Consumer Buying Behaviour

The attitude of consumer or buyer decides how demand will emerge for a new product and service and how existing goods and services will be sold. The attitude in turn depends upon many economic, social, cultural, climatic factors. The decisions are also influenced by education, stage of economic development, lifestyle, information, size of family and hoast of other factors. To understand consumers each brand has to start by asking several basic questions: WHO? Who is the consumer? What are consumer’s demographics? Where does she stay? Which socio-economic class does she hail from? Who can influence her purchase behaviour? WHY? Why does she buy this product? This brand? What are her beliefs? What is her attitude towards this brand and the key competitors? What needs does this brand fulfill? WHEN? When does she buy the brand? Daily? Monthly? When does she use the brand? WHERE? Where does she buy the brand? Where else may she want to buy the brand? Where does she use the brand? At home? Outside?


Consumer Buying Behaviour

Who’s running the organization? Customers!!! By Tom Peters It’s an old saying that customer is the ‘king’ because he is the person on whose decision demand of any product or any service is dependent. The purpose of a business organization is to achieve the objectives set out by its stakeholders, its shareholders, its employees and others. But among the most important players in this game are the customers of the business. No business can be successful if it ignores the needs of its customers.


Consumer Buying Behaviour

Meaning and definition
The study of consumer behaviour implies how and why a particular consumer or group reacts to decisions of producers. Consumer behaviour could be defined as “those actions directly involved in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services, including the decisions process that proceeds and follow the action.” According to another author consumer behaviour is “the behaviour that consumer display in scanning for purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. The study of consumer behaviour is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources (time, money, effort) on consumption related items. It includes the study of what to buy, when to buy, why to buy, from where to buy, how often to buy, and how often they will use it.” Normally in consumer behaviour one studies the behaviour of consumers for consumption goods but in the study the behaviour of the buyer is also included. He may be user i.e. ultimate consumer or he may be buying for someone else. In a competitive environment, one cannot trust a product or a consumer. The producer has to produce what is demanded or what can be demanded. Study of consumer behaviour will help us to know what can be sold and what goods and services are likely to get rejected. In certain products like medicines one buys on the prescription of a physician which is also a part of consumer behaviour. In case of capital goods that is plant, equipment, machinery, buildings etc the decisions are often based on technical advise of others. In case of industrial raw materials the decision is influenced by supplier of equipment. Then there are purely consumer goods with short life and once they are used they extinguish. They are called Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). There are other consumer goods 3

Consumer Buying Behaviour which are durable like cars, refrigerators, electrical iron, juicer-mixer, etc but they basically consumer items with long life. There are also goods like clothes, which are not consumed in one go but are used for long. The behaviour of consumers for all these products is taken on different considerations than short-term consumer goods like fruits, juices, ice cream or milk. In short consumer behaviour implies study of behaviour of purchaser of all goods and services whether purely consumer goods, intermediate goods or capital goods. In other words it implies study of attitude of all consumers in disposing of their resources. Further it is not confined to final users but also include study of attitudes, of all those who take investment decisions whether they consume themselves or buy for others. It also includes study of behaviour of those who are consultant, advisers and give their opinion to but or not to buy a particular thing and the study of factors which influence their advise/opinion. Consumer behaviour is an art and a science, economics, psychology, sociology. The study of consumer behaviour envelops all these and more. Be it a housewife buying a tube of tooth paste, an executive buying a tie, a school kid buying a pen or a multimillion dollar corporation buying heavy capital equipment, the process of buying is complex and, at times, intriguing. The consumer buying process is influenced by the consumer’s financial position, personality, tastes, preferences, reference groups, social standing, and even the economic sentiment that is dictated by the status of the economy.


The organization should know who the regular users of the brand are? Who are the lapsed users of the brand? Why the users are continuing to use the brand and why the lapsed consumers have stopped using the brand? 5 . When a brand is being launched. with a new variant. Brand building is very important for retaining the customers. Just as the consumer puts a face to an organization by using the brand as the recognition device. understanding consumers will help the brand to rejuvenate itself. it is very important to understand the consumers and figure out what will attract them to the brand. or a new version. If it is an established brand that is growing at a slow rate relative to the market. it is the responsibility of the organization to recognize its consumers.Consumer Buying Behaviour Understanding consumers for brand building The success of a brand is dictated by its acceptance by consumers and consumer acceptance is dependent on whether or not the brand understands the consumer needs and fulfils them consistently.

Consumer Buying Behaviour Understanding consumers has to start and end with a series of questions:  Who are the consumers for the brand?  Why should they buy it?  When will they buy it?  Where will they buy it from?  How often will they buy it?  How much will they pay for it?  Whom will they consult for advice?  What are their beliefs about the product category?  What are the other products that serve the same purpose?  What is the share of this product category in solving the problem?  What are their attitudes towards the brand?  Why are some consumers never using the brand?  Why are some consumers using the brand regularly? 6 .

But since the manufacturer is trying to maximize his profits. higher the demand. Economic theory treats consumers as purely rational beings. A manufacturer makes consumption goods at a price and offers them to consumers at a price.Consumer Buying Behaviour Economics Economic theory talks about the producers of goods and consumers of goods. The consumers perceive value in the goods and are willing to pay a particular price for the goods. P R I C E DEMAND QUANTITY 7 . the demand-supply situation arrives at an equilibrium position. Economic theory states that lower the price. The economic theory of consumption gets more interesting as the number of manufacturers increases and there is competition amongst them for the consumer’s wallet.

If a marketer can identify consumer buyer behaviour. the reason for this is that some marketers still are not consumer oriented and do not regard customer satisfaction as a primary objective. he or she will be in a better position to target products and services at them. so it is impossible for marketers to determine what is highly satisfying to buyers. groups and organizations. which if predicted helps the marketer to market his products thereby increasing the profits.Consumer Buying Behaviour Buying behaviour Consumer will buy whatever needed by him. This buying behaviour can be explained in the following manner: Buying Behaviour = Ability * * Opportunity * * Motivation It is very important for marketers to understand consumer-buying behaviour because that is the only possibility to offer greater satisfaction for the consumer. The consumer buying is based on a particular behaviour. Buyer behaviour is focused upon the needs of individuals. 8 . But whatever he buys depends on some factors. Although there remains a certain amount of consumer dissatisfaction. Another problem is that the tools for analyzing consumer behaviour are not very precise.

if a member of your family is considering attending college. in other cases. so that they in turn will speak favourably about the company’s products/services to the actual purchaser or user. Companies may be able to target some forms of promotional activity at the influencers. professional acquaintances. a consumer will spend very little time considering the purchase itself before making the decision to buy e. will all have a certain degree of influence over the person’s final decision. buying a roll of selotape. For example. marketers are always interested in learning which people are likely to influence the purchase decisions of a typical consumer in a target group. etc. Identifying the key ‘influencers’ is important. siblings. consumers will ask the opinions of other people before making their purchase decision. However. teachers. The opinions of parents. friends. 9 . Hence.g.Consumer Buying Behaviour Buying decision For some purchases. then it is unlikely that they will decide which college to attend without first discussing the matter with several people.

a company should first determine the likely influence on a potential consumer. it can prove very effective indeed. These appear everywhere from television advertisements to web site banners. There are ads for removing baldness by using certain oils or creams. psychology. when a promotional message is targeted to a specific group of consumers. which may be economic or non-economic factors and are dependent upon economic factors such as income. T. producers of certain face creams advertise that with usage of their creams.g. and low-price offers. but this does not happen actually.V. The behaviour of consumer is dependent on a number of factors. In certain cases wrong statements are made that may influence the buying behaviour. etc. However there is dispute whether customer should be influenced or not and what methods should be applied to influence him. These messages could be about new product launches. sociology. 10 . This is because the marketing message has been developed to appeal specifically to people in target group of consumers. Consumers do not retain much of this marketing information. and climate. culture. Further more the marketing message will have been transmitted using promotional methods that these consumers have access to e. Therefore the study is dependent upon all these sciences and consumer behaviour scientists study it through research and they believe that behaviour can be influenced which has been proved by actual sales promotion of a large number of products. However. the Internet. complexion will become fair but actually it does not happen. price.Consumer Buying Behaviour POTENTIAL INFLUENCES ON CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR Consumers are constantly being bombarded with marketing information and promotional messages. special product promotions. For instance. Before developing a marketing access..

lifestyle. preferences especially on occasions like marriage. attitudes of individuals or groups.Consumer Buying Behaviour The main factors that influence buying behaviour are as follows: 1. The demonstration influence is also dependent upon psychology of an individual. 11 . Economic factors:  Price  Income  Distribution of income  Competition with substitutes  Utility  Consumer preferences 2. taste. Social factors:  Culture  Attitude of society  Social values  Life style  Personality  Size of family  Education  Health standards 3. Psychology It decides the personality.

but they certainly have no demand in cold regions.Consumer Buying Behaviour 4. certain much time do you have to shop?  Antecedent states • • • 7.who are you shopping with?  Physical surroundings . is affected by technological innovations and features. Culture is also influenced by climate.where are you shopping?  Temporal factors .who are you buying for?  Social surroundings . Situational influences  Purchase task . But it is not confined to durable goods only. history all affect consumer behaviour. Technology In case of equipments. In hot countries like India. The dress is also influenced by climate along with other factors. which keep us cool like squashes. 6. sarbats. Anthropology and Geography Climate. are demanded. Others What kind of mood are you in? Have you just been paid? Do you shop for status or self-gratification? 12 . Even in case of perishable goods the shelf life etc are determined by technological developments. 5. whether for consumer use or industrial use. Innovations and introduction of new products also depend upon technological change. region.

13 . refrigerators. distribution policies have also big effect on consumer behaviour. But with the competition emerging many cars. Therefore hardly any attention was paid to the consumer. For instance. Government decisions. TV’s and many items appeared on the scene. laws. It is because till recently say upto the beginning of 90’s there was sellers market and anything could be sold. Hindustan Motors continued to produce the same car for decades till Maruti appeared on the arena. This resulted into the study of consumer behaviour.Consumer Buying Behaviour This includes knowledge – technical or otherwise and information. MNC’s and few big companies have ignored except the consumer behaviour study in India. All these factors are studied by consumer behaviour scientists and then they decide what production and marketing strategy should be adopted to develop a particular product. change the existing product and what pricing and marketing mix should be used to attract more customers towards the product or service to optimize sales and profits.

These beliefs and preferences define consumers’ attitudes towards a brand. these likes and dislikes are favourable or unfavourable attitudes. marketers need to know how consumers develop beliefs about and preferences for brands based on the information they have processed. Attitudes help us understanding. Lifestyle is considered to be one of the most popular concepts in marketing as a way of understanding consumer behaviour.Consumer Buying Behaviour Influence of attitudes on buying behaviour Consumer characteristics like personality. In simple explanation. Attitudes. why consumers do or do not buy a particular product from a certain store. interests and opinions of consumers measure lifestyles.  Nature of consumer attitudes Marketers need to know what are consumer’s likes and dislikes. lifestyles and attitudes. To understand consumer attitudes. for evaluating marketing actions ever before they are implemented within the market place. This means attitudes towards brands are consumers learned tendencies to evaluate brands in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way. Attitudes can also be defined as “learned predispositions to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way”. 14 . They are used for judging the effectiveness of marketing activities. provide marketers with a fuller understanding of consumer behaviour than do demographics alone.

Intention measures do not reveal these reasons like convenient shopping hours. which influence intention to buy. 15 . All these components are linked to behaviour. the affecting component and intention to buy. brand beliefs influence evaluation. For example. but are limited in their diagnostic power. brand evaluations. This linkage gives the high involvement hierarchy of effects. since they offer the greatest predictive power. This is basically because of their inability to reveal why consumers intend. the conative component. consumer does not want to shop from a particular store for a number of reasons. evaluations and intentions to buy define the three components of attitudes as shown below – Brand Beliefs Evaluations Intentions These are linked to the main three components of attitudes. reasons for consumers’ attitudes and intention can be known by measuring beliefs.Consumer Buying Behaviour Three components of Attitudes: Brand beliefs. Therefore. There are important predicting and diagnostic differences among three components and measures when prediction is of prime concern then behavioural intention measures are most appropriate. Brand beliefs are the cogniting (thinking) component of attitudes.

consumers past experiences influence their brand attitude and condition their future behaviour.” Peer group influences Researchers say that peer groups are much more likely than advertising to influence attitudes and purchasing behaviour. For example. It is seen that brand loyalty will quickly end if brand does not perform well. preferences for food items etc. Products that fail to perform as expected can easily lead to negative attitudes. Personality Personality also affects consumer’s attitudes. are acquired from parents. Therefore. Information and experience According to learning theory. but then also form 16 . Sometimes. many consumers have never driven Mercedes – Benz or spent a vacation in Switzerland. even in absence of actual experience with an object one can form attitude. extroversion. Bonnet and Kassarjian say “Attitudes towards personal hygiene. Role of Direct or Indirect experience Attitudes are formed as a result of direct contact with the object.Consumer Buying Behaviour Family influences Family is an important influence on purchase decisions. Traits such as aggression. information and experience also determines attitude. submissiveness or authoritarianism may influence attitudes toward brands and products.

feelings like sense of fear. Advertisers have paid a considerable attention in developing attitude – toward – the – ad – model. or smile. According to this model. These judgements and feelings in turn affect the consumer’s attitude toward the ad and beliefs about the brand acquired from exposure to the ad.  Attitude -Toward the Ad models In today’s scenario. they can form the product attitudes. The model says that to assess consumer’s attitude towards an ad it is important to distinguish between cognitive evaluations of the ad (i. However. Similarly. where half of the business if fetched alone through advertising. This means consumers form stronger convictions about the product if had an actual direct experience with it. reinforce. or modify consumer attitudes. the consumers can form an attitude by just seeing the ad that means.) and also measures them separately. if the gap appears after exposure of an ad (around one week) the positive effect of a liked ad an the attitude towards a 17 . whether it is informative or humorous) and affective responses toward the ad (i.e.Consumer Buying Behaviour positive attitude for this. etc. Finally. researcher suggests that the feelings conveyed by an ad not only influence the attitude toward the ad but also affect the consumer’s evaluations of the brand and also the attitude towards the brand. Attitudes based on direct experience are held with more confidence. consumer’s attitude towards the ad and beliefs about the brand for his/her attitude the brand. The consumers form various judgements and feelings as and when they are exposed to an ad. or laughter. the need for understanding the impact of advertising on consumer attitudes toward particular products or brands has increased. These processes that govern attitude formation are very important in order to develop strategies and activities that will create.e.

It is also seen and tested through research that the consumer’s attitude toward the ad for a novel product (new one) will have a stronger impact on brand attitude and purchase intention than for a familiar product. Researchers say that both positive and negative feelings toward tend to exist side by side where both affect attitude uniquely. in this wide variety of feelings (both positive and negative) are to be assessed to study the influence of ad exposure. This usually happens when the purchase order is postponed or delayed by the consumer after an exposure of ad. the most heavily advertised brands would become most familiar to the consumers. So. So. The research shows that – Exposure Merely. exposing a subject to stimulus (product/service etc) may be enough for the person to form positive attitudes towards the stimulus.Consumer Buying Behaviour brand may change. so most likely to be picked off the supermarket shelf. in this research nature of attitude – object is used in assessing the potential impact of advertising exposure.  Can attitudes be changed? Formation of attitudes also explains how to change the attitudes but some other factors are involved. It is observed that attitude towards a specific type of advertising (eg. liking or disliking it). comparative) may have some impact on the attitude toward a specific ad (eg. Therefore in low involvement products like detergents. Researchers also found that beliefs about a brand that result from ad exposure play much stronger role in determining attitudes towards the brand for a familiar product. 18 . But attitudes toward ads in general seem to have little impact on the attitude toward a specific ad.

marketer can come up with the benefits of the product. So. so the consumer can reduce tension by buying that product and dissonance stage ends.Consumer Buying Behaviour Effective communication For changing the attitudes of consumers it is essential to treat the process of change as a form of information processing that is being subjected to persuasive communications. 19 . if they hold two psychologically inconsistent beliefs / ideas / values / attitudes at the same time or if their behaviour contradicts these cognitions. advertisers need to use persuasive communications in their advertisement. Cognitive dissonance According to this. all people strive to be consistent. they will find a way of reducing tension. At this moment.

In consumer studies. In contest another segment is on diet because of internal need. Psychoanalytic theory or Freud’s theory. This theory stresses the unconscious nature of personality as a result of childhood conflicts. Sociopsychological theory. personality is defined as consistent responses to environmental stimuli or we can also say patterns of behaviour that are consistent and enduring.Consumer Buying Behaviour Influence of personality on buying behaviour Personality has many meanings. company’s positioning strategies will be different for both. the human personality system consists of the id. For the first segment. 3. For example. An individual’s personality helps marketer to describe consumer segments as it provides for orderly and coherantly related experiences and behaviour. Therefore. they will portray group approval as a result of product use. Trait theory. ego. Personality characteristic may be a basis for product positioning.  Psychoanalytical theory This theory was given by Sigmund Freud. Marketers have used three personality theories to describe consumers: 1. superego and conflicts are derived from these three components. 20 . According to this theory. 2. one segment of the market may die because they want to stick to the group norms and therefore uses diet product. whereas positioning for the second segment would portray individual achievement.

A trait can be defined as any distinguishable. Karen Horney was a social theorist.  Socio-psychological theory According to this theory. self-sufficiency and freedom from obligations.  Trait theory This theory has been most widely used for measuring personality because it is a quantitative approach. This theory disagrees with Freud’s contention. Researchers believe that social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality. She believed that personality is developed as an individual learns to cope with basic anxieties that stems up from parent – child relationships. It is also called as Neo-Freudian theory. wanted and appreciated. individual and society are interlinked. Focus of marketers is on developing means to incomes these unconscious motives and applying psychoanalytical theory to marketing is known as motivational research. They desire independence. She proposed that individuals could be classified into three personality groups: Complaint – Those individuals who moved toward others. They desire to excel and win admiration.Consumer Buying Behaviour Researchers who apply this theory to marketing believe that id and superego operate to create unconscious motives for purchasing certain products. relatively 21 . They desire to be loved. Detached – Those individuals who move away from others. Although consumers are primarily unaware of their true reasons for buying what they buy. Aggressive – Those individuals who move against others. This theory states that an individual’s personality is composed of definite attributes called trait.

consumer materialism and consumer ethnocentrism. are increasingly being developed for use in consumer behaviour studies. such as self-confidence. Trait theorists construct personality inventories and ask respondents to respond to many items by agreeing or disagreeing with certain statements or expressing likes or dislikes for certain situations or types of people.Consumer Buying Behaviour enduring way in which one individual differs from another. For example. which measure just one trait. consumer susceptibility to inter personal influence. sociability relaxed style. These personality tests can be designed according to the need to measure traits such as consumer innovativeness. Single trait personality tests. 22 . These items are then are statistically analyzed and reduced to a few personality dimensions. amount of internal control.

In order to recognize the differences among consumers in different cultures and sub-cultures. Values are also used by consumers while evaluating brands. Self . According to the marketer actual self means consumers purchases are influenced by the image they have of themselves. laws and material artifacts. traditions.Concept means the desire to attain self – consistency and the desire to enhance one’s self-esteem. Values serve as the invisible outline for the development of many of the other components of the culture – the ideas. For example. Values are defined as an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or End State of existence. Personal values ask the question “Is this product for me?” These are particularly important in the needrecognition stage of consumer decision-making. Ideal self’s concept is related to one’s self-esteem. customs. a person who is dissatisfied with oneself will try and purchase products that could enhance their self-esteem. as “Is this brand for me?” Values are basically ‘ends’ people seek in their lives. Marketing often provides the ‘means’ to reach these ends. myths.Consumer Buying Behaviour Personal values (self concept or self images) Why do some people make their consumption decisions differently than others? Personality can be one reason and another can be personal values. Values are relatively stable but not completely static beliefs about what a person should do. According to the marketer. Values are concerned with the goals and the ways of behaving to obtain goals. rituals. Attaining self-consistency means that individuals will act in accordance with their concept of actual self. They buy products that they perceive as similar to their self-concept. a 23 . marketers must be able to identify the values that define the culture and their impact on consumer behaviour.

Extended self in simple term means we are what we wear. This means it emphasizes the interaction between individuals and the symbols of environment. we are what we use. This shows that consumers buy products for their symbolic value in enhancing their selfconcept. modern may buy a different type of perfume or shop at different stores than a woman who would like to be more warm and attractive.Consumer Buying Behaviour woman who is confident. 24 . efficient. It is not always that our self-image influences the products we choose but also the products we choose frequently influence our self-image. The products purchased with symbolic value say something about us and also what we feel about ourselves.

The study of consumer psychographics helps to promote sales especially of those products. which relates to personal comforts. fashion. etc.Consumer Buying Behaviour Life style concept Lifestyle is another factor. automobiles. It plays an important part in consumer behaviour and helps in the promotion of those products and services which are related to items of personal care. Lifestyle can also be defined as a mode of living that is identified by how people spend their time (activities). what is demanded or liked in Bengal may not be liked in Maharashtra. This means lifestyle reflects a person’s activities. Marketers try to relate the product to lifestyle. often through advertising. Consumer psychographics Psychographics is commonly known as study of ‘lifestyle’ of consumers. what they consider important in their environment (interests) and what they think of themselves and the world around them (opinions). Psychographic is the study of lifestyle of consumers based on their activities. 25 . Say for instance. in which people live and spend time and money. etc. telephonic services. interests and opinions. in a country like India where lifestyle differs widely from region to region. to the everyday experiences of the target market. Lifestyle can be defined as patterns. interests and opinions. the study of consumer psychographic is of great significance to the marketer. personal care. which influences consumer behaviour. fashion. It is one of the most popular concepts in marketing for understanding consumer behaviour and is more comprehensive and more useful than either personality or values.

segmenting markets and promoting sales. The psychographic research also takes the help of motivational research to find out why people have particular lifestyle and with help of motivational research tries to change the psychology of consumers and thus makes an effort to change their lifestyle which become basis of action. The help of psychographic is also taken to change the opinion and conduct opinion surveys on social. economic. Since the lifestyle depends on large number of factors the research also uses demographic and both are interdependent and take the help of each other. political and cultural issues. The activities and interest of consumers help to develop products for different segments and modify them according to the opinion of consumers surveyed.Consumer Buying Behaviour In a country like India consumer psychographic is of great significance in developing products and services. 26 .

Friendship Groups The immediate group. which they can’t with the family members. friends most likely influence an individual’s purchase decisions. which an individual forms after he/she moves out from the house. and how one person’s purchasing influences the other individual’s actions. that from childhood an individual’s needs and consumption decisions are influenced by his/her family. etc. security and opportunity to discuss the matter. is friendship group. in their vicinity. Friends fulfill a wide range of needs like they provide companionship.Consumer Buying Behaviour Influence of group dynamics / peer groups / consumer reference groups Group dynamics means how individual form groups. A ‘group’ may be defined as two or more people who interact to accomplish either individual or mutual goals. Importance of family in various decisions is based on frequency of contact that individual has with other family members. or a formal group like housing association members who are more concerned about schools. 27 . Friendships are also sign of maturity and independence as they represent a breaking away from the family and forming social ties with the outside world. This means that there can be an intimate group like two neighbours going out for shopping. Consumer Relevant Groups The family It is seen. After family. parks.

Consumer Buying Behaviour Friend’s opinions and preferences are very important for influencing an individual’s behaviour in determining the products or brands he/she actually selects. Formal Social Groups Formal social groups, as the name says, lack intimate relationship and they serve different function for an individual. Person joins this group to fulfill goals like making new friends, pursuing special interest, etc. This type of group interests marketers because often consume products together, can discuss products or brand or stores informally with other members and sometimes can even copy the consumption behaviour of other members whom they admire. Consumer relevant group could be any person or any group that a consumer may ask for to help him / her buying a particular product. Many a times, consumers are confused in buying some products. These products could be of same utility, same price, different brand, etc. At such times, consumer does not really know what to buy which brand to buy and at what price to buy. So, here comes the need for consumer relevant groups.


Consumer Buying Behaviour

Influence of social and economic classes
Consumer behaviour is influenced by environment in which one lives. A number of factors such as culture, social class, personal influences, family, religion and his situation affect the decision process. Amongst them social class has great impact on consumer behaviour. Social class can be described as “divisions within society composed of individuals sharing similar values, interest and behaviour.” Two-category social class scheme divides the society in two classes based on profession or level of income i.e. Blue collar (workers) and white collar (office jobs) understand the buying behaviour of consumers, occupation of people is to be studied as people of same profession are expected to behave in a similar manner. All chartered accountants, all lawyers, all architects behave similarly. However, they may not be having same outlook. For example, the income of a lawyer varies between Rs.5000 per month to Rs.30 lakh per month. A doctor may earn Rs.100 per day to Rs.10000 per day. These income differences make big differences in their behaviour as a consumer. Classification of social class Occupation To in one class marketer may not be able to get much advantage in marketing. Therefore along with occupation there is further division based on income. Persons of some occupation are therefore subdivided into various classes based on income.


Consumer Buying Behaviour

Education The level of education also affects the behaviour as a consumer. An illiterate man has no interest in newspapers; books and magazines but people with high education need these products regularly. In the matter of other products, consumption also differs widely, therefore sometimes it is desirable to classify as per level of education. Income The income of an individual or family plays an important role in his behaviour as a consumer. The demand of products for rich, high income, middle income, low income and poor differs widely and therefore it is most important criteria for social classification. But people even in same bracket behave differently based on many other factors such as place of their residence (urban, rural) or even state. Even people with same education, occupation and income behave differently in different regions due to cultural factors, climate, traditions, social customs, etc. Religion Religion is another factor, which influences the behaviour, as a consumer too consumption of certain products is tobacco in some religion but permitted in other irrespective of other factors. Jains, Brahmins, Agrawals generally will not eat meat but it is openly consumed by many other classes. Sikhs will not consume tobacco and cigarettes. Not only in the matter of eating religion also affects consumption in other ways. People of different religion have different festivals when they are gee and happy and buy new things for self, family and for gifting. These factors affect their behaviour as a consumer and are very important for marketer.


Consumer Buying Behaviour

Life style of various social classes The life style that is consumer behaviour of various social classes differs widely. A person in lowest class is able to buy only the bare minimum requirements of life. In India and some other countries there are people living below the poverty line. This class is not able to meet even basic minimum and live on the many of state and/or social organization for their shelter, education of children and meeting their day-to-day requirements. On the other extreme there are rich people either because of historical factors like zamindars and the like. But researchers have established that lifestyle of one social class in terms of attitude towards life; activities, behaviour and beliefs tend to be similar. On this basis researchers segregate them in different classes. The decision process of individuals, families and classes are influenced by a number of factors such as culture, social class, personal influence, region, religion, level of income and profession, etc. In society there are divisions based on their values, interests and behaviours and people of homogenous natures, values, culture, interest and religion often are considered social class. But most of the marketers have measured social class on their economic status, profession and income. They do not consider religion, region and other social factors very important. But generally there is an agreement that “social classes are very broad groupings of individuals which hold roughly similar status levels in the society.”


etc. marriage or adoption and reside together but often does not include those who are residing but have close blood relations. provide emotional support. lifestyle. The basic functions of family are economic well being of members. 32 . which includes consumer socialization.Consumer Buying Behaviour Influence of family in decision-making Normally what one understands from family is husband. establish suitable life style for the family and ensure proper socialization of family members. The role and functions of the family depends upon education. democratic parents and permissive parents. reflecting parents. family income. its usage and the price. The decisionmaking depends to a great extent on item to be purchased. wife and their children living with them in western civilization. But in India the family is much more extended and includes all those persons who are related by blood. Regarding consumer decisions there are four types of parents namely authoritarian parents.

Will he pick the Pepsi? What made his mother stock Pepsi at home? Was it meant for the kid or was it meant for the guests arriving at 4 p. his eyes fall on the bottle of Pepsi. He wants a drink of water. At the heart of any buyer behaviour model is the buying process: Need recognition Information research Evaluation of alternatives Selection of Brand and Outlet 33 . While grabbing a bottle of water. Models have been developed to explain the various factors that influence purchase behaviour. say a boy feels thirsty.m.Consumer Buying Behaviour BUYER BEHAVIOUR Buyer behaviour model How does a consumer make a purchase decision? What are the factors that influence this process? How do these factors interact among themselves? To explain in a very simple manner. A large amount of work has been done in the area of buyer behaviour.

your sources. etc. The second stage refers to the information search. This basically involves your network. This stage will show whether you are satisfied with the product or not. This will include all the alternatives you have and which of them is most promising in terms of your needs. This also includes buying the product. What does the consumer needs? In the earlier example in can be explained as the need for quenching thirst.Consumer Buying Behaviour Post-purchase Reactions The first stage refers to the need recognition. This is basically what the consumer wants. The fourth stage refers to selection of Brand and Outlet. This will include what all drinks are available for quenching your thirst. This will include water. This is basically out of the alternatives which brand have you selected to go in for and out of the various outlets available. The fifth or the last stage is the Post-purchase Reactions. 34 . from where you are planning to buy your selected product. sherbets. The third stage refers to evaluation of alternatives. This basically includes your reaction towards the product you purchased. soft drinks.

We can classify them into two major categories: 1. vicarious exploration (where the consumer stores about the new information). highly dogmatic consumers are more likely to choose established rather than innovative product alternatives. Consumer innovativeness means now receptive consumers are to new products / services so that both consumers and marketers can be benefited from the right innovation. 2. In contrast. Variety – novelty seeking are of many types: exploratory purchase behaviour (brand switchers for experiencing new brands). Cognitive personality factors and interrelated consumption and possession traits.Consumer Buying Behaviour How to predict buyer behaviour This is a very important question for marketers and it has been the objective of most personality research. Psychologists and other behavioural scientists have theorized that personality characteristics should predict brand or store preference and other types of buyer’s activity. Consumers who are low in dogmatism are more likely to prefer innovative products to established alternatives. For measuring the researchers have designed certain instruments because personality – trait measure provides insights into the nature of consumer’s willingness to innovate.  Consumer innovativeness and their susceptibility to interpersonal influence There are various personality traits that have helped in differentiating between consumer innovator and non-innovators. where the consumer uses already adopted product on a new or novel way.e. Consumer innovativeness and their susceptibility to interpersonal influence. and use innovativeness i. Dogmatic persons are those who display rigidity towards the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to their own established beliefs. 35 .

such as the model or the situation in which the product is used. Value – expressive influence – the consumers desire to enhance their standing with others by being similar to them. • Need for Cognition (NC) – Need for Cognition measures a persons craving for or enjoyment of thinking.  Cognitive Personality factors and interrelated consumption and possession traits It is very interesting for the researchers to know how cognitive personality factors influence various aspects of consumer behaviour.Consumer Buying Behaviour Consumer researchers are also interested in knowing the traits of the consumers who are likely to be responsive to the influence of others. there are three types of interpersonal influence: • • • Information influence –the tendency to accept information from others as evidence about reality. According to this theory. 36 . Utilitarian influence – the consumers confirms with the wishes of others in order to obtain a reward or avoid punishment. • Visualizer’s v/s verbalizers – Visualizers are those who prefer visual information and products that stress the visual and verbalizers are those who prefer written or verbal information and products. It is seen through research that consumers who are high in NC are more likely to see that part of an ad first that is rich in product – related information are unresponsive to the contractual or peripheral aspects of the ad. There are two types of cognitive personality traits.

First. Consumers not only ascribe personality traits to products or services. Second is to develop broader behavioural concepts that are likely to be better targets for market segmentation. For example. they also tend to associate personality factors with specific colours. Coco-cola is associated with red. wishing to create a sophisticated personal or a premium image use labeling or packaging that is primarily black. In some cases. 37 .like connotations. various or even brands are associated with a specific colour with personality . is to study the personality of brands rather than of people.Consumer Buying Behaviour The failure of personality measures to predict consumer behaviour has given rise to new approaches. which connotes excitement. For instance. Therefore. yellow is associated with “novelty” and black means “sophistication”.

One expects best of performance. durability. computer or something else or services like restaurant. Finally there are a number of alternatives for each product or service. information.V. which he evaluates from a product. communication. durability and dependability. commitment. purchase importance and extent of information research. The degree of involvement depends upon the level of knowledge. soap. finance. T. wheat flour. degree of involvement is high. refrigerator. The buyer expects best of performance.Consumer Buying Behaviour Decision-making When one decides to buy a particular product it is an economic decision and expectations play an important role.. garments or consumer durables like car. and dependability from a product or a service. culture and social system for the same product in different settings. psychology. The involvements are ego involvement. involvement. doctor or others having long life. The consumer has to decide which one should be bought. In case of short life FMCG the involvement is low and the degree of involvement is medium in case of items which have medium life and have to be replaced after some time. 38 . The decision making process is a process where by a buyer decides to purchase a particular product out of various available alternatives. The process of selection and final selection is known as buying decision making. cosmetics. Expectancy can be defined as “a monetary belief concerning the likelihood that a particular act will be followed by a particular outcome. In case of consumer non-durables choice is immense. Be it shampoo. washing machine.” Act is the decision to buy a particular service or product and outcome is satisfaction or dissatisfaction from use/consumption of purchased products or service.

 Low involvement-think For buying the products included in this category. This will involve the psychological side. etc. a consumer does not have to think much. a consumer does not have to think much. engine oil. etc. 39 . These products are responsive i. For buying these products.Consumer Buying Behaviour Consumer buyer behaviour segments products into four quadrants:  High involvement-think This actually makes the consumer to think before buying. soft drinks. the consumer has to actually feel the importance or the need of the product. if you have to buy you will. cooking oil. Examples would be detergents. etc. you don’t have an option. Examples could be cars. etc. special skin creams. These products are needed in daily life.e. For buying these products the consumer has to do a bit of thinking as the products are expensive and can be bought once and not again and again.  High involvement-feel For buying products included in this category.. headache pills. Examples included in this category would be ice creams. camera. T. Examples could be baby food.  Low involvement-feel These products are basically there to satisfy the needs and wants of a consumer. This will involve the economic side.V.

Items may be purchased frequently or out of habit. communication.Consumer Buying Behaviour High versus Low Involvement Problem-Solving  High Involvement purchase occasions. typically involve little information search or consideration of various brands. such as in the repeat purchasing of a family brand of convenience product. the purchase of an automobile or stereo system.e. They tend to be privately consumed.g. identification and evaluation of alternatives. E.  Word-of-mouth. However.  Consideration of several products attributes and brands. Decision making process A consumer can pass through a number of stages when making a purchase decision.  Have serious personal consequences. the process moves very quickly. Low Involvement purchase occasions. i.  Reflect one’s social image. 40 .g.  The formation of attitudes. require extensive problem-solving. These occasions typically involve:  Extensive information search.  Items can be expensive. In some buying situations. in other situations each stage of the consumer buying process can be clearly observed. require routine problem solving. the purchase of soap or toothpaste. E. they usually don’t involve any personal consequences. other than price.

Consumer Buying Behaviour The stages that a consumer typically passes through are as follows: Awareness Interest in product/service Evaluation Trial when allowed Rejection/purchase Product evaluation Final adoption or rejection No future purchase Repeat purchase in case of FMCG 41 .

In case of durables like refrigerator. if a consumer purchases a shampoo and likes it. etc. This is equally applicable to any other product also. The next stage is your interest in the product. Therefore. For instance there are hundreds of shampoos available in the Indian market but unless the consumer is aware about its performance. 42 . Say if someone has to decide to buy a car. After trial or evaluation of its attributes the consumer may either purchase or reject the product or the service. For example. This can be there or can be developed only if you very well know the utility of the product i. consumer must be informed about its availability. he gets first hand experience and the product can be evaluated once again. The consumer before making the purchase decision can buy small packs for trial. he must show interest in the new brands also.e. these days most car producers allow trial run and one can evaluate the automobile by trial run. If the consumer decides to purchase the product. small packets are available. Evaluation in certain items can be done by the trial of the product. etc. if one finds the product as per his expectations..e. Unless he knows about the availability of the product (in this case take a shampoo) of a particular brand. In case of certain consumer items like shampoos. he will have repeat purchase. he must not restrict his choice to a few well-known brands. it is the function of the marketer to make the prospective customers to know about a product i. washing powders. the brand is not considered. he will not only adopt it but will recommend it to others as well. If after the use the product is not found satisfactory it will not only be rejected but the experience will be narrated to others also. T. This is whether you are aware about the product or not. Take the case of a shampoo. for what all purposes the product can be used.V.Consumer Buying Behaviour The decision-making process starts by awareness. so that he may evaluate them. it will not enter into consumer decision-making. If there are 10/15 shampoo brands in the market all of them should interest the customer. For instance.

obtaining holiday brochures. etc.  The consumer experiences the vacation. discouraging them from making the same purchases. holiday activity for the family. 43 . airline tickets. then the negative aspects of the vacation may be related to family and friends. etc. surfing the Internet.  The consumer purchases the vacation alternative. etc. they may decide to take this vacation again or recommend it to other family members or friends. flight schedules. If the vacation experience has been an unhappy one.  The consumer evaluates the alternative vacation possibilities.  The consumer starts to search for information about potential holiday destinations. This information may involve talking to friends and family. such as purchasing a family vacation.Consumer Buying Behaviour These stages can be clearly demonstrated in the following example:  The consumer recognizes that they wish to make a purchase. availability of hotel accommodations.  The consumer makes a final decision about which vacation alternative to purchase. This may be in the form of single purchase through a travel agent or may consist of several purchases such as hotel accommodation. If the consumer and his/her family are satisfied with the vacation.

Hospital. Insurance Company To purchase a new brand To purchase on sale brand To buy on discount sales To buy national brand To purchase usual tried brand. To try another Service provider who has reputation. Hotel. To buy store brand.Consumer Buying Behaviour Purchase decisions for FMCG Alternative 1 To purchase and consume one’s usual tried brand. To depend on same service provider i. Courier service. Not to purchase on sale brand. Not to buy on discount sales. Doctor. Alternative 2 To purchase new brand which is well known. 44 .e.

Consumer Buying Behaviour Purchase decisions for Consumer Durables Alternative 1 Buy national brand with highest market share Buy new innovative product Buy on the basis of Company’s reputation Buy international brands Buy domestic known brands Buy only well known brand Buy new company’s items Alternative 2 Buy cheap brand 45 .

The author survey in Delhi suggests that 90 percent of purchases of durables and consumer durables are fully planned. a consumer may decide before visit to the shop that what items he wants to purchase like soap. They are normally purchased after proper evaluation of the product. wheat flour. In these cases consumer decides in advance what product model and what brand he will buy. For instance.e. Fully planned purchases Most of the purchases of consumer durables like T. refrigerators. In this group often the decision on the quantity to be purchased is decided by seeing the prices.Consumer Buying Behaviour PURCHASES Methods of purchases The method of purchase depends upon the product to be purchased and purchase intentions.V. 46 . cooking range are fully planned. the display of packaging and the mood of the consumer at the time of purchase. only in few items the brand is also predetermined but the decision sometimes is changed after visiting the shop/store on the recommendation of the retailer/shop keeper or by seeing the product.. partially planned or unplanned. cars. shopping list is decided before stepping out of the house. tea. insurance policy are fully planned. Partially planned purchases In this category those items fall which consumer intents to buy but does not make a shopping list before visiting the store/shop. But very often the brand is decided at the shop after looking around. The next category of purchases is daily consumption items for which a list of products to be purchased is decided before visiting a shop or a store i. The purchases can be fully planned. Similarly purchases of durables like house property.

display. he is forced to buy a woollen jacket. which he was urging to buy for. etc. If consumer finds that there are discounts or sales promotion schemes. But study done in Delhi suggest that only 10 percent of purchases fall in this group. For example. Sometimes one is influenced by sudden excitement and stimulation to purchase a product suddenly. This is also situational influence on purchase decision. a person from South India visits Delhi in December/January unaware of weather. discounts. When one visits a store and sees that certain products are at 80 percent discount or ‘one is free with one’ or there is a scope of winning a lottery the consumer puts aside ‘shopping list’ and purchases such a product. long immediately buys it. Unplanned purchases occur “when a consumer experiences a sudden. thinking that it may not be available when actually he will need it. sales promotion schemes. Unplanned purchases Those purchases.Consumer Buying Behaviour vegetable oil but the quantity and the brand is decided at the store. A person from Delhi when visits Kerela in July/August without knowing that it rains heavily there all the time. impulse buying is prone to occur with diminished regard to consequences”. When one sees a store and finds a product. lottery gifts. This is spontaneous purchase. Home purchases from sales persons are largely of this nature as well as certain purchases at the store. Also. often powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. When after arrival in Delhi he feels cold. In such items advertisements. The impulse to buy is hedonically complex and may stimulate emotional conflict. thinking that it is bargain purchase and its advantage must be taken. he is forced to buy an umbrella or a raincoat. he may decide to buy larger quantities than otherwise intended. induce a consumer to purchase them when otherwise he has no intention to buy. 47 . are called unplanned purchases. free coupons. which are made spontaneously without prior planning.

 Purchase in fairs. 23-30 percent of purchases are partially planned and 10-20 percent of purchases are unplanned.  Power compulsion and intensity to acquire a product. The survey of buyers in Delhi suggests that only 60-70 percent of purchases are planned.  Excitement and stimulation. quality wise or product wise or they see some new product purchases are made spontaneously without any prior plan. People in India visit many fairs and melas where they go with the intention to buy certain goods but neither have they decided in advance their purchase basket nor they have shopping list. exhibitions. exhibition or mela almost 100 percent of purchases are unplanned. The unplanned purchases can be under following circumstances:  Spontaneous. 48 .Consumer Buying Behaviour When one visits a fair. If they find something attractive to purchase either price wise.  Situational influence.

 Direct mail. Therefore when a hawker or a salesperson visits a house. But home purchases are of two types of goods. In order to help consumers to buy sitting at home now many suppliers of food. he induces the consumer to purchase from him.  E-commerce/telemarketing. ice-creams. Home shopping There was a time when very high percentages of purchases were made through home shopping.Consumer Buying Behaviour Process of purchases  Purchases can be made in the following ways:  Home shopping salesman. Such purchases are increasing day by day and the share of home purchases in the recent years has gone up from 10 percent in 1999 to 15 percent in 2001 in Delhi as per the survey. 49 . which are not available on the shop in villages. Now in USA and other developed countries the role of home shopping has very much reduced and now does not account for more than 10 percent of total purchases. Many persons specially ladies purchase from them to save time and inconvenience to visit the market. One those which are branded and well known and other in which brand does not matter or where it is felt that it is a bargain purchase when sales person of well known companies make door to door selling for sales promotion. drinks. especially in rural areas where shops are few and on them all the products are not available. hawkers. in India such purchases are much higher of the total. However.  Visiting a shop or store or showroom. In rural areas home purchases are also made of products. pizza are delivered at home.

In this type of sales the marketer gets telephone numbers of likely consumers and tries to persuade them to buy the particular property. Some of the consumers study them and place orders but some others discard such mail literature. Some customers in USA get lots of such mails everyday. But most of the consumers do not have faith in such sales and just ignore them. Telemarketing is gradually becoming popular. Its basic limitation is that most of the people in India do not have telephones and those who have telephones do not want to talk during office hours. Therefore this system of purchase is not popular in India in spite of renewed efforts by some companies but it is quite popular in USA. The theory of such marketing is that it eliminates intermediaries and so consumers get products at cheaper price. still insurance companies and banks are trying in a big way. In India also the purchases from shops may be almost same percentage or little lower because in India 50 . They are afraid that they may not be cheated with regard to the product or it may be inferior or may not be dispatched at all. E-Commerce. its price and mode of payment preferred by the seller. in other cases one prefers to see the product. it is estimated that in USA 90 percent of purchases are in stores.Consumer Buying Behaviour Direct mailing In Europe. USA and Japan a significant purchases are made through direct mail. service or product. Telemarketing E-commerce is becoming increasingly popular round the globe. distributors or marketer mails the catalogue to the consumers giving certain basic details about the product. In India also some companies are mailing literature to the consumers directly or through agencies. But consumers buy them through mail only if they are well known brands. Retail shop purchases Though exact figures are not available about purchases at retail shops or departmental stores. In these system manufacturers.

nor piped music or fancy light. This type of habit is declining in USA and Europe because more and more ladies take to a job. they work in small space and save on rent. Many ladies visit the market for removal of boredom.e. It is said that “shopping has almost become a way of life itself for some”. such consumers are generally non-responsive to marketing efforts and visit the market only when they are forced to do so but their percentage in population is around 10 percent of the total. These stores have low overhead cost. In India also in metropolitan cities and in big towns gradually the role of such stores is increasing specially after globalization. passing time. recreation and sometimes even for window shopping for increasing the knowledge about various products and utilize it later on for actual purchases. Along with shopping they go to some eating-house specially ‘chat’ shop. But in India ladies of big families who have little work at home. 51 . which are visited by upper income group people or youngsters. But there is also a group of consumers who feel boredom to go to a shop and prefer home shopping. USA. they do not have innovative shop displays and save on space. These stores make bulk purchases generally from the manufacturers and thus get bulk discount. They keep only those items. which sell fast and thus streamline inventory management and save on inventory cost. bargain purchases. The motivation for shopping in markets and superstores is not just purchases. dispelling boredom or hunt shopping to buy something which may be available cheap I. These stores generally do not have air condition shop. etc in last few decades the importance of departmental stores in total sales is quite substantial. In Europe. have a car at their disposal and shop only for pleasure.Consumer Buying Behaviour home purchases are more. There are many reasons for frequent shopping such as loneliness. Discount stores There are certain stores who sell throughout the year at a discount. The retail shops may be traditional shops in the colony or in the market or there can be departmental stores. Australia. Japan.

Besides television advertisements for such purchases. According to recent studies such discount stores are increasingly becoming popular and so more of them are coming up. a cooperative store works on this principle. In Delhi Economy store works on this principle. They are innovative products. This type of advertisement ahs helped in promoting sales. Home Shopping Network Inc. This type of buying requires a confidence in the seller and therefore to create confidence among many such stores advertise that if the product is not found satisfactory. 52 . In Delhi Super Bazaar.Consumer Buying Behaviour These discount stores offer goods below the price charged by other shops and often discount is 10-15 percent. These stores appeal most to the middle class who are price conscious. was the pioneer in selling through television advertisement. and ‘sky-shop’ is one of the biggest sellers through television advertisement in India. Direct Response Advertisement The direct is stimulated most by television advertisement for specific products which generally are not made available in the market. it can be returned after a week or fortnight of use but cost of return has to be borne by the buyer. ads are also given in magazines and newspapers. In USA.

They are: First. he learns whether his perception about a product or service was right decision. which may be one or the other as shown below: Outcome of purchase Results match Expectation Results are better than Expectation Results below Expectation Based on experience and results the consumer reconfirms his decision for the failure (if result matches expectations or are better than expectations) but modifies his decision if he is not satisfied. There are four purchase results for the consumer.Consumer Buying Behaviour Results of purchases Whatever process and method of purchase is adopted the ultimate objective of a consumer is to get a satisfaction from the use or consumption of a product. The post purchase evaluation by the consumers is important not only for the consumers for future decisions but they are also equally important and valuable for the marketer to maintain and expand its sales. 53 .

54 .  Discontinue purchasing the product or using a service.  Complain to company.  Complain to consumer court or other bodies’ setup for the purpose by the industry / trade associations or consumer associations. he is required to know the reactions of consumers. which will help in future decision making. about disposition of a product after it has been used. consumer acquires knowledge and information about the product or service. Third. There comes the need of market research. In all three circumstances the marketer has to make strategy for future after knowing consumers satisfaction and dissatisfaction level. If a consumer is satisfied with a product he may normally buy same brand in future but in order to keep his products ahead of competitors. The post purchase results are also very important for the marketer to help him to maintain and expand his sales value. they may respond in one or more of the following ways:  Take no action. he learns whether he is satisfied. he will not buy the product second time. And if the results are below expectations of consumers.Consumer Buying Behaviour Secondly. He has to find out why consumers are satisfied. Fourth. Consumer response to Dissatisfaction When consumers are dissatisfied with a product or service. And if the consumers are satisfied more than their expectations the marketer has to maintain his lead.  Engage in negative word of mouth communication to other consumers.

2.” Objectives  Exploring the market of blister pack. This method of obtaining information is based on the questioning of the 55 . Problem identification  Marico’s Objectives: “To determine the market potential and the ways through which sales of blister pack can be increased”.  Market Research Problem: “Awareness about parachute blister pack among the consumers and identification of needs for blister pack purchase. It is a preliminary study and findings can be further consolidated after detailed conclusive study has been carried out. The survey method was followed.Consumer Buying Behaviour CASE STUDY Research Methodology 1. The major methods employed in research are survey and observation. Type of research Exploratory Research The research work was Exploratory in nature and was meant to provide the basic information required by research objectives.  Which types of consumers are purchasing blister packs?  What are the key factors in buying decision of blister pack?  Whether there is market potential or not for the blister pack?  What are the other substitutes consumers are using for blister pack?  Role of retailers in promotion of blister pack.

 Wording questions properly is not easy. Advantages  The questionnaire is simple to administer. 56 . Disadvantages  Respondents may be unwilling or unable to provide the desired information. the questioning is structured.  Data obtained are reliable because the responses are limited to the alternatives stated.  Sampling frame: Mumbai region  Sampling technique: Judgmental sampling  Sampling size: From whole of Mumbai. Sampling design process  Target population: The target population about which the inferences are to be made is consumers of parachute blister pack  Population frame: Retailers.Consumer Buying Behaviour respondents.  Coding analysis and interpretation of data are relatively simple. meaning some standardization is imposed on the data collection process. 3. Typically.  Respondent may not respond if the desired information is sensitive or personal. 300 consumers and 50 retailers are covered for which we have nearly contacted 1000 people.

A brief questionnaire focused to collect the relevant information was prepared. 57 . Tools used for research Tools used for this research are questionnaire and in-depth interview. The data gathered through these questionnaires was analyzed using different statistical tools to judge the buyer behavior and major influencing factors for the purchase of blister pack.Consumer Buying Behaviour 4. Time for completion The time taken to complete the market survey was 4 weeks. 3 weeks for the consumers and 1 week for retailers. 5. For back up information and more in-depth look data has been collected from retailers regarding sale and promotional tools for blister pack. The respondents were asked to fill up this questionnaire followed by in-depth interview.

Some consumers perceive that massaging hair oil has a cooling impact on the head. This will make the job of the marketer easier and simpler. 58 . Some people also use hair oil after bath as a conditioner. as he will be aware and very clear as to what he has to actually do and decide the strategies thereby. soft and shining after applying oil. the usage of hair oil is a deeply ingrained habit with Indian consumers. It also has a cosmetic appeal in terms of hair styling. as hair remain straight. this is one product where the major players do not have to fight either monetary or psychological barriers to usage.Consumer Buying Behaviour Profile of hair oil industry Unlike shampoos or hair colors. Segmentation It is very important to segment the target market before selling or marketing your product. In north people use coconut oil as well as some other oil such as rapeseed. Hair oil is perceived to provide benefits of nourishment. 300 crore hair oils market is easy. etc. Hair oiling is an age-old traditional habit of Indians. strengthening hair. Hair oil is primarily used as a pre-wash nourisher. faster and better growth and reducing the problem of falling hair. sesame. But this does not necessarily mean that being a branded player in the Rs1. which are products relatively new to the Indian psyche. Coconut oil is very popular in the south. Therefore.

non-greasy look. The market has been growing at around 3-4% in volume terms and 6-7% pa in value terms. castor oil) is used for hair care also.2%. Awareness about hair oil is over 90% in rural as well as urban areas. the same closely follows at 85. Therefore.g.8% compared to medium and large town where it is 89. the actual size of the oil market should be larger than what is estimated on the basis of branded hair oils. Coconut oil and perfumed oil accounts for about 65% and 35% of market in volume terms. 60% of which is sold in branded form. hair nourishing and more recently.8% in rural areas. Consumer Awareness and Penetration Hair oil is an everyday habit with about 50% of the population. is impressive.9%. The branded hair oil market is estimated at 70000 ton. and conversely other edible oil classified as cooking medium (for e. In urban areas.Consumer Buying Behaviour The major positioning platforms for hair oil are purity. although significantly lower than the shampoo market. a peculiarly Indian habit. Market growth. penetration is higher in small towns (0. 59 . Market size The coconut hair oil market is currently estimated at Rs14bn. as penetration is already high. While penetration in urban areas is marginally higher at 90. Penetration of hair oil is 87% at all India level and is almost evenly distributed in urban and rural areas.5-89. Growth There are several consumers who use coconut oil in cooking (especially in the south). In fact. Hair oiling. this growth rate has been maintained with strong marketing aggression by leading players in the segment.1-0.5m population) at 91. is extremely popular in urban as well as rural India.

to value added manufactured products 60 . Organization Profile History of Marico The history of Marico can be traced all the way back to 1857. In April 1990. The market for these products is estimated at Rs4. specialty chemicals and spice extracts. Bombay Oil again restructured itself to form several companies. grew to include other export worthy commodities. such as non-sticky hair oil. The history of Marico can be traced all the way back to 1857. In 1983. Gradually.Consumer Buying Behaviour During the last few years. a Fatty acids and Chemicals Division and an Oleoresins Division. when a young man Kanji Moorarji. in time. set up a modest trade in spices which. Bombay Oil divisionalised its operations to create three Businesses: a Consumer Products Division. also called the Spice Extracts Division. the company established itself firmly as a marketer of branded vegetable oils and later expanded into fatty acids. each focusing on a specialized area of business. At first Bombay Oil was involved in copra trading besides crushing and refining of vegetable oils.25bn and has been growing at 20-25% pa. in time. several product variants. These variants are growing at a much faster pace. value added hair oil. the Consumer Products Division became Marico. compared to the pure coconut hair oil segment. to value added manufactured products. when a young man Kanji Moorarji. In 1990. grew to include other export worthy commodities. etc have become very popular. This firm's success gave birth to The Bombay Oil Industries in 1948. set up to convert the traditional buying strengths of the firm in the commodities areas. set up to convert the traditional buying strengths of the firm in the commodities areas. set up a modest trade in spices which. This firm's success gave birth to The Bombay Oil Industries in 1948.

Saswad. Marico's own manufacturing facilities are located at Goa. Pondicherry and Daman Supported by subcontracting units. Financial Year 2002-03 Turnover ~ Rs. Marico operates through Marico Bangladesh Limited.  Aesthetic Services. In Bangladesh. Kanjikode. The Overseas Sales franchise of Marico's branded FMCG products is one of the largest among the Indian companies. Kaya and Sundari.  Global Ayurvedics business. Sil. Saffola. Sweekar. 61 . Hair & Care. Shanti. near Gazipur. Revive.Consumer Buying Behaviour About Marico A leading Indian group operating in:  Consumer Products. Jalgaon. Mealmaker.7. a wholly owned subsidiary manufacturing facility at Mouchak. Mediker.75 billion (USD 163 Million) 12 brands and extensions with leadership in respective categories are as follows: Parachute.

more than fifteen countries in the Middle East and the Asian sub-continent. IBG’s product offering The portfolio comprises:  Parachute Coconut Oil  Parachute Gold .Consumer Buying Behaviour International Business Group (IBG) Marico’s International Business is one of the top three among the Indian Consumer Goods companies. Marico reaches. Marico’s product offerings in the international markets include Parachute Coconut Oil. Hair Creams and edible oils.a hair oil  Parachute Hair Cream  Parachute Beliphool – a perfumed hair oil  Parachute Rose – a perfumed hair oil  Parachute Shanti Him Kesh Tel – a cooling hair oil  Saffola and Sweekar Refined edible oils 62 . Perfumed Oils.

Yemen. Oman. Saudi. Bahrain. Bhutan. About Parachute 63 . Bangladesh. US. Singapore. Australia and Afghanistan. Nepal. and Sri Lanka. Qatar.Consumer Buying Behaviour Geographical Reach Our products reach several countries in the Middle East and the Asian sub-continent: UAE. Pakistan. Canada. Kuwait. Malaysia.

enabling conversion of loose oil consumers to packaged Parachute Coconut Oil. Innovations in Parachute To support its continuing endeavour to provide high quality Parachute Coconut Oil to its consumers. Parachute is positioned on the platform of Vital Nourishment today. The Coconut Dream logo is seen as an opportunity to transform Parachute from being the largest coconut oil brand into a mega brand with several value added products under the 'Coconut Goodness' umbrella. to today's positioning of vital nourishment. From the initial stand of purity to that of clarity to the `Coconut Dream' theme. Parachute pioneered the switch from coconut oil sold in tins to plastic. a market leader in its category.Consumer Buying Behaviour Parachute is premium edible grade oil.  Easy Jar of Parachute to facilitate usage especially during winters. From a loosely available commodity to a path-breaking brand. with a new look and logo.  Parachute Mini . they have propelled further penetration. 64 . to service the rural sectors. The positioning of Parachute has evolved over time.a bottle shaped small pack being sold at an MRP of Re. Parachute is also available in pouch packs. Some of the examples of innovation for Parachute are:  Flip Top Cap for Parachute bottles to enhance the safety and protect the purity of Parachute. Innovation will continue to be at forefront in Marico's efforts to strengthen this brand. Synonymous with pure coconut oil in the market. These innovations have not only ensured protection of existing franchise. increasing penetration. Marico has been constantly innovating for this brand. 1  Parachute blister pack.

One of the basic requirements to do this is to give the consumer a consistent product. each filling existing need gaps. 65 .Consumer Buying Behaviour Our consumers Parachute's primary target has been women of all ages. so that he/she stays loyal. not only in the urban sections of India but also the rural. Quality Quality is all about satisfying consumers. Parachute has several brand extensions. acquired from consumer insight. The brand has a huge loyalty. It is not about profits or efficiencies but keeping the consumer happy.

16. The least number of people are in category of less than once a month (3. frequency of hair oil application 140 120 100 80 60 Frequency 40 20 0 2 1es tim ce on a y da 3 2es tim ce on a ek we ce on in a o tw ce on a th on m s les an th ce on a y da a ek we k ee w a on m Conclusion 66 .7% says 2-3 times a week and 15.Consumer Buying Behaviour Data Collection and Analysis Frequency of hair oil application 41.3%).3% says they apply hair oil once a week.3% respondents said that they apply hair oil daily.

Consumer Buying Behaviour Hair oil is an every day habit with most of the people. Therefore a large chunk of market consists of bulk purchase like tin or bottle. This signifies that market for blister pack is small and niche. Purchase of blister pack how often do you buy 50 Everyday 2-3 days in a week 40 Once a week 30 Once in 2 weeks Once a month Only when travelling 10 As and when needed Others ____________ n mo ea nc no ha s t nth les o k a m we e ce o on a tw in ce ek on e a w eek ce w on s a e tim 2-3 ay ad y ce da on s a e tim 1-2 20 Count 0 frequency of hair oil application 67 .

0% 68 .3% at the shop/outlet 61.7% 5. First came to know about Blister pack magazine 5.0% hoarding 3. Most of the respondents in our research replied that they have never seen any advertisement of parachute Blister pack on television or in any magazine.0% radio others 9.Consumer Buying Behaviour First came to know about blister pack Maximum number of people came to know about Blister pack at the shop outlet. Even the people those who have responded that they first came to know about blister pack in magazine or radio or television. where not sure that is it really the medium which they are replying is correct or any other.3% news papaer 6.7% television 9.

Least number of people said they are using sachet. People using bottle or tin said that they are using bottle for regular purpose while blister pack for traveling or once in a while purpose. is by looking at the packs in shop outlets. Pack the customer is using other than the blister pack 55% i. A few number of people said they are using blister pack along with bottle or tin pack.e. followed by tin. 69 . which is there.Consumer Buying Behaviour Conclusion This clearly shows that the awareness of blister pack is very low and the awareness. said they are now using blister pack due to less usage and as wastage of oil is less in blister pack as compare to sachet. Most of those using sachet earlier. more than half of the people are using bottle other than blister pack.

3% tin 13. Number of people using blister pack everyday is least.7% sachet 11.3% both tin and blister 8.7% bottle 55. 70 .Consumer Buying Behaviour pack the customer is using other than blister pack both botle and blist 11.0% How often customer buy blister pack Maximum number of people are purchasing blister pack for traveling or as and when need arises like when the regular pack is over or for trial purpose etc.

Other than this we can se from the graph that people those who are purchasing blister pack regularly are in the habit of using oil rarely or once in a month time. the purchase of blister pack is not regular and mainly on occasions of traveling purpose or as and when needed. y da in 2 a a k ee w a k ee w th on m how often customer buy blister pack in ks ee w 71 .Consumer Buying Behaviour 100 80 60 40 20 Count 0 y er Ev 3 2O e nc e nc O e nc O O y nl As __ __ __ __ __ __ ed s ed er ne th n O he g w llin ve tra d an ys da n he w In this graph X-axis shows the frequency of hair oil application. This strengthens our conclusion from the earlier chart that regular oil users are not opting for blister pack for their general usage. The graph clearly shows that in the category of people applying hair oil regularly. and the Y-axis shows purchase of blister pack.

Consumer Buying Behaviour Application of Blister Pack 72 .

Consumer Buying Behaviour how many times you can apply blister pack * sex Crosstabulation Count sex how many times you can apply blister pack once twice thrice There is not quantity even for one time Others ____________ male 40 145 32 7 5 229 female 34 29 4 3 1 71 Total 74 174 36 10 6 300 Total 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 once twice thrice Others ____________ There is not quantit sex male female Count how many times you can apply blister pack The table and accompanied graph shows that most mail says that quantity of hair oil blister pack is sufficient to use twice. while the most number of female says they can 73 .

74 .Consumer Buying Behaviour apply hair oil out of blister pack only once. maximum numbers of respondents are using blister pack either for traveling for some other purpose but not for regular use. In the category of thrice use the share of female is almost nil. Females are in habit of using more oil as compare to man due to long hair and looks consciousness. Therefore the target market of blister pack consists of less woman and more males. As depicted by the table and chart given below. Conclusion This finding shows the usage habits of male and female.

7 42.0 Valid When travelling When my regular pack is over As and when 1 need it Others ____________ Total reason for buying blister pack 140 120 100 80 60 40 Frequency 20 0 When travelling As and when 1 need i Others ____________ When my regular pack How to open blister pack 75 .3 21.3 1.0 Cumulative Percent 34.7 100.3 100. on which occasions you buy blister pack Frequency 103 65 127 5 300 Percent 34.3 56.7 42.0 Valid Percent 34.3 1.Consumer Buying Behaviour Nearly 22% respondents said that they might purchase blister pack when there regular pack is over but not for the regular use.3 21.7 100.0 98.

they were of idea that opening the pack can be made still easier and better 100 80 60 40 20 faced any problem in yes Count 0 cut pierce fold bend bite any other way no how will you open a blister pack SWOT Analysis of Blister Pack 76 .Consumer Buying Behaviour Maximum numbers of respondents are opening blister pack by bending or cutting it. Although most of the people said that they didn’t faced any problem in opening the pack.

Opportunities 77 .  Raw material prices of all key products are susceptible to wide fluctuations and can lead to earnings variability. it is imperative that the business be its own worst critic.  Near total dominance of the branded coconut hair oil market. Simultaneously.Consumer Buying Behaviour In any business.  This pack is totally a niche product in nature and therefore cannot enjoy bulk sales.  Immense brand loyalty enjoyed by the brand.3 million outlets. allowing it to allocate resources in such a way as to maintain any dominant positions it may have.  Top of mind brand recall in customers. Weaknesses  Almost negligible promotion and low consumer awareness. with its flagship brand. A SWOT analysis forces an objective analysis of a company's position viz a viz its competitors and the marketplace. an effective SWOT analysis will help determine in which areas a company is succeeding. Strengths  Wide distributions network reaching nearly 1.

 The value-added hair oils market is growing at a healthy 30 per cent per annum in volumes. Marico can encourage consumers to shift to the value-added market. Threats  Nearly 120 look alike local brands eating share of parachute.5% until FY2007. which is growing fast.Consumer Buying Behaviour  The hair-oil market is likely to grow at 5-6% pa.  The growing consumer population offers a huge market for consumer products. Findings 78 .  Low customer loyalty in case of small sachets and blister packs.  Product is mainly catering to the need of traveling segment. The value added hair-oil segment will grow at a much faster pace of 15-20% pa. the present consumer population of 80 m households can grow by 60% to around 130 m households. At an average GDP growth of 5. Volume growth will be driven by a demand shift from unorganized sector (80% of market) to branded oils.

 Maximum no.  Regarding packaging.  Consumer awareness of blister pack is very low. people using less hair oil comprises more of the customers of blister pack.  Students residing in hostels or out of home are using blister pack for their regular use.e. More than 40% of people are in habit of applying hair oil daily. of people are using blister packs for traveling purpose and not for regular usage.  There is a direct relation we found in frequency of hair oil application and purchase of blister pack. Conclusion 79 . i.Consumer Buying Behaviour  Hair oil is a peculiar habit in India. customer’s response is very nice and most of the people said that packaging is excellent although we can still make some improvements.  Blister pack is mainly used for traveling purpose for which it is facing competition with hair gel and creams.  In our research we found that usage of blister pack or small size sachets is among lower class that mainly comprises of labors and low-income group. Most of the people came to know about it at shop outlet.

Recommendations 80 . It is both a science and an art. Finally once again I extend my sincere thanks to all those who helped me in completing this research work. and to assist managers in arriving at the best possible decisions when such situation comes. I hope our recommendations will be worthwhile for all those who are interested in it. The essential purpose of marketing research is to provide information.Consumer Buying Behaviour Marketing research is the systematic procedure of collection. recording and analysis of data about problems related to the marketing of goods and services. This project report on parachute blister pack has enriched my knowledge of marketing research and Marico Industries limited. which will facilitate the identification of an opportunity or problem.

e:  Product  Price  Place  Promotion Product: As far as product is concerned there is not any necessity of changing the basic features of product. Company needs to place blister pack on most of the stores and especially on pan-beedi shops were the lower segment people comes more. who are the major customers of blister pack. Most of the customer feels that there should be a cap at the top so that after using the oil from blister pack they can recap it. Price: As far as price is concerned we can’t suggest anything better as it is already competitive. Place: Although distribution channel of Marico is among the best in corporate India. Our suggestion is in relation to the packaging. i. The major reason posted by retailers is low margin in 81 .Consumer Buying Behaviour Recommendations as based on the case are as per the four P’s of marketing. during our retail analysis we found that many of the retailers are not storing the blister pack. as it will prevent oil wastage. Parachute hair oil enjoys a great customer satisfaction and brand loyalty. Many of the retailers are not storing blister pack and storing the local brands of competitors in the same category.

Many a retailers replied that they are getting margin just double of parachute in other local brands. Point of purchase advertising like glow sign boards. Most of the respondents said they have never seen an advertisement of blister pack on T. hoardings will be the best medium of promotion for blister pack especially on railway stations. To increase the retailer visibility Company should provide hangers or some sort of dispensers to retailers in which they can keep blister packs on shop counter or shelf near to the visibility of customers.Consumer Buying Behaviour case of parachute blister pack.V. Other than television advertising. BIBLIOGRAPHY 82 . Marico needs to take some promotional programme for blister pack. which is the major customer segment of blister pack. For more penetration of the pack in the market retailer margin needs to be increased. The respondents who are aware of blister of blister pack replied that they have seen it first time on shop outlet. Advertising of blister pack should be done targeting the traveling segment. Promotion: Promotion is the most neglected area in case of blister pack. gondolas will also be lot productive to increase awareness of blister pack. or any other medium also.

net    www.  Consumer Behaviour – By Newspapers:  The Times of India  The Economic Times  Mid Day ` 83 .austrainer.marketingteacher. Jain and Monica  Books:  Understanding Consumers – By  Buying Behaviour Web sites:  www.

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