool makes the horizontal connections between the cutting motions: • • Clear Part—The tool clears the Soft Walls when exiting and entering the material for each cut. Stay in Cut—The tool stays engaged in material between cuts. These options describe whether the tool retracts when connecting the cutting motions: • • Stay Down—The tool does not retract between the cut motions. Retract—The tool retracts at the end of a cut motion and goes to the beginning of the next cut motion at retract height (as defined by the Clearance tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box). The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Step Milling dialog box contains the following option: Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Profile Features To Create a Profile Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Profile. The Profile Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: 508

Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Profile1 (the system increments the number for the next Profile feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Walls—Select the side surfaces to be machined. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard. Adjust Feature Depth—Adjust the Floor depth of feature (by default, a Profile extends all the way through the stock). To specify a different Floor depth, select a surface, a datum plane, or type a value along the z-axis of the feature-level Program Zero coordinate system.

2. Select the Hard Walls. Use the following commands on the SURF/LOOP menu: Surface—Select the wall surfaces individually. Loop—Specify a closed loop of surfaces by selecting a face they surround. If there is more than one loop of edges (for example, there is a hole in the selected surface), you will be prompted to select an edge to use.

3. On the SURF/LOOP menu, click Done. 4. On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. 5. Use the other elements, if needed. Click next to the element to display the current setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 6. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

To Machine a Profile Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Profile Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: 509

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Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as PROFILE1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Profile Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Profile Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Profile Milling dialog box contains the following options. Wall Machining • • Rough—Remove material using rough milling and leaving stock on the Hard Walls according to the Rough to value. Finish—Finish mill the Hard Walls. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments.

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Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Cut Motion These options define the cut direction:

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One Direction—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cutting pass, the tool returns to the opposite side, to start the next pass in the same direction. Back and Forth—The tool continuously machines the Profile feature, moving back and forth. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

• •

Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). These options define the cutting direction:

• •

Follow Hard Walls—The tool follows the shape of the Hard Walls. Straight Line—The tool cuts straight at a constant angle to the Program Zero coordinate system. Cut Angle—Defines the angle between the cut direction and the x-axis of the feature-level Program Zero coordinate system if Straight Line is selected. The default is 0, which means that the tool cuts parallel to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. To change the cut direction, type the new value in the Cut Angle text box. Clean Up Cut—Cleans up the Hard Walls after the rough cut and before the finish cuts, to remove scallops left by the rough cut. Type the value for the minimal amount of stock to be removed by this cut in the Stock text box to the right. Connect Motions These options describe the way the tool makes the horizontal connections between the cutting motions:

• •

Clear Part—The tool clears the Soft Walls when exiting and entering the material for each cut. Stay in Cut—The tool stays engaged in material between cuts. These options describe whether the tool retracts when connecting the cutting motions:

Stay Down—The tool does not retract between the cut motions. 511

Retract—The tool retracts at the end of a cut motion and goes to the beginning of the next cut motion at retract height (as defined by the Clearance tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box). The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Profile Milling dialog box contains the following option: Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Channel Features To Create a Channel Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Channel. The Channel Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Channel1 (the system increments the number for the next Channel feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard.

2. Select the Floor surface(s). On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. 3. Use the other elements, if needed. Click next to the element to display the current setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan.

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4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

Example: Creating a Channel Feature
To create a Channel feature, select its bottom surface as the Floor surface, as shown in the illustration below.

Select this surface.

The system creates a Channel feature as shown in the next illustration. The Hard Walls are highlighted in red; the Soft Walls are highlighted in cyan.

To Machine a Channel Feature

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. Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu 1. On the toolbar, click bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Channel Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as CHANNEL1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Channel Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

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The Channel Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Channel Milling dialog box contains the following options. Roughing Rough—Remove the material inside the Channel feature using rough milling and leaving stock according to the Floor Stock and Wall Stock values: • • Floor Stock—Stock to be left on the Floor surfaces. Wall Stock—Stock to be left on the Hard Walls. Finishing • Finish Floors—Finish mill the Floor surfaces. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Back Off Walls—When you do rough milling and finish floors within the same tool path, you can keep the tool off the walls by a specified additional distance while the Floor is being finished. You can then finish the walls later. This option becomes available when both the Rough and Finish Floors options are selected and the Finish Walls option is cleared. When you select this option, type the back-off distance in the text box to the right. Finish Walls—Finish mill the Hard Walls. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. Corners Only—Clean up the corners with a smaller tool after removing material from the pocket with a large tool. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Cut Motion These options define the cut direction: • One Direction—The tool cuts in one direction only, following the trajectory of the Channel feature. At the end of each cut, the tool returns to the opposite side, to start the next cut in the same direction. Back and Forth—The tool continuously machines the Channel feature, following its trajectory and moving back and forth. Spiral—Generates a cutting path where the tool starts from one Soft Wall, cuts down the center of the Channel, and then makes alternating cuts to the left and to the right from the first cut. When necessary, the cuts follow the Hard Walls to remove all the

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material inside the Channel feature. Use this option if the walls of the Channel feature are not parallel, or if it has more than two Soft Walls. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation: • • Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Connect Motions These options describe the way the tool makes the horizontal connections between the cutting motions: • • Clear Part—The tool clears the Soft Walls when exiting and entering the material for each cut. Stay in Cut—The tool stays engaged in material between cuts. These options describe whether the tool retracts when connecting the cutting motions: • • Stay Down—The tool does not retract between the cut motions. Retract—The tool retracts at the end of a cut motion and goes to the beginning of the next cut motion at retract height (as defined by the Clearance tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box). Start Wall • Automatic—The Soft Wall where the tool starts cutting the material is chosen automatically. Click • next to the option to display the current Start Wall. next to

Select—Select the Soft Wall where the tool starts cutting the material. Click the option to select the Start Wall.

The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Channel Milling dialog box contains the following option: Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

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Example: Channel Machining
This example shows machining the Channel feature shown in the illustration below.

Select the following options in the Channel Milling dialog box: • • • • • Rough Spiral Clear Part Stay Down Automatic The resulting tool path is shown in the next illustration. The tool starts from the default Soft Wall, cuts down the center of the Channel, and then makes alternating cuts to the left and to the right from the first cut. It traverses the Soft Walls and does not retract between the cuts. When the tool reaches the widening of the Channel, the cuts follow the Hard Walls to remove all the material inside the Channel feature. When the tool encounters the third Soft Wall, it traverses this wall as well, and does not retract between the cuts, according to the selected options.

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Slot Features To Create a Slot Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Slot. The Slot Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Slot1 (the system increments the number for the next Slot feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Use this option, for example, if you have two superimposed slots. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard.

2. Select the Floor surface(s). On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return.

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next to the element to display the current 3. Use the other elements, if needed. Click setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

To Machine a Slot Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Slot Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as SLOT1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Slot Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method and Options, and the lower, collapsible, portion provides the options for Advanced Slot Milling. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones.

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Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle portion of the dialog box. The lower portion of the dialog box contains the options for Advanced Slot Milling; use them if needed. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Slot Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Slot Milling dialog box contains the following options. Roughing Rough Slot—Remove the material inside the Slot feature using rough milling and leaving stock on the Floor according to the Floor Stock value. Stock left on the Hard Walls depends on the Advanced Slot Milling options selected. Finishing • Finish Floors—Finish mill the Floor surfaces. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Finish Walls—Finish mill the Hard Walls. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Cut Motion These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation: • • Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Top Entry These options describe the way the tool enters the slot: • Plunge—The tool enters the material vertically.

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Ramp—The tool enters at Ramp Angle to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. You can customize the Ramp Angle by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Helix—The tool enters along a helical path. You can customize the helical entry by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Type the new values for the Helix Angle and the Radius of the helix (the default for which is calculated by the system based on the size of the part). Entry Hole—The tool enters along a predefined entry hole. To use this option, you must first create and machine an Entry Hole feature for this slot. The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. Options Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements. The Advanced Slot Milling section of the Slot Milling dialog box contains the following options:

Single Center Cut (default)—The tool performs a single cut along the center of the slot. When you use this option, the amount of material left on the walls of the slot depends on the difference between the width of the slot and the cutter diameter of the tool. Multiple Cut—The tool performs multiple cuts to remove the material inside the slot. Use the Wall Stock text box to specify the stock allowance left on the Hard Walls of the slot. When you use this option, the following additional options become available: One Direction—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cut, the tool retracts and returns to the opposite side if the slot, to start the next cut in the same direction. Back and Forth—The tool continuously machines the slot, moving back and forth. Spiral—Generates a spiral cutting path.

Through Slot Features To Create a Through Slot Feature

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. Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu 1. On the toolbar, click bar: click NC Create > Features > Thru Slot. The Through Slot Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Thru_Slot1 (the system increments the number for the next Through Slot feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Walls— Select the side surfaces to be machined. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Use this option, for example, if you have two superimposed slots. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard. Adjust Feature Depth—Adjust the Floor depth of feature (by default, a Through Slot extends all the way through the stock). To specify a different Floor depth, select a surface, a datum plane, or type a value along the z-axis of the feature-level Program Zero coordinate system.

2. Select the walls of the slot. Use the following commands on the SURF/LOOP menu: Surface—Select the wall surfaces individually. Loop—Specify a closed loop of surfaces by selecting a face they surround. If there is more than one loop of edges (for example, there is a hole in the selected surface), you will be prompted to select an edge to use.

3. On the SURF/LOOP menu, click Done. 4. On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. 5. Use the other elements, if needed. Click next to the element to display the current setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 6. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

To Machine a Through Slot Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 522

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2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Through Slot Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as THRU_SLOT1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Through Slot Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Through Slot Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Through Slot Milling dialog box contains the following options.

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Roughing Rough Slot—Remove the material inside the Slot feature using rough milling. Finishing • • Finish Walls—Finish mill the Hard Walls. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. This option becomes available only when you select the Finish Walls option above. Cut Motion These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation: • • Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Start Position This group of options can be used only if the Through Slot feature is completely surrounded by Hard Walls. If the Through Slot feature contains a chain of Soft Walls (there can only be one such chain), then the start position is determined automatically based on the Soft Wall location and the Climb/Conventional setting. If the Through Slot feature is completely surrounded by Hard Walls, then when you select the Finish Walls option, the Start Position group of options becomes available. If the Use Default option is selected, the tool will start at a default position along the through slot. next to it and If you clear the Use Default checkbox, you can click select a point anywhere on the edges surrounding the through slot. The tool will start at the position closest to the selected point. Click start position. Top Entry These options describe the way the tool enters the slot: • Plunge—The tool enters the material vertically. to view the

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Ramp—The tool enters at Ramp Angle to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. You can customize the Ramp Angle by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Helix—The tool enters along a helical path. You can customize the helical entry by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Type the new values for the Helix Angle and the Radius of the helix (the default for which is calculated by the system based on the size of the tool). Entry Hole—The tool enters along a predefined entry hole. To use this option, you must first create and machine an Entry Hole feature for this slot. The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. Options Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Boss Top Features To Create a Boss Top Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Bosstop. The Boss Top Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Boss_Top1 (the system increments the number for the next Boss Top feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard. 525

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2. Select the Floor surface(s). On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. next to the element to display the current 3. Use the other elements, if needed. Click setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

Example: Creating a Boss Top Feature
To machine the NC Model in this example, create a Step feature, and select the bottom of the cavity as the Floor surface, as shown in the following illustration. Machining the Step feature leaves the material on top of the protruding boss.

Select this surface.

To machine the top of the boss, create a Boss Top feature. Select the top face of the boss as the Floor surface.

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Select this surface.

The system creates a Boss Top feature as shown in the next illustration. The Soft Walls are highlighted in cyan.

To Machine a Boss Top Feature
1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining.

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2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Boss Top Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as BOSS_TOP1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Boss Top Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Boss Top Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Boss Top Milling dialog box contains the following options. Machining Mode

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Rough—Face down the boss top and leave stock according to the Rough to value. Finish—Finish mill the boss top. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Cut Motion These options define the cut direction:

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One Direction—The tool cuts in one direction only. At the end of each cut, the tool returns to the opposite side, to start the next cut in the same direction. Back and Forth—The tool continuously machines the Face feature, moving back and forth. At the end of a pass, it retracts and moves to the beginning of the next pass, unless the Reverse Multiple Passes option is selected. Spiral—Generates a spiral cutting path. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

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Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Cut Angle—Defines the angle between the cut direction and the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system for One Direction and Back and Forth cut motion types. The default is 0, which means that the tool cuts parallel to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. To change the cut direction, type the new value in the Cut Angle text box. Motion Between Cuts These options describe the way the tool makes the horizontal connections between the cutting motions:

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Clear Part—The tool clears the Soft Walls when exiting and entering the material for each cut. Stay in Cut—The tool stays engaged in material between cuts. Clear Part on Last Cut—If Stay in Cut is selected, this option will make the tool clear the part on the final cut of each pass. These options describe whether the tool retracts when connecting the cutting motions:

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Stay Down—The tool does not retract between the cut motions. Retract—The tool retracts at the end of a cut motion and goes to the beginning of the next cut motion at retract height (as defined by the Clearance tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box).

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The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Boss Top Milling dialog box contains the following options: • Reverse Multiple Passes—If Back and Forth is selected, this option will reverse the Cut Angle on successive passes. Use this option to perform continuous back and forth machining between passes. Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Example: Boss Top Machining
This example shows machining the Boss Top feature shown in the illustration below.

Select a tool with Cutter Diameter bigger than the diameter of the boss (to make one cut per pass). Select the following options in the Flange Milling dialog box: • • • Rough Finish One Direction

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Climb Clear Part Retract Click Tool Path Properties > Cut Control and adjust Depth of Cut, as needed. The resulting tool path is shown in the next illustration.

Flange Features To Create a Flange Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Flange. The Flange Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as Flange1 (the system increments the number for the next Flange feature). You can type a customized name. Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. 531

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Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard.

2. Select the Floor surface(s). On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. 3. Use the other elements, if needed. Click next to the element to display the current setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red, Soft Walls in cyan. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

Example: Creating a Flange Feature
In the NC Model shown in the illustration below, the stock is a casting with a large cavity in the middle of the top surface. To machine the top of the reference model and avoid air machining, create a Flange feature. Select the top face of the reference model as the Floor surface.

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Select this surface.

The system creates a Flange feature as shown in the next illustration. The outer boundaries of the stock are Soft Walls; they are highlighted in cyan.

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To Machine a Flange Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Flange Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as FLANGE1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Flange Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path.

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3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. next to the Cutting Tool text box. This To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The Flange Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the Flange Milling dialog box contains the following options. Roughing Rough Flange—Remove the material inside the Flange feature using rough milling and leaving stock according to the Floor Stock and Wall Stock values: • • Floor Stock—Stock to be left on the Floor surfaces. Wall Stock—Stock to be left on the Hard Walls. If the Flange feature does not have Hard Walls, this text box will be unavailable. Finishing • Finish Floors—Finish mill the Floor surfaces. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Finish Walls—Finish mill the Hard Walls. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. If the Flange feature does not have Hard Walls, this option and the Finish Cuts button will be unavailable. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Cut Motion 534

These options define the cut motion pattern: • • Follow Outer Contour—The tool follows the outer contour of the Flange. Follow Inner Contour—The tool follows the inner contour of the Flange. These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation: • • Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Start Location These options describe where the tool starts cutting: • • Start From Outer Contour—The tool starts at the outer contour of the Flange and moves inward. Start From Inner Contour—The tool starts at the inner contour of the Flange and moves outward. This option is not available if the inner contour is comprised of Hard Walls. The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the Flange Milling dialog box contains the following option: Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

O-Ring Features To Create an O-Ring Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > O-Ring. The O-Ring Feature dialog box opens with the following elements: Feature Name—The default feature name, such as O-Ring1 (the system increments the number for the next O-Ring feature). You can type a customized name. 535

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Define Feature Floor—Select the Floor surface for the feature. Adjust Feature Boundaries—Change the shape of the feature walls using Sketcher. Define Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for feature definition and machining. Adjust Soft Walls—Change Hard Walls to Soft and Soft Walls to Hard.

2. Select the Floor surface(s). On the SELECT SRFS menu, click Done/Return. 3. Use the other elements, if needed. Click next to the element to display the current setting. The Preview button lets you check the feature geometry by highlighting the Hard Walls in red. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

To Machine an O-Ring Feature

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the O-Ring Milling dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as O-RING1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the feature being machined. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the feature geometry. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

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The middle portion of the O-Ring Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. next to the Cutting Tool text box. This To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

The O-Ring Milling Dialog Box
The Machining Method section of the O-Ring Milling dialog box contains the following options. Roughing Rough Groove—Remove the material inside the O-Ring feature using rough milling and leaving stock on the Floor according to the Floor Stock value. Finishing • Finish Floors—Finish mill the Floor surfaces. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Passes button to set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. Finish Walls—Finish mill the Hard Walls. When you select this option, you can use the Finish Cuts button to set up the number of finish cuts and the depth increments. Use CUTCOM—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. This option becomes available only when you select the Finish Walls option above. Cut Motion These options define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

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Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Start Position If the Use Default option is selected, the tool will start at a default position along the closed groove. next to it and If you clear the Use Default checkbox, you can click select a point anywhere on the edges surrounding the closed groove. The tool will start at the position closest to the selected point. Click start position. Top Entry These options describe the way the tool enters the groove: to view the

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Plunge—The tool enters the material vertically. Ramp—The tool enters at Ramp Angle to the x-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system. You can customize the Ramp Angle by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Entry/Exit tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Entry Hole—The tool enters along a predefined entry hole. To use this option, you must first create and machine an Entry Hole feature. The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Options section of the O-Ring Milling dialog box contains the following option: Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Example: O-Ring Machining
This example shows machining the O-Ring feature shown in the illustration below.

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Select the bottom of the groove.

Select a tool with Cutter Diameter corresponding to the width of the groove (to make one cut per pass). Select the following options in the O-Ring Milling dialog box: • • • • Rough Climb Use Default Plunge The resulting tool path is shown in the next illustration.

Hole Group Features To Create a Hole Group Feature

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. Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu 1. On the toolbar, click bar: click NC Create > Features > Hole Group. The system opens the Drill Group dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains two text boxes: Drill Group Name—The default feature name, such as DRILL_GROUP_0 (the system increments the number for the next Hole Group feature). You can type a customized name. Program Zero Selection—The name of the coordinate system used for machining. To change it, click next to the text box and select the new coordinate system.

The middle portion of the Drill Group dialog box contains four tabulated pages that provide means of Hole selection: Axes—Specify holes by selecting individual hole axes. Diameters—Specify holes by entering diameter value(s). The system automatically includes all Hole or round Slot features of specified diameter(s). Surfaces—Specify holes by selecting surfaces of the reference model. The system automatically includes all Hole or round Slot features located on selected surfaces. Parameters—Select holes with a certain parameter value.

2. Specify the holes to be drilled using any combination of methods listed above. See Combining Selection Methods for information on how to use more than one selection method for defining a Hole Group. Click for details. The Info button opens an information window that lists the rules currently used in Hole selection. The Preview button lets you view the currently selected holes by highlighting them in red. 3. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

Combining Selection Methods
Selecting holes by Diameters, Surfaces, and Parameters implies specifying a rule for hole selection. For example, if you specify a diameter value, the system will search the model for the holes of this diameter and include them in the Hole Group. If you select a surface, the system will include all holes on this surface. If you specify a combination of rules, the system will look for holes that satisfy all of them; that is, if you specify a diameter value and select a surface, the system will include only the holes of the specified diameter that are located on the selected surface.

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The Axes method lets you explicitly select and unselect hole axes, regardless of other rules used in Hole selection.

To Select Holes by Axes
The Axes tab in the Drill Group dialog box enables you to select or unselect individual hole axes. Click Add and select hole axes to add them to the Hole Set. When you have a series of holes created as a Pro/ENGINEER pattern, it is not necessary to select all the hole axes. Select Pattern to indicate that you want all the pattern members to be drilled, then select any axis belonging to a pattern. You can drill only some holes in the pattern using the Single option. All axes currently included in the Hole Group are listed in the central list box. If you have selected holes using a different method (for example, Diameters), the names of these axes also appear on the Axes tab. To remove a previously selected axis from the Hole Group, highlight its name in the central list box and click Delete. Similar to adding axes, you can use the Pattern option to remove a whole pattern of holes.

To Select Holes by Diameters
The Diameters tab in the Drill Group dialog box enables you to include all holes of a specified diameter. When you click Add, the Select Hole Diameter dialog box opens. It lists all the hole diameters present in the model. Select a diameter from the list, or click Select and select a cylindrical surface on the model to specify the diameter. The system adds all holes of the specified diameter to the Hole Group. The diameter values selected so far are listed in the central list box on the Diameters tab. To remove all holes of a specified diameter, select its value in the list box and click Delete. To remove some of the holes of a specified diameter, use the Axes tab.

To Select Holes by Surfaces
The Surfaces tab in the Drill Group dialog box enables you to include all holes on the selected surface. Click Add and select surfaces to add all holes located on these surfaces to the Hole Group. 541

The names of selected surfaces are listed in the central list box on the Surfaces tab. To remove all holes located on a surface, select its name in the list box and click Delete. To remove some of the holes on a surface, use the Axes tab.

To Select Holes by Feature Parameters
The Parameters tab in the Drill Group dialog box enables you to include holes that have certain parameter values. You can create and modify feature parameters in Part or Assembly mode. When you go to the Parameters tab, the Feature Parameter list box contains a list of all feature parameters associated with Hole and Cosmetic Thread features in the model. When you select a parameter name in the list, the Value text box below will contain a drop-down list of all the currently present values for this parameter. 1. Select a name of parameter in the Feature Parameter list box. 2. Select an operator from the drop-down list. For parameter types Integer and Real, the operators available are: “=, “!=, “>, “<“. For other parameter types, the only operators available are: “= and “!=. 3. Select a value from the drop-down list, or type a value. 4. Click Add. 5. The system displays the selected parameter and its value in the list box below and includes all holes with the appropriate feature parameter values in the Hole Group.

To Machine a Hole Group Feature
1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Drilling Strategy dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as HOLE_PATTERN1_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments.

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Feature Name—The name of the Hole Group being machined. You can click the Add button located under the Feature Name text box to select other Hole Group features present in the model. The Remove button lets you remove previously selected Hole Group features. All the names of the Hole Group features selected for machining are displayed in the Feature Name text box. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the holes being machined. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Drilling Strategy dialog box contains the options for defining the Holemaking Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Holemaking Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar type feature, click Next.

The Drilling Strategy Dialog Box
The Holemaking Method section of the Drilling Strategy dialog box contains the following options. Cycle Type • Drill—Drill a hole. Depending on the Cycle Modifier option selected, the following statement will be output to the NC file: Standard—CYCLE / DRILL Deep—CYCLE / DEEP Break Chip—CYCLE / BRKCHP

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Web—CYCLE / THRU (for multiple plates)

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Tap—Drill a threaded hole. Expert Machinist supports ISO standard thread output. The CYCLE / TAP statement will be output to the NC file. Ream—Create a precision finish hole. The CYCLE / REAM statement will be output to the NC file. Bore—Bore a hole to create a finish hole diameter with high precision. The CYCLE / BORE statement will be output to the NC file. Spotface—Drill a hole with an optional dwell at final depth to help assure a clean surface at the bottom of the hole. The CYCLE / FACE statement will be output to the NC file. Countersink—Drill a chamfer for a countersunk screw. The CYCLE / CSINK statement will be output to the NC file. Select one of the Cycle Modifier options: Countersink—Type the desired diameter value in the Countersink text box. Countersink diameter is the final diameter of the hole after drilling, measured at the top of the chamfer. Tool parameter Point_Angle defines the chamfer angle. Edge Break—Type the desired value in the Edge Break text box Tool parameter Point_Angle defines the chamfer angle. Auto Chamfer—When you select this option, the system automatically finds all the chamfers with the angle matching the Point_Angle of the current tool, and makes the necessary calculations for drilling based on the chamfer geometry. Cycle Depth These options define the depth of drilling:

Auto—Depth of drilling is determined automatically, by referencing hole geometry. If the selected axis is associated with several coaxial hole features, the maximum depth will be selected as long as the tool fits inside the hole diameter, as shown in the illustration below.

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Thru All—Drill a through hole, all the way through the stock. If you specify a breakout distance for Through drilling on the Cut Control tab of the Drilling Properties dialog box, the system adds this value when calculating depth. Constant—Drill to specified depth. Type the drill depth value in the textbox below. Measured Depth These options define how the depth of drilling is measured with respect to the tool:

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Tool Shoulder—The drilling depth is measured with reference to the shoulder of the tool. Tool Tip—The drilling depth is measured with reference to the tip of the tool.
Shoulder Tool Tip

Drill this hole.

Offset Value—Type the tool offset value. Register—Type the tool offset register number. Hole Order These options define the order of machining the holes: • • • • Shortest—The system determines which order of holes results in the shortest machine motion time. One Direction—The system scans the holes with respect to the Program Zero coordinate system, by incrementing the X coordinate and decrementing the Y. Back & Forth—The system scans the holes with respect to the Program Zero coordinate system, by incrementing the Y coordinate and going back and forth in the X direction. Spiral—The system scans the holes clockwise starting from the hole nearest to the Program Zero coordinate system.

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y x

y x

y x

One Direct io n

Back & Forth

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Start Hole—Lets you select the first hole to be machined if the Hole Order option is Shortest or Spiral. The Drilling Properties button opens the Drilling Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options. The Cut Control tab contains options for adjusting hole depth: • • Through Holes—Select this option to adjust the depth for through holes. Type the adjustment value in the text box to the right. Blind Holes—Select this option to adjust the depth for blind holes. Type the adjustment value in the text box to the right. The Options section of the Drilling Strategy dialog box contains the following option: Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Example: Automatic Chamfer Machining
Create a Hole Group feature that includes all the holes.
CHAMFER 30 x .16

CHAMFER 30 x .2

Select this surface. CHAMFER 45 x .2

For the first Tool Path feature, use a tool with Point_Angle 90. It will machine the 45-degree chamfers, as shown in the following illustration. 546

For the second Tool Path feature, use a tool with Point_Angle 120. It will machine the 30-degree chamfers, as shown in the next illustration.

Entry Hole Features To Create an Entry Hole Feature

Use an Entry Hole feature to specify an entry point when machining a closed feature (Pocket, Through Pocket, or Slot). Even though you are going to machine the Entry Hole before you machine the closed feature, create the Entry Hole feature after you have created the closed feature that you need it for. You can use the same Entry Hole for more than one feature, if needed.

1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Features > Entry Hole. The Entry Hole Feature dialog box opens. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Entry Hole Name—The default feature name, such as ENTRYHOLE000 (the system increments the number for the next Entry Hole feature). You can type a customized name. Feature Name—The name of the parent closed feature. The drop-down list contains the names of all the features of appropriate type (Pocket, Through Pocket, or Slot) currently present in the model. Select the parent feature from the drop-down list.

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Program Zero—The name of the coordinate system used for machining the parent feature. This name is displayed for information purposes only; you cannot change it. You can click next to the text box to highlight the coordinate system.

The lower portion of the Entry Hole Feature dialog box contains the Setup Entry Hole options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are three buttons: OK, Cancel, and Preview. 2. Type the diameter value in the Hole Diameter text box. This is the expected size of the drill to use for drilling the Entry Hole. 3. Use the other options, if needed, to specify the hole location and depth. By default, the Entry Hole is created in the approximate center of the parent feature, and its depth equals the depth of the parent feature. The Preview button lets you check the current location and depth of the Entry Hole. 4. Click OK to complete the feature, Cancel to quit.

The Entry Hole Dialog Box
The Setup Entry Hole section of the Entry Hole dialog box contains the following options. Hole Diameter—The expected size of the drill to use for drilling the Entry Hole. Type the diameter value in the text box. Hole Location • • Place—Define the Entry Hole placement either automatically, or using the X and Y coordinates of the Program Zero coordinate system. Corner—Define the Entry Hole placement with respect to a corner of the parent feature. Place Entry Hole These options appear when the Place option is selected for Hole Location: • Automatic—When this checkbox is selected, the hole is placed in the approximate center of the parent feature. To specify a different placement, clear this checkbox and type the desired values in the X Direction and Y Direction text boxes below. X Direction—Type the X coordinate of the Entry Hole axis with respect to the Program Zero coordinate system. Y Direction—Type the Y coordinate of the Entry Hole axis with respect to the Program Zero coordinate system. Corner Entry Hole These options appear when the Corner option is selected for Hole Location:

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and select a corner of the parent feature (either an edge or a Corner—Click rounded surface). In a rounded corner, if the radius of the hole is less than the corner radius, the system places the Entry Hole coaxial with the corner round. Otherwise (for example, in a sharp corner), the system places the Entry Hole based on its diameter, tangent to the adjacent walls. To modify this placement, use the Wall Offset option below. Wall Offset—Type the minimum offset of the Entry Hole from the walls adjacent to the selected corner. Entry Hole Depth Define the Entry Hole depth using one of the two options:

Floor Offset—Specify how far above the floor of the parent feature the Entry Hole ends. By default, this offset is 0, and the Entry Hole depth equals the depth of the parent feature. Enter Depth—Type the Entry Hole depth. By default, it is the depth of the parent feature.

To Machine an Entry Hole Feature
1. On the toolbar, click . Another way to access this functionality is from the top menu bar: click NC Create > Tool Paths > Machining. 2. Select the feature name in the Select Feature dialog box. As you place the cursor over a feature name in the dialog box, the appropriate geometry is highlighted on the screen. Click OK. The system opens the Drilling Strategy dialog box. The top portion of the dialog box contains three text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as ENTRYHOLE000_TP1 (the system uses the name of the feature for the first portion of the tool path name). The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments. Feature Name—The name of the Entry Hole being drilled. You can click the Add button located under the Feature Name text box to select other Entry Hole features present in the model. The Remove button lets you remove previously selected Entry Hole features. All the names of the Entry Hole features selected for machining are displayed in the Feature Name text box. You can click the Preview button located under the Feature Name text box to highlight the holes being drilled. Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool. 549

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The middle portion of the Drilling Strategy dialog box contains the options for defining the Holemaking Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 3. Change the cutting tool, if needed. You have to specify a tool name if there is no active tool. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. next to the Cutting Tool text box. This To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 4. Define the Holemaking Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 5. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar type feature, click Next.

Free Form Machining To Machine a Free Form Feature

Unlike other machining strategies in Expert Machinist, Free Form machining does not require creating a feature and then machining it. You define the machining strategy in one step by referencing model geometry (or sketching) and specifying the machining method and options, as needed. Note: You can also use the Free Form feature just to supply certain CL commands between other tool paths, if needed. In this case, you do not have to specify a tool or define the Drive Geometry. When the Freeform Milling dialog box opens, click Play Path and insert the required CL commands.

1. On the toolbar, click

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The Freeform Milling dialog box opens. The top portion of the dialog box contains two text boxes: Tool Path Name—The default name for the tool path file, such as FREE_MILLING_TP1. The system will use this file name for NC data output. You can type a customized name. You can also click the Comments button located under the Tool Path Name text box to type the Machine Strategy Comments.

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Cutting Tool—The name of the cutting tool. When you use a Machine Tool for the first time within the NC process, there is no active tool and the text box displays None. For subsequent machining, the text box displays the name of the active tool.

The middle portion of the Freeform Milling dialog box contains the options for defining the Drive Geometry and the Machining Method, and the lower portion lists the machining Options. At the bottom of the dialog box there are four buttons: OK, Cancel, Next, and Play Path. 2. Change the cutting tool, if needed. If the Machine Tool has preset cutting tools, select the tool you want by clicking on the drop-down arrow and selecting the tool name from the drop-down list. To access the Cutting Tool Manager, click next to the Cutting Tool text box. This functionality lets you create new tools and modify existing ones. Note: Unlike other machining features, for Free Form machining you can use a sketched tool. Click Show Tool below the Cutting Tool text box to display the currently selected tool in a pop-up window. 3. Define the Drive Geometry. The Drive Geometry defines the tool trajectory in the XYplane of the Program Zero coordinate system. You can: Next to Use Model Edges, click and select edges from the reference model or

4. Define the Cut Depth, that is, the height of the last tool pass. Click Depth and then use one of the CTM DEPTH menu commands:

5. Define the Machining Method and Options, as needed, by selecting options and typing values in the middle and lower portions of the dialog box. Click Play Path at the bottom of the dialog box to display the currently defined tool path. 6. Click OK to complete machining the feature, Cancel to quit. If you want to use the same settings to machine a similar feature, click Next.

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. The system highlights the selected from the stock. To verify your selection, click edges in cyan and indicates with an arrow which side the tool will be on. Click Flip, if needed, to change the side.

Click next to the Sketch label and sketch the trajectory of the tool in the XYplane of the Program Zero coordinate system.

next to Cut

Specify Plane—Select a planar surface or create a datum plane parallel to the XYplane of the Program Zero coordinate system. Z Depth—Type a value along the z-axis of the Program Zero coordinate system.

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Note: When you create a Free Form tool path, the system removes the appropriate stock material, the same as for the other feature types. However, for Free Form features you can specify that the system does not create the automatic material removal. To do this, set the configuration option freeform_toolpath_matrem to no.

The Freeform Milling Dialog Box
The Drive Geometry section of the Freeform Milling dialog box contains the following elements. • • Program Zero—Change the coordinate system used for machining, if desired. Drive Geometry—Define the tool trajectory in the XY-plane of the Program Zero coordinate system: Use Model Edges—Select edges from the reference model or from the stock. Sketch—Sketch the trajectory of the tool in the XY-plane of the Program Zero coordinate system.

Cut Depth—Define the height of the last tool pass.

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Climb—The tool is to the left of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Conventional—The tool is to the right of material (assuming clockwise spindle rotation). Tool Side These options are available when you define Drive Geometry by sketching. They define where the tool is relative to the sketch:

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Left—The tool is to the left from the sketch. Right—The tool is to the right from the sketch. On—The tool follows the sketch. Use the Material Side options to specify cutter compensation. Material Side

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The Machining Method section of the Freeform Milling dialog box contains the following options. Direction of Cut These options are available when you define Drive Geometry by selecting model edges. They define where material is relative to the tool rotation:

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These options define how to apply cutter compensation when the tool follows the sketch: • • Left—Material is to the left. Right—Material is to the right. Cut Ordering These options define the order of machining if you specify multiple cuts and passes: • • X-Y First—The tool makes all the cuts at a specific depth and then moves to the next depth. Z First—The tool makes multiple passes to depth and then goes to the next cut. The Multiple Cuts button opens the Finish Cuts dialog box, where you can set up the number and depth of finish cuts. The Multiple Passes button opens the Finish Passes dialog box, where you can set up the number of finish passes and the depth increments. The Tool Path Properties button opens the Tool Path Properties dialog box, which provides access to lower-level control of the tool path, such as spindle and coolant statements, speeds, feeds, clearances, entry/exit, and cut control options.

The Options section of the Freeform Milling dialog box contains the following options: • Use Cutcom—NC output will contain the CUTCOM statements. You can customize their format and locations by clicking the Tool Path Properties button and using the Cut Control tab of the Tool Path Properties dialog box. Use Fixture Offset—Allows you to store the fixture transformation offset in a register on your machine. Type the Fixture Offset register value in the text box to the right. If you use this option, NC output will contain the SET/OFSETL statements.

Tool Path Display and Output About Displaying the Tool Path
You can display the tool motion and a simulation of the tool before you complete creating a tool path, to verify the tool path and make a visual check for interference with fixtures. You can also display the tool motion, along with a tool simulation, for existing tool paths, and for a whole operation. All

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simulated tool dimensions represent the parameters defined during tool setup. Whenever you display tool motion for a tool path or an operation, the system opens the PLAY PATH dialog box. The collapsible upper portion of this dialog box lists the cutter location (CL) data for the tool path or operation, as it would be output to a CL data file through Output > Create CL File. You can save this CL data in a CL file or an MCD file directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box, by clicking the appropriate option in the File menu. The lower portion contains the following buttons: Play Forward, Play Back, Stop, Fast Forward and Rewind, as well as Go To Next CL Record and Go To Previous CL Record. It also contains the buttons for positioning the cutting tool and for accessing the Tool Clearance functionality, and a slider to adjust the display speed. When displaying the tool motion, you can make the tool stop at certain points by adding break points. You can also insert customized CL commands, such as the specific postprocessor words required for correct NC output, at desired locations within the CL file. When you save the CL data, these commands will be output to the CL file. If you add a tool motion command, the corresponding motion will be also shown in the tool path display on the screen.

To Display the Tool Path

You can display tool motion for a single tool path or for a whole operation. To display tool motion for an operation, select the operation name in the Model Tree window. To display tool motion for a single tool path, select the name of the corresponding tool path in the Model Tree window. Note: When you are machining a feature, or creating a Free Form tool path, you can display the tool path as it is currently defined by clicking the Play Path button at the bottom of the dialog box. 1. In the Model Tree window, select the operation or the Tool Path that you want to display. Click the right mouse button and select Tool Path Player from the pop-up menu. Or, on the top menu bar, click NC Create > Output > Tool Path Player. The system opens the PLAY PATH dialog box and displays the cutting tool simulation in the initial location. 2. Click the Play Forward button to start playing the tool motion. The system starts scrolling through the CL data file, moving the tool to reflect its current position on the screen. The solid red line represents the tip of the cutter as it cuts the material.

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3. Click the Stop button to stop the tool motion display. The tool also stops upon reaching a break point placed in the CL file (indicated by a red downward arrow appearing to the left of the CL record). Use the other tool positioning options in the PLAY PATH dialog box, as needed. 4. You can save the current tool path to a CL or an MCD file. To do this, click File > Save or File > Save As MCD, respectively. 5. To finish displaying the tool motion and close the PLAY PATH dialog box, click Close.

The PLAY PATH Dialog Box
Whenever you display tool motion for a tool path or an operation, the system opens the PLAY PATH dialog box. The collapsible upper portion of this dialog box lists the cutter location (CL) data for the tool path or operation, as it would be output to a CL data file through Output > Create CL File. You can save this CL data in a CL file or an MCD file directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box, by clicking the appropriate option in the File menu. The lower portion contains the following buttons:

Name

Description

Play Back Stop Play Forward Go To Previous CL Record Rewind Fast Forward Go To Next CL Record

Display the tool motion going back from the current position of the tool. Stop displaying the tool path. Display the tool motion going forward from the current position of the tool. Go to the previous CL record in the file.

Rewind to the start of the tool path. Fast forward to the end of the tool path. Go to the next CL record in the file.

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The Tool Clearance button lets you access the Measure functionality, to compute tool interference, and clearance. If a solid tool model is used, its geometry can be selected for measuring. If the tool is defined by parameters, it will be temporarily converted into a “dummy part, with geometry based on the appropriate tool parameters. The Position Cutting Tool button lets you select a point on the tool path to position the cutting tool. To position the cutting tool at a certain CL data line, click NCL File > Position Tool. At the bottom of the dialog box, there is a slider to adjust the display speed. Moving the slider to the right makes the display faster; moving it to the left slows the display. The Close button closes the PLAY PATH dialog box.

To Add a Break Point
When displaying the tool motion, you can make the tool stop at certain points by adding break points in the CL file listing. 1. In the CL data listing, select a line where you want the tool to stop. 2. Click NCL File > Add break point. 3. The system indicates the break point by placing a red downward arrow to the left of the selected CL line. When you play the tool motion, the tool stops upon reaching the break point line. You can, for example, click Tool Clearance at this point, to measure tool interference or clearance. To resume playing the tool path, click the Play Forward button again.

Manipulating Break Points
When you add break points in a CL file listing, the system indicates them by placing a red downward arrow to the left of the appropriate CL line. When you play the tool path, the tool stops upon reaching the break point line in the CL data listing. To display the tool motion without stopping at break points, click NCL File > Suppress all break points. The break point information, however, will be retained; when you click NCL File > Resume all break points, all the break points will reappear. To delete an existing break point, select the appropriate line in the CL data listing, then click NCL File > Delete break point.

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To Position the Tool
When you play the tool path, the position of the cutting tool on the screen corresponds to the position of the cursor in the CL data listing in the top portion of the PLAY PATH dialog box. To change the tool position, use one of the following methods: • • Click the Position Cutting Tool button in the lower portion of the PLAY PATH dialog box and select a point on the tool path to position the cutting tool. Select a line in the CL data listing, then click NCL File > Position Tool to position the tool at this line.

To Insert a CL Command
You can insert a customized CL command anywhere along the tool path. Use this functionality to add the specific postprocessor words required for correct NC output. 1. Click NCL File > Insert CL Command. The CL Command dialog box opens. 2. To select location for the CL command, click on the screen or a line in the CL file listing. and select either a point on the tool path

3. Specify the command contents using one of the following methods: Place the cursor in the Command text box and type the command, line-by-line. Note that this method does not provide syntax checking. Click Menu and compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the syntax menus and typing values in response to the system prompts. Click File and read in a file containing the CL command lines. The browser window will appear to let you select the file name. The expected file extension is “.cmd.

Notes: You can edit the contents of the Command text box at any point by placing the cursor in it and using the keyboard. If you supply more than one command line, they will be treated as a “block, that is, you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command lines.

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4. The Preview button inserts the command line(s) in the CL file at the selected location to let you preview the result. Click OK to insert the command at selected location, Cancel— to quit inserting the command.

Using Parameters in CL Commands
When typing values for CL commands, you can input model parameters, preceded by an ampersand(&) sign. If there is a corresponding parameter defined in relations, its value will be used in the CL command. If the parameter is not found, the system will prompt you for the parameter’s type and value, and this parameter will be added to the relations. This way, the CL command can be changed at the top level (through Relations).

To Delete a CL Command
You can only delete user-defined CL commands, that is, the CL commands previously added by using the Insert CL Command option. 1. Select a user-defined CL command. 2. Click NCL File > Delete CL Command. 3. The system deletes the selected command from the CL file listing.

To Redefine a CL Command
You can only redefine user-defined CL commands, that is, the CL commands previously added by using the Insert CL Command option. 1. Select a user-defined CL command. 2. Click NCL File > Redefine CL Command. The CL Command dialog box opens. 3. To select a new location for the CL command, click tool path on the screen or a line in the CL file listing. and select either a point on the

4. To edit the command contents, use one of the following methods: Place the cursor in the Command text box and edit the command. Note that this method does not provide syntax checking. Place the cursor in the Command text box and delete the current contents. Then, click Menu and compose the command by selecting appropriate keywords from the syntax menus and typing values in response to the system prompts.

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Place the cursor in the Command text box and delete the current contents. Then, click File and read in a file containing the CL command lines. The browser window will appear to let you select the file name. The expected file extension is “.cmd.

Note: If you do not delete the contents of the Command text box before using the Menu or File option, you will create additional command lines. From then on, these lines will be treated as a “block, that is, you will be able to move, copy, or delete only the whole block of command lines. 5. The Preview button lets you preview the result. Click OK to complete redefining the command, Cancel—to quit.

To Save CL Data in a File
When you display the tool motion for a tool path or operation, you can save the current CL data in a CL file or an MCD file directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box: 1. On the top menu bar of the PLAY PATH dialog box, click File. 2. Click one of the following options: Save—Output CL data to a CL file, with the name corresponding to the name of the Tool Path feature. Save As—Output CL data to a CL file with a different name. Type the new name in the browser window. Save As MCD—Postprocess CL data and output it as an MCD file. The Post Processor Options window opens. Select the desired options and click Output.

To Output a CL File

1. In the Model Tree window, select an operation or a Tool Path feature. Click the right mouse button and select Output Tool Path from the pop-up menu. Or, on the top menu bar, click NC Create > Output > Create CL File. The system opens the Save As dialog box, with the default name of the output file shown in the New File text box. 2. To accept the default name, click OK. Or, type a different file name in the New File text box of the Save As dialog box and click OK. 559

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You can output the Cutter Location (CL) data for a single tool path or for a whole operation to a CL data file. To output an operation, select the operation name in the Model Tree window. To output a tool path, select the name of the corresponding tool path in the Model Tree window.

The system generates the CL file and saves it to disk. Note: To output NC codes for a tool path or an operation, use the Create NC Code command. You can also save the tool path in either CL or MCD format directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box.

To Output NC Codes

You can output the Cutter Location (CL) data for a single tool path or for a whole operation to a CL data file. This CL data file will then have to be postprocessed to generate an MCD file, containing the proper NC codes. You can also output the NC codes for a tool path or operation directly to an MCD file. To output an operation, select the operation name in the Model Tree window. To output a tool path, select the name of the corresponding tool path in the Model Tree window. 1. In the Model Tree window, select an operation or a Tool Path feature. Then, on the top menu bar, click NC Create > Output > Create NC Code. 2. Select one of the following commands: Automatic—The system uses the default postprocessor associated with the machine tool (specified at the time of Machine Tool Setup). Select Post—The system lists the available postprocessors. Select the postprocessor to use.

The Save As dialog box opens, with the default name of the output file shown in the New File text box. 3. To accept the default name, click OK. Or, type a different file name in the New File text box of the Save As dialog box and click OK. The Post Processor Options window opens. 4. Select the desired options and click Output. The system generates the MCD file and saves it to disk. Note: You can also save the tool path in either CL or MCD format directly from the PLAY PATH dialog box.

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Template Machining About the Template Manager
If your company has certain frequently used machining strategies, you can streamline the machining process by creating templates corresponding to these machining strategies, and then applying the right template when machining a feature. A machining strategy is a way to machine a feature: it contains all the machining options and values that you would normally define in a machining dialog box (such as Pocket Milling or Step Milling), as well as all the tool path properties. It can also contain the name of the tool to use, or prompt for the tool at the time you apply the template. A template may contain one or more strategies for machining the same type of feature. Once you define the strategies (by selecting the desired options and typing values, as needed), save the template. Then, once you have created a feature in Expert Machinist, you can machine it by applying an existing template. Template Manager is a separate application, which can be run from within Expert Machinist or as a stand-alone. Before you can run the Template Manager, your system administrator has to download the appropriate JRE files and do the setup according to the instructions on the Customer Web page. To start the Template Manager, do one of the following: • • On the top menu bar in the Expert Machinist window, click NC Setup > Template Manager. In the system window, type the name of the Template Manager executable: <loadpoint>/apps/mfgapps/java/bin/template_run where <loadpoint> is the Pro/ENGINEER load point. Note: You can also create a template by machining a feature and then saving the machining strategy, as it is defined by the selected options and specified values, as a template. To save the current machining strategy as a template from the machining dialog box, click template name. next to the Tool Path Name text box and specify the

To Create a New Template

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1. In the Template Editor window, select the feature type by clicking on