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My original ancestors were black
All of ours were.
They lived in Africa where they had evolved
From apes in forests
Apes with black skin and black hair
Though their hair grew silver
Just like ours.
Some of my ancestors were more curious than others
Some stayed close to home
Others wondered about distant lands
Some wandered along the beaches
As far as they could travel
Others used rafts and canoes.
Some travelled north
Some travelled east
Some travelled west
Till they reached the Atlantic Ocean
Some travelled south
Till they reached the Cape of Good Hope.
Those who travelled north
Were subjected to hardship
Terrible hardship, the further north they travelled.
They developed bone deformities
From lack of sun when they were children.
So they changed, they evolved, they adapted:
The melanocytes in their skin produced less pigment
And their skin became lighter and lighter
The further north they settled.
Those who travelled east
Had an easier journey
And found more bountiful forests
Once they had negotiated
The deserts and mountains
That separate Africa
From the Gardens of Eden.
My black ancestors lived in the Gardens of Eden
They climbed Adam’s Peak
After they found paradise
A land full of treasures
Jewels and precious stones
Pearls in delicious oysters
And beautiful shells washed up
on the wide beaches.
Surrounded by a sea full of fish
And they changed. vipers And cobras to be wary of.Defended by coral reefs Lush and fertile mountains Crashing waterfalls and crystal streams. Adam's Bridge From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia . There were more and more Gardens of Eden The further east they travelled. Eventually my black ancestors reached the ocean That stopped their journey further east. and they grew And some got bigger And some got smaller And some got lighter And some got darker. And they had many wonderful adventures. though. Forests full of life. So they took to the sea. with just a few leopards. This was only one of the Gardens of Eden.
and Mannar Island. Geological evidence suggests that this bridge is a former land connection between India and Sri Lanka. Sanskrit: ररामससेत.त rāmasetu).5217°E Adam's bridge as seen from the air Adam's Bridge (Tamil: ஆததாம பதாலம ātām pālam). Name The bridge was first mentioned in the ancient Indian Sanskrit epic Ramayana of Valmiki. Ravana. which he used to reach Lanka and rescue his wife Sita from the Rakshasa king. The name Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu (Sanskrit. off the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu. The bridge is 18 miles (30 km) long and separates the Gulf of Mannar (southwest) from the Palk Strait (northeast).1210°N 79. Some of the sandbanks are dry and the sea in the area is very shallow. between Pamban Island. setu: bridge) refers to the bridge built by the Vanara (ape men) army of Lord Rama in Hindu theology .Coordinates: 9. off the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka. also known as Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu (Tamil: இரதாமர பதாலம Irāmar pālam. which hinders navigation. The Ramayana attributes the . being only 3 ft to 30 ft (1 m to 10 m) deep in places. is a chain of limestone shoals. also known as Rameswaram Island. India.  It was reportedly passable on foot up to the 15th century until storms deepened the channel: temple records seem to say that Rama’s Bridge was completely above sea level until it broke in a cyclone in AD 1480.
 Adam's bridge and neighbouring areas like Rameswaram.building of this bridge to Rama in verse 2-22-76. where he stood repentant on one foot for 1.  The sea separating India and Sri Lanka is called Sethusamudram meaning "Sea of the Bridge". The border between India and Sri Lanka is said to pass across one of the shoals constituting one of the shortest land borders in the world. The earliest map that calls this area by the name Adam's bridge was prepared by a British cartographer in 1804. Location Historical map of Adam's Bridge and environs. probably referring to an Abrahamic myth. AD 850). Transportation and navigation . referring to the temple dedicated to Lord Rama at Rameswaram. a colloquial form of the Tamil Raman Kovil (or Rama's Temple).000 years. The western world first encountered it in "historical works in the 9th century" by Ibn Khordadbeh in his Book of Roads and Kingdoms (c. Mannar Island is connected to mainland Sri Lanka by a causeway. Later. naming it as Setubandhanam. Many other maps in Schwartzberg's historical atlas  and other sources such as travel texts by Marco Polo call this area by various names such as Sethubandha and Sethubandha Rameswaram. available at the Tanjore Saraswathi Mahal Library show this area as Ramancoil. Devipattinam and Thirupullani are mentioned in the context of various legends in Ramayana. Alberuni described it. Maps prepared by a Dutch cartographer in 1747. Pamban Island is semi-connected to the Indian mainland by 2 km long Pamban Bridge. . leaving a large hollow mark resembling a footprint. prior to the cyclone of 1964 Adam's Bridge starts as chain of shoals from the Dhanushkodi tip of India's Pamban Island and ends at Sri Lanka's Mannar Island. referring to it is Set Bandhai or "Bridge of the Sea". Dhanushkodi.  Another map of Mughal India prepared by J. a name that persists until today. Rennel in 1788 retrieved from the same library called this area as "the area of the Rama Temple". according to which Adam used the bridge to reach a mountain (identified with Adam's Peak) in Sri Lanka.
which connects the Pamban island with the Indian mainland was constructed in 1914 Pamban Island (Tamil Nadu. Various organizations have opposed the project based on religious. Dredging in this channel would cost more than dredging a channel in the Rama Setu area. as a train was about to enter the station. The service was part of the Indo-Ceylon Railway service during the British Rule. the Government of India approved a multi-million dollar Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project that aims to create a ship channel across the Palk Bay cutting across Rama Setu. a cyclone completely destroyed Dhanushkodi. and then go again by rail to Colombo. One could buy a railway ticket from Chennai to Colombo. Hence. in 2001. Small boats would go below the 2065 m long road bridge and the railway bridge would open up. A ferry service linked Dhanushkodi in India with Talaimannar in Sri Lanka. economic and environmental grounds and have sought the implementation of one of the alternative alignments considered during the earlier stages of the discussion. The problem in navigation exists because big ships cannot travel in the shallow waters of the Pamban channel. It refers to both: a road bridge and a cantilever railway bridge. The tracks and the pier were heavily damaged along the shores of Palk Bay and Palk Strait. where the waters are comparatively deep and lesser earth would have to be dredged. Geological evolution . go by ferry to Talaimannar.Rail Bridge from India Mainland to Pamban Island The Pamban railway bridge. There was a small ferry service from there to Talaimannar. but it was suspended around 1982 because of the fighting between Sri Lankan government forces and the separatist LTTE. whereby people travelled by rail from Chennai to Pamban island. In 1964. India) with its small port of Rameswaram is about 2 km from mainland India.  Dhanushkodi was not rebuilt and the train then finished its journey at Rameswaram. The Pamban Bridge crossing the Pamban channel links Pamban Island with mainland India.
 The friable calcerous ridges are broken into large rectangular blocks. while the other surmised that it was formed by the breaking away of Sri Lanka from the Indian mainland.  Based on satellite remote sensing data. In the 19th century. coral reefs.  According to V. Marine and Water Resources Group of Space Application Centre (SAC) of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) states that Adam's Bridge comprises 103 . there were two prevalent theories explaining the structure. or barrier islands. which essentially consists of a series of parallel ledges of sandstone and conglomerates that are hard at the surface and grows coarse and soft as it descends to sandy banks.Landsat 7 Image of Adam's Bridge Landsat 5 image of Adam's Bridge Considerable diversity of opinion and confusion exists about the nature and origin of this structure. a ridge formed in the region owing to thinning of the earth's crust. It has been reported that this bridge was formerly the world's largest tombolo before it was split into a chain of shoals by the rise in mean sea level few thousand years ago. which perhaps gave rise to the belief that the causeway is an artificial construction. Ram Mohan of the Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Studies of the University of Madras "reconstruction of the geological evolution of the island chain is a challenging task and has to be carried out based on circumstantial evidence". but without actual field verification. a sand spit. The lack of comprehensive field studies explains many of the uncertainties regarding the nature and origin of Adam's Bridge. Studies have variously described the structure as a chain of shoals. a double tombolo. One considered it to be formed by a process of accretion and rising of the land.
 One study tentatively concludes that there is insufficient evidence to indicate eustatic emergence and that the raised reef in south India probably results from a local uplift. Adam's Bridge has provided an intermittent land connection between India and Sri Lanka.  [dead link] In the same study.  Age Geological Survey of India (GSI) carried out a special programme called "Project Rameswaram" that concluded that age data of corals indicate that the Rameswaram island has evolved since 125.  Thermoluminescence dating by GSI concludes that the sand dunes of Dhanushkodi to Adam's bridge started forming only about 500–600 years ago. The sand was supposedly dumped in a linear pattern along the current shadow zone between Dhanushkodi and Talaimannar with later accumulation of corals over these linear sand bodies.small patch reefs lying in a linear pattern with reef crest (flattened.  In a diametrically opposing view. and mantle plume activity by one study while another theory attributes it to continuous sand deposition and the natural process of sedimentation leading to the formation of a chain of barrier islands related to rising sea levels.  The tombolo model affirms a constant sediment source and a strong unidirectional or bi-directional (monsoonal) longshore current. block faulting and a ridge formed in the region owing to thinning and asserts that development of this ridge augmented the coral growth in the region and in turn coral cover acted as a `sand trapper'. The geological process that gave rise to this structure has also been attributed to crustal downwarping. Tiruchi. Another study explains the origin the structure due to longshore drifting currents which moved in an anticlockwise direction in the north and clockwise direction in the south of Rameswaram and Talaimannar. The coral reefs are designated by the different studies variously as ribbon and atoll reefs. sand cays (accumulations of loose coral sands and beach rock) and intermittent deep channels.000 years.500 years. Other studies also conclude that during periods of lowered sea level over the last 100. Radiocarbon dating of samples in this study suggests that the domain between Rameswaram and Talaimannar may have thus been exposed around 18. which according to famous ornithologists Sidney Dillon Ripley and Bruce Beehler supports the vicariance model for speciation in some birds of the Indian Subcontinent. another group of geologists propose crustal thinning theory.000 years ago.  Investigation by Centre for Remote Sensing (CRS) of Bharathidasan University. emergent – especially during low tides – or nearly emergent segment of a reef). carbon dating of some ancient beaches between Thiruthuraipoondi and Kodiyakarai shows the Thiruthuraipoondi beach dates . Another theory affirms that the origin and linearity of the Adam's bridge may be due to the old shoreline – implying that the two landmasses of India and Sri Lanka were once connected – from where coral reefs evolved.000 years ago. block faulting.M. Ramasamy dates the structure to 3. led by Professor S.
when some rocks were blasted and removed under the direction of Major Sim. and subsequent efforts in the 19th century. and some temple records suggest that the connection was broken by violent storms in 1480. Larger ocean-going vessels from the West have had to navigate around Sri Lanka to reach India's eastern coast. However little notice was given to his proposal. and a coral sample gives a radiocarbon age of 4020±160 years BP Early surveys and dredging efforts Pearl fishing in the Gulf of Mannar. but nothing was done until 1828. Sir Arthur Cotton (then an Ensign). In 1823. T. Powell. and operations to dredge the channel were recommenced the next year. it has been limited to small boats and dinghies. Adam's bridge presents a formidable hindrance to navigation through the Palk strait. who surveyed the region as a young officer in the late 18th century. did not succeed in keeping the passage navigable for any vessels except those with a light draft.000 years and Kodiyakarai around 1. suggested that a "navigable passage could be maintained by dredging the strait of Ramisseram [sic]".  A more detailed marine survey of Ram Setu was undertaken in 1837 by Lieutenants F.back to 6.  Eminent British geographer Major James Rennell. Cotton suggested that the channel be dredged to enable passage of ships. Another study suggests that the appearance of the reefs and other evidence indicate their recency. and the idea was only revived 60 years later. Though trade across the India-Sri Lanka divide has been active since at least the first millennium BC. c. Ethersey. which separates the Indian mainland from the island of Rameswaram and forms the first link of Ram Setu. Grieve and Christopher along with draughtsman Felix Jones. was trusted with the responsibility of surveying the Pamban channel. Geological evidence indicates that this was at one point bridged by a land connection. Sethusamudram shipping canal project . 1926 Owing to shallow waters. perhaps because it came from "so young and unknown an officer".However these.100 years ago.a.
and increased risk of damage due to tsunamis. potential loss of thorium deposits in the area. the Government of India approved a multi-million dollar Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project that aims to create a ship channel across the Palk Strait by dredging the shallow ocean floor near Dhanushkodi. The channel is expected to cut over 400 km (nearly 30 hours of shipping time) off the voyage around the island of Sri Lanka. Political parties including the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).  The state and central government have opposed such changes. with Union Shipping Minister T R Baalu. Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD).Main article: Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project Opposition parties are demanding implementation of the Sethusamudram canal project using one of the 5 alternative alignments considered by Government earlier without damaging Ramsetu's structure The government of India constituted nine committees before independence. .  Opposition to dredging through this causeway also stems from concerns over its impact on the area's ecology and marine wealth.  In 2001. who belongs to the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and a strong supporter of the project. All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK).  The Sethusamudram project committee in 1956 also strongly recommended to the Union government to use land passages instead of cutting Adam's bridge because of the several advantages of land passage. Janata Dal (Secular) (JD(S)) and some Hindu organisations oppose dredging through the shoal on religious grounds – Rama's Bridge being popularly identified as the causeway described in the Ramayana — and suggest using an alternate alignment for the channel that avoids damage to Adam's Bridge. This proposed channel's current alignment requires dredging through Rama's Bridge. saying the current proposal was well scrutinised for economic viability and environmental sustainability and that there were no other environmentally feasible alternatives. and five committees since then to suggest alignments for a Sethusamudram canal project. Most of them suggested land-based passages across Rameswaram island and none suggested alignment across Adam's bridge.
and certainly cannot determine whether humans were involved in producing any of the patterns seen.. It also clarified that. celebrating the legend of Prince Rama. "as the carbon dating of the beaches roughly matches the dates of Ramayana.  Controversies NASA satellite photo: India on top. Some organisations are completely opposing this project on economical and environmental grounds and claim proper scientific studies were not conducted before undertaking this project.S. Sri Lanka at the bottom of the photo Certain historical inscriptions. naturally occurring chain of sandbanks. "The images reproduced on the websites may well be ours..-based news services suggested that they had discovered the remains of the bridge built by Rama and his Vanara army that is referred to in the Ramayana.500 years ago. old dictionary references and some old maps have been said to reinforce a religious and geographical belief that this is an ancient bridge. old travel guides.(seeRamayana). its link to the epic needs to be explored". and that it was not a natural formation.  Vaishnava News Network and some other U. [.] Remote sensing images or photographs from orbit cannot provide direct information about the origin or age of a chain of islands." and. Ramasamy in 2003 said "the land/beaches were formed between Ramanathapuram and Pamban because of the long shore drifting currents which moved in an anti-clockwise direction in the north and clockwise direction in the south of Rameswaram and Talaimannar about 3. basing their claim on 2002 NASA satellite footage. In 2007 the Sri Lankan Tourism Development Authority sought to promote religious tourism from Hindu piligrims in India by including the phenomenon as one of the points on its "Ramayana Trail"." A team from the Centre for Remote Sensing (CRS) of Bharathidasan University. Sri Lankan historians condemn the undertaking as "a gross distortion of Sri Lankan history". NASA distanced itself from the claims saying that what had been captured was nothing more than a 30-km-long. but their interpretation is certainly not ours.M.  A former director of . Tiruchi led by Professor S.
contradicting the report from the Archaeological Survey of India which found no evidence for it being man-made. Hindu belief is that the bridge was created by Shri Rama and Shri Lakshman with the assistance of Lord Hanuman and the vanara army to reach Lanka in order to find Shri Rama's wife Sita who was kidnapped by Ravana. A 2007 publication of the National Remote Sensing Agency said that the structure "may be manmade". It may be a superman-made structure. It (Ram Setu) has become an object of worship only recently. Government of India. the Madras High Court in its verdict stated that the Rama Sethu is a man-made structure. There is no bridge. but the same superman had destroyed it. Badrinarayanan.  Construction Artwork . In connection with the canal project.  He feels that thorough analysis was not conducted by the Geological Survey of India before undertaking the SSCP project. Corals normally form above rocks. That is why for centuries nobody mentioned anything about it. in an affidavit in the Supreme Court of India. He justifies the same by the presence of a loose sand layer under corals for the entire stretch.the Geological Survey of India. It was not a man-made structure.". S. a spokesman for the government stated "So where is the Setu? We are not destroying any bridge. claims that such a natural formation would be impossible.  In a 2008 court case. said that there is no historical proof of the bridge being built by Rama.
wherein monkeys are shown building a bridge to Lanka .Razmnama : illustration to Persian translation of Mahabharata by Akbar A 19th century painting depicting a scene from Ramayana.
^ Map of the area2 6. McFarland & Company. 7. 8.^ Schwartzberg Atlas – Digital South Asia Library 12. ^ Garg. ^ a b c d "Adam's bridge". Adrian (2006). ISBN 0-7864-2248-3. ^ Map of the area 5. ^ Valmiki Ramayan calls mythological bridge built by Lord Rama as Setubandhanam 9. 2. ^ Length taken from Google Earth 4. "Adam's Bridge". 2007. 142.^ Schwartzberg Atlas – Digital South Asia Library 13.com . p. Ramasethu and variants. Ram Sethu. 19. ^ Jayalalitha quotes literary evidence for Ramar bridge 10. Placenames of the World. Ganga Ram (1992). New Delhi: South Asia Books. Encyclopædia Britannica.See also Pamban channel Ramayana Rama Setu (Ramayana) Lord Rama Kumari Kandam Bimini Road Shoal References 1. Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World A–Aj. ^ a b c Room. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. ISBN 817022-374-1. ^ also spelled Rama Setu.^ News Today – An English evening daily published from Chennai 15. Retrieved 2007-09-14. p.^ Scrap the shipping channel project – Newindpress.^ Special Story 14. 3.^ Protests against shipping canal hot up | Latest News 11.
Gopinadha Pillai (1972). London (1876). ISBN 0-8248-2332-X.^ CRS study point Ram Setu to 3500 years old 32.^ Ramar Sethu. James Emerson (1859).2307/1784813. 25.^ "Madurai Travels – Rameswaram". Bruce M. to the Present. 24. Rennell (1930).. Historical. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 56 (56): 111– 125. Peter (2002). Madurai. Stoddart.com.^ Suess.^ Adam's Bridge World's largest Tombolo 28. Sollas (translator) (1906). "Major James Rennell.^ For further details see Dhanushkodi 23. doi:10.16. Born 3 December 1742. 76. The Geographical Journal (The Geographical Journal) 75 (4): 289– 299. and Roberts. Marco polo's travel book calls the Adam's Bridge area Ramar bridge 17. Oxford: Clarendon Press.2307/2845145. South India". Green. doi:10.^ Crustal downwarping. Beehler. Statistical. (November 1990). Physical. "Raised Reefs of Ramanathapuram. C. "Myth and Reality". Died 20 March 1830". R.^ Marco Polo (1854) The travels of Marco Polo. S. 30.C. doi:10.^ a b c d Frontline. 31. Retrieved 201007-16. JSTOR 1784813. 13. The Face of the Earth (Vol. 22 September 2007 – 5 October 2007 26.^ a b D. Longman. London: Longman. Dillon. Eduard.^ Horatio John Suckling. II). pp. JSTOR 621544. .^ Ripley. Asia's Maritime Bead Trade: 300 B.^ Double Tombolo reference by NASA 27.^ Dhanuskodi: The Lost Land 20. Hertha B.^ Tennent. a world heritage centre? 19. p. S. 18. University of Hawaii Press. "Patterns of Speciation in Indian Birds". block faulting. Journal of Biogeography (Journal of Biogeography) 17 (6): 639– 648.2307/621544.^ [dead link] 21. Jr. Historical and Topographical. Ceylon: A General Description of the Island. 33.^ Rodd. and mantel plume activity view 29. 512–513. C. Ceylon: An Account of the Island Physical. the Venetian. JSTOR 2845145.^ Francis. p. 22.
Daily Mirror (Colombo: Wijeya Newspapers Ltd).^ a b Hunter. pp.^ Sethusamudram Corporation Limited – History 38. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. E. India 43. Achalie (23 July 2010).com – Sethu: DMK chief sticks to his stand 42.^ "Use land based channel and do not cut through Adam bridge:Sethu samudram project committee report to Union Government". 40. 22 September 2007. ""The mysterious bridge was nothing more than a 30 km long.^ IndianExpress. Trübner & co.: His Life and Work. Retrieved 2007-09-24. pp. ISBN 0-665-68425-8.^ "Thorium reserves to be disturbed if Ramar Sethu is destroyed". Keay.^ "Ram Setu a matter of faith.^ Kumarage. Retrieved 2007-09-24.^ Dawson. Retrieved 2012-01-06. C. Memoirs of hydrography. Arun (14 September 2007). 30 September 2007.^ "Rama is 'divine personality' says Gowda".^ "Hanuman bridge is myth: Experts". 35. Times of India. naturally occurring chain of sandbanks called Adam's bridge". NewKerela. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007.com 44. K. ""“In these circumstances we have no doubt. 19 October 2002.^ Karunanidhi or T R Baalu's arguments are not based on scientific studies claims coastal action network convenor 46. "the Tourism Authority is imposing an artificial [history] targeting a small segment of Indian travellers. The Hindu. whatever that the junction between the two sea should be effected by a Canal. 36. "Space photos no proof of Ram Setu: NASA". 48. p.. S. Sir William Wilson (1886).Com. 37. 5 August 2007. 21–23.”" 39. "Selling off the history via the ‘Ramayana Trail’". specifically Hindu fundamentalists. Llewellyn Styles (1885).. Retrieved 2007-10-15. General Sir Arthur Cotton. Retrieved 2007-09-24.^ indianexpress. William (1900). I. The Imperial Gazetteer of India.^ Latest India News @ NewKerala. 15–16. 52.34. R..^ Digby. 21 September 2007. MangaoreNews. [NASA official .com." 47.com. Hodder & Stoughton. 45. needs to be protected: Lalu".^ a b Kumar.Archived from the original on 25 July 2010. 41. and the idea of cutting a passage in the sea through Adam's Bridge should be abandoned. Retrieved 2007-09-18. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 23 July 2010.
^ No evidence to prove existence of Ram. 15 September 2007. 50. Indian Express.com. Centre to SC 53. Retrieved 2007-09-18. Its images had never resulted in any scientific discovery in the area.^ "Debate shifted over Ram from Ram Sethu".^ "Rama's bridge is only 3.^ Ram sethu should be manmade says former Geological survey of India director 52.^ [dead link] 54. 2 February 2003.^ Ram Setu 'man-made'. Sri Pada From Wikipedia.^ Ram Sethu 'man-made'. 51. the free encyclopedia Sri Pada ශර පපද Adam's Peak Samanalakanda සමනළ කනද Sivanolipatha Malai சசவனனனளச பனதமலல .^ Ram himself destroyed Setu. indianewstrack.Mark] Hess had added. Retrieved 2007-09-18. "NASA had been taking pictures of these shoals for years. says government publication 56. says government publication 55. govt tells SC Adam’s Bridge or Rama’s Bridge? And whose footprint is it on the top of Adam’s Peak? Is it that of Adam or that of the Buddha? Or is it not a footprint at all? Should I call it “Adam’s Peak” Or “Butterfly Mountain?” For that is what “samanala-kanda” means…." 49.500 years old: CRS".
Sri Pada from a distance Elevation 2.243 m (7.359 ft) Location Sri Pada ශර පපද Sri Lanka Location Sabaragamuwa. Sri Lanka Range Samanala Coordina tes 06°48′41″N 80°29′59″ECoordinates: .
and which earned for its ancient name of Ratnadvipa. four of the principal rivers of the Island. i. or that of St. Thomas.  Trails .359 ft) tall conical mountain located in central Sri Lanka. Tamil Sivanolipatha Malai . for which the island has been famous. and including many endemic species.சசவனனனளச பனதமலல). "sacred footprint". the longest. The region along the mountain is a wildlife reserve housing many species varying from elephants to leopards. The districts to the south and the east of Adam's Peak yield precious stones-emeralds. Sinhalese Samanalakanda . in Hindu tradition that of Shiva and in Muslim and Christian tradition that of Adam.06°48′41″N 80°29′59″E Sri Pada (also Adam's peak. having their source from this mountain. rubies and sapphires.8 metres (5 ft 11 in) rock formation near the summit. The surrounding region is largely forested hills. It is well known for the Sri Pada.1 Legends 6 See also 7 References 8 External links Geography The mountain is located in the southern reaches of the Central Highlands. which in Buddhist tradition is held to be the footprint of the Buddha. Contents [hide] 1 Geography 2 Trails 3 Nomenclature 4 History 5 The Sacred Mountain o 5.lying about 40 km northeast of the city of Ratnapura. in the Ratnapura district of the Sabaragamuwa Province . and also ශර පපදය "Sri Paadaya".243 metres (7. a 1. and descend to the sea on the eastern. with no mountain of comparable size nearby.සමනළ කනද "butterfly mountain". including the Mahaveli Ganga. western and south eastern coasts. Adam's Peak is important as the main watershed of Sri Lanka..e. is a 2.
The trails are illuminated with electric light. Rest stops and wayside shops along the trails serve refreshments and supplies. Sri Pada (Adam's peak) view. but do intersect with the Palabaddala road midway through the ascent. The greater part of the track leading from the base to the summit consists of thousands of steps built in cement or rough stones. Nomenclature Sunrise on Adam's Peak . these trails are linked to major cities or town by bus. HattonNallathanni. Mookuwatte & Malimboda. Sri Lanka Once one of the starting 'nodes' of Palabadalla. making night-time ascent possible and safe to do even when accompanied by children. The usual route taken by most pilgrims is ascent via Hatton and descent via Ratnapura. accounting for their popular use. Kuruwita-Erathna. while the Kuruwita-Erathna trail is used less often. although the Hatton trail is the steepest. Nallathanni or Erathna are reached. it is also shorter than any of the other trails by approximately five kilometers. the rest of the ascent is done on foot through the forested mountainside on the steps built into it. The Murraywatte. Mookuwatte & Malimboda routes are hardly used. Murraywatte.Access to the mountain is possible by 6 trails: Ratnapura-Palabaddala. The Nallathanni & Palabaddala routes are most favored by those undertaking the climb.
left when first setting foot on Earth after having been cast out of paradise. Tamils may also use the name Shivanolipatha Malai to refer to the mountain. the mountain is referred to by a variety of names. (4th century). History Sri Pada is first mentioned (as `Samanthakuta') in the Deepawamsa. and later returned to Anuradhapura. Samantakuta ("Peak of Saman"). the earliest Pali chronicle. It refers to the footprint-shaped mark at the summit. giving it the name "Adam's Peak". Hindu tradition refers to the footprint as that of the Hindu deity Shiva. Christian and Islamic traditions assert that it is the footprint of Adam. which is believed by Buddhists to be that of the Buddha. which refers either to the deity Saman. The Mahawamsa again mentions the visit of King . The name Sri Paada. Mount Rohana and other variations on the root Rohana. and also in the 5th century chronicle Mahawamsa. this name also has meaning in Pāli. where it is stated that the Buddha visited the mountain peak. Another Sinhala name for the mountain is Samanalakanda. The often used Sri Pada is derived from Sanskrit. who is said to live upon the mountain. or to the butterflies (samanalayā) that frequent the mountain during their annual migrations to the region.Mahagiri Dambaya Due to its significance to the various people that inhabit the country. is the more commonly used. however. and thus names the mountain Shiva padam (Shiva's foot) in Tamil. Svargarohanam ("the climb to heaven"). used by the Sinhalese people in a religious context. Other local and historic names include Ratnagiri ("jewelled hill"). The chronicle Rajavaliya states that the King Valagamba (1st century BCE) had taken refuge in the forests of Adam's Peak against invaders from India. and may be translated roughly as "the sacred foot".
including its dominant and outstanding profile. with the lights of the path leading up and into the stars overhead. The journey takes several hours at least. The Arab traveler Ibn Batuta on arriving on the island in 1344 CE. by the Buddhists of Buddha. who maintain a shrine on the summit of the peak. The famous Chinese pilgrim and Buddhist traveler Fa Hien stayed in Sri Lanka in 411-12 CE and mentions Sri Pada although it is not made clear whether he actually visited it. whilst the Portuguese Christians were divided between the conflicting claims of St Thomas and the eunuch of Candace. and recorded observing an oversized foot print carved in stone and ornamented with a single margin of brass and studded with gems. and Marco Polo. and is guarded by the priests of a rich monastery half-way up the mountain. Encyclopædia Britannica notes "For a long period Sri Pada was supposed to be the highest mountain in Ceylon. above sea-level. It has specific qualities that cause it to stand out and be noticed. where the stairs begin It is revered as a holy site by Buddhists. Hindus. The Sacred Mountain The village of Nallathanniya at the feet of the mountain. Legends . have recorded their visits to Sri Pada. This elevation is chiefly remarkable as the resort of pilgrims from all parts of the East. but actual survey makes it only 7353 ft. especially for Buddhists. The footstep is covered by a handsome roof. As the 1910. Muslims and Christians. The peak pilgrimage season is in April. by the Muslims of Adam. and the goal is to be on top of the mountain at sunrise. when the distinctive shape of the mountain casts a triangular shadow on the surrounding plain and can be seen to move quickly downward as the sun rises. following a variety of difficult routes up thousands of steps. The hollow in the lofty rock that crowns the summit is said by the Brahmans to be the footstep of Siva. queen of Ethiopia. John Davy (1817) was the first English traveler to visit the peak. There are rest stops along the way. and the boulder at the peak that contains an indentation resembling a footprint. Climbing at night can be a remarkable experience.Vijayabahu I (1058-1114) to the mountain. Pilgrims walk up the mountain." It is an important pilgrimage site.
3. set foot as he was exiled from the Garden of Eden.". as a symbol for worship at the invitation of Buddhist God Saman. See also Petrosomatoglyph Trikuta References 1.org. Retrieved 2011-08-25. During other months it is hard to climb the mountain due to very heavy rain. 5). Hugh (1910). UNESCO. For Buddhists. left behind when Buddha visited Sri Lanka.G. 778. The legends of Adam are connected to the idea that Sri Lanka was the original Eden. ^ "Seruwila to Sri Pada (Sacred Foot Print Shrine)". 2.A view of Adam's peak from Maskeliya town The mountain is most often scaled from December to May. Retrieved 28 September 2012. Tamil Hindus consider it as the footprint of Lord Shiva. p. can be found near the footprint. The Encyclopædia Britannica (Vol. ^ Palihapitiya. "P. It is also fabled that the mountain is the legendary mount Trikuta the capital of Ravana during the Ramayana times from where he ruled Lanka. ^ Chisolm. .G. University press. the first Ancestor. Muslims and Christians in Sri Lanka ascribe it to where Adam. and thick mist. the footprint mark is the left foot of the Buddha. extreme wind. and in the Muslim tradition that Adam was 30 ft tall. A shrine to Saman. a Buddhist "deity" (People who have spent spiritual life during their life on earth and done pacificism service to regions are deified by Sri Lankan Buddhists) charged with protecting the mountain top.
Sri Lanka Sri Pada or Adam's Peak web site Sri pada: Buddhism's most sacred mountain Adam's Peak .External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Sri Pada The Legend of Adam's Peak. Sri Lanka" on Peakbagger Adams Peak or Sri Pada Trikuta From Wikipedia. It is one of the twenty mountains surrounding Maha-Meru.000 yojanas. silver and gold. constructed by Varuna. Jatavarman Veera Pandyan I mentionsTrikutagiri alongside the Koneswaram temple of Konamalai as two . and it also contains a beautiful lake with elephants (see: Gajendra Moksha) inhabiting the region. The height is said in the Bhagavata Purana to be 10. the free encyclopedia Trikuta (Sinhala: Thirikunamalai. surrounded by lakes and gardens and capital of Ravana's kingdom  . Thai: Nila Kala) is a three peaked mountain in Hindu mythology. Tamil: Tirikutamalai.Sri Pada "Adams Peak. Trikuta giri. We find its references in the Sundarkand chapter of the Ramayana and its location is believed to be in Lanka. and the three peaks are iron. Trikuta is historically viewed as a legendary reference to the tallest peak of the island. the mountain Sivanoli Padam of the Malaya mountainous range. Srimad Bhagavatam further tells us that it contains a nice garden called Rumak.
different places in a country of the island Eelam that he conquered and placed
atop the victory bull flag of the Pandyan kingdom in 1262.
Trikuta finds mention in the Ramayana as being where the city of Lanka is built,
while Vayu Purana (300 CE) mentions it as being on Malaya Dvipa, to the east of
which on the coast lies the Shiva shrine of Koneswaram at Gokarna bay. 
The Vividhatirthakalpa, a 14th century Jain text mentions that
at Trikutagiri in Kishkindha of Lanka there was a magnificent Jain temple which
was dedicated by Ravana for the attainment of supernatural powers.  To fulfil a
desire of Mandodari, his queen consort, Ravana is said to have "erected a Jain
deity statue out of jewels; this was thrown into the sea when he was defeated
by Rama Chandra. King Sankara, a royal of Kalyananagara of Kannada, came to
know about this statue and he recovered it from the bottom of the sea with the
help of Padmavatidevi, a prominent "Goddess of the Jainas.""
1. ^ Srimad Bhagavatam: Withdrawal of the cosmic creations By A. C.
Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupāda, page no.41 
2. ^ H.N. Apte, Vayupurana, Chapter 48 verses 20-30, Poona, 1929
3. ^ S.Pathmanathan, The Kingdom of Jaffna, Colombo, 1978. pages
4. ^ Kiskindhayam Lankayah patalankayam Trikutagrirau
5. ^ Vividhatirthakalpa, pp. 93.
6. ^ Jain, Arun Kumar (2009). Faith & philosophy of Jainism. Delhi,
India : Kalpaz Publications, 2009. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-7835-723-2
8178357232 Check |isbn= value (help). OCLC 428923103.
Locations in Hindu mythology
Ancient Indian mountains
This book is a treasure from 1870:
com. For the shrub.http://books.au/books? id=2v9UYNqlGLQC&pg=PA27&lpg=PA27&dq=sivanoli+padam+mountain&sourc e=bl&ots=YlKc2XBzHi&sig=kW19L37iYp0mNkhDyQJ8d-qSXs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=thSGUdiYLMOQigfsvIDwBA&sqi=2&ved=0CHAQ6AEwCA#v =onepage&q=sivanoli%20padam%20mountain&f=false Negrito From Wikipedia. West Papua) . see Citharexylum berlandieri. the free encyclopedia This article is about the ethnic group. Negrito Regions with significant populations India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands) Indonesia (Maluku Islands.google. For the municipality. see El Negrito.
including Melanesians Negrito group photo (Malaysia. Cebu. Palawan. 1905). Panay.Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia) Philippines (Luzon. 1899). andMindanao) Thailand (Southern Thailand) Religion Animism Related ethnic groups Australoid race. Negritos in a fishing boat (Philippines. Negros. .
Vol. XXIX. Agta.  Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Historical distribution 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Further reading 7 External links Etymology . Reports from British traders also speak of negrito people on Borneo (Sarawak). part 1. six Semang peoples of Malaysia. and the Aeta. commonly referred to as the Proto-Australoids. the Philippines Their current populations include 12 Andamanese peoples of the Andaman Islands. which codes for dark skin). 1956) Negritos are the most genetically distant human population from Africans at most loci studied thus far (except for MC1R.The Negrito are a class of several ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia. They have also been shown to have separated early from Asians. (Journal of the Malayan Branch Royal Asiatic Society. the Mani of Thailand. Ati. Ati children. suggesting that they are either surviving descendants of settlers from an early migration out of Africa. and 30 other peoples of the Philippines. or that they are descendants of one of the founder populations of modern humans.
Germs. bundling them with peoples of similar physical stature in Central Africa. and was coined by early European explorers. the term Negrito was previously occasionally used to refer to African Pygmies. or aborigines. scant body hair and occasional steatopygia. Alternatively. (August 20 The term "Negrito" is the Spanish diminutive of negro. The Malay term for them is orang asli.e. groups regarded as Australoid. especially in the Andamanese Islanders who have been isolated from incoming waves of Asiatic and Caucasoid peoples. Further evidence for .  Occasionally. Anthropologist Jared Diamond in his book. woolly hair. A number of features would seem to suggest a common origin for the Negritos and African pygmies. i.  Origins Being among the least-known (by outsiders) of all living human groups. These features include short stature. the origins of the Negrito people is much debated. Other more recent studies have shown closer craniometric affinities to Egyptians and Europeans than to Sub Saharan populations such as that of African Pygmies. Walter Neves' study of the Lagoa Santa people had the incidental correlation of showing Andamanese as classifying closer to Egyptians and Europeans than any Sub Saharan population. and likewise.This article needs additional citations for verification. and Steel suggests that the Negritos are possible ancestors of the Aboriginal Australians and Papuans of New Guinea. Pleas help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. referring to their small stature. Guns. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. some Negritos are referred to as pygmies. some scientists[who?] claim they are merely a group of AustraloMelanesians who have undergone island dwarfing over thousands of years. predating the Austronesian peoples who later entered Southeast Asia. The claim that Andamanese pygmoids more closely resemble Africans than Asians in their cranial morphology in a 1973 study added some weight to this theory before genetic studies pointed to a closer relationship with Asians. very dark skin. "little black person". Multiple studies also show that Negritos from Southeast Asia to New Guinea share a closer cranial affinity with Australo-Melanesians. They are likely descendants of the indigenous Australoid populations of the Sunda landmass and New Guinea. No other living human population has experienced such long-lasting isolation from contact with other groups. reducing their food intake in order to cope with limited resources and adapt to a tropical rainforest environment.
 A festival celebrated by the Saisiyat gives evidence to their former habitation of Taiwan. Apart from being short-statured. This migration is hypothesized to have followed a coastal route through India and into Southeast Asia. However. some studies have suggested that each group should be considered separately.000 years ago. shared by Asian and Negrito populations. the descendants of these migrants would eventually populate the entire habitable world. Denisovan ancestry is found among indigenous Melanesian and Australian populations between 4-6%  Historical distribution Negritos may have also lived in Taiwan. while other Negrito groups may show some varying degree of Denisovan ancestry.Y. Genetic studies on Philippine Negritos. and South Asia.Asian ancestry is in craniometric markers such as sundadonty. A recent genetic study found that unlike other early groups in Malesia. . they were also said to be broad-nosed and dark-skinned with curly hair. East Asia. Andamanese Negritos lack the Denisovan hominin admixture in their DNA. These findings suggest an early split from the population of migrants from Africa. The Saisiyat tribe celebrate the black people in a festival called Ritual of the Little Black People (矮靈祭). According to James J. This hypothesis is not supported by genetic evidence that has shown the level of isolation populations such as the Andamanese have had. showed they were similar to surrounding Asian populations. up to 100 years ago. suggesting that the Negritos are at least partly descended from a migration originating in eastern Africa as much as 60. a professor of comparative literature. which is sometimes referred to as the Great Coastal Migration. Analysis of mtDNA coding sites indicated that these Andamanese fall into a subgroup of M not previously identified in human populations in Africa and Asia. only one small group lived near the Saisiyat tribe. as the genetic evidence refutes the notion of a specific shared ancestry between the "Negrito" groups of the Andaman Islands. where they were called the "Little Black People". The little black population shrank to the point that. A study on blood groups and proteins in the 1950s suggested that the Andamanese were more closely related to Oceanic peoples than Africans.  Genetic testing places all the Onge and all but two of the Great Andamanese in the mtDNA Haplogroup M found in East Africa. Malay Peninsula. Haplogroup C-M130 and haplogroup D-M174 are believed to represent Y-DNA in the migration. It has been suggested that the craniometric similarities to Asians could merely indicate a level of interbreeding between Negritos and later waves of people arriving from the Asian mainland. based on polymorphic blood enzymes and antigens. and Philippines. Liu. the Chinese term Kun-lun (崑崙) means Negrito.
See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Negrito Peoples Aeta peoples Al-Akhdam Ati people Australoid race Black people Indigenous Australians Koro-pok-guru Kunlun Nu Mamanwa Mani people Negroid race Orang Asli Peopling of India Proto-Australoid Pygmy peoples Saisiyat people Semang Shanyue Topics History of Taiwan List of topics related to the African diaspora Primitive culture Notes .
Pathmanathan Raghavan and Daniel Rayner (2006). ^ Morphological Afinities. Batwas. Number 2: 86– 93(8). 4. 3. "On the Polynesian.^ 走向遠東的兩個現代人種 . Philip. (21 January 2003). or East-Insular Languages". et al. ed. 1. Cambridge University Press. Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. Maru Mormina1. VK. 1910–1911: "Second are the large Negrito family. ^ Kashyap. Patimah Ismail. then nowhere".. a Vanishing Human Population". "Phylogeography and Ethnogenesis of Aboriginal Southeast Asians". ISSN 0043-8243. for the Author by Parbury.). Martin Richards (2006). Pub. Sitalaximi. ^ David Bulbeck. Vincent Macaulay. The International Journals of Human Genetics 3: 5–11. ^ William Marsden (1834). PMID 12546781 7. JSTOR 400 23598 10. p. William Howells.. the Akkas. (1911). averaging graphs A through D. doi:10.World Archaeology (Taylor & Francis) 38 (1): 109– 132. Sarkar.Current Biology. "Races of Homo sapiens: if not in the southwest Pacific.This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. ^ a b Getting Here: The Story of Human Evolution. ^ Snow. Molecular Biology and Evolution (Oxford University Press) 11. Joseph Maripa Raja. 1989 (ISBN 0801495830) 2. Stephen Oppenheimer. 2 Morphological Affinities. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. 4." (pg. William Meehan. 13. ^ a b c d Thangaraj. 851) 5. onedroprule.1080/00438240600564987. Douglas Clarke. ^ 2 Fig. James Blackburn. BN. Kumarasamy. Compass Press. doi:10. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences[dead link] 8. T. represented in Africa by the dwarfraces of the equatorial forests. "Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders. Press. Pedro Soares. David Bulbeck.^ Catherine Hill1.1016/S0960-9822(02)01336-2. Trivedi. 1993 6. Wochuas and others. Allen.org 9. Miscellaneous works of William Marsden. "Molecular relatedness of the aboriginal groups of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with similar ethnic populations" (PDF). R (2003). The Star Raft: China's Encounter With Africa. Cornell Univ.
External links The Negrito of Thailand Negritos in the Philippines A detailed book written by an American at the turn of the previous century holistically describing the Negrito culture. Conn: Human Relations Area Files. (1970). Pasir Lenggi. P. 1987. 1964. p. F. Online document processed by Filipiniana.09. The Negritos of Malaya. 14.1016/j. Universití Sains Malaysia. 16.On the Negritos of Tayabas. James J. Wiener Beitrage zur Kulturgeschichte und Linguistik. & Schütze.. Taipei Times.net Africans and Asians: Historiography and the Long View of Global Interaction . Art of the Negritos. . Schebesta. Ivor Hugh Norman. PMID 21944045. PMC 3188841. Horn: F.ajhg. Reg. 14. Negritos of the Philippines -The People of the Bamboo . Cambridge. Bd. Hurst Gallery.An Investigation . Mass: Hurst Gallery. John M. edition blurb. The Negritos of the Philippines. The Negritos of Asia.005. Denisova Admixture and the First Modern Human Dispersals into Southeast Asia and Oceania. 1-2. Retrieved 22 May 2011. edition blurb.. Berger.A Bibliography. "In honor of the Little Black People". 1967 (ISBN 0-2264-8688-5) Further reading Evans. and Hermann Hochegger. 2011.^ a b c Jules Quartly (Sat. The American Journal of Human Genetics (2011).Y. 2011. a Bateq Negrito Resettlement Area in Ulu Kelantan. edition blurb.^ Liu.12.]: University Press. DOI:10. Reg. 2011. Khadizan bin Abdullah.^ ^ Reich et al. About the Negritos . Zell. The Chinese Knight Errant. Garvan . 27 Nov 2004). Garvan. and Abdul Razak Yaacob. Cambridge [Eng..sciencedirect. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.http://www. Pulau Pinang: Social Anthropology Section. New Haven. 1937. School of Comparative Social Sciences. Reg. Zell. Human relations area files.Age .com/science/article/pii/S000292 9711003958 13. John M.2011. 1974. Zell.A Socio-Ecological Model.
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