THREATENED SPECIES INFORMATION

Coxen’ s Double-eyed Fig-parrot
Cyclopsitta diophthalma coxeni (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841)
Common name None Conservation status
The Coxen’ s Double-eyed Fig-parrot is listed as an Endangered Species on Schedule 1 of the New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act, 1995 (TSC Act). This species is also listed as an Endangered Species on Schedule 1 of the Commonwealth Endangered Species Protection Act, 1992. The attractive Coxen’ s Double-eyed Figparrot is a small, predominantly green parrot with a short tail and relatively large head and bill. The species is predominantly green above and green-yellow below and similar to several species of lorikeet, including the Little Lorikeet Glossopsitta pusilla and the Musk Lorikeet G. concinna. Distinguishing features on the male include a blue forehead and lower cheek, an orangered upper cheek, cream bands on the yellowgreen underwing and blue to dark grey primary wing feathers. The female is slightly duller than the male. The Coxen’ s Double-eyed Fig-parrot calls in a short, clipped, two note call, variously described as a high-pitched zeet-zeet, tcheek, tcheet and yyit-yyit, a medium-pitched zzztzzzt, or a rather soft lorikeet-like screech.

Description (summarised from NPWS
1999a) Length 133-160mm Tail 40-46mm

The Coxen’ s Doubleeyed Fig-parrot has not been photographed, however the adjacent photo is of the Doubleeyed Fig-parrot. The size, shape and colour of the Double-eyed Figparrot is similar to that of the Coxen’ s Doubleeyed Fig-parrot. The Coxen’ s Doubleeyed Fig-parrot can be distinguished from the Double-eyed fig-parrot as it has a blue forehead (not red) and red under and green above the eye (not blue).

G Chapman Double-eyed Fig-parrot similar in appearance to the Coxen’ s Double-eyed Fig-parrot

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Lismore

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Grafton
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Bourke

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Dubbo
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Newcastle

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Sydney
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Wollongong

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The sightings represented on this map are only indicative. They cannot be conside red as a compre hensive inventory and may contain erro rs and omissions.

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Coxen's Double-eyed Fig-parrot pre 1980 sightings Coxen's Double-eyed Fig-parrot post 1980 sightings Roads Riv ers

Map Compiled From: Species Sightings from the NPWS Atlas of NSW Wildlife Database Roads and Riv ers data from AUSLIG

Copyri ght NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, July 1999
This map is not guaranteed to be free from error or omission The NSW National Par ks and Wildlife Serv ice and its employees disclaim liability for any act done or omission made on the information in the map and any consequences of such acts or omissions 50 0 50 100 Kilometer s

x Distribution

NPWS records of the Coxen’ s Double-eyed Fig-parrot in NSW

The Coxen’ s Double-eyed Fig-parrot has been recorded from the MaryboroughGympie district in Queensland to the Macleay River in NSW (Holmes 1990). Its distribution has reduced substantially since the 1950s (Davidson 1993), with most recent reports coming from the western region of the Lamington Plateau in Queensland (Garnett 1992). In NSW, the species has been recorded in the Tweed, Brunswick, Richmond Ranges and Clarence valleys (Gilmore & Parnaby 1994). It is now only rarely recorded in NSW, with the total population probably comprising less than 50 individuals fragmented into two sub-populations (Garnett 1992).

The Koreelah and Richmond Ranges and Lever’ s Plateau are now the areas most likely to support local remnant populations (Holmes 1990).

Recorded occurrences in conservation reserves
Border Ranges NP, Tooloom Scrub FR (NPWS 1999b).

Habitat
Coxen’ s Double-eyed Fig-parrot is a small cryptic bird that lives in the canopy of dense rainforest. The preferred habitat is subtropical rainforest. However, substantial loss of this forest type has resulted in most populations now inhabiting dry rainforest

THREATENED SPECIES INFORMATION

and cool subtropical rainforest. Flocks of up to 8 birds have been seen in recent decades but most observations are of pairs or single individuals. (Holmes 1990)

Management (summarised from NPWS
1999a)

Ecology
The cryptic Coxen’ s Double-eyed Figparrot is often difficult to detect as individuals feed quietly, moving swiftly and silently within the canopy (Chisholm 1924). The species is omnivorous, feeding mainly on the seeds of native figs and/or insect larvae which may include the fig wasp (Pizzey & Knight 1997). Individuals are known to favour the Moreton Bay Fig, Ficus macrophyll and the Green-leaved Strangler Fig, F. watkinsiana. However, the species may also eat a variety of other native figs, native fruits, nectar, lichens and exotic plants (Holmes 1990; Romer & Spittall 1994). The nest chamber is usually excavated on the underside of a dead or decaying limb or trunk in a living or dead tree (Pizzey & Knight 1997). Breeding occurs from October to January with a normal clutch size of 2 (Holmes 1995). Incubation and fledging details are unknown.

• Community involvement for successful implementation of recovery plan including participation in the conservation and rehabilitation of the species and its habitat • Co-ordinated recovery process to oversee implementation of action required in the recovery plan • Further research and monitoring to improve understanding of the species current distribution and ecology • Rehabilitation of habitat and subsequent release of captive bred birds into this habitat • Develop management prescriptions and protocols for identified habitat areas

Recovery plans
A draft recovery plan has been prepared for the species.

Threats (summarised from NPWS 1999a)
• Inadequate extent and quality of habitat • Fragmentation of habitat, including loss of connectivity between summer and winter habitat areas • Disturbance to suspected ecotonal breeding areas • Disjunct feeding grounds intermittent food discontinuity and

• Low population numbers preventing social breeding and energy efficient food searching • Low population numbers making the species vulnerable to stochastic events, such as drought and disease

References
Chisholm A.H. 1924. Seeking Rare Parrots. Emu 24: 25-32. Davidson C. 1993. Recovery Plan for Coxen’ s Fig Parrot (Psittaculirostris diophthalma). Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Endangered Species Program. Garnett S. 1992. Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. Royal Australian Ornithologists Union and Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra. Gilmore A.M. and Parnaby H.E. 1994. Vertebrate fauna of conservation concern in north-east NSW forests. An internal report prepared for the North East Forests Biodiversity Study. NSW NPWS. Holmes G. 1990. The Biology and ecology of Coxen’ s Fig-Parrot. RAOU Report No. 65. Holmes G. 1995. Coxen’ s Fig Parrot Survey. A draft report to the Coxen’ s Fig-Parrot Recovery Team, June 1995. NPWS 1999a. Coxen’ s Fig Parrot Cyclopsitta diophthalma coxeni (Gould) Draft Recovery Plan. NSW NPWS, Hurstville. NPWS 1999b. Atlas of NSW Wildlife. NPWS, Hurstville. Pizzey G. and Knight F. 1997. The Field Guide to Birds of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. Romer E. and Spittall D. 1994. Coxen’ s Fig-Parrot Recovery Program in ARAZPA/ASZK Conference Proceedings. Darwin, Northern Territory.

For further information contact
Threatened Species Unit, Northern Directorate Phone 02 6651 5946. General enquiries: 43 Bridge St Hurstville NSW 2220 Phone 1300 36 1967 or 02 9585 6333. Web site www.npws.nsw.gov.au

© September 1999. Important Disclaimer
While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this publication, the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service disclaims any responsibility or liability in relation to anything done or not done by anyone in reliance upon the publication’ s content.

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