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arqeologiuri kvlevis centri (sma-s)


Centre for Archaeological Studies of the GAS


kolxologiuri narkvevebi
Colchological Articles
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gela gamyreliZe
GELA GAMKRELIDZE







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Sinaarsi: Contents:

*kolxeTis istoriuli ganviTarebis procesze biogeogaremos
gavlenis Sesaxeb ---------------------------------------------------------
3
*qalaq fasisis (foTis) topoarqeologiisaTvis ---------------
56
*navTobis transportirebis Sesaxeb fasis-foTSi -------------- 81
*kolxur-mosuinikuri koSkis rekonstruirebis cda ---------- 89
*kolxi medeas ikonografiisaTvis ----------------------------------
99
*dionises tipis RvTaebis qandakeba vanis naqalaqaridan -----
110
*erTi keramikuli nivTis interpretaciisaTvis adeiSvilebis
goris nagebobidan --------------------------------------------------------- 113
*prokopi kesarielis da agaTias TxzulebebSi moxseniebuli
muxirisis Sesaxeb ------------------------------------------------------
121
*sazRvao naosnoba da vaWroba kolxeTSi --------------------------
131
*vercxlis ritoni sof. gomidan ------------------------------------- 138
*jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforebi --------------------------------- 155
*berZnul grafitoiani sinopuri da kolxuri amforebi qalaq
foTi-fasisidan ------------------------------------------------------------
174
*kolxur-mosuinikuri saomari istoriis zogirTi sakiTxi -- 188
*kolxeTSi romanizaciis globalisturi procesis mimdina-
reobis Sesaxeb. (Summary in English) ---------------------------------
200

Papers in English
*THE LAND OF COLCHIS AND THE CITY OF PHASIS ------- 215
*ON THE EVOLUTION THE COLCHIAN AMPHORAE
(the 4
th
cent. BC to the 3
rd
cent. AD) -------------------------------------
249
*About the author ------------------------------------------------------------ 262

Gela Gamkrelidze. 2001 (II gamocema, 2010).
ISBN 99928.0.137.9.(II).
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kolxeTis istoriuli ganviTarebis procesze biogeogaremos gavlenis
Sesaxeb

Zveli saqarTvelos istoriuli ganviTarebis jaWvSi erT-erTi metad
sayuradRebo rgolia dasavleT saqarTvelo (geografiuli cneba
kolxeTi). saqarTvelos am nawilma friad rTuli istoriuli gza
ganvlo. misi ekonomika da politikuri mdgomareoba sxvadasxva periodSi
sxvadasxvanairi iyo. qarTveluri modgma dasabamidan saxlobs dRevandeli
saqarTvelos miwawyalze. am miwaze saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi
mimdinareobda maTi istoriul-kulturuli ganviTarebis xangrZlivi da
Taviseburi procesi. geopolitikurad aziisa da evropis sazRvarze
mdebare kolxeTi ori didi politikur-ekonomikuri Zalis (erTi mxriv
iranuli da, meore mxriv, antikuri orientaciis qveynebis) zegavlenas
ganicdida. sayuradReboa kolxeTis urTierTobebis Seswavla
saberZneTTan, pontosTan da romTan. am qveynebma ZiriTadi roli iTamaSes
kolxeTis ganviTarebis kulturul-istoriul procesSi. sayuradReboa
agreTve qarTlisa(iberiis) da kolxeTis urTierTobebis Seswavla,
radgan maT adgilsa da safuZvelze Semdgom ganviTarda erTiani
saxelmwifo _ saqarTvelo.
istoriuli kvlevisas biogeogaremos (resp. geografiuli garemos)
Seswavlis gareSe SeuZlebelia romelime qveynis istoriuli
ganviTarebis procesis Seswavla. biogeogaremos ganmsazRvrel rolze
sazogadoebis ganviTarebaSi Tavdapirvelad yuradReba antikuri epoqis
mecnierma da moazrovnem hipokratem gaamaxvila. misi TvalTaxedviT,
biogeogaremos komponentebidan mTavari aqcenti klimatze iyo
gadatanili. SemdgomSi geografiuli determinizmis ideas bevri momxre
gamouCnda, romlebmac is ganaviTares da ufro daxvewes.
geografiuli determinizmis momxreTa azriT, geografiuli garemo
gadamwyvet gavlenas axdens sazogadoebis ganviTarebaze. isini ZiriTadad
gamoyofen _ klimats, landSafts, madneuls, faunas, floras, mdinares,
zRvas, qveynis mdebareoba-ganlagebas. es faqtorebi moqmedeben adamianis,
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sazogadoebis zne-xasiaTze, Sesaxedaobaze, materialur dagrovebaze,
sulier wyobaze, qveynis mmarTvelobis formaze da sxva. istoriuli
ganviTarebis procesis axsnisasQWeSmariteba ori ZiriTadi faqtoris,
kerZod, biogeogaremos da sociogaremos urTierTzemoqmedebis axsnaSi
unda veZeboT, romlebzedac, Tavis mxriv, moqmedeben biogeoqimiuri,
genetikuri, qronologiuri da sakranoosis procesebi (ix. gamyreliZe
1993, gv.22). biogeogaremos da sazogadoebis istoriuli ganviTarebis
urTierTzemoqmedebis problema msoflio civilizaciebis warmoqmna-
ganviTarebis saerTo ZiriTadi problemaa, magram realurad arsebobs
konkretuli biogeogaremo, konkretuli regioni, konkretuli
sazogadoeba. Cven vecadeT es urTierTobebi gangvexila Zveli kolxeTis
magaliTze.
kolxeTi, rogorc istoriul-geografiuli mxare, mTel dasavleT
saqarTvelos moicavs. misi fizikur-geografiuli sazRvrebia:
CrdiloeTiT kavkasionis maRali mTebi; samxreTiT mcire kavkasioni,
aWara-lazeTis mTianeTi; aRmosavleTiT suramis anu lixis qedi, xolo
dasavleTiT Savi zRva. dasavleT saqarTvelos, kolxeTis mTianeTis
borcvgorakebi, xeobebi, serebi, tafobebi da dablobi TavianTi bunebrivi
garemoTi mosaxerxebel dasasaxlebel adgilebs qmnian. aq didi
raodenobiT moipoveba saSeni masala _ xe, sxvadasxva jiSis qva, Tixa da
a.S. aris marmarilo, kirqva, TabaSiri, keramikuli Tixa, sxvadasxva
fiqlebi. kolxeTSi Tixis WurWlis moWiqvisaTvis da minis WurWlis
sawarmoeblad gamoiyeneboda kvarcis qviSa, romelic mravlad moipoveba.
dasavleT saqarTveloSi aRmoCenilia iseTi mineralebic, romlebic
ZvelTaganve gamoiyeneba samkaulebis dasamzadeblad, mag., giSeri, mTis
broli, aqati, qalcedoni, sardioni, obsidiani, surinji da a.S.
kolxeTSi metalurgiuli (spilenZi, rkina, tyvia, TuTia, kala, vercxli)
nedleulis mopovebis ZiriTadi adgilebia _ raWa-leCxumi, svaneTi,
afxazeTi, aWara. mdinareebis enguris, cxeniswylis, texuris da rionis
qviSa garkveuli raodenobiT oqros Seicavs. amas adasturebs jer kidev
Is. avtori straboni, romlis nawerebic sakmao safuZvlianobiT
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gamoirCeva: wylis nakadebs oqro Camoaqvs, xolo adgilobrivi
mcxovreblebi mas agroveben daCvretili varclebiT da bewviani tyavebiT
(straboni, XI, II, 19). II saukunis avtori apianec aRniSnavs:
kavkasionidan Camomdinare nakadulebs oqros qviSa Camoaqvs. adgilobrivi
mcxovreblebi mdinareebSi xSirbewvian cxvris tyavebs ageben da agroveben
qviSas, romelic maTze ileqeba (apiane, miTridates omebi, 103) oqros
mopovebis Sesaxeb gadmogvcems I saukunis avtori gaius plinius
sekundusic (ufrosi): kolxeTSi mefobda aietis memkvidre savlaki,
romelic Tavis sameufeoSi didZal oqros da vercxls ipovebda svaneTis
miwasa da saerTod saxelmwifoSi...(NH, XXXIII).
sayovelTaod cnobilia kolxeTis mosaxleobis roli
metalurgiuli warmoebis saqmeSi (mag: xalibebi, mosuinikebi, mosxebi).
kolxeTis regioni liTonebis warmoeba-damuSavebis erT-erT msoflio
centrs warmoadgenda. aq mosaxleobis mier madneulis nayofierma
damuSaveba-gamoyenebam kolxuri sazogadoeba ukve Zv. w. II aTaswleulSi
axali ganviTarebis safexurze aiyvana. antikur xanaSi kolxuri metalis
eqsporti mezobel qveynebSic xdeboda. amdenad, kolxeTSi sasargeblo
madneulis arseboba iwvevda pozitiur Zvrebs warmoebis ganviTarebaSi,
rac Tavis mxriv, aqauri sazogadoebis ganviTarebis process aCqarebda.
amgvarad, Zveli kolxeTi madneuliT mdidari qveyana Cans, rac SemdgomSi
safuZvlad daedo mompovebeli da gadamamuSavebeli xelosnoba-warmoebis
mTeli rigi dargebis ganviTarebas. am dargebis produqcia ki xSirad
sxvadasxva qveynebSi gahqondaT. iqidan ki SemohqondaT iseTi nawarmi,
romelic adgilobrivad ar moipoveboda.
kolxeTis reliefi, teqtonikuri ganviTarebis Taviseburebis gamo,
or ZiriTad gansxvavebul nawilad iyofa: mTa-mTiswineTad da bar-
dablobad. lixis, didi da mcire kavkasionis mTianeTSi gadioda bilik-
gzebi, romliTac kolxeTis mosaxleoba ukavSirdeboda danarCen
kulturul samyaros. adgilobrivi mcxovreblebi am gadasasvlelebs
exlac iyeneben. esenia: rikoTis, zekaris, mefiswyaros, goderZis,
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mamisonis, nakris, qluxoris da sxva. es gadasasvlelebi xels uwyobdnen
ekonomikuri kontaqtebis gaRrmavebas.
mTebiT SemosazRvruli kolxeTi Tavisi reliefiT (qedebi, xeobebi,
serebi, tafobebi, borcv-gorakebi) mosaxerxebel TavdacviT da samxedro-
strategiul garemos qmnida. am TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa Zv.w. Is-is
romaeli mxedarTmTavris lukulusis miTridate evpatorTan omis dros
kavkasionis mTianeTis da misi mimdebare teritoriis samxedro moqmedebis
adgilis Sefaseba: me aq im mizniT vayovneb, rom Cemma mowinaaRmdegem
(miTridate evpatori g.g.) kvlav moikribos Zala da did mxedrobas
mouyaros Tavi, raTa adgilzeve darCes da Cveni miaxloebisTanave ar
gaiqces. gana Tqven ver xedavT, rom mis zurgSi gadaSlilia uzarmazari
da usazRvro udabno? (igulisxmeba bosfor-yubanis stepebi g.g.). iqve
axlos aris kavkasioni mravali maRali mTiT, romelTac sul advilad
SeuZliaT Seifaron da daicvan brZolis amridebeli aTobiT mefe
(plutarqe, lukulusi, 14). aRsaniSnavia, rom samxedro moqmedebis dros
didi mniSvneloba aqvs adgilobrivi relief-landSaftis gaTvaliswinebas.
Casaketad advili viwro xeobebis, Znelad gadasalaxi maRali mTebis,
gasamagreblad mosaxerxebeli gorebis, xSiri gauvali tyeebis, Znelad
dasaZlevi mdinareebis moxerxebuli samxedro-strategiuli gamoyeneba
saomari moqmedebis warmatebuli dagvirgvinebis garantia iyo. aranaklebi
mniSvneloba samxedro moqmedebisas eniWeba klimats da weliwadis
droebis cvlas. magaliTad, miTridate evpatori pompeusTan omis dros
mTebis gadaRma kolxeTSi gaiqca (straboni, XII, III, 28). mas Zalebis
mokreba da aRWurvilobis Sevseba esaWiroeboda da zamTari dioskuriaSi
gaatara. am SemTxvevaSi miTridatem zamTari da mTebi (reliefi da hava)
Tavisi samxedro-strategiuli gegmis gansaxorcieleblad gamoiyena.
zemoxsenebuli mTaTa myinvarebidan gamoedineba didi Tu patara
mdinareebi, romlebic Savi zRvis auzs miekuTvnebian. isini raodenobrivad
16000-ze metia. maT Soris wyaluxvobiT uwinaresi adgili uWiravs _
rions, yvirilas, cxeniswyals, texurs, xobs, engurs, kodors, bzifs,
RaliZgas, xaniswyals, fiCors, sufsas, natanebs, Woroxs. aqedan xobs,
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texurs, fiCors, sufsas, da gansakuTrebiT rion-yvirilas satransporto
gadasaadgilebel gzebad iyenebdnen. maTze savaWro-satransporto navebiT
dacuravdnen. swored es savaWro-samdinaro gzebi (vidre saxmeleTo)
gacilebiT rentabelurs xdida vaWrobas, romelic adgilobrivi
mosaxleobis ganviTarebisTvis erT-erT mniSvnelovan faqtors
warmoadgenda.
rioni(fasisi) kolxeTis mTavari mdinarea. mdinare rioni
kavkasionis samxreT kalTebidan, fasis mTis myinvaridan gamoedineba.
qalaq quTaisamde is mTis mCqefare mdinarea, Cqari dineba gaaCnia da
umeteswilad viwro xeobaSi moedineba; quTaisis qvemoT kolxeTis
dablobze Camodis da baris mdinaris mdore dineba uCndeba. is itoteba
da mTebidan Camotanili Slamis daleqviT warmoqmnis kunZulebs. rioni,
rogorc Cans, xSirad icvlida kalapots, amitom kolxeTis dablobze
kargad SeimCneva narionalebi, Zveli kalapotebi. sayuradReboa, rionis
IIs-Si mnaxvelis flavius arianes TxzulebaSi _ mogzauroba Savi zRvis
garSemo _ daculi cnoba: fasisis wyals tyviis Tu kalis feri
dakravs, magram rom gaaCereb, Zalian wminda xdeba (flavius ariane,
1951, gv.37). werilobiT wyaroebSi fasisi pirvelad ixsenieba hesiodes
TeogoniaSi (Zv.w.VIIs.).
rion-yvirila(fasisi) Tavisi fizikur-geografiuli mdebareobiT
moxerxebuli savaWro-satranzito gza iyo. cnobebi misi satranzito
gzad gamoyenebis Sesaxeb ZiriTadad Semonaxulia strabonis da pliniusis
nawerebSi. straboni aRwers md. rion-yvirilas magistrals: fasisze
aRma curva SeiZleba Sorapnamde. am simagres SeuZlia daitios mTeli
qalaqis mosaxleoba; Sorapnidan fexiT, saurme gziT oTx dReSi
miisvleba md. mtkvramde (XI,II,17). am gzis gagrZelebas straboni ase
agviwers: induri saqoneli SemoaqvT hirkanis zRvaSi, xolo aqedan
albaneTSi gadaaqvT da Semdeg mtkvarze da mis momdevno adgilebiT
evqsinis zRvaSi CaaqvT (straboni, XI, VII,3). amrigad, naTelia, rom Is.-
is avtori straboni aRwers savaWro gzas, romelic moemarTeboda
aRmosavleTidan md. mtkvarze da md. fasisze (rion-yvirila) gavliT Savi
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zRvisken. amave gzas aRwers Is-is avtori pliniusi:pompeusis laSqrobis
dros, misi brZanebiT Seswavlil iqna, rom indoeTidan SeiZleba Svid
dReSi Casvla baqtriaSi, md. baqtrTan, romelic erTvis oqss. aqedan
induri savaWro saqoneli gadaaqvT kaspiis zRvis iqiT md. mtkvarze da
xmeleTiT ara umetes xuTi dRisa maT SeuZliaT miaRwion fasiss,
romelic Sav zRvas uerTdeba (plinius sekundusi, NH,VI,52).
sayuradReboa, rom swored am gzis gayolebaze mdebareobs antikuri
xanis da adreuli Sua saukuneebis namosaxlarebi, romelTa
arqeologiuri kvlevis drosac aRmoCnda Semotanili ucxouri nawarmi
(keramika, samkaulebi, monetebi, liTonis da minis WurWeli). aseTi
namosaxlarebi md. rion-yvirilas gayolebaze aRmoCenilia SorapanSi,
patrikeTSi, vanSi, sayanCiaSi, cixesulorSi, SuamTaSi, farcxanayanevSi,
sof. mTisZirSi, dablagomSi, dafnarSi, sajavaxoSi, patara foTSi,
WaladidSi, foTSi (paliastomis tbaze) da sxva.
rion-yvirilas (fasisis) savaWro-samdinaro gzis bolo punqti iyo
tba paliastomze mdebare qalaqi, romlis Semdegac savaWro karWapebi Sav
zRvaSi gadiodnen kabotaJuri curvisaTvis. geomorfologebis azriT,
paliastomis tba-laguna zRviuri reliqtia. Zvelad aq mdinare rionis
limani iyo. sruliad bunebrivia, rom winaT swored am moxerxebul
limanSi, romlis napirzedac qalaq-navsayudeli mdebareobda, xomaldebi
Semosuliyvnen. xomaldebidan Semdeg tvirTi brtyelZira samdinaro
karWapebSi gadaitvirTeboda da paliastomis gavliT mdinare rionze anda
fiCorze aRma agrZelebda svlas. agaTia paliastomis Sesaxeb gadmogvcems:
iq xom erTi tba aris, romelsac patara zRvas eZaxian da romelic
evqsinis pontos uerTdeba. Semdeg didi satvirTo xomaldebi zRvis
napiras da fasisis SesarTavTan miacures qalaqis maxloblad (agaTia,
georgika, 1936, gv.102). mdinare rionze Camocurebuli satransporto
navebidan tvirTi paliastomis tbaze mdebare navsayudelSi ukve sazRvao
karWap-xomaldebSi gadahqondaT da Savi zRvis gavliT mihqondaT Soreul
qveynebSi.
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zRvam didi roli iTamaSa kolxeTis socialur-ekonomikur
ganviTarebaSi. werilobiTi da arqeologiuri monacemebis mixedviT zRvis
sanapiroze mTeli rigi naqalaqarebi da sxva dasaxlebuli punqtebia
mikvleuli: afsarosi (goniosTan), baTumis cixe, cixisZiri, qobuleT-
fiWvnari, ureki, fasisi (foTTan), anaklia, fiCori, gienosi
(oCamCiresTan), dioskuria- sebastopoli (soxumTan), eSera,
pitiunti(biWvinTasTan) da a.S. CamoTvlili dasaxlebebi, bunebrivia,
cxovrebis wesiT zRvasTan mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli. isini garkveul
rols asrulebdnen ucxoeTTan savaWro-ekonomikur da kulturul-
politikur urTierTobaSi. pirvel rigSi, swored zRvispira qalaqebis
meSveobiT xorcieldeboda kontaqtebi Savi zRvis da xmelTaSua zRvis
qveynebTan da qalaqebTan: mileTTan, qiosTan, rodosTan, aTenTan,
mendesTan, sinopesTan, romTan (ostia). SemdgomSi bizantiasTan
(konstantinepolTan), genuasTan, veneciasTan da sxva. zRvispira
qalaqebSi, vaWrobis garda, xelosnobis sxvadasxva dargebi (meTuneoba,
mWedloba, xurooba, feiqroba, da a.S.) iyo ganviTarebuli. magram aq
gansakuTrebuli adgili mainc zRvasTan dakavSirebul saqmianobas,
zRvaosnobas, meTevzeobas, zRvis marilis mopovebas da, rac mTavaria,
vaWrobas eWira. cnobilia, rom zRvam msoflio arenaze civilizebuli
qveynebi gamoiyvana. antikur epoqaSi kolxebmac gamoiyenes sazRvao
komunikaciebi vaWrobisaTvis. antikur xanaSi kolxeTis sanapiroze
garkveuli sakontaqto regioni Seiqmna antikur samyarosa da kolxeTs
Soris. bizantieli istorikosi agaTia kolxeTis Sesaxeb gadmogvcems:
Zlierni da mamacni arian lazebi. isini amayoben kolxTa Zveli
saxeliT; gamoirCevian Tavisi simdidris siuxviT, aseve qveSevrdomTa
simravliT, miwawylis siWarbiT da mosavlianobiT exlandeli
mcxovreblebi dacuraven kidec, ramdenadac SesaZlebelia, da vaWrobaSic
naxuloben did sargebels (agaTia, III,5; yauxCiSvili, 1936, gv.50).
Savi zRva xmeleTSida zRvaa. is bosfor-dardanelis sruteebiT
gadis xmelTaSua zRvis auzSi. bosforis srutis uviwroesi adgili
siganeSi mxolod 700 metria, amitom misi gadaketva-kontroli advilia.
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srute geopolitikur- strategiulad friad mosaxerxebelia.
istoriulad vis xelSiac bosforis srute iyo, is akontrolebda
xmelTaSua da Sav zRvebs Soris mimosvlas. aman uaryofiTi roli
iTamaSa kolxeTis istoriul-ekonomikur ganviTarebaze. antikuri xanis
kolxeTis geografiulma adgilmdebareobam ganapiroba sazRvao (sanapiro
qalaqebi _ fasisi, gienosi, dioskuria da sxva.) da samdinaro (rion-
yvirilas satranzito gza) komunikaciebis ganviTareba, rac didad
moqmedebda maSindeli qveynis Siga da gare warmatebuli vaWrobis
warmoebaze. kolxeTis sanapiroze zRvis wyali ar iyineba. kolxeTis
farglebSi sanapiroze Zlieri grigaluri, damangreveli qari ar icis.
zRva udides rols TamaSobs kolxeTis klimatis formirebaSi, rac,
Tavis mxriv, did gavlenas axdens aqaur agroklimatur situaciaze da
adgilobrivi mcxovreblebis sameurneo yofaze. zRva kolxeTSi Tbili da
notio klimatis Camoyalibebas uwyobs xels. kolxeTis istoriaSi erT-
erTi mniSvnelovani uaryofiTi roli zRvis napiris biogeogaremos
Secvlam iTamaSa. geomorfologebis varaudiT, axalSavzRviurma
transgresiam Secvala fanagoriuli regresia (daaxloebiT Zv.w. I
aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi), xolo Zveli da axali welTaRricxvis
mijnaze isev iwyeba transgresia, zRvis donis aweva. amis gamo sanapiroze
ganlagebuli qalaq-dasaxlebebi wylis qveS moxvda da Sewyvita arseboba.
saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi, werilobiTi wyaroebis (skilaqs kariandeli,
flavius ariane, pomponius mela, straboni, klavdios ptolemaiosi,
prokopi kesarieli, agaTia, vaxuSti bagrationi da sxv.) mixedviT, mTeli
rigi naqalaqarebi aris moxseniebuli: foTTan fasisi, oCamCiresTan
gienosi(?), soxumTan dioskuria-sebastopolisi, biWvinTasTan
pitiunti da a.S. xsenebuli naqalaqarebis an maTi mimdebare teritoriis
wyalSi daZirvam da cxovrebis Sewyvetam zRvispireTSi ekonomikuri
donis daqveiTeba gamoiwvia. Sesabamisad, gvianantikuri xanis da
adreuli Suasaukuneebis kolxeTis istoriul ganviTarebaze es
geomorfologiuri procesi uaryofiTad imoqmedebda. sayuradReboa
strabonis geografiaSi cnoba, sadac, Savi zRvis is monakveTi,
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romelic mdebareobda kolxeTis sanapirosTan, iwodeboda kolxeTis
zRvad(XI, I,6).
kavkasioni, antikavkasioni, lixis qedi da Savi zRva qmnian bunebrivad
SemozRudul teritorias, romlis SuaSic kolxeTis bardablobi da
mTiswineTi eqceva. es teritoria kolxeTis mTavari agrarul-sameurneo
regioni iyo. kolxeTis bar-dablobi xasiTdeba Waobiani da eweri, xolo
mTiswineTi wiTeli da yviTelmiwa niadagebiT. kolxeTis dablobi
sxvadasxva sibrtyeebzea ganlagebuli. amitom dasavleT, zRvispira
monakveTSi aRiniSneba gansakuTrebuli Waobianoba, xolo aRmosavleTiT
ufro eweri niadagebia. WaobebSi ZiriTadad torfiani niadagebi Warbobs.
aris agreTve Waobis qviSalamiani da Tixnariani monakveTebic. agrarul-
sameurneo saqmianobaSi yvelaze metad gamoyenebulia kolxeTis dablobis
SemaRlebuli monakveTi. sameurneo saqmianobaSi iyo Cabmuli agreTve
kolxeTis mTiswineTis borcv-gorakiani nawilic. strabonis
geografiaSi daculi cnobis mixedviT, kolxeTi bunebrivi resursebiT
sakmaod mdidar qveynad warmogvidgeba: qveyanaSi kargi nayofi icis;
moipoveba gemTsaSeni yovelive masala, radgan izrdeba aq mravali tye
da mdinareebiT CamoaqvT; amuSaveben bevr sels, kanafs, cvilsa da fiss.
xolo selis warmoeba ganTqmulia da gareTac ki gaaqvT (straboni, XI,
II,17). eqsportzea saubari markus maniliusis (Is.) cnobaSic, sadac is
gadmogvcems, rom romaelebs kvebavs numidielTa sanapiro da fasisis
Walebio.
sayuradReboa kolxeTis Sesaxeb VIs-is bizantieli mwerlis prokopi
kesarielis werilobiTi cnoba: moxirisi erTi dRis savalzea
arqeopolisidan da Seicavs mraval mWidrod dasaxlebul sofels.
kolxeTis miwa-wyalze is saukeTeso mxares warmoadgens; Rvinoc kargi
modis da nayofic iq kargad xarobs (prokopi kesarieli BG, VIII,14).
kolxeTSi mdebare moxirisis mxare, rogorc Cans, ekonomikurad Zlieri
regionia. md. rionis Suaweli emTxveva kolxeTis am regionis SedarebiT
gviandel saxelwodebas _ samoqalaqo, romelic agreTve mZlavr
ekonomikur mxared aris cnobili. kolxeTis dablobi rom
12

dawinaurebuli sameurneo-ekonomikuri mxare iyo, kargad Cans am regionSi
aRmoCenili arqeologiuri masalidanac.
kolxeTis klimatis formirebaSi did rols asrulebs mzis radiacia,
haeris cirkulacia, zRvasTan siaxlove. aq baris da mTis havaSi didi
sxvaobaa. kolxeTis qaris mimarTuleba-siCqareze ZiriTadad xeobebis,
qedebis da zegnebis ganlageba moqmedebs. xalxur dakvirvebaSi
SemorCenilia ori qaris saxeli _ zena qari da qvena qari
(dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis qari), romelTa mixedviTac meurne
cdilobda amindis prognozirebas da Tavis sameurneo saqmianobis
Sesabamisad dagegmvas.
kolxeTi mravalferovania Tavisi mcenareuli safariT. aq dResac
SexvdebiT reliqtur saxeobebs; aris endemuri jiSebi. alpuri
sartyelis qvemoT mTa-mTiswineTi da nawilobriv baric, ZiriTadad
tyiTaa Semosili. bar-dablobSi tyeebi ZiriTadad mdinareebis WalebSia.
kolxeTis bar-mTiswineTSi gabatonebulia foTlovani xeebi _ muxa,
rcxila, wabli, wifeli, cacxvi, nekerCxali. SemorCenilia agreTve
mesameuli periodis xeebi _ lafani, Zelqva. aris maradmwvane buCqnarebi
_ bza, wyavi, Sqeri. dablobebSi tye CaxlarTulia xviarebiT (suro,
Rvedkeci). winaT kolxeTis dablobze SemaRlebul adgilebSi izrdeboda
muxa, rcxila, wifeli, rac exla aq TiTqmis iSviTobas warmoadgens. am
xeebis samSeneblo masalad gamoyeneba arqeologiuri monacemebiT xSirad
dasturdeba.
kolxeTis ganviTarebis garkveul etapze Zv.w. IIIsaukunemde, xe
SeiZleba ZiriTad samSeneblo masalad CaiTvalos. gaTlili xisagan da
morisagan igeboda sacxovrebeli saxlebi, Sendeboda TavdacviTi
nagebobebi da zogjer Waobian adgilebSi gza-trotuarebis
gasamarTavadac gamoiyeneboda. strabonis cnobiT, "qveyanaSi (kolxeTSi _
g.g.) ...moipoveba gemTsaSeni ...masala, radgan aq izrdeba mravali tye...;"
(ix. straboni, XI, II,17). tyeebis siuxvesve adasturebs Zv.w. Is. romaeli
arqiteqtori vitruviusic: "kolxebi pontos mxareSi tyis siuxvis gamo
13

awyoben miwaze marjvniv da marcxniv mTlian xeebs... da ageben..."
(vitruviusi, aTi wigni arqiteqturis Sesaxeb, II w. I,4).
kolxeTis qvemo nawili torfian Waobebs uWiravs. Waobis da misi
mimdebare adgilebisaTvis ZiriTadad damaxasiaTebelia lelianebi,
islianebi, Calianebi, gvimrianebi; seli, kanafi da sxv. Zveli kolxeTis
sameurneo yofisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eqneboda iseTi mcenareebis
gavrcelebas, rogoric iyo, magaliTad, xorblis da qeris marcvali,
vazi, fetvi, Wvavi, wabli, Romi, kakali, Txili, leRvi, zRmartli, xaxvi
da sxv.
kolxeTis bar-dablobSi ukeTesi mdgomareoba iyo dasasaxleblad da
sameurneo saqmianobisaTvis. bunebrivia, aq xdeboda kulturul-sameurneo
mcenareebis axali jiSebis Semotana-gavrceleba. zog SemTxvevaSi axali
produqtiuli jiSebis SemotaniT Zveli tradiciuli jiSebi TiTqmis
qreboda. magaliTad, XVIIs-Si simindis Semotanam kolxeTSi TandaTan
TiTqmis mospo iseTi Zveli kulturuli mcenare, rogoric Romia.
cxovelTa samyarodan kolxeTSi, endemuris garda, mravladaa
gavrcelebuli evropuli da mcireaziuri saxeobebi. marto kolxeTis
dablobze mecnier-mkvlevarebis mier aRnusxulia 380-mde xerxemliani
cxoveli. cxovelTa samyaros simravleze da mis mravalferovnebaze iyo
garkveulwilad damyarebuli mocemul teritoriaze mosaxleobis
gamokveba. amitom aq Sinauri cxovelebis moSeneba erT-erTi sameurneo
saqmianoba unda yofiliyo.
kolxeTSi nadirobdnen iseT gareul cxovelebze, rogoricaa _ arCvi,
jixvi, Rori, kurdReli, iremi, Sveli, mura daTvi da sxv.; mglis,
daTvis, turis, melas, focxveris tyavs samosisTvis iyenebdnen.
kolxeTis mdinareebSi bevria kalmaxi, loqo, oraguli, wvera. sakvebad
gamosayenebel frinvelTagan gavrcelebulia xoxobi, gareuli ixvi, bati,
gnoli, mwyeri. amaTgan ara marto Sida, aramed sagareo bazarze TiTqmis
mTel maSindel civilizebul samyaroSi saxeli moixveWa kolxur-
fasisurma xoxobma _ Phasianus Colchicus, romelic or kilogramamde
iwonis. fasisur xoxobs sakvebad gansakuTrebiT SeZlebuli gurmanebi
14

etanebodnen da amitom es delikatesi Zvirad fasobda, Tumca ar aris
gamoricxuli, rom xoxbebs dekoratiuli (farSevangisnairi)
daniSnulebac hqondaT. xoxobi mkveTradaa nairferad Seferili, xolo
bumbulze vercxlisferi bzinvareba dahkravs. XIIs-is avtori evstaTi
Tesalonikeli Zvel gadmocemebze dayrdnobiT naSromSi "homerosis
iliadas ganmartebebi" aRniSnavs: "...amboben mefe ptolemeosi gamotyda,
rom mas ar egemna fasisuri xoxobi, radgan winaprebi mas (xoxobs _ g.g.)
aSenebdnen silamazisaTvis..."(XXII,69). antikuri werilobiTi wyaroebidan
naTelia, rom xoxobis saxeli maSindel civilizebul samyaroSi
fasisidan aris gavrcelebuli. Sesabamisad, xoxobis saxeli berZnul-la-
Tinuridan Sevida sxva evropul enebSi. Zvel saqarTveloSi xoxobi,
albaT, imdenad mniSvnelovani sakvebi frinveli iyo, rom qarTul
gastronomiul folklorSi dResac ixmareba misgan damzadebuli kerZi _
Caxoxbili, romelsac exla qaTmisagan amzadeben.
dasavleT saqarTveloSi arqeologiurad mopovebul masalaSi xSiria
osteologiuri naSTebi, rac garkveul warmodgenas gviqmnis Zveli
kolxeTis mosaxleobis mecxoveleoba-monadireobis Sesaxeb. antikur
xanasa da Sua saukuneebSi aq monadireobas ukve aRar eqneboda iseTi
sasicocxlo mniSvneloba, rogorc wina epoqebSi hqonda. rac Seexeba
mecxoveleobas, arqeologiur masalaSi msxvili da wvrili rqosani
saqonlis (xar-Zroxa, Txa, cxvari) Zvlebi mravlad aris dadasturebuli.
gvxvdeba agreTve Roris, ZaRlis, cxenis Zvlebic. es osteologiuri
monacemebi dRevandeli dasavleT saqarTvelosTvis damaxasiaTebel Sinaur
cxovelTa saxeobebs Camogavs. sagulisxmoa, rom aristotele (Zv.w. IVs.)
naSromSi "cxovelTa istoria" kolxeTis tanmorCil Zroxebs aRwers:
"mewveli cxoveli met Tu nakleb rZes moiwvelis, damokidebulia tanis
sididezedac da sazrdos nairferovnebazec. magaliTad, fasisTan arian
momcro Zroxebi, romelTagan TiToeuli bevr rZes iwvelis..."(III,21).
gamwev satransporto pirutyvidan ZiriTadad arqeologiur masalaSi
dadasturebulia xarisa da cxenis Zvlebi.
15

kolxeTSi xaris sameurneo saqmianobaSi gamoyenebis Sesaxeb aRniSnavs
apolonios rodoseli (Zv.w. IIIs.) "argonavtikaSi": "velze sabalaxod
gaSvebuli myavs ori spilenZisCliqebiani xari, romlebic cecxls
afrqveven. me maT uRelSi vabam da xodabunisaken miverekebi. am adgils
swrafad vxnav guTniT..." "...xarebs uRelSi diliT adre vabam, xolo
saRamo xans mkas vaTaveb" (argonavtika, III,405-415).
saerTod, kolxeTSi da gansakuTrebiT mis dablob nawilSi wvimebis
siuxve, Tbili zamTari da xangrZlivi zafxuli xelsayrel pirobebs
qmnis sameurneo-agraruli saqmianobisaTvis, kerZod, memarcvleobis,
mebostneobis da mevenaxeoba-mexileobis ganviTarebisaTvis, rac kolxeTs,
adridanve, Zveli samiwaTmoqmedo qveynebis rigSi ayenebda.
xsenebuli samiwaTmoqmedo-sameurneo dargebis ganviTareba mocemuli
regionisaTvis damaxasiaTebel kvebis racions ayalibebda. aseTi racionis
gastrokaloriuli produqtebi ki, Tavis mxriv, iwvevdnen garkveuli
fizionomur-fsiqikuri, kolxeTisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli adamianis tipis
ganviTareba-Camoyalibebas. erTi mxriv, zemoT xsenebul garemoebas, da
meore mxriv, sawarmoo ZalTa ganviTarebas da Warbi produqciis
warmoebas kolxeTSi demografiuli zrda unda gamoewvia.
kolxeTis dablobi garSemortymulia mTebis naoWa sistemiT. mis
dabal nawilSi gavrcelebulia torfian-Waobiani niadagebi. mdinareTa
auzebSi gvxvdeba aluviuri miwebi. kolxeTis aRmosavleT nawilSi
ZiriTadad aluviurTan erTad neSompala-karbonatuli niadagebia. hava aq
gardamavalia notiodan mSralisaken da zafxuli Tbili icis. kolxeTis
dablobTan SedarebiT wvimebi aq naklebia.
dasavleT kolxeTis klimatur-geografiuli garemos Sesaxeb Zv.w.
IVs-is ganTqmuli berZeni mecnieri hipokrate gadmogvcems: "es qveyana
Waobiania, Tbili, wyliani da tyiani. wlis yovel dros aq xSiri wvimebi
icis. adamianebs sacxovrebeli WaobebSi aqvT, maT xisa da lerwmis
saxlebi wyalze aqvT." "fasisi mdinareTa Soris yvelaze dinjia da
mdored moedineba"; "aq bevri samxreTis qari qris, garda erTi
adgilobrivi qarisa; xolo es xandaxan Zlierad uberavs da cxelia. am
16

qars ewodeba qenxronis. CrdiloeTis qari aqamde TiTqmis ver aRwevs,
xolo roca uberavs, is sustia da wynari." "...fasiselebs sxva
adamianebTan SedarebiT Zalian gansxvavebuli garegnoba aqvT" (hipokrate,
haerTa, wyalTa da adgilTa Sesaxeb, 15).
kolxeTis dablobis klimatur pirobebs aseve axasiaTebs XVIIs.
italieli mogzaur-misioneri arqanjelo lamberti: "kolxeTs
adgilmdebareobis gamo iseTi notio hava aqvs, romlis nairi arsad ar
moipoveba. mizezi amisa is aris, rom dasavleTiT, Savi zRvidan hqris
namiani haeri da aRmosavleTiT ki akravs kavkasioni, saidanac mravali
mdinare Camoedineba. amas emateba xSiri tyeebi, romlis gamoc haeri
cudad moZraobs. zRvis qari Zalian xSiria da mas xSiradve mosdevs
wvima" (arqanjelo lamberti, 1938, gv.19-20).
havisa da tyiani safaris Sesaxeb, kolxeTSi, sayuradRebo cnobebs
gvawvdis XVIIIs. qarTveli mecnieri vaxuSti bagrationi naSromSi
"aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa": "da ars qveyana ese friad tyiani,
rameTu iSviaT ars velni, Tu ar adgil-adgils mcireni, Tvinier
saxvnelTagan. aramed tyeni adgil-adgil xilian-venaxiani. haviTa keTil-
mSueni. garna tyis gamo zafxuls imyofis sicxe, vinaiTgan Zniad iZvris
qarni, da ara gauZlisi sicxe, Tvinier adgilTa romelTam. zamTari
Tbili, rameTu ver odes ganhyinavs mdinareTa, verca gubesa, romelsa
zeda Sedges utyvi anu metyueli. aramed Tovli didi, romlisa simaRle
odesme mxari da umetesica. TualTa queSe Sueniereba egoden ara
mzenarobs tyis gamo, Tvinier adgil-adgilTa, rameTu, ukeTu daxedo
maRlis mTidam, ixilav sruliads..." (vaxuSti, 1973, gv.743).
zemoT moyvanili monacemebidan Cans, rom kolxeTis fizikur-
geografiuli da agroklimaturi, aqedan gamomdinare sawarmoo-sameurneo
pirobebi ukanaskneli ocdasami saukunis ganmavlobaSi didad ar
Secvlila. saerTod, holocenSi kolxeTis biogeogaremo, da upirvelesad
klimati, dRemde arsebiTad ar Secvlila (ix. janeliZe, 1991,gv.68-69).
amasTanave gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom XIXsaukunidan moyolebuli,
teqnikis ganviTarebam, adamianis gacxovelebulma sameurneo saqmianobam,
17

tyeebis didi raodenobiT gaCexvam, Waobebis amoSrobam da a.S., bunebrivia,
kolxeTis geoklimatur pirobebze uaryofiTad imoqmeda.
kolxeTis istoriul ganviTarebaSi angariSgasawevia biogeogaremos
zogierTi faqtor-komponentis uaryofiTi mxare. kerZod, kolxeTSi
agroklimaturi pirobebi kargia, magram dasamuSavebeli farTobebi cotaa,
rac miwaTmoqmedebis intensiuri ganviTarebisaTvis araxelsayreli
iqneboda da, Sesabamisad, demografiul situaciazec imoqmedebda.
dasavleT kolxeTis Waobianoba iwvevda sxvada-sxva daavadebas, rac
agreTve uaryofiTad imoqmedebda mosaxleobis gamravlebaze. kolxeTis
mTagoriani da Waobiani landSafti saxmeleTo komunikaciebis
gasamarTavad mouxerxebeli iyo, rac gamoiwvevda vaWrobis Seferxebas.
kolxeTis sasargeblo madneuli safuZvlad daedo gadamamuSavebel
sameurneo-sawarmoo saqmianobas, magram es ukanasknelic, garkveuli
teqnologiuri mizezebis gamo, etyoba srulad ar iyo gamoyenebuli.
uaryofiTi roli iTamaSa agreTve zRvis transgresiam, ramac sanapiroze
mdebare savaWro-sameurneo saqmianobis stagnacia gamoiwvia. kolxeTis
zRvis sanapiroze bunebrivi yureebi cotaa, rac navTsayudlebis mowyobis
simcires iwvevda da agreTve uaryofiTad zemoqmedebda zRvaosnobis
intensiur ganviTarebaze.
dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze, md. rionis, md. Woroxis da md.
enguris auzebSi daaxloebiT Zv.w. II aTaswleulis meore naxevarSi da
Zv.w. I aTaswleulis dasawyisSi erTgvarovani kulturuli areali
yalibdeba, romelic kolxuri brinjaos kulturadaa saxeldebuli. am
kulturis maxasiaTebelia xis Zeluri arqiteqtura, brinjaos da
keramikis Taviseburi formiTa da gaformebiT gamorCeuli nawarmi.
kolxuri brinjaos nimuSebis metalografiulma Seswavlam cxadyo _
dariSxanisa da kalis minarevebiani brinjaos nivTebis gavrceleba.
agreTve maTi specialur qvis an Tixis yalibSi Camosxma, kverva-Wedva,
SeduReba da tvifrva. amgvari rTuli teqnologiuri codnis gamoyenebam
uzrunvelyo sxvadasxvagvari da mravalricxovani nivTebis Seqmna. esenia:
brinjaos sameurneo iaraRi _ Toxi, culi, waldi, saxnisis daboloeba
18

da sxv. saomari iaraRi _ Subi, culi, isrispiri, satevari da sxv.
tanisamosis mosarTavebi, samkaulebi da sxv. es nivTebi mravladaa
warmodgenili am epoqis namosaxlarebze, liTonis da keramikis warmoebis
adgilebze, samarovnebze da sxv. brinjaos warmoebis srulyofam
dadebiTi roli Seasruli kolxeTis ekonomikur aRmavlobaSi.
miwaTmoqmedebis ganviTarebaze migvaniSnebs arqeologiuri gaTxrebis
Sedegad aRmoCenili marcvleulis adgilobrivi jiSebi _ xorblis,
fetvis, qeris naSTebi. agreTve napovnia yurZnis wipwebi. es yvelaferi
inaxeboda namosaxlarebze aRmoCenil dergebSi, qoTnebSi, jamebSi. aqve
dadasturebulia qvis xelsafqvavebi, namglispirebi, puris gamosacxobi
kecebi da brtyeli qvebi. miwaTmoqmedebasTan erTad mesaqonleobis
ganviTarebaze miuTiTebs namosaxlarebze aRmoCenili msxvilfexa rqosani
saqonlis, cxvris, Txis da Roris mravalricxovani Zvlebi.
arqeologiuri monacemebi mowmobs, rom Zv.w. I aTaswleulis
dasawyisisaTvis dasavleT saqarTvelo sakmaod kargad iyo gansaxlebuli.
sacxovreblad da sameurneo saqmianobisaTvis aTvisebuli iyo kolxeTis
dablobi da mTiswina borcv-gorakebi. aq sadReisoT, jerjerobiT, 200-
mde namosaxlaria cnobili. samosaxlo borcvebis gansakuTrebuli
simravle rion-enguris ormdinareTSi SeiniSneba. aq samosaxloebi
ZiriTadad xelovnurad mozvinul borcvebzeaa ganlagebuli. samosaxlos
amgvari saxis gavrceleba kolxeTis dablobis Waobianma da Warbtenianma
garemom ganapiroba. borcvebis arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad
dasturdeba xelovnurad mozvinur gorakze agebuli xis Zelebiani e.w.
jargvaluri tipis nagebobebi, romlebic SemozRuduli iyo ZelebiTve
naSeni damcavi kedlebiT. namosaxlarebis garSemo gaTxrili iyo
sadrenaJe da TavdacviTi arxebi. samosaxlo borcvebi umetesad
jgufurad aris ganlagebuli. am jgufebSi gamoirCeva ufro didi zomis
samosaxlo borcvebi, romlebic ufro farTe ormagi TxrilebiTaa
gamagrebuli. aSkaraa, rom es samosaxlo gamagrebuli borcvi sxvebzea
gabatonebuli da maT iqvemdebarebs. mTavari borcvebis diametri 80m-dan
_ 200m-mde meryeobs; xolo daqvemdebarebuli mcire borcvebis
19

diametri daaxloebiT 30m-dan _ 80m-mdea; simaRle _ 3m-dan _ 7m-mdea. es
samosaxloebi SesaZloa naTesaur kavSirze damyarebuli sasoflo Temebis
sacxovrisebi iyo.
bunebrivia, rom aseTi sididis xelovnuri miwazvinulebis Seqmna,
aseTi sadrenaJe, TavdacviTi da sakomunikacio arxebis gaWra Sesabamisi
Sromis iaraRebisa da mravalricxovan adamianTa kargad organizebuli
Sromis gareSe warmoudgeneli iqneboda. agreTve bunebrivia, rom am
samuSaoebs xelmZRvanelobdnen codna-gamocdilebis mqone gamorCeuli
pirovnebebi. swored es liderebi anxorcielebdnen am borcvze
ganlagebuli gamagrebuli sasoflo dasaxlebebis dacvas.
amrigad, TavdacviTi da sacxovrebeli problemebis erToblivi
ZalisxmeviT gadawyvetis pirobebSi xdeboda garkveuli politikuri
konsolidacia, rac Semdeg erTgvarovani kulturis gavrcelebaSi
aisaxeboda. samuSaoebis masStabebis da TavdacviTi mzadyofnis zrdasTan
erTad izrdeba liderebis roli sazogadoebaSi. amavdroulad Cndeba
erTiani winamZRoli, romelsac danarCeni liderebi emorCilebian. amgvar
sazogadoebriv- politikur struqturas, romelic wina-
saxelmwifoebrividan saxelmwifoze gardamaval etaps warmoadgens,
protosaxelmwifoebriv sazogadoebriv wyobas eZaxian.
zemoT naxsenebma garemoebebma da Zv.w. VIIIsaukunidan brinjaos ufro
mtkice liToniT, rkiniT, Canacvlebis dawyebam Zv.w. VI_IVss-Si xeli
Seuwyo Zlieri politikuri erTeulis kolxeTis samefos warmoqmnas,
romelic berZnul werilobiT wyaroebSi oqromravali kolxeTis
saxeliTaa cnobili.
dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze Zv.w. VIIVss.-Si kolxeTis
Zlieri samefo ganviTarda. kolxeTi imdenad dawinaurebuli qveyana iyo,
rom berZnul samyaroSi masze oqros sawmisis miTi Seiqmna. didi
berZeni istorikosi herodote Zv.w. VIs-is kavkasia-axlo aRmosavleTis
istoriis werisas kolxeTs, iranis da midiis Zlieri da didi
saxelmwifoebis Tanabrad moixseniebs. kolxeTis samefos keTildReobis
epoqa TvalnaTlivaa asaxuli rogorc werilobiT wyaroebSi, agreTve
20

mravalricxovan da mravalferovan arqeologiur monacemebSi. mocemuli
epoqis kolxeTis samefos guli mdinare fasisis anu rionis Sua welze
iyo ganlagebuli. Zveli berZeni avtorebi mis mTavar qalaqs quTaias
uwodebdnen, romelic dRevandeli quTaisis sanaxebSi igulisxmeba.
kolxeTSi mravaldargovani xelosnuri warmoeba iyo ganviTarebuli.
aq liTonis dasamuSavebeli, keramikis gasakeTebeli, xis da tyavis
dasamuSavebeli, sxvadasxvagvari samkaulebis dasamzadebeli da sxv.
saxelosnoebi arsebobda. kolxeTis samefos ekonomikuri winsvlis
sayrdens rkinis kargad ganviTarebuli warmoeba warmoadgenda, romelic
miwaTmoqmedeba-sameurneo saqmianobas mravalricxovani sawarmoo iaraRiT
amaragebda. amis udavo mowmobaa dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze
arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad dadasturebuli rkinis saxnisebi,
Toxebi, culebi da sxv. miwaTmoqmedebis maRali donis maCvenebelia
sxvadasxva jiSis marcvleulis aRmoCenac. mbrunav sameTuneo Carxzea
damzadebuli mravalferovani kolxuri WurWeli, romelic samefos mTel
teritoriaze formebis da gaformebis mixedviT garkveulad
standartul-erTsaxovania. kolxeTis samefoSi ZiriTad saamSeneblo
masalad xe da Tixa gamoiyeneboda, rac geneturad ukavSirdeba
winamorbedi epoqis samosaxloebs. Zv.w. VIIVss.-Si kolxeTis samefos
teritoriaze iWreboda Taviseburi monetebi, romelTac mecnierebi
kolxuri TeTris saxeliT moixsenieben.
arqeologiuri gaTxrebiT kolxeTis samefos uaRresad TavisTavadi
mxatvruli kultura warmoCinda. mis erT-erT brwyinvale dargs
oqromWedloba warmoadgens. mag.: vanSi da sairxeSi mikvleulia kolxuri
oqromWedlobis brwyinvale nimuSebi diademebi, sayureebi, yelsabamebi,
samajurebi, romlebic Semkulia cxovelTa moxdenili gamosaxulebebiT.
es nivTebi friad originaluria da mxolod kolxeTisTvisaa
damaxasiaTebeli. oqromWedloba kolxeTis swored is saxea, romliTac
saxelganTqmuli iyo mTel imdroindel civilizebul samyaroSi. kolxi
xelosnebi rTuli teqnikuri xerxebiT _ WedviT, tvifrviT, rCilviT,
filigraniT, cvaraTi _ maRalmxatvrul oqromWedlur nimuSebs qmnidnen.
21

Zveli berZeni avtorebi werdnen kolxeTis mdinareebis qviSidan cxvris
tyaviT oqros mopovebis Sesaxeb. sayuradReboa, rom svaneTSi da raWaSi
oqros mopovebis es tradicia dResac arsebobs. etyoba amitomacaa, rom
berZnebi kolxeTs oqromravals uwodebdnen da Txzavdnen legendebs
oqros sawmisis Sesaxeb.
Zveli kolxeTis biogeogaremos, werilobiTi da arqeologiuri
mimoxilvidan naTlad Cans, rom biogeogaremom wamyvani roli iTamaSa
kolxeTis istoriuli ganviTarebis procesSi. kolxeTi mTebiTa da zRviT
kargad SemosazRvruli istoriul-geografiuli regioni iyo, rac
geopolitikurad garkveul bunebriv damcav ares qmnida. noyieri niadagi,
mravalferovani reliefi, zomieri klimati, hidroresursebis simravle,
madneuli, florisa da faunis mravalsaxeoba sazogadoebis
progresisaTvis karg safuZvels iZleoda. upiratesad ki amaze aris
damokidebuli sazogadoebis sameurneo-ekonomikuri, demografiuli,
fiziologiur-fsiqikuri, inteleqtualur- teqnikuri, savaWro-
komunikaciuri, geopolitikur- strategiuli, sulier-kulturuli
ganviTarebis maRali done. aqedan gamomdinare, kolxeTSi, centriT
mdinare rionze, Camoyalibda friad Taviseburi istoriuli, lokaluri
are da Zv.w. I aTaswleulSi aq ganviTarda saxelmwifoebrioba. am
arealSi droTa ganmavlobaSi adamianis da biogeogaremos
urTierTzemoqmedebis Sedegad mimdinareobda evoluciuri procesi. aq
istoriuli ganviTarebis done, ekonomika da politikuri mdgomareoba
sxvadasxva periodSi sxvadasxvanairi iyo. antikuri xanis kolxeTs
geopolitikurad sakvanZo teritoria ekava. aq xdeboda aRmosavluri da
dasavluri civilizaciebis garkveuli Tanxvedra. aseTi iyo Zveli
kolxeTis istoriuli evoluciis procesSi biogeogaremos roli.
istoriuli ganviTarebis ganxilvisas Cven ierarqiulad pirvel adgilze
biogeogaremos vayenebT. mxolod am garemosTan urTierTzemoqmedebaSi
adamiani qmnis sociogaremos, razedac damokidebulia ama Tu im qveynis
istoriuli winsvlis Semdgomi bedi. Zveli kolxeTis saerTo
mimoxilvidan gamoCnda, rom biogeogaremom ZiriTadi roli Seasrula
22

misi istoriuli ganviTarebis procesSi da antikur xanaSi
maRalganviTarebuli sazogadoebis CamoyalibebaSi.
iseT geopolitikur garemoSi myofi qveynisaTvis, rogoric kolxeTi
iyo, sagareo faqtors biogeogaremosTan erTad didi mniSvneloba unda
hqonoda. amis gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia kolxeTis istoriis rigi
sakiTxebis asaxsnelad.
sagareo faqtori ama Tu im qveynis geopolitikuri sinamdvilis
nawilia. mezobeli qveynebi erTmaneTze zogjer sasikeTo, xolo zogjer
ukeTur gavlenas axdenen. sagareo faqtori qveynis istoriaSi xan
konstruqciul, xan ki destruqciul rols TamaSobs. konstruqciulia,
mag., sagareo-savaWro, sameurneo, kulturuli inovaciebi;
destruqciulia _ saomari Tavdasxmis Sedegad qveynis dapyroba,
sazogadoebrivi wyobis tradiciuli struqturebis Secvla, sabrZolo
moqmedebebis Sedegad soflebis da qalaqebis dangreva, materialur
faseulobaTa Zarcva-ganadgureba, qveynis ekonomikuri safuZvlis moSla
da a.S. aziisa da evropis sazRvarze mdebare kolxeTi ori didi
politikur-ekonomikuri Zalis, erTi mxriv, iranuli da, meore mxriv,
antikuri orientaciis qveynebis saomari moqmedebebis asparezi iyo. aseT
garemocvaSi myofi kolxeTi Zlieri mezobeli qveynebisagan xSir agresias
ganicdida.
samecniero literaturaSi protosaxelmwifos Casaxvis erT-erT
ZiriTad faqtorad omisaTvis mzadebas (Tavdacvas an Tavdasxmas)
miiCneven. omisaTvis mzadeba, saomar mdgomareobaSi yofna, gamorCeul
winamZRol-pirovnebaTa aRzevebas, sazogadoebis Sekvra-mobilizebas da
met organizebulobas iwvevda, rac, Tavis mxriv, sazogadoebis
ganviTarebis ufro maRal safexurze ayvanaSi da saxelmwifoebriobis
warmoqmnaSi gamoixateboda (ix. Claessen, Skalnik, 1978, gv.619-636).
Camoyalibebuli saxelmwifos ganviTarebaSic "saomar faqtors," sagareo
da geopolitikuri faqtoris Semadgenel nawils, agreTve didi
mniSvneloba unda hqonoda. Camoyalibebul, ganviTarebul saxelmwifoSi
es faqtori dadebiT (qveynis konsolidacia-darazmuloba, sazogadoebrivi
23

wesrigis amaRleba, safortifikacio-komunikaciuri mSenebloba da sxv.)
an uaryofiT (saxelmwifoebriobis dakargva, tradiciuli cxovrebis
wesis moSla, ekonomikuri zarali da sxv.) Sedegs iwvevda.
Zv.w. I aTaswleulis pirvel naxevarSi urartuelebis da e.w.
skviTebis (nomaduri) agresiulma mezoblobam kolxeTis geografiulad
kargad SemosazRvrul regionSi momxdurTan dasapirispireblad
sazogadoebis sxvadasxva jgufebis TavdacviTi organizeba da Sekvra-
konsolidacia gamoiwvia. mocemul sagareo faqtors SemdgomSi, Zv.w. V
saukunisaTvis, kolxeTis samefos ganviTarebis procesSi sagrZnobi roli
unda Seesrulebina. kolxeTis samefos ganmtkicebaSi gamorCeuli,
konstruqciuli adgili eWira kulturul inovaciebs.
sagareo faqtorad unda CaiTvalos e.w. "berZnuli kolonizaciis"
mimdinareoba kolxeTis zRvispireTSi, kerZod, sainteresoa is, Tu ra
gavlena moaxdina man kolxuri sazogadoebis politikur-ekonomikur da
kulturul cxovrebaze. uaxlesi samecniero literaturis mixedviT,
saberZneTidan gasuli mosaxleobis axalSenebs Soris gaimijna savaWro
da agraruli kolonia-apoikiebi. am or formas aqvs Tavisi moqmedeba-
gavrcelebis meqanizmi: pirvels _ komerciuli, meores _ teritoriuli
(Vallet, 1973, gv.53-72). pirveli, konstruqciuli sagareo faqtori unda
yofiliyo. aseTi koloniebi daarsebulia, rogorc emporionebi. meore _
destruqciuli sagareo faqtoria adgilobrivi mosaxleobisaTvis, radgan
mas Tan axlavs iseTi movlenebi, rogoricaa teritoriis dakargva da
adgilobrivi mosaxleobis gandevna. aseTi koloniebi Tavidanve
daarsebulia, rogorc polisebi sasoflo-sameurneo SemogareniT
(xoriT).
xmelTaSua da Savi zRvis sanapiroebis berZnuli koloniebis
mecnierulma Seswavlam cxadi gaxada, rom axalSenebi arsdeboda,
viTardeboda da sxvadasxva qronologiur etapze transformacias
ganicdida. metropoliidan Sors daarsebuli axalSenebi droTa
ganmavlobaSi adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan kontaqtebis Sedegad simbiozs
da cvalebadobas ganicdidnen. es cvlilebebi didad iyo damokidebuli
24

adgilobriv biogeogaremoze da sociogaremoze. pirvel rigSi swored
maTzea damokidebuli droTa ganmavlobaSi koloniebSi metropoliisagan
gansxvavebuli sazogadoebrivi da ekonomikuri wyobis ganviTareba. amitom
principuli mniSvneloba hqonda imas, Tu romel geografiul regionSi
arsdeboda esa Tu is axalSeni.
werilobiT wyaroebSi moxseniebuli kolxeTis sanapiroze mdebare
qalaqebi fasisi, gienosi, dioskuria berZnebis mier daarsdnen, rogorc
emporionebi. maTi daarsebis ZiriTadi mizani iyo, pirvel rigSi,
adgilobrivi nedleulis gatana da sanacvlod kolxeTSi sxvadasxva
fufunebis sagnebis (keramikis, samkaulebis, liTonis WurWlis,
nelsacxeblebis da a.S.) Semotana, rac werilobiTi da arqeologiuri
wyaroebiT dasturdeba. adgilobriv samosaxloebTan daarsebuli am
emporionebis saSualebiT xorcieldeboda ZiriTadad kolxeTis Cabma
ucxoeTis mowinave qveynebis urTierTobebis orbitaSi. amdenad, zRvis
sanapiroze emporionebis warmoqmna TviT kolxebis interesebSi Sedioda.
aseTi mdgomareoba, Cveni azriT, gagrZelda Zv.w. IVs-is bolomde.
kolxeTis samefos daSlis mere ki sanapiroze mdebare emporionebi
TandaTan antikur qveynebsa da Sida kolxeTs Soris buferuli, Sereuli,
polisuri tipis qalaqebad transformirda.
amrigad, berZnul "kolonizacias," rogorc sagareo faqtors,
kolxeTisaTvis unda mohyoloda ZiriTadad konstruqciuli, dadebiTi
Zvrebi, kerZod, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi Cabma; adgilobrivi
mosaxleoba gaecno im xanad mowinave berZnul sameurneo, sazogadoebriv
da kulturul miRwevebs, ramac mniSvnelovani stimuli misca kolxur
sazogadoebaSi saqalaqo cxovrebis dawinaurebas.
kolxeTma, qarTuli werilobiTi wyaroebis mixedviT egrisma, rTuli
istoriuli gza ganvlo. misi ekonomika da politikuri mdgomareoba
sxvadasxva periodSi sxvadasxvanairi iyo. kolxeTis istoriuli
ganviTarebis procesSi wamyvani roli Seasrula biogeogaremom. umetesad
amaze iyo damokidebuli mosaxleobis sameurneo-ekonomikuri,
demografiuli da sulier-kulturuli mdgomareoba. egrisis saxeliT
25

qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi zogjer mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelo
aRiniSneba - "xolo egross misca queyana zRvis yurisa, da uCina
sazRvari: aRmosavliT mTa mcire, romelsa aw hqvian lixi; dasavliT
zRua; CrdiloT mdinare mcirisa xazareTisa, sada warswuTebis wueri
kavkasisa"(qarTlis cxovreba, 1955,gv.5). maSasadame, "qarTlis cxovrebis"
mixedviT, egriss garkveul periodSi aRmosavleTiT sazRvravs suramis
anu lixis qedi; dasvleTiT _ zRva, CrdiloeTiT _ kavkasionis mTebi;
xolo samxreTiT aWara-lazeTis mTianeTi.
egrisi qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi ixsenieba, rogorc saerisTavo
"da merve, quji, iyo erisTavi egrisisa" (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.24).
garkveuli droidan toponimi egrisi dasavleT saqarTvelos krebiTi
saxelia (iseTive, rogorc berZnul-laTinuri wyaroebis "kolxida"). is
xan didi teritoriis momcvelia (mTeli dasavleT saqarTvelo), xan ki
mcire regionul saxelad gvevlineba; mag., f. buzandis (1953, gv.15) eger-
svanebi, an "qarTlis cxovrebis" "Sida egrisi" (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955,
gv.185), anda kidev, klavdios ptolemaiosis _ ekretika (lomouri, 1955,
gv.45), romelsac eger-egrisis damaxinjebul formad miiCneven
(javaxiSvili, 1960, gv.404; janaSia, 1959, gv.6). "somxur geografiaSi,"
romelic adrindeli berZnuli geografiebis gavleniTaa dawerili,
egrisis teritoriaze aRiniSneba oTxi mxare _ "kolxida, romelic aris
egeri, mdebareobs pontos zRvis aRmosavleTiT, sarmatiis axlos da
sazRvravs iberias da did armenias. egeri iyofa oTx mxared: manrili,
egrisi-egrevika, lazeTi, Wanivi romelic aris qaldea. aq aris bevri mTa,
mdinare, qalaqi, cixe, soflebi da savaWro adgilebi" (somxur
geografiaSi, 1877, gv.38-39).
qarTul werilobiT wyaroebSi daculi cnobebi, romlis mixedviTac
azos da SemdgomSi farnavazis dros (Zv.w. IVs. bolo _ IIIs. dasawyisi)
kolxeTis nawili iberiis samefos farglebSia moqceuli, sandod
gamoiyureba. am droisaTvis kolxeTis samefo dasustebulia da veRar
uZlebs nomaduri tomebis Semosevebs. is TandaTan sustdeba da kargavs
teritoriebs. jer aRmosavleT, xolo Semdeg Sida kolxeTzec
26

vrceldeba iberiis gavlena. safiqrebelia, rom swored es teritoria
iwodeboda maSin Zveli qarTuli werilobiTi wyaroebis egrisad. droTa
ganmavlobaSi saxeli egrisi dasavleT saqarTvelos dasavleT nawilzec
gavrcelda (meliqiSvili, 1965, gv.90). zemoxsenebuls mxars ubams
dasavleT saqarTvelos arqeologiuri monacemebi. Zv.w. IVs-is bolos
kolxeTis materialur kulturaSi, romelic adre erTgvarovani iyo,
SeiniSneba cvlilebebi. Zv.w. IIIs-Si es cvlilebebi kidev ufro gaRrmavda.
Semdgom, mkveTri gansxvaveba SeimCneva Sida da zRvispira kolxeTis
materialur kulturaSi (ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1972, gv.40). pirvelad es
aisaxa dakrZalvis axali wesis gaCenaSi (qvevrsamarxebi). amgvari
samarxebi ZiriTadad Sida kolxeTSia aRmoCenili, xolo zRvispireTSi
isini ar gvxvdeba _ nigorzRva, dafnari, dablagomi, mTisZiri,
farcxanayanevi, quTaisi, wyaltubo, maRlaki, banoja, qvitiri, godogani,
odilauri, ajameTi, Cxari, banZa, Zevri, cixesulori, didvani, bzvani,
muxiani, Wognari, mesxeTi, ukaneTi, bukiscixe, zenobani, gogoreTi,
zemofarcxma, TeklaTi, isula, zanaTi, noqalaqevi, batnaoxuro,
lanCxuTi, Zirula, sajavaxo, bori da sxv. (ix. Tolordava,1980,tab.1).
Sida kolxeTis qvevrsamarxebSi dakrZalvis ramdenime variantia
dadasturebuli: pirveli _ qvevri vertikaluradaa, miwaSi Tavdayira
Cadgmuli. meore _ qvevri agreTve vertikaluradaa, mxolod ZiriT
qveviT. mesame _ qvevri horizontaluradaa Cadgmuli. samarxebad
gamoyenebulia Cveulebrivi sameurneo daniSnulebis qvevrebi (ruxad
gamomwvari, moSavo zedapiriani; qvevris piri sakmaod farTo da
profilirebulia; muceli TiTqmis sferulia; qvevrebi xSirad
ornamentirebulia reliefuri sartylebiT da vertikaluri qedebiT).
qvevris piris gvirgvini SedarebiT sadaa. masze ar SeimCneva wina epoqis
kolxuri qvevris pirebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ornamenti.
qvevrsamarxebi aRmoCenilia kavkasiis mTel rig regionebSi.
arqeologiuri masalebis mixedviT qvevrsamarxebis gavrcelebas
saqarTvelos teritoriaze Zv.w. IaTaswleulis meore naxevarSi
varaudoben. kolxeTSi qvevrSi dakrZalvis wesis gaCena, uaxlesi
27

arqeologiuri monacemebis mixedviT, daaxloebiT Zv.w.IVs. miwurulidan
aris savaraudo. qvevrsamarxebis raodenobis mixedviT md. rionis
Suaweli ZiriTadi regionia kolxeTSi. amgvari samarxebidan momdinare
arqeologiuri masala ramdenadme gansxvavdeba mis wina periodSi
arsebulisagan da migviTiTebs cvlilebebze Sida kolxeTis teritoriaze
(ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1972, gv.40).
samarxebidan momdinare masala ZiriTadad keramikas da samkaulebs
(mZivebi, liTonis samajurebi, sakisre da sayure rgolebi) Seicavs.
qvevrsamarxebSi aRmoCenili WurWeli sxvadasxvanairia. maTSi SeimCneva
adgilobrivi da Semotanili forma-gaformebis Serwyma. aq aris
adgilobrivTan dakavSirebuli WurWeli da e.w. msxliseburi
moyvanilobis wiTlad moxatuli doqebi, romlebic kolxeTis zRvispira
zolSi araa mikvleuli. qvevrsamarxebSi napovni nivTebi umetes
SemTxvevaSi cotaa da Raribuli. sabrZolo iaraRi maTSi ar gvxvdeba.
uiaraRo qvevrsamarxebTan dakavSirebiT sayuradReboa "qarTlis
cxovrebis" erTi cnoba, romlis mixedviTac azos brZanebiT unda
dasjiloyo yvela, visac iaraRi hqonda: "azo iyo kaci Zneli da
mesisxle, da ese daawesa da amcno spaTa misTa, viTarmed: yovelman
qarTvelTaganman romelman povos saWurveli, mokalT igi. da hyofdes
hromni igi esreT qarTvelTa zeda, da vincavin gamoCndis qarTvelTagani
qmnul-keTili da asakovani, moklian igi"(qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.20).
Sida kolxeTis materialur kulturaSi cvlileba pirvelad sairxis
lominaurSi (ix. nadiraZe, 1975, gv.99), iTxvisSi da vanSi (ix.
lorTqifaniZe, 1977, gv.20) wiTlad moxatuli iberiuli keramikis
gaCeniT aRiniSna. gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa brtyelZira, pirgadaSlili
da wiTeli saRebaviT gaformebuli doqebis aRmoCena. wiTlad moxatuli
amgvari WurWeli ucxoa Zv.w. III s-mde kolxeTisaTvis, xolo aRmosavleT
saqarTveloSi isini bevria dadasturebuli _ cixiagoras "daWrilebis"
samarovani (nakaiZe, 1980, gv.28-41), TeTriwyaro (boxoCaZe, 1963, gv.27),
Tbilisi (qoriZe, 1958, gv.47). mag.: moyviTalod angobirebuli da
28

wiTlad moxatuli WurWeli inaxeba q. xaSuris mxareTmcodneobis
muzeumSi, sadac sof. tkocidan aris motanili, inv. #036, da a.S.
cvlileba SeimCneva kolxuri xelosnobis iseT mkveTrad gamoxatul
dargSi, rogoric oqros da vercxlis mxatvruli damuSavebaa. Zv.w. VI-
IVss. oqros da vercxlis nivTebis damzadebaSi SeimCneva geometriuli
formebis (samkuTxedi, rombi, wre) da gaformebis teqnikis (cvara,
dakeWvna, grexva) mdgradoba. gavrcelebulia rombiani diademebi, e.w.
sxivana sayureebi, WvirulburTulebiani sayureebi, yelsabamebi,
sasafeTqleebi _ vani, iTxvisi, mTisZiri, qobuleT-fiWvnari, brili,
sairxe, soxumi da a.S. (ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1971, gv.51-63; Wyonia, 1981,
gv.6-53). kolxuri oqromWedloba Zv.w. IVs. meore naxevridan garkveul
stagnacias ganicdis. es SesaZloa gamowveuli iyos samxedro moqmedebebis
Sedegad qveynis ekonomikis dacemiT. Zv.w. IIIsaukunidan icvleba formebi
da gaformebis xerxebi, Semodis poliqromiuloba, sWarbobs ucxouri
saiuveliro nawarmi.
dasavleT saqarTvelos xuroTmoZRvrebaSi, kerZod, Sida kolxeTis
arqitequturul masalaze, iberiis gavlena aisaxa, magaliTad _ sairxeSi
(nadiraZe, 1975), sazanoSi (jafariZe, 1984, gv.8), mTisZirSi (gamyreliZe,
1982). msgavseba SeimCneva iberiis _ armazcixe, wiwamuri, RarTis kari,
cixiagora, samadlo (gagoSiZe, 1979, gv.62), ufliscixe (xaxutaiSvili,
1970, gv.22) da kolxeTis: vani, sairxe, samSeneblo wesebSi (alizis
aguris da qvaTlilebis gamoyeneba; qvaTlilebis mSrali wyoba da
erTmaneTTan dakavSirebis wesi). formis mxriv garkveuli siaxlove
aRiniSneba samadlos da vanis kramits Soris; vanis, mTisZiris,
cixiagoras, samadlos da mcxeTis kramitebis niSnebSic msgavseba
aRiniSneba. saintereso faqtia, msgavseba samadlos, sarkines da vanis
naqalaqarebis terasuli principiT dagegmarebaSi. samadlos zogierTi
samSeneblo qvis petrografiuli Seswavlis Sedegad gairkva, rom aseTi
jiSis qva (eklaris kirqva) moipoveba mxolod dasavleT saqarTveloSi q.
quTaisis maxloblad. aq exlac amuSaveben eklaris qvis sabadoebs. am
karierze ufro axlo samadlosTan amgvari jiSis qva ar moipoveba.
29

kolxeTis materialur kulturaSi gardatexis mimaniSnebelia isic,
rom Zv.w. IVsaukunis bolodan aRar iWreba kolxuri TeTri, romelic
aqamde, TiTqmis sami saukunis ganmavlobaSi, mTavar monetad Cans
kolxeTis samoneto mimoqcevaSi. iberiasa da Sida kolxeTSi Zv.w. III
saukunidan ZiriTadad Semodis aleqsandre makedonelis da lisimaqes
saxelze moWrili monetebi. saqarTvelos teritoriaze napovni 381
monetidan mxolod samiodea mikvleuli zRvis sanapiroze (fiWvnari da
gulrifSis r-ni) (dundua, 1982, gv.15). SemdgomSi aleqsandres da
lisimaqes staterebis minabaZebi sakmao raodenobiT gvxvdeba dasavleT da
aRmosavleT saqarTvelos arqeologiur masalaSi.
Sida kolxeTSi arameulis erT-erTi saxeobis, mcxeTis teritoriaze
dadasturebuli "armazuli" (wereTeli, 1943, gv.2-87) damwerlobis
msgavsi nimuSebi aRmoCenelia sof. borSi (xaragaulis r-ni) napovn
vercxlis TefSze da vanis naqalaqarze gaTxril Zv.w. II-Iss-is nagebobis
nangrevebSi, sadac warwera amokawrulia oqros firfitaze, qalis
reliefuri gamosaxulebis garSemo (Wyonia, 1981, gv.84,125). arameuli
enis specialisti, akad. k. wereTeli Tavis naSromSi "arameuli ena
saqarTveloSi" aRniSnavs: "arameuli damwerlobis xmarebas CvenSi karga
xnis tradicia unda hqonoda. vfiqrobT, marTali unda iyos germaneli
mecnieri elsneri, romelic armazuli damwerlobis Camoyalibebas Zv.w.
II-Iss-Si varaudobs. amasTanave, misi TqmiT, armazuli damwerloba
arameulis Crdilo-mesopotamiuri tipis Semdgom ganviTarebas
warmoadgens. Tu es asea, maSin arameuli enis xmarebas aRmosavleT
saqarTveloSi xangrZlivi istoria aqvs da savsebiT bunebrivi Cans, rom
am istoriis dasawyisi aqemenianTa xanaSi unda veZeboT. swored maSin
unda dawyebuliyo saqarTveloSi (aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, g.g.)
arameuli enis xmareba rogorc administraciis enisa" (wereTeli, 1976,
gv.151; wereTeli, 1982, gv.19). SesaZlebelia, rom arameuli damwerloba
kolxeTSi aRmosavleT saqarTvelodan gavrcelebuliyo.
Zv.w. IVsaukunis miwurulis saomari moqmedebebis Sedegadaa etyoba
dangreuli, magaliTad, varcixis "giorgobianebis goris," vanisa da
30

mTisZiris "adeiSvilebis goris" nagebobebi. samwuxarod, Sida kolxeTSi
am periodis sxva nagebobebi jerjerobiT cotaa mikvleuli da gaTxrili.
vfiqrobT, rom Seuswavlel namosaxlarebzec igive situacia aRiniSneba.
sof. varcixis "giorgobianebis goraze" aRmoCenili nageboba dangreul-
gadamwvaria Zv.w. IVs-is miwuruls (jafariZe, 1977, gv.43-50). amave
periodSia gadamwvari vanis naqalaqaris centraluri terasis TeTri qviT
nagebi Senoba da zeda terasaze (nakveTi 211 da 193) gaTxrili
ZelurbaTqaSiani nageboba. Zv.w. IVsaukunis miwurulisaTvisaa dangreuli
sof. mTisZiris "adeiSvilebis goris" Zelur-baTqaSiani TavdacviTi
nageboba (Senobis dangrevis dro radioaqtiuri naxSirbadis daSlis
meTodiTaa gansazRvruli)(ix. gamyreliZe, 1982, gv.56-63, 93).
kolxeTis Zv.w. IVs-is miwurulis da Zv.w. IIIs-is pirveli naxevris
materialur kulturaSi zemoT aRniSnuli cvlilebebi SeiZleba, erTi
mxriv, azos (azon) da, meore mxriv, farnavaz-qujis mier
ZalauflebisaTvis brZoliT gamowveuli saomari moqmedebebis SedegebiT
aixsnas. rogorc cnobilia, qarTlis (iberiis) samefos Camoyalibebis
rTuli procesi swored Zv.w. IV-IIIsaukuneebis mijnaze mimdinareobs
(mamulia, 1979, gv.93-113). am droisaTvis Sida kolxeTic politikurad
qarTlis samefos farglebSi erTiandeba. axali samecniero literaturis
mixedviT, qarTuli saistorio gadmocema ("moqcevai qarTlisai" da
"cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTa da pirvelTaganTa mamaTa da naTesavTa")
qarTlis samefos warmoSobis da azo-farnavazis urTierTobis Sesaxeb
ZiriTadad sandoa. arian-qarTlidan (mdinare mtkvris, Woroxis saTaveebis
da vanis tbis axlomaxlo teritoria. herodote, III, 94) mosulma
aleqsandre makedonelis mier aRzevebulma azom jer qarTlis
geografiul-strategiuli (md. mtkvrisa da md. aragvis Sesayari) centri
"mcxeTa" daimorCila, xolo SemdgomSi qarTveluri modgmis xalxiT
dasaxlebuli sxva mxareebic daiqvemdebara (maT Soris egrisic). "da mas
miuboZa mcxeTa sajdomad da sazRvari daudva mas hereTi da egris wyali
da somxiTi da mTai crolisai" (Zv. qarTuli agiograf..., 1963, gv.81).
31

zRvispireTSi (md. rionsa da egriswyals Sua mdebare monakveTis
garda), azo-farnavazis epoqaSi, kolxeTis samefos daSlis Semdeg,
safiqrebelia, antikur qveynebsa da iberias Soris buferuli polisuri
tipis qalaqebi warmoiSva. maT gaCenaSi garkveuli roli iTamaSa kolxur
dasaxlebebTan "berZnuli kolonizaciis" Sedegad warmoqmnilma
emporionebma, romlebic kolxeTis samefos daSlis Semdeg
transformirdnen polisuri tipis dasaxlebebad. amis Taobaze
sainteresoa qalaq fasisis Sesaxeb heraklides cnoba fasisis polisuri
wyobilebis (politiis) Sesaxeb. heraklideze mecnierebaSi gansxvavebuli
mosazrebebia gamoTqmuli. zogi mas Zv.w. IVs., xolo zogi Zv.w. IIs.
avtorad miiCnevs. specialist wyaroTmcodneebs miaCniaT, rom
"politiebis" damuSavebis TariRi Zv.w. IVsaukunis Semdgom periods unda
asaxavdes (dawvr. ix. yauxCiSvili,1969, gv.189-190): Sesabamisad im dros,
roca kolxeTis samefos daSlis mere zRvis sanapiroze emporionebi
gardaiqmnen polisurisnair qalaqebad. SesaZloa, rom swored amgvari
"qalaqis" "basilevsi" iyo aki. akis saxeliani moneta sul oria
jerjerobiT napovni; aqedan erTi q. trapizonTan zRvis sanapiroze
(dRevandel TurqeTSi), xolo meore sof. kinCxaSi (martvilis r-ni).
maTi TariRia Zv.w. IIs.
zRvidan mTamde da rionidan egriswylamde teritoria egrisis
saerisTavos ekuTvnoda. farnavaz mefis siZem, egris-svaneTis erisTavma aq
strategiulad moxerxebuli md. texuris Sua welze aago cixe-goji
(qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.24). werilobiTi da uaxlesi arqeologiuri
monacemebis mixedviT cixe-goji damajerebladaa gaigivebuli md. texuris
marcxena napirze mdebare noqalaqevTan. sof. noqalaqevis naqalaqarTan
mikvleulia farnavazis droindeli kramitebi, piramidiseburi sawafebi,
adgilobrivi amforebi da sxv. (ix. grigolia, fxakaZe, 1973, gv.17-38).
galavnis gadaRma gaTxrilia amave periodis qvevrsamarxebi da
ormosamarxebi. cixe-goji, erTi mxriv, samdinaro gziT ukavSirdeboda md.
rions (ZiriTad satransporto magistrals), xolo meore mxriv, qedis
iqiT svaneTsac ukavSirdeboda (md. cxeniswylis ayolebiT).
32

cixe-gojis garda, dasavleT saqarTveloSi leonti mrovels naxsenebi
aqvs Sorapnis da dimnis cixeebi: "erTi gagzavna margvis erisTavad, da
misca mciriT mTiTgan, romel ars lixi, vidre zRu/r/admde egrisisa,
rions zemoT. da amanve farnavaz aRaSenna orni cixeni, Sorapani da
dimna" (qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.24). Sorapani Tanamedrove dabaa
Sorapnis cixesTan, xolo dimni sof. zeda dimis nacixarTan aris
gaigivebuli (cqitiSvili,1964,gv.71-106; jafariZe, 1990; bragvaZe, 1990,
gv.137-150).
amrigad, azo-farnavazis periodis kolxeTi, zogierTi zRvispira
monakveTis garda, qarTlis samefoSi egris-svaneTis saerisTavos saxiT
iyo gaerTianebuli (ix. gamyreliZe, 1985, gv.86-97). rogorc Cans,
kolxeTSi imxanad imZlavra calkeuli mxare-erTeulebis gaTiSuloba-
dapirispirebam, xolo qarTlSi, piriqiT, meti sazogadoebriv-
politikuri konsolidacia moxda da Zlieri, centralizebul
xelisuflebiani samefo ganviTarda. qarTlis samefom Camoyalibeba-
gaZlierebis procesSi kolxeTis nawilis inkorporacia ganaxorciela
(ix. gamyreliZe, 1985,gv.87-89). aseTi mdgomareoba gagrZelda daaxloebiT
Zv.w. II-Iss-is mijnamde, vidre kolxeTis garkveuli nawili miTridate VI
evpatoris samefos gavlenis qveS ar moeqca.
antikur qveynebsa da iberiis samefos Soris kolxeTis zRvispireTSi
Zv.w. IVsaukunis miwurulidan ganviTarda buferuli, polisuri tipis
qalaqebi _ dioskuria, gienosi, fasisi, qobuleT-fiWvnari, xolo Sida
kolxeTi iberiis samefos politikur gavlenas daeqvemdebara
(dawvrilebiT ix. gamyreliZe, 1985, gv.86-97). iberiis politikuri
gavlenis qveS myofi Sida kolxeTis straboniseuli skeptuxiebi
(straboni, XI, II, 18) _ "sairxe" (ix. nadiraZe, 1990), "quTaisi" (ix.
lanCava, 1975; jiqia, 1977, gv. 26-30), "noqalaqevi" (ix. zaqaraia, 1981;
lomouri, 1981, gv.18-46), "vani" (arqeologiuri masala ix. kreb. "vani,"
1972, 1976, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983) da sxvebi garkveuli
damoukideblobiT sargeblobdnen. amgvari teritoriuli danawileba
ganviTarda, pirvel rigSi, fizikur-geografiuli da ekonomikur-
33

komunikaciuri mdgomareobis safuZvelze. rogorc Cans, zogierTi Temi
ufro dawinaurda da Camoyalibda garkveul saqalaqo centrad.
kolxeTis sazogadoebriv-politikuri ganviTarebis Sesaxeb friad
cota saistorio werilobiTi da arqeologiuri monacemi mogvepoveba. am
kuTxiT sayuradReboa kolxeTis Sesaxeb strabonis "geografiaSi"
Semonaxuli cnoba: "Tu rogor iyo saxelganTqmuli Zvelad es qveyana,
cxadyofen amas miTebi, romlebic mogviTxroben iasonis laSqrobaze,
romelic movida midiamde da amaze adre ki friqses laSqrobaze. amis
Semdeg memkvidre mefeebma skeptuxiebad dahyves qveyana da hqondaT
zomieri Zalaufleba" (straboni, XI, II,18). rogorc strabonis
"geografiis" am nawyvetidan Cans da arqeologiuri monacemebic amas
mowmoben, daaxloebiT Zv.w. VsaukunisaTvis kolxeTSi ukve gaformebulia
fizikur-geografiul da ekonomikur-komunikaciur safuZvelze
warmoqmnili teritoriuli erTeulebi, romelTa saTaveSi adgilobrivi
dawinaurebuli gvaris warmomadgenlebi idgnen. am teritoriebidan
zogierTi ufro dawinaurda da Camoyalibda garkveul saqalaqo centrad
Tavisi mimdebare teritoriiT. aseTebia, magaliTad, vani, quTaisi, sairxe
da sxv. Semdgom swored es teritoriebi daedo safuZvlad
saerisTaoebad dayofas. strabonis "geografiis" nawyvetidan naTlad
Cans, rom kolxeTi skeptuxiebad daanawiles, raSic unda igulisxmebodes
qveynis dayofa garkveul teritoriul-sammarTvelo erTeulebad. es
danawileba, albaT, xelisuflebam Caatara, raTa, erTi mxriv,
gaadvildeboda administraciulad qveynis marTva, xolo meore mxriv,
kidev meti politikuri centralizaciisaTvis mieRwia (ix. inaZe, 1961,
gv.783-790; lorTqifaniZe, 1977, gv.15).
safiqrebelia, rom maTi warmoqmnis pirvel etapze isini ufro
tomobriv-teritoriuli erTeulebia, xolo TandaTan erT-erTi am
erTeulis aristokratiuli gvari winaurdeba da axerxebs danarCenebis
daqvemdebarebas. swored es aristokratiuli gvari Semdeg samefos ukeT
samarTavad da xelisuflebis gansamtkiceblad administraciul
reformebs atarebs. aq, albaT, iseTive reformebi tardeba, rogoric
34

qarTlSi gaatara mefe farnavazma (ix. qarT. cxovreba, 1955, gv.24).
droTa ganmavlobaSi kolxeTSi sagamgeblo erTeulebs Soris moxda
garkveuli diferenciacia, radgan aqauri regionuli fizikur-
geografiuli da agroklimaturi pirobebi araTanabaria (mag., rionis
dablobis skeptuxiebi ufro mdidari da SeZlebuli unda yofiliyo,
vidre mTiani guriis). aman SemdgomSi, daaxloebiT Zv.w. IVsaukunis meore
naxevarSi, sagamgebloebs Soris urTierTdapirispireba gamoiwvia, rac
saboloo jamSi kolxeTis samefos dasustebiT da iberiasTan misi
inkorporaciiT dasrulda.
qarTuli saistorio tradiciis mixedviT, iberiis mefe farnavazma
egrisis saerisTavo daumtkica qujis, romelic, rogorc Cans, adrec
flobda kolxeTis nawils. axla farnavazma mas teritoriebi
gaufarTova, samefo xelisuflebis administraciuli uflebebic uboZa
(da gaayola colad) da amiT samefo didmoxeled aqcia. sayuradReboa,
rom rva erisTavidan saistorio wyaroSi mxolod qujia moxsenebuli
(qarT.cxovreba, 1955,gv.24). quji warmomavlobiT Zveli aristokratiuli
gvaridan iyo da qarTlis mefis kolxeTSi xelisuflebisaTvis brZolaSi
wvlili miuZRoda.
safiqrebelia, rom analogiuri situacia Seiqmna Zv.w. Vs. kolxeTSi,
sadac regionebis saTaveSi mefis xelisuflebisadmi loialurad
ganwyobili adgilobrivi warCinebuli gvaris warmomadgenlebi iyvnen,
romelTac mefem saxelmwifo moxelis funqciac mianiWa. amdagvari unda
yofiliyo kolxeTSi is ierarqiuli kibe, romlis TavSic Zlieri
gamaerTianebeli xelisufali _ mefe idga, xolo mas dawinaurebuli
aristokratebi mosdevdnen. es, etyoba, maSin xdeba, rodesac
aristokratia arcTu ise Zlieria da maTi socialuri statusic
jerjerobiT mkveTrad ar aris gamoxatuli. strabonis TqmiT qveyanaSi
maT "hqondaT zomieri Zalaufleba" (straboni, XI, II,18). SemdgomSi,
roca isini momZlavrdnen, calkeuli skeptuxiebis damoukideblobisaken
swrafva daiwyo, rac Zv.w. IVsaukunis bolos kolxeTis samefos
dasusteba-daSliT damTavrda da isini centralur xelisuflebaze
35

formalurad damokidebul erTeulebad gardaiqmnen. etyoba, swored amis
mere kolxeTSi jer azom, xolo Semdeg qujis (adgilobrivi erT-erTi
skeptuxiis aristokratiuli gvaris warmomadgenlis) saSualebiT
qarTlis mefe farnavazma imZlavra.
Zv.w. II-Iss. mijnidan kolxeTis politikur horizontze pontos mefe
miTridate VI evpatori gamoCnda. miTridates drois ponto-kolxeTis
urTierTobis sakiTxebs mravali mkvlevari Seexo, magram specialur
samecniero literaturaSi maT Sesaxeb dRemde azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa
(istoriografia ix. Reinach, 1890; sanikiZe, 1956; gozaliSvili, 1965;
dundua,1974, gv.146-159 da maTSi miTiTebuli literatura).
kolxeTSi, pirvel rigSi zRvispira kolxeTSi, pontos samefos Tavisi
politikuri da strategiuli interesebi hqonda. swored aq iyo
ganlagebuli dioskuriis, gienosis, fasisis, qobuleT-fiWvnaris qalaqebi.
am qalaqebis SemoerTebaSi aisaxa miTridate evpatoris ZiriTadi miznis
_ mTeli SavizRvispireTis gaerTianebis grandiozuli ideis
Tanamimdevruli ganxorcieleba. zRvispira kolxeTis qalaqebi miTridatem
pontos samefos Zv.w. II-Iss. mijnaze SeuerTa. xsenebuli qalaqebi, erTi
mxriv, sazRvao vaWrobis _ maTi ekonomikis erT-erTi ZiriTadi sayrdenis
arastabilurobiT, xolo meore mxriv _ kavkasionis mTianeTSi mcxovrebi
meomari tomebis TavdasxmebiT iyvnen Sewuxebuli (straboni,XVII,III,24;
pliniusi,VI,15). iseTi Zlieri xelisufalis mmarTvelobaSi Sesvla,
rogoric miTridate iyo, vaWroba-ekonomikasa da TavdacvaSi
stabilurobis ganmtkicebas moaswavebda. aq, SesaZloa, warmoiSva
daaxloebiT iseTive mdgomareoba, rogoric iyo diofantes laSqrobis
Sedegad pontos samefosTan bosforis samefosa da xersonesis
SemoerTebis dros. sayuradReboa cnoba imis Sesaxeb, rom miTridates
kolxeTi memkvidreobiT ergoo (iunianus iustinusi, XXXVIII,7,10).
gasaTvaliswinebelia is faqtic, rom im sanapiro naqalaqarebze,
romlebic dResdReobiT metnaklebadaa arqeologiurad Seswavlili _
eSera, soxumi-dioskuria, oCamCire-gienosi _ ar aris dadasturebuli
Zv.w. II-Iss-is mijnis gadamwvari fenebi an raime sabrZolo moqmedebis
36

kvali. magram es ar niSnavs imas, rom am qalaqebSi, iseve rogorc
bosforsa da xersonesSi, miTridate garkveul winaaRmdegobas ar
waawyda. magaliTad, memnoni (30) aRniSnavs, rom miTridatem omiT
daimorCila fasisis midamoebi (md. fasisis qvemo weli _ g.g.). am
midamoebis mimdebare teritoriaze, qobuleT-fiWvnarSi naqalaqari
darbeulia Zv.w. IIs. bolosaTvis.
Sida kolxeTi miTridates ar SeuerTebia pontos samefosaTvis.
amasTanave ar aris gamoricxuli, rom igi iq SeiWra maSin, roca pompeuss
gamoeqca da zamTari dioskuriaSi gaatara. niSandoblivia isic, rom
arcerT werilobiT wyaroSi ar aisaxa miTridates mier Sida kolxeTis
dapyroba-SemoerTeba. miTridatul istoriografiaSi (ix. sanikiZe, 1956,
gv.26; gozaliSvili, 1965, gv.299) arsebobs mosazreba, rom iberia mudam
pontos mokavSire iyo. magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom politika
cvalebadi ram aris (mag. miTridate da tigrani jer mokavSireebi iyvnen,
xolo Semdeg mosisxle mtrebi; anda, miTridates mama jer romis
"mokavSire da megobari" iyo, xolo Semdeg mteri, an kidev _ maxarem
uRalata mamas da romaelebis mxareze gadavida da sxv.), iberiis samefos
politikac pontos mimarT cvalebadi unda yofiliyo. Tu gadavxedavT
qarTul werilobiT wyaroebs da axal arqeologiur monacemebs, iberiis
samefos usaTuod unda hqonoda garkveuli politikuri interesi
kolxeTSi (ix. gamyreliZe, 1985, gv.97).
memnoni(30), apiane(15), iustinusi (XXXVIII, 7,10), straboni (XI,II,18;
XII,III,28) gvamcnoben, rom miTridatem SeierTa kolxeTi, magram
saxeldobr kolxeTis ra nawili, ar aris aRniSnuli. Tu strabonisave
cnobas davujerebT, kolxeTi metwilad zRvasTan mdebareobs (ix.
XI,II,17); Semdeg igi gadmogvcems: "mTeli es sanapiro epyra evpators,
kolxeTidan herakleamde,..." (XII, III,2). Sesabamisad, strabonis mixedviT
miTridates ZiriTadad sanapiro zoli unda daekavebina.
strabonis cnobebidanve Cans, rom miTridate ZiriTadad
dainteresebuli iyo kolxeTis sanapiroTi, saidanac mas misdioda meti
wili sanaosno saSualebebis gasamarTavad, xe-tye, seli, kanafi, cvili,
37

fisi _ gemebis asagebad (XI,II,17,18). kolxeTis sanapiro is strategiul-
komunikaciuri mxare iyo, romelic aucileblad sWirdeboda pontos
samefos Tavisi CrdiloSavizRvispira teritoriebis
zedamxedvelobisaTvis. aqedan gamomdinare, sruliad bunebrivia, rom
miTridatem, daikava ra kolxeTi (dasavleTi kolxeTi), mis
administraciul centrad aqcia qalaqi dioskuria, romelsac misca
monetis moWris ufleba. swored aq dasva miTridatem mis mier
gamogzavnili mmarTveli (ix. straboni, XI,II,18). aq, Tavis kolxur
rezidenciaSi gamoizamTra pompeusisgan devnilma miTridatem (apiane, 101).
dasavleT kolxeTis dakavebis dros pontos samefo samxedro-
ekonomikurad Zlieri iyo. swored es iyo, albaT, ZiriTadi mizezi imisa,
rom iberiis samefo molaparakebis Semdeg (ix. memnoni,30) gaCumda da
miTridatem kolxeTis sanapiroze mdebare qalaqebi SeierTa. iberiis
samefos gavlenis qveS ki Sida kolxeTi darCa (ix. gamyreliZe,
1985,gv.86-97). angariSgasawevia agreTve plutarqes cnoba: "iberTa tomi
pontomde aRwevso" da iberebi albanebTan erTad "yvelaze ufro
udidesni" ariano (pompeusi,34). memnoni(30) aRniSnavs, rom miTridatem
mokavSireebad Seiamxanaga parTebi, midielebi, tigrane armenieli,
frigieli mefeebi da iberi mefe, saidanac Cans, rom miTridates da
iberTa mefes Soris adgili hqonda raRac molaparakeba-SeTanxmebas.
miTridates jarSi myofi iberi meomrebi, etyoba, daqiravebuli iyvnen da
iberiis mefis samxedro Zalas ar warmoadgendnen. isini omobdnen
"saCuqarTa miRebis surviliT" (plutarqe, "lukulusi," 26,31).
mkveTrad Seicvala situacia kolxeTSi ponto-romis pirveli omis
dasasrulisaTvis, roca miTridatem marcxi ganicada saberZneTSi.
kolxeTSi ifeTqa ajanyebam. ajanyebulebma moiTxoves, rom miTridates aq
mefed Svili daeniSna. miTridate iZulebuli gaxda Seesrulebina
ajanyebulebis moTxovna da kolxeTis mefed gaamwesa Svili _ miTridate
filopatori filadelfi. dasavleT kolxeTis am ajanyeba-areulobaSi,
savaraudoa, rom iberiis xelisufalTa xelic eria; isargebles ra
miTridates warumateblobiT, isini Seecadnen dasavleT kolxeTSi misi
38

gavlena daesustebinaT da amiT TavisTvis momgebiani mdgomareoba
SeeqmnaT. dardanosis zavis (Zv.w. 85w.) Semdeg miTridatem moicala
kolxeTisaTvis: urCi Svili, romelic mamis sawinaaRmdego intrigebSi
Caeba, sikvdiliT dasaja da dasavleT kolxeTSi uwindeli mdgomareoba
aRadgina (apiane, "miTridat..."64).
bunebrivia, romTan omebis dros miTridate ecdeboda saimedo zurgi
hqonda (memnoni,30). amitom is moerideboda iberiis samefosTan
urTierTobis gamwvavebas. iberTa xelisufalic, albaT, kargad iyenebda
miTridates amgvar ganwyobas. xan samokavSireo xelSekrulebas udebda
(memnoni,30), xan dasavleT kolxeTSi xalxs ujanyebda (apiane,64), xanac
pompeusisagan devnil miTridates ebrZoda (apiane,101). gaumarTleblad
gveCveneba azri, rom iberebs eSinodaT _ miTridates damarcxebis Semdeg
romi Cven mogvdgebao, da mxolod amitom miemxrnen miTridates. ponto-
romis pirveli omis dros iberia romis politikuri interesebis
arealSi ar imyofeboda. iberiis da miTridates urTierToba plutarqes
("pompeusi,"34) friad miamiturad aqvs gadmocemuli _ iberebs "Zalian
undodaT miTridatesTvis eamebinaT da pompeusi ukueqciaT." miT umetes,
rom plutarqe iqve dasZens: "iberni arc midielebis morCilebaSi
yofilan, arc sparselebs eqvemdebarebodnen da, Tavis droze,
makedonelTa mbrZaneblobac aicdines Tavidan..." (plutarqe, 1957, gv.117).
maS, rad undodaT aseT daumorCileblebs damarcxebuli miTridatesTvis
eamebinaT? "pompeusis" cxovrebis es adgili aradamajereblad
gamoiyureba, miT umetes, rom sxva werilobiTi wyaroebi amave ambis
Txrobisas iberebis mier miTridates maameblobis cdas ar aRniSnaven (ix.
apiane,103; dion kasiusi,"romis istoria," XXXVII,1,2; straboni, XI,I,6).
iberebis damarcxebis Semdeg pompeusi Seuferxeblad gadavida
kolxeTSi (plutarqe, "pompeusi,"34). rogorc Cans, iberiisagan
gansxvavebiT, kolxeTSi organizebuli winaaRmdegoba ar gauweviaT.
SesaZloa imitomac, rom skeptuxiebad danawilebuli Sida kolxeTi
politikurad iberiis gavlenis qveS iyo da maT mefe artagis msgavsi
(qarTlis cxovreba, 1955, gv.30) jari ar hyavdaT (artokes jaris
39

Sesaxeb ix. apiane,103; dion kasiusi, "romis istoria," XXXVII,1,2;
plutarqe, "pompeusi,"34). "amis Semdeg, rodesac pompeusma gaigo, rom
fasisi ar aris Sors, gadawyvita mis gayolebiT kolxeTSi Casuliyo"
(dion kasiusi, "romis istoria," XXXVII,3). am nawyvetidan ise Cans, rom
kolxeTi md. fasisis qvemo welze, zRvasTan igulisxmeboda. pompeusi
"daiZra ganzraxuli mimarTulebiT da gaiara kolxebisa da maTi
mezoblebis miwaze, Tan moqmedebda xan darwmunebiT, xan daSinebiT" (dion
kasiusi, "romis istoria," XXXVII,3).
ponto-romis mesame omis dasasruls pompeusisagan devnili miTridate
sami aTasi meomriT midis qalaq sinoriaSi (sinorega), raTa suli
moiTqvas da mxedrobas aRWurviloba Seuvsos (apiane,101). aqedan
miTridate jariTurT Tavisi siZis tigranisken gaemarTa, "magram
tigranma igi ar miiRo da Tanac asi talanti jildod Sehpirda mas,
vinc mis Tavs miutanda. amitom miTridatem evfratis saTaves gza auqcia
da kolxeTSi gadavida" (plutarqe, "pompeusi,"32). amasve adasturebs
dion kasius kokeianosi _ "Tavis imedebSi motyuebuli miTridate
gaemarTa kolxeTisaken..." (romis istoria,XXXVI,50). miTridate gadavida
mdinare afsarosze (Worox-olTu) da iqidan md. mtkvris xeobaSi. igi
zRvis sanapiro gziT ar wasula, radgan icoda, rom aq pompeusis
brZanebiT Casafrebuli iyo serviliusi samxedro-sazRvao flotiT
(plutarqe, "pompeusi,"34). serviliuss, etyoba, mTasa da zRvas Soris
viwro sanapiro (afsarosis viwro gasasvlelis Sesaxeb ix.
latiSevi,1904, gv.447) hqonda blokirebuli da miTridates razmebs
elodeboda.
miTridate SeiWra xoteneSi, brZoliT gaikafa gza (apiane,101) da
Semdeg dauyva md. mtkvris xeobas, aqedan focxovi-qvabliani-Wubraulis
xeobebSi gadainacvla, radgan mtkvarTan iberebTan Setakeba mouxda
(apiane,101). etyoba, maTTanac, rogorc tigranTan, saqme garTulebuli
hqonda, da gaemarTa "mefiswyaros" gadasasvlelisaken (SesaZloa, rom
miTridate gadavida zekaris gadasasvlelze da Semdeg xaniswyal-rionis
gziT miadga "vans"). es gza Semdeg md. suloris wyalgamyof qedamde
40

aRwevs da xeobaSi eSveba. is arcTu Znelad savalia da sirTuliT
daaxloebiT lixis qedis gadasasvlelebis msgavsia. adgilobrivi
mcxovreblebi mas axlac iyeneben (am gzaze sof. suloris zemoT
"sakakile" Zv.w. III-I ss., md. yumuris xeobaSi sof. gailourTan "msxalTa"
Zv.w. III-Iss-is arqeologiuri masalebia dadasturebuli; ix. gamyreliZe,
1982, gv.32). am adgilebze miuTiTebs albaT straboni, roca gadmogvcems,
rom miTridate "mTebis gadaRma kolxeTSi gaiqcao" (straboni,XII,III,28).
Zalebis mokreba da aRWurvilobis Sevseba esaWiroeboda devnil
miTridates. mas xom isev romTan brZolis didi gegmebi utrialebda
TavSi (apiane, 102), rac uzarmazar Tanxebs moiTxovda. miTridates gzaze
ki md. suloris xeobaSi mdidari qalaqi "vani" mdebareobda (vani-suris
Sesaxeb ix. xoStaria, 1960, gv.47; yauxCiSvili, 1987, gv.131).
vanis naqalaqarze aRmoCenilia sazogadoebrivi, sataZro-sakulto da
safortifikacio nagebobebis naSTebi. qalaqs hqonda mZlavri samSeneblo
potenciali: kramitis, alizis aguris damamzadebeli da rustirebuli
qvis saTlelebi; samSeneblo-sainJinro codna; mSeneblobis adgilas
masalis mimtani saSualebebi da a.S. rac mTavaria, yvelaferi amis
amoqmedeba moiTxovda garkveul organizaciul gamocdilebas. vanis
naqalaqaris kulturul fenebSi didZali adgilobrivi warmoebis
(qvevrebi, amforebi, qoTnebi, doqebi, jamebi da sxv.) da Semotanili
ucxouri (sinopes, rodosis, qiosis, knidis, kosis keramikuli tara;
mcireaziuri, Savi da wiTellakiani keramika da sxv.) keramikaa nanaxi,
rac savaWro saqmianobaze miuTiTebs. napovnia agreTve terakotebis
gasakeTebeli yalibebi. gvxvdeba didi raodenobis vertikaluri saqsovi
dazgebis sawafebi; adgilobrivad damzadebuli da ucxoeTidan
Semotanili oqromWedlobis nimuSebi.
vanis naqalaqi, Tanamedrove qalaq vanis dasavleTiT, md. rionis
marcxena Senakadis, md. suloris marcxena mxares mdebareobs. is
CrdiloeTidan samxreTisaken daferdebul samkuTxa borcvze, qveda,
centralur da zeda terasebzea ganlagebuli, romelic 7 ha-s moicavs.
qalaqis sasimagro kedlebSi koSkebia gamarTuli. CrdiloeTiT mdebare

41

mTavari karibWe Sedgeba urTierTgamijnuli ori karisagan,
naxevarwriuli koSkisagan da saguSago nagebobebisagan. aqvea
sakurTxeveli da qalaqis mfarveli RvTaebis qandakebis kvarcxlbeki,
romelic midgmulia kldeze. qalaqis aRmosavleT mxares meore
Sesasvleli iyo. iqve, didi zomis wylis rezervuaria kldeSi
amokveTili, romelic wylis maragis Sesavsebad iyo gankuTvnili. qalaq
vanis sasimagro kedlebis wyobaSi qvis Tlili kvadrebi erTmaneTTan
mWidrod aris morgebuli. vanis naqalaqarze arqeologiurad
aRmoCenilia elinisturi epoqis kramitiT gadaxuruli sazogadoebrivi,
sataZro-sakulto da safortifikacio nagebobebis naSTebi. vanis
naqalaqaris Sesaxeb Seqmnilia mravali samecniero naSromi. swored am
naSromebze dayrdnobiT gTavazobT vanis naqalaqaris iersaxis savaraudo
restavracia-aRdgenis cdas (arqeologiuri masala ix. kreb. "vani," 1972,
1976, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1983 a.S.).
qalaqi "vani" ekonomikurad Zlieri iyo; xelosnoba da vaWroba kargad
iyo ganviTarebuli. mas hqonda sasoflo-sameurneo miwebi _ dablagomi,
mTisZiri, SuamTa, gailouri, keWinara, gora, bagineTi, inaSauri, suloris
"sakakile," Zuluxi, buRnari, bzvani da maT urbanistul centrs
warmoadgenda (ix. gamyreliZe, 1982, gv.36,55). qalaqs mZlavri TavdacviTi
sistema hqonda da, bunebrivia, damcveli razmebic eyoleboda. es
razmebive axorcielebdnen albaT sameurneo miwebis zedamxedvelobas.
vani, safiqrebelia, rom geografiul safuZvelze ganviTarebuli
Teokratiuli urbanistuli (ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1972, gv.9-42) erTeuli
iyo, romelic garkveuli TviTmmarTvelobiT sargeblobda. daaxloebiT
Zv.w. IIIs-is dasawyisidan is iberiis samefos gavlenis qveS moeqca.
amdagvari msxvili sakulto kerebi iyo mcire aziaSi _ pontos komana,
anisa, tiana, zela. samwuxarod, es qalaqebi arqeologiurad TiTqmis ar
aris Seswavlili.
gadalaxa ra mTebi (mefiswyaros an zekaris gadasasvleli) sami aTas
erTgul meomarTan erTad, miTridatem (apiane,101; straboni, XII, III,28)
daarbia da gaZarcva "vanis" mdidari qalaqi.
42



43

arqeologiuri monacemebi adastureben, rom qalaqi Zv.w. Is-is Sua xanebSi
(60-iani wlebi) xanmokle drois ganmavlobaSi dangreulia orjer.
safiqrebelia, rom pirvelad is daangria da gaZarcva miTridatem, xolo
meored pompeusma, romelmac daamarcxa iberiis mefe artoke da SeiWra
kolxeTSi. pompeusma "vanis" mimarT "imoqmeda daSinebiT" (dion kasiusi,
"romis istoria," XXXVII,3) da brZoliT. is "kolxeTSi SeiWra" (ix.
plutarqe, "pompeusi,"34). pompeusma "kolxebTan, albanelebTan,
iberebTan... da sxva aRmosavlel xalxebTan warmatebuli brZolebiT
ganavrco romaelTa Zalaufleba..." (apiane, "miTridates omebi,"114).
meore ngrevis kvali yvelaze kargad Cans vanis naqalaqaris Sua
terasis aRmosavleT ferdobze, sadac TavdacviTi kedlebi saswrafod,
saxeldaxelod, saZirkvlis yovelgvari momzadebis gareSea agebuli
Tixnar fenaze. es fena ki pirveli ngrevisagan aris warmoSobili (ix.
lorTqifaniZe, 1968, gv.141). pirveli ngrevis fenaSi ZiriTadad gvxvdeba
arqiteqturuli detalebis natexebi, keramikuli masala, monetebi.
pontos monetebi, etyoba, miTridates meomrebisaa, anda aq SavizRvispira
urbanistuli centrebidanaa moxvedrili. sayuradReboa, rom aseTi
monetebia aRmoCenili eSeris naqalaqarze. naqalaqarze sxva monetebTan
erTad aRmoCnda parTuli fulic, romelic aq iberiis gziT Semodioda
(ix. dundua, lorTqifaniZe g., 1977, gv.119; dundua, 1974, gv.146-159).
qalaqis gaZarcvis Semdeg miTridate Tavisi meomrebiT gadavida md.
fasisze(rioni) da gaemarTa qalaq dioskuriisaken. man aq romis
winaaRmdeg axali gegmebis SemuSavebaSi gaatara zamTari (apiane,101),
xolo Semdeg "xmeleTis gziT" wavida bosforSi (dion kasiusi, "romis
istoria," XXXVI,50), radgan sazRvao gza romaelebs hqondaT
blokirebuli. "daamarcxa Tu ara iberebi, pompeusi kolxeTSi SeiWra.
mdinare fasisis sanapiroze mas Seegeba serviliusi Tavisi flotiT,
romliTac igi pontos icavda" (plutarqe, 1957, gv.117). pompeusma
kolxeTSi daamarcxa da tyved igdo skeptuxi olTake_>Oljkhc (apiane,
117). sainteresoa, rom amdagvarive saxelis (Otaces) iberTa razmis
44

winamZRols ixseniebs valerius flakusic (ix. latiSevi, 1904, gv.210).
SesaZloa aq erTidaigive pirovnebaze iyos saubari.
miTridates mier qalaqis gaZarcvis da dioskuriisaken wasvlis
Semdeg, qalaqis mesveurebma albaT daiwyes misi TavdacviTi sistemis
saxeldaxelo aRdgena-gamagreba. isini Cqarobdnen, radgan icodnen, rom
roca pompeusi iberebs da albanelebs daamarcxebda, kolxeTSi
gadmovidoda saomrad. pompeuss, etyoba, ar gasWirvebia miTridates mier
gaZarculi qalaqis xelmeored aReba. meore ngrevis fena mxolod
zogierT ubanze dasturdeba (ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1968,gv.141).
naqalaqarze napovnia romauli monetebi (ix. dundua, lorTqifaniZe g.,
1977, gv.124) da romauli sabrZolo Subi _ pilumi.
Zv.w. 65wels transkavkasiaSi pirvelad gamoCndnen romis respublikis
legionerebi gneus pompeus magnusis xelmZRvanelobiT. moagvara Tu ara
iberiis sakiTxi, pompeusi gadavida lixis qedze da "kolxeTSi SeiWra"
(plutarqe, pompeusi,34). rogorc Cans, cixesimagre Sorapans (arq. masala
ix. jafariZe,1990, gv.6-8) araviTari winaaRmdegoba ar gauwevia
pompeusisTvis, rac imaze migvaniSnebs, rom am droisaTvis Sorapani,
etyoba, artokes eqvemdebareboda, mas ki romTan samokavSireo
xelSekruleba hqonda dadebuli. straboni sarapanisis (Sorapnis) Sesaxeb
gadmogvcems: "simagres SeuZlia daitios mTeli qalaqis mosaxleoba" (XI,
II,17); "kolxeTidan iberiaSi Sesavali daxSulia kldeebiT, simagreebiTa
da mdinareebis xeobebiT"-o (XI,III,4).
romaelebis gamoCenis dros Sida kolxeTi danawilebuli iyo
skeptuxiebad. safiqrebelia, rom maTi nawili iberiis politikur
gavlenas emorCileboda (mag., Sorapani, romelic ubrZolvelad gaiara
pompeusma), xolo nawili ki, etyoba, separatistul, SedarebiT
damoukidebel politikas atarebda (mag., "vanis" skeptuxia). strabonis
dedis biZas, miTridate evpatoris moxeles moafernes ki dasavleTi
kolxeTi (resp. pontos kolxeTi) eqvemdebareboda (straboni, XI,II,18).
pompeusi rom marto mSvidobiani gziT ar moqmedebda kolxeTSi, amaze
miuTiTebs apianes cnoba, rom pompeusma "kolxebTan, albanelebTan,
45

iberebTan, armenielebTan ... da sxva aRmosavlel xalxebTan warmatebuli
brZolebiT ganavrco romaelTa Zalaufleba..."-o (apiane, "miTridates
omebi,"114). amasve aRniSnavs florusi (miTridates omebi,X,40) pompeusma
"daamarcxa kolxebi"-o (ix. latiSevi, 1904, gv.258). romaelTa
agresiulobis dasturia isic, rom romSi pompeusis triumfis dros
tyveTa Soris warmodgenilia "kolxebis skeptuxi olTake" (apiane,117).
SesaZlebelia, rom olTake "vanis" skeptuxTa gvaridan iyo, romelmac
winaaRmdegoba gauwia pompeuss (ix. inaZe,1987, gv.59). apiane (miTridates
omebi,117) triumfis monawileebs ierarqiuli TanamimdevrobiT CamoTvdis;
aq Cans, rom olTake Cveulebrivi sardali ki ar aris, aramed kolxeTis
xe-lisufalTa gvarisaa. igi siaSi mefeebsa da maT SvilTa Soris aris
dasaxelebuli (yauxCiSvili, 1959, gv.36). aseTi warmomavloba,
safiqrebelia, mas aZlevda uflebas, rom calke, artokes pompeusTan
dazavebis Semdeg, kidev gaegrZelebina sakuTari samflobeloebis dacva.
romaelebs ar daemorCila da kavkasionis mTebs Seafara Tavi kolxTa
mmarTvelma orozma, rogorc amas gadmogvcems romaeli avtori florusi
("miTridates omebi", X,28) (ix. latiSevi, 1904, gv. 258; The loeb classical
library, 1957, gv.186-188). orozi, Cans, kolxeTis romeliRac mxaris
winamZRol-mmarTveli iyo (daaxloebiT olTakes nairi), romelic ar
daemorCila romaelebs. zogi mkvlevari mas mTeli kolxeTis mefed
(Regem Colchorum Florus, XL, 28) miiCnevs (ix. berZniSvili, 1969,gv.131),
magram cnobilia agreTve, rom am droisaTvis kolxeTi ar iyo erTiani
samefo. gavixsenoT strabonis cnobebi (XI,II,18) qveynis dayofisa da
dasustebis Sesaxeb (XI,II,17).
moafernes, romelic miTridate evpators dasavleT kolxeTSi hyavda
mmarTvelad dayenebuli, winaaRmdegoba ar gauwevia pompeusisTvis. yovel
SemTxvevaSi, moafernes sabrZolo moqmedeba werilobiTi wyaroebidan ar
Cans. sayuradReboa, rom igi ar aris pompeusis triumfis siaSi.
SesaZlebelia, moafernem jer miTridatesTan erTad gamoizamTra
dioskuriaSi, xolo Semdeg masTan erTad bosforisaken wavida.
46

pompeusi md. fasisis gayolebiT Cadis zRvamde (etyoba q. fasisSi),
sadac mas serviliusi flotiT Seegeba (ix. plutarqe, pompeusi,34).
romaelebi dioskuriis, miTridate evpatoris kolxuri rezidenciis
mimarTulebiT aRar wavidnen, radgan SesaZlebelia, rom miTridates
gaqcevis Semdeg qalaqi Tavisi nebiT gadavida pompeusis mxareze da
warmomadgenlebi aaxla. soxumis (dioskuriis) arqeologiur Zeglze Zv.w.
I saukunis kulturuli fenebi sustad aris warmodgenili. aq raime
ngrevis kvali jerjerobiT ara Cans.
zRvamde misulma pompeusma miTridates devna mizanSewonilad aRar
CaTvala. plutarqes TqmiT, "bosforisa da meotidis maxloblad
mcxovreb tomebSi TavSefarebuli miTridates devna friad did
siZneleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. amave dros pompeuss auwyes: albanelebi
xelaxla ajanydneno. risxviTa da SurisZiebis surviliT anTebuli
pompeusi albanTa winaaRmdeg daiZra" (plutarqe, pompeusi, 34). pompeuss
"srulebiTac ar undoda mtris devna amaod. igi sxva saqmeebs akeTebda,
romlebic, ase Tu ise, miTridatesTan omTan iyo dakavSirebuli da dros
aWianurebda" (plutarqe, pompeusi,41). klde-RreebSi miTridates devnas
pompeusma moqnili politika amjobina. rogorc Cans, man miTridates
SvilTan farnakesTan kavSiri gaaba da misi xeliT mouswrafa sicocxle
miTridates. plutarqe aRniSnavs, rom miTridates sikvdilis Semdeg
yvelaferi farnakem miisakuTra da pompeuss Seatyobina - "yvelaferi es
CemTvisa da romaelebisaTvis miviReo" (plutarqe, pompeusi,41). mamis
mkvleli farnake pompeusma "romaelTa megobrad da mokavSired gaxada da
uboZa bosforis mefoba..." (apiane, miTridates omebi,113).
wavida ra pompeusi afsarosis gasasvlelis da somxeTis gavliT
gaurCebuli albanelebis dasaSoSmineblad (dion kasiusi, XXXVII,3;
plutarqe, pompeusi,35), kolxeTis gamgeblad aristarqe datova (apiane,
114). ori romauli saistorio wyaro aristarqes mefed moixseniebs
(evtropiusi, VI,14; festusi, XVI). magram aristarqes saxeliT Zv.w. 52
wels moWril monetebze is Tavis Tavs mefes ar uwodebs. aristarqe rom
mefe ar aris, es iqidanac Cans, rom amave drois bosforis mefis
47

farnakes monetas aweria "didi mefis farnakesia." SemTxveviTi ar unda
iyos is faqti, rom romTan dakavSirebuli ori pirovnebidan erTi _
farnake mefed, xolo meore aristarqe _ mxolod mmarTvelad ixsenieba
(apiane, 114) (yauxCiSvili, 1959,gv.27-31). friad sayuradReboa mosazreba,
romlis mixedviTac aristarqes monetaze profilSi gamoxatuli, Tavze
gvirgviniani mamakaci Camohgavs pompeusis sxva portretebs (Jenkins, 1959,
gv.32). ase rom, amaSic kargad aisaxa aristarqes daqvemdebarebuli
mdgomareoba romisadmi.
erTi mxriv, aristarqes ufleba rom hqonoda Tavis moWril
monetaze mefed moexseniebina Tavi, amas usaTuod gaakeTebda. meore mxriv,
pompeusis mier aRzevebuli aristarqe SesaZloa ar iyo iseTi maRali
(mefuri gvaris) warmomavlobis, rom kolx skeptuxebs eRiarebinaT misi
suzerenoba da amitom amjobina ar gaeRizianebina isini. aristarqe Sida
kolxeTSi ki ar jdeba, aramed dioskurias irCevs mTavar rezidenciad,
romelic adre miTridates kolxuri rezidencia iyo. amas mxars uWers
isic, rom soxumTan (dioskuriasTan) aris aRmoCenili aristarqeseuli
moneta. qalaqi sanapiroze komunikaciuri TvalsazrisiT aristarqesTvis
rezidenciad ufro mosaxerxebeli unda yofiliyo. aqedan ufro kargad
SeiZleboda, erTi mxriv, kolxeTis garkveuli kontrolis qveS yola,
xolo meore mxriv, romaelebTan kavSiri.is, Tu rogori iyo aristarqes
realuri Zalaufleba, an konkretulad kolxeTis ra nawili
eqvemdebareboda mas, samwuxarod, saistorio werilobiTi wyaroebidan ar
Cans. CvenTvis agreTve ucnobia, ramdeni xani grZeldeboda zustad
aristarqes mmarTveloba. sagulvebelia, rom igi mmarTvelobs Zv.w. 48 w-
mde, bosforis mefis farnakes kolxeTSi SemoWramde.
farnakes da Semdeg miTridate pergamonelis SemoWriT qveyana kidev
ufro dasustda da daqucmacda. straboni evripides sityvebiT
gadmogvcems _ "rodesac qveyana dauZlurdeba, RmerTTa kuTvnilic
sustdeba da aRar undaT misi pativiscema _ ambobs evripide" (XI,II,17).
cnobilia, rom romaelebi eqspansiis dasawyisSi maTdami daqvemdebarebul
qveynebSi ki ar cvlidnen arsebul sammarTvelo aparatis struqturas,
48

aramed mas TavianT samsaxurSi ayenebdnen. isini, aseve moiqcnen kolxeTSi.
maT mmarTvelad daniSnes aristarqe da mas sagamgeblo aparatis
struqtura Zveli dautoves, miTridatesnairi. kolxeTis mmarTvelis
rezidenciad igive darCa (miTridateseuli) _ dioskuria. Sida
kolxeTis "skeptuxiebze" (mag., olTakes skeptuxiaze) safiqrebelia, rom
aristarqes Zalaufleba efemeruli iyo. jer kidev lukulusi
miTridatesTan omis dros aRniSnavda am mxaris srulad damorCilebis
siZneleebs (ix. plutarqe, lukulusi,14).
romis respublikaSi Zv.w. I saukunis bolosaTvis Sidapo-litikurma
brZolam gansakuTrebul simwvaves miaRwia. Seqmnili mdgomareobis
gamoyeneba scada miTridate evpatoris Svilma, bosforis mefem
farnakemac. man gadawyvita pontos samefos mamiseul farglebSi aRdgena.
dion kasiosi gadmogvcems: "rogorc naTqvami iyo, man (farnakem) moindoma
mTeli mamiseuli samefos dabruneba da ajanyda keisrisa da pompeusis
urTierTSoris brZolis dros, radgan romaelebi maSin sakuTari
saqmeebiT iyvnen garTuli" (XLII, 45). wavida ra mamis yofili aziuri
samflobeloebisaken, farnakes, bunebrivia, (Tu zRviT ar wavidoda)
umoklesi gziT, kolxeTze unda gaevlo. am dapyrobebs roca aRwers
dion kasiosi, asaxelebs kolxeTs da armenias. Semdeg dapyrobili
armeniis SemTxvevaSi asaxelebs romaelebis momxre mmarTvels deiotares,
xolo kolxeTSi aristarqes damarcxebis Sesaxeb arafers wers. ucnobia
farnakem aristarqe daamarcxa Tu SeikavSira. rogorc plutarqe
aRniSnavs, farnakem "yvela iqauri mefe da tetrarqosi saamboxod
waaqezao" (keisari,50). aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi farnakes moqmedebis
Sesaxeb mxolod erTaderTi cnobaa Semonaxuli, sadac aRniSnulia, rom
man gaZarcva levkoTeas samlocvelo. vidre farnake mcire aziaSi
brZolebs awarmoebda, bosforSi mis mierve daniSnuli mmarTveli asandri
ajanyda. mas undoda farnakes winaaRmdeg gamosvliT romaelebis guli
moego da maTi xelSewyoba-TanxmobiT bosforSi xelisufleba egdo xelT
(dion kasiusi, XLII, 46).
49

Zv.w. 47wels qalaq zelasTan iulius keisarma daamarcxa farnake
(plutarqe, keisari, 50; dion kasiusi, XLII, 47; apiane,120). damarcxebuli
farnake zRvisken gaiqca, bosforSi gadasasvlelad. bosforSi mas
ajanyebuli asandri SeebrZola, daamarcxa da mokla (apiane,120; dion
kasiusi, XLII,47). amis miuxedavad, asandri romaelebma bosforis
mmarTvelad mainc ar daniSnes. bosforis samefo iulius keisarma, sxva
teritoriebTan erTad, Tavis mokavSire miTridate pergamonels uboZa.
magram bosfori miTridate pergamonels asandrisagan xmliT unda
moepovebina (dion kasiosi, XLII, 48). amitom daiZra miTridate
pergamoneli sabrZolvelad bosforisaken. asandrma miTridate
pergamoneli daamarcxa bosforSi laSqrobisas (straboni, XIII,IV,3). ra
xdeboda kolxeTSi zemoxsenebuli omebis dros, werilobiTi wyaroebidan
ucnobia. cnobebis uqonloba am brZolebis Sesaxeb imiTac SeiZleba
aixsnas, rom kolxeTi, dasavleT kolxeTi, am omebSi mxolod
strategiuli mxarea, sadac umoklesi gza gadioda bosforidan mcire
aziisaken. sayuradReboa, rom bosforisa da mcire aziis brZolebis
aRweras saistorio wyaroebSi ufro meti adgili eTmoba.
safiqrebelia, rom Sida kolxeTSi SeWra da adgilobrivi skeptuxebis
amxedreba am SemTxvevaSi ar Sedioda meomari mxareebis interesebSi.
bunebrivia, arcerT meomar mxares ar endomeboda zurgSi ajanyebulebi
yoloda, miT umetes, rom cnobilia, marto erTma _ asandris ajanyebam
bosforSi, rogori tragikuli Sedegebi gamoiwvia farnakesaTvis. amitom
SesaZlebelia, rom Sida kolxeTis "samTavroeb-skeptuxiebi" mTeli am
omebis dros garkveul damoukideblobas inarCunebdnen.
romis aRmosavluri politika, oqtaviane avgustusis dros ufro
aqtiuri gaxda. romaelebis momxre mefe polemons mieca gankarguleba,
rom bosforSi asandris gardacvalebis Semdeg romis faqtiuri
Zalaufleba aRedgina (dion kasiusi, IV,24/4). dasavleT kolxeTi
amjerad ukve polemonis sabrZolo operaciebis arealSi unda
moxvedriliyo, radgan bosforisaken mimaval gzaze mdebareobda.
polemonma dasavleT kolxeTi oqtaviane avgustusis dasturiT SeuerTa
50

pontos. straboni gadmogvcems: "polemons hqonda kolxeTi, xolo
rodesac is mokvda (Zv.w. 8w.) misi meuRle piTodorisi flobda, mefobda
kolxebze, trapezuntze, farnakeaze da zemoT mcxovreblebze" (XI,II,18).
polemonis moqmedebis Sesaxeb kolxeTSi araviTari werilobiTi cnoba ar
arsebobs. raxan Zv.w. 14 wels polemonma SeierTa bosfori, aqedan
gamomdinare savaraudoa, rom ramdenime wliT adre unda SeeerTebina
dasavleT kolxeTi.
romis aRmosavlur politikaSi SavizRvispireTs erT-erTi ZiriTadi
adgili ekava. SavizRvispireTis komunikaciebi aucilebeli iyo parTiis
Zlier saxelmwifosTan qiSpobisas. roms aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTidan
gahqonda liToni, xe-tye, marcvleuli, tyaveuli, seli, Rvino da sxv.
(straboni, XI,II,17). Isaukunis romaeli avtori markus maniliusi
aRniSnavs, rom romaelebs kvebavs numidielTa sanapiro da fasisis
Walebi. Tan am ukanasknelze dasZens, rom es is adgilia, saidanac oqros
sawmisi moitaceso (V,376-377).
zRvispira, dasavleT kolxeTi polemonis pontos SemadgenlobaSi
imperator avgustusis dros Sedis. am droisaTvis dasavleT kolxeTi,
marTalia, uSualod ar eqvemdebareboda roms, magram pontos samefos
saSualebiT romis politikur gavlenaSi eqceva. am xanebSi romis
legionerebi kolxeTis miwaze ar idgnen. imperator avgustusis
aRmosavluri politikis ZiriTadi mizani iyo romis aRmosavleTis
sazRvrebTan Seeqmna faqtiurad romze damokidebuli, xolo formalurad
damoukidebeli qveynebi, romelTa xeliTac romi sasazRvro regionebSi
TavisTvis sasurvel politikas gaatarebda. erT-erTi aseTi samefo
polemonis ponto iyo, romelSic dasavleT kolxeTi Sedioda. polemonis
pontos mniSvnelovani centri qalaqi trapezunti teritoriulad axlo
mdebareobda kolxeTTan.
romma, miuxedavad Zlevamosilebisa, mainc ver moaxerxa Sida kolxeTis
sruli damorCileba. es ver moxerxda verc aristraqes, verc miTridate
pergamonelis da verc polemonis xeliT. ramdenadme gamarTlda
lukulusis winaswarmetyveleba, romelic aRniSnavda _ am mxaris
51

damorCileba Zalian Zneliao (ix. plutarqe, luk.,14). marTlac, Sida
kolxeTi Tavisi biogeogaremoTi _ xeobebiT, mTebiT, swrafi, Znelad
gadasalaxi mdinareebiT, uRrani tyeebiT _ advilad dasamorCilebeli ar
unda yofiliyo. amas emateboda agreTve agresiulad ganwyobili, Zlieri
samTavroeb-skeptuxiebi. dasavleT, zRvispira kolxeTisaTvis ki
romaelebi garkveuli kontrolis gawevas axerxebdnen. amaSi maTi
ZiriTadi sayrdeni unda yofiliyo sanapiro qalaqebi, romlebSic, Sida
kolxeTisagan gansxvavebiT, SedarebiT Zlieri iyo antikuri sameurneo-
kulturuli gavlena. dasavleT kolxeTi is strategiul-komunikaciuri
mxare iyo, romelic aucileblad sWirdeboda roms Tavisi gavlenis
dasamyareblad mcire aziasa da bosforSi.
iberiis samefosTan kolxeTis nawilis inkorporaciam kolxeTis
samefos politikuri statusis Secvla gamoiwvia. kolxeTisaTvis
uaryofiTi sagareo faqtori gamodga pontos samefos eqspansia,
romelsac zRvispireTis aneqsia mohyva. Sida kolxeTSi daingra da
gaiZarcva "vanis" mdidari qalaqi. kolxeTi gadaiqca pontos samefosa da
roms Soris saomari moqmedebebis asparezad, riTac adgilobrivi
mosaxleoba unda dazaralebuliyo. romma garkveuli zemoqmedeba moaxdina
kolxeTis ganviTarebis procesze. erTi mxriv, es zemoqmedeba uaryofiTi
gamodga _ qveynis dasavleTi mxare romis politikur gavlenaSi moeqca,
xolo zogierT regionSi ki romaelTa cbieri politikis Sedegad
arastabiluri mdgomareoba Seiqmna, rac SemdgomSi romisadmi naxevrad
daqvemdebarebuli "samTavroebis" ganviTarebiT dasrulda (mag. ix. _
flavius ariane, "mogzauroba Savi zRvis garSemo,"11). meore mxriv, romma
_ im droisaTvis mowinave saxelmwifom, dadebiTi rolic iTamaSa
kolxeTis ganviTarebaSi; kerZod, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba ufro axlo
gaecno im droisaTvis mowinave romaul kulturas; sanapiro qalaqebSi
romauli nawarmi gamoCnda; gaecnen axal saomar taqtikas da teqnikas.
kolxeTSi xSiri sabrZolo moqmedebebis dros saWiro iyo
organizaciuli sakiTxebis swrafi gadawyveta. es, garkveulwilad, xels
uwyobda adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi sazogadoebriv konsolidacias, rac
52

SemdgomSi kolxeTis memkvidre, lazikis samefos warmoqmnaSi gamoixata.
kolxeT-lazikis da iberia-qarTlis adgilsa da safuZvelze Semdgom
ganviTarda erTiani saxelmwifo _ saqarTvelo.
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53

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54

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55

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56

qalaq fasisis (foTis) topoarqeologiisaTvis

qalaqi foTi, dRes, saqarTvelos umniSvnelovanesi navsadguri da
azia-evropis satranzito gzis erT-erTi ZiriTadi punqtia. qalaqi
foTi saqarTvelos mzardi socialur-ekonimikuri centria.
qalaq fasisis Seswavlis istoria saukune-naxevars iTvlis;
magram jerjerobiT, werilobiTi da arqeologiuri monacemebis
simciris gamo, misi istoriis rigi sakiTxebis sruli gaSuqeba SeuZ-
lebelia [ix. 2, gv.3-21; 3; 19, gv.17-36; 42, gv.271-281; 71; 70; 68,
gv.223; 9; 10, gv.70-110; 14, gv.505; 12, gv.36-55].
zogadad dRevandel q. foTTan da mis SemogarenSi lokalizdeba
antikur werilobiT wyaroebSi moxseniebuli Zveli qalaqi
fasisi//fazisi. berZnuli werilobiTi wyaroebis toponim fasiss
qarTveluri enebis safuZvelze miRebul foTis saxelwodebad
miiCneven _ foT//faT//fas [11,gv.181-185; 24,gv.96].
q. fasisi ixsenieba Semdeg werilobiT wyaroebSi: fsevdo-skilaqsi,
azia, 81 [34,gv.48]; aristotele, fragmentebi 46 [35,gv.73]; platoni,
"fedoni" 109(b) [63,gv.83]; heraklide lembosi, "fasiselTa politia,"
XVIII [36, gv.195]; hipokrate, "haerTa, wyalTa da adamianTa Sesaxeb,"
15 [33,gv.45]; Teokrite, "idilia," sqolioebi, XIII, 24[23,gv.316];
straboni, "geografia", XI,2,16,17;3,4[32, gv.122,123,128]; fsevdo-
plutarqe, "mdinareebis da mTebis saxelebis Sesaxeb...", fasisi, V,1
[57,gv.223]; pliniusi gaius sekundusi(ufrosi), "naturaluri
istoria", VI,1,13,52, [56, gv.178,179,185]; pomponius mela, "qveynierebis
aRweriloba," I,108[5, gv.29]; flavius ariane, "mogzauroba Savi zRvis
garSemo", 9,10 [1,gv.40]; klavdios ptolemaiosi, "geografiuli
saxelmZRvanelo," V,9T.,2[17,gv.45]; fsevdo-orfevsi, "argonavtika,"
gv.3 [20,gv.89]; Temistiosi, "sityvebi,"XXVII [23,gv.470]; kastoriusi,
e.w. tabula pevtingerisa,X-XI [18, gv.109, tab.2]; amiane marcelinusi,
"istoria" XXII, 8T.,24 [4, gv.112]; anonimi avtori, "evqsinis pontos
periplusi...," 44(3),[57, gv.229]; zosime, "axali istoria," I,32 [29,
57

gv.268]; stefane bizantieli, "eTnika", fasisi [25, gv.286]; agaTia,
"iustinianes mefobis Sesaxeb", III,19,20,21; IV,23[25, gv.97,98,102,
179]; menandre,"istoria," fragmenti 3 [25, gv.209]; epifane
konstantinopoleli, "andrias cxovreba," Tavi - "svaneTi, fusta,
abazgia, jiqeTi" [26,gv.58]; Teofane qronografi, "qronografia...",
fasisis episkopos kvirosis Sesaxeb [26,gv.101]; giorgi kedrene,
"istoriuli mimoxilva...", fasisis episkopos kvirosis Sesaxeb
[27,gv.28]; basili sofeneli, "uwmindesi patriarqebis nusxa," 27 [28,
gv.128,130,139]; nikita xoniate, "qronika...", fasisi sanavsadguro
qalaqi [30,gv.132]; ambrozio kontarini, "mogzauroba kavkasiaSi...", gv.
2-3 (moambe,1894, gv.49,50); arqanjelo lambertis, samegrelos aRwera
[16, gv.172]; Jan Sardeni, "mogzauroba sparseTsa da aRmosavleTis
sxva qveynebSi [38,gv.108].
qalaq fasisis Sesaxeb uZvelesi sayuradRebo werilobiTi cnoba
Semonaxulia Zv.w. IVs-is avtoris fsevdo-skilaqs kariandelis
periplusSi _ "azia",81. umniSvnelovanesi cnoba q. fasisis
adgilmdebareobis Sesaxeb daculia Zv.w.I da ax.w. Iss. mijnis
geografosis strabonis "geografiaSi": "fasisze mdebareobs misi
mosaxele qalaqi, kolxTa savaWro adgili, garSemortymuli mdinariT
(rioni -g.g.), tbiT (paliastomi - g.g.) da zRviT" (straboni, XI,2,17).
rogorc vxedavT es aRweriloba zedmiwevniT esadageba dRevandeli q.
foTis mdebareobas. sayuradReboa agreTve q. fasisis TviTmxilvelis,
romis imperiis maRali rangis moxelis, IIs. avtoris flavius arianes
sainspeqcio aRweraSi - "periplusi Savi zRvis garSemo" Semonaxuli
cnoba: "fasisSi rom Sedixar, marcxniv aRmarTulia qalRmerT
fasianes qandakeba"... "TviT cixe-simagre, romelSic Tavsdeba oTxasi
rCeuli meomari, me meCvena metad miudgomlad adgilis bunebis mi-
xedviT, uSiSroebis TvalsazrisiT metad moxerxebul adgilze
moTavsebulad aq momsvlelTaTvis. ormagi Txrili ertymis kedels,
orive farToa, winaT kedeli Tixisa iyo da xis koSkebi idga masze,
magram axla kedeli da koSkebi gamomwvari agurisaganaa gakeTebuli.
58

saZirkveli misi myaria, zed samxedro manqanebia dadgmuli. erTi
sityviT, yovelmxriv imdagvaradaa mowyobili, rom veravin
miuaxlovdes da rom alyis safrTxe ar moelodes cixis damcvelT.
xolo, radgan navsadguri uSiSari TavSesafari unda yofiliyo
xomaldTaTvis, agreTve cixis garSemo mdebare sxva adgilebic,
romlebic dasaxlebulia samsaxuridan gadamdgari samxedro pirebiT
da vaWrebiT" (ariane, "periplusi...",9).
q. fasisidanaa Zv.w. IVs. berZnul warweriani vercxlis fiala
(warweris Sesaxeb ix. qvemoT). berZnul-romauli da bizantiuri
werilobiTi wyaroebi qalaq fasiss xSirad axseneben, magram maTSi
gadmocemuli monacemebi winaaRmdegobrivia; xSirad, cnobebi erTi da
imave wyarodan momdinareobs. werilobiTi wyaroebis tradiciis
gamartivebuli sqemis mixedviT fasisi ZvelTaganve qarTveluri
mosaxleobiT dasaxlebul miwa-wyalzea ioniidan gamosuli mileTe-
lebis mier adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan sakontaqtod, savaWro
centrad - emporionad dafuZnebuli [Seadare, 59, gv.187-256; 60,
gv.322-326; 13, gv.119-124; 46, gv.256-274].
arqeologiuri monacemebis mixedviT foTi-paliastomis mimdebare
teritoriis gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis nasaxlarebidan - namarnu,
Ziguri, siriaCqonis oxoje, nandevu, sagviCio (zurgani, konSa),
naRmipiji, Waladidi (zurga, sabaJo, Cxari), gurifuli, naoxvamu
(sof. reka), ergeta da sxv. [ix. 44, gv.34-38 da ruka] albaT fasisi
ufro dawinaurda. mas komunikaciebis mixedviT moxerxebuli adgili
eWira (kerZod, md. rion-fasisis delta) da urbanistul centrad
ganviTarda.
hipokrate (Zv.w. 460-336ww.), zogi mkvlevaris mixedviT, namyofia
da TviTmxilvelia md. fasisis midamoebis [33, gv.8]. is TxzulebaSi
"haerTa, wyalTa da adgilTa Sesaxeb" mniSvnelovan cnobebs gvawvdis
foTi-paliastomis mimdebare teritoriis Sesaxeb. kerZod - "... vinc
fasisSi cxovrobs, maT Sesaxeb mogiTxrobT: es mxare Waobiania,
Tbili, wyliani da teniani." "... adamianebs sacxovrebeli WaobebSi
59

aqvT; xisa da lerwmis saxlebi aqvea agebuli. isini cotas dadian
fexiT qalaqsa (albaT q. fasisSi - g.g.) [71, gv.37-42] da savaWro
(emporionSi) punqtebSi, aramed dacuraven aRma-daRma... navebiT, radgan
arxebi bevria"(hipokrate, "haerTa..."15) [33, gv.45]. am nawyvetidan Cans,
rom md. rion-fasisis qvemo welis mosaxleoba specialur savaWro
punqtSi, fasisis emporionSi dadioda. hipokrates am naweridan
agreTve, TiTqos, isic Cans, rom fasisis deltaSi mdebare adgili
(Tuki is q. fasisia) adgilobrivi mosaxleobis savaWro punqtia
(wyaroSi - mprion) da ara berZnuli tipis qalaqi, polisi.saerTod
ki vaWrobis koncentrireba specialur adgilebSi protourbanistul
centrze migvaniSnebs. SesaZloa, rom berZnebis mosvlis Semdeg, aqedan
savaWro saqonlis distribuciac xdeboda (mag. simagris da saerTod
md. rionis gayolebiT namosaxlarebze dadasturebuli antikuri,
importuli nawarmi), rac met-naklebad mudmivmoqmedi bazris gaCenas
gulisxmobs. es ki qalaquri dasaxlebis erT-erTi niSania.md.fasisis
SesarTavTan roca berZnebi gamoCndnen, aq protourbanistuli centri
fasisi ukve iyo (gavixsenoT, aq gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis
namosaxlarebi). berZnebma es punqti aRiqves rogorc qalaqi da
savaWro centri (emporioni). berZnebma am savaWro dasaxlebasTan
daamyares kontaqti da droTa ganmavlobaSi aqve gaCnda berZnuli
dasaxlebac. adgilobriv mosaxleobasTan am kontaqtebis ZiriTadi
mizani adgilobrivi nedleulis gatana iyo; sanacvlod kolxeTSi
sxvadasxva fufunebis sagnebi (natifi keramika, samkaulebi, liTonis
WurWeli, nelsacxeblebi da a.S.) SemohqondaT. es ki Zv.w. Vs-is
Semdgomi werilobiTi da arqeologiuri wyaroebiT dasturdeba.
amdenad, zRvis sanapiroze emporionebis warmoqmna ucxoelebis da
adgilobrivebis saerTo interesebSi Sedioda. fasisSi gaxsnili da
daarsebuli berZnebis axalSeni droTa ganmavlobaSi adgilobriv
mosaxleobasTan kontaqtebis Sedegad simbiozs da cvlilebebs
ganicdida. es cvlilebebi didad iyo damokidebuli adgilobriv
biogeogaremoze da sociogaremoze [7, gv.3-45].
60

Zv.w. IIIs-dan, kolxeTis samefos daSlis mere q. fasisi TandaTan
antikur qveynebsa da Sida kolxeTs Soris buferul, eTnikurad
Sereul, polisuri tipis qalaqad transformirda, romelsac albaT
Tavisi sasoflo teritoriac hqonda. amasTan dakavSirebiT
sayuradReboa q. fasisis Sesaxeb Zv.w. IIs-is avtoris heraklides
cnoba fasisis politiaze, romelic aq garkveuli weswyobilebis
arsebobas gulisxmobs [7,gv.46-87].mniSvnelovania agreTve SedarebiT
gviandeli anonimi avtoris "periplusSi" daculi cnobebi, sadac
fasisTan erTad, konteqstSi, naxsenebia kavkasiis iberebi. Semdgom
aRniSnulia: "mdinaris SesasvlelTan, fasisis marcxena napirze,
moTavsebulia miletelTa mier dafuZnebuli elinuri qalaqi egreT
wodebuli fasisi, romelSiac, rogorc amboben, Tavs iyris samoc
sxvadasxva enaze molaparake xalxi. maT ricxvSi, gadmocemiT,
imyofebian indoeTidan da baqtriidan mosulebic" (Vs. anonimi,3).
magram, q. fasisis Sesaxeb es ramdenadme Semajamebeli werilobiTi
wyaro, etyoba Zv.w. IIIs-is Semdgom periods exeba. e.w. didi berZnuli
kolonizacia Zv.w. VIII-VII ss-Si q. fasiss ar Sexebia [Seadare, 3,
gv.7-21; 13; 59, gv.187-256; 60, gv.25-33; 74]. md. rion-fasisis qvemo
welze arqeologiurad aRmoCenili namosaxlarebi (CamonaTvali ix.
zemoT) amas mowmobs. aq ucxouri nawarmi e.w. kolonizaciis epoqaSi
ar Cans, xolo Zv.w. VI-Vss. importuli nawarmi mcirea da sul,
daaxloebiT asi erTeuliT (keramikis natexebi) ganisazRvreba. amitom
aq raRac intensiur berZnul "sakolonizacio" moqmedebebze saubari
jerjerobiT sruliad usafuZvloa. rac Seexeba werilobiT wyaroebs,
albaT SesaZlebelia, rom Zv.w. Vs-Si adgilobriv q. fasisTan an
fasisSi, md. rionis deltaSi, berZnebis mcire savaWro dasaxleba
(emporionis msgavsi) vigulisxmoT. daaxloebiT iseTi rogoric,
Semdgom XIV-XVss-Si foT-fasisSi genuis savaWro faqtoria iyo.
mniSvnelovania is faqtic, rom Zv.w.VIII-VI da gnebavT IVs-mde fasis-
foTis midamoebSi da mTel kolxeTSi raime didi cvlileba
arqeologiur kulturaSi (keramikul da metalurgiul warmoebaSi,
61

arqiteqturaSi, ideologiaSi, dakrZalvis wesSi da sxv.) ar SeimCneva.
xsenebul teritoriaze adgilobrivi sociumi rogorc cxovrobda
isev ise cxovrobs; ar Cans berZnuli kulturis raime zegavlena
mosaxleobis yofaSi.
miuxedavad imisa, rom Zveli fasisis adgilmdebareoba antikuri
werilobiTi wyaroebis mixedviT zogadad gansazRvrulia (ix.
straboni, ariane), dReisaTvis mecnierebis winaSe isev dgas misi
zusti lokalizebis problema, radgan klasikuri da elinisturi
xanis qalaqi arqeologiurad ar aris dadasturebuli. samagierod
aRmoCenilia adrebizantiuri xanis fasisis naSTebi (ix. qvemoT) [6,
gv.97-117; 10, gv.101].
fasisis lokalizeba-topografiis Sesaxeb gamoTqmulia Semdegi
mosazrebebi: pirveli_ frederik diubua de monpere Tvlis, rom
romauli xanis fasisi mdebareobda sof. Waladidsa da foTs Soris.
kerZod, xsenebul monakveTze, foTis aRmosavleTiT (dRevandeli
aerodromis teritoriaze) man aRmoaCina nacixaris naSTebi, romelic
arianeseul fasisad miiCnia [72, gv.63-80]. meore_ T. brunis azriT
fasisi paliastomis tbis samxreT-aRmosavleT monakveTSi mdebareobda
[47, gv.250]. mesame_ n. Safranovis mosazrebiT fasisi paliastomis
tbis samxreT napirze, md. sufsis SesarTavTan iyo ganlagebuli [65,
gv.3]. meoTxe_ l. elinickis azriT fasisi unda mdebareobdes md.
rionis SesarTavis marcxena napirze daaxloebiT iq, sadac dRes
sazRvao porti mdebareobs [53, gv.319]. mexuTe_ m. berZniSvilis
mosazrebiT fasisi mdebareobda md. rionis marcxena napirze patara
foTTan, xolo arianes droindeli ki iq, sadac diubua de monpere
miuTiTebs[2,gv.19-20]. meeqvse_ b. kuftinis azriT arianes droindeli
fasisi mdebareobda paliastomis tbis Senakadis md. fiCoris
napirebze [55, gv.116]. meSvide_ n. xoStaria Tvlida, rom Zveli da
romaul-bizantiuri xanis fasisi dRevandeli q. foTis adgilze
mdebareobda [41, gv. 33]. merve_ n. lomouri iziarebs diubua de
monperes mosazrebas oRond Tvlis, rom is agaTias (ax.w. VIs.)
62

droindeli naqalaqaria [58,gv.96-99]. mecxre_ g. grigolia fiqrobs,
rom fasisi saZebnelia paliastomis aRmosavleT mxares, sadac md.
fiCori erTvis tbas [12, gv.54]. meaTe_ paleogeograf j. janeliZis
azriT q. fasisi md. rionis xeobis gaswvriv, zRvidan 6 km-ze, patara
foTis da sof. Waladidis irgvliv teritoriaze unda veZeboT [43,
gv.5-16]. meTerTmete_ oT. lorTqifaniZe da T. miqelaZe werilobiTi
da arqeologiuri monacemebis Sejerebis Sedegad mividnen im daskvnam-
de, rom "fasisis saxeliT cnobili sxvadasxva epoqis qalaqebi unda
vikvlioT im arqeologiuri Zeglebis Seswavlis gziT, romlebic
ganlagebulia md. rionis SesarTavis auzSi qvemo-Waladids da zRvis
sanapiroze grigoleT-yulevs Soris moqceul teritoriaze" [19,
gv.33]. meTormete_ g. gamyreliZis mosazrebiT III-VIIss. fasisia e.w.
"natexebis" namosaxlari, romelic aRmoCnda foTis samxreT nawilSi,
paliastomis tbis dasavleT monakveTSi. vTvliT, rom lokaluri
geomorfologiuri cvlilebebis gamo, yulevis md. rionis, fiCoris
da sufsas Soris mdebare monakveTSi fasisis nawili xSirad xvdeboda
wyalSi (an torfian WaobSi); amitom qalaqi, mocemuli monakveTis
farglebSi, sxvadasxva epoqaSi sxvadasxva adgilze inacvlebda
[6,gv.97-117; 9,gv.22; 10,gv.101].
q. fasisi evropa-aziis sazRvao-samdinaro-saxmeleTo satranzito
magistralis erT-erTi ZiriTadi punqti iyo [3,gv. 99-119; 48,gv.7-8].
q. fasisis saSualebiT ucxoeTSi gadioda oqro, rkina, saamSeneblo
xe, seli, selis zeTi, Tafli, Rvino, mogvianebiT navTic da sxv. [3,
gv.53-59; 8,gv.26-32]. fasisis saxeliT aris evropul enebSi cnobili
"fasisuri xoxobi" (fazani), romelic agreTve didi raodenobiT
gahyavdaT qalaqis sanaxebidan. elinistur da romaul xanaSi gaizarda
fasisis, rogorc satranzito-savaWro qalaqis mniSvneloba.
Zv.w. 66w. fasisTan Sexvdnen erTmaneTs iberiidan gadmosuli
pompeusi da romaelebis samxedro-sazRvao Zalebis xelmZRvaneli
serviliusi, romlis flotic zRvidan ketavda da akontrolebda
qalaqs. aRmosavleT Savi zRvispireTSi romaelebis gavlenis
63

gaZlierebis Semdeg fasisSi Cadga romauli samxedro garnizoni.
swored am garnizonis samxedro-safortifikacio mzadyofnas fasisSi
aRwers 134w. imperator adrianes inspeqtori flavius ariane. am
mxriv sayuradReboa laTinuri damRa, romelic fasisSi ganlagebuli
samxedro nawilisa unda iyos [39, gv.134-140]. cixe-simagre fasisi,
imperator konstantine I-is administraciuli moRvaweobisas
ixsenieba. IVs-is fasisSi umaRlesi ritorikuli skola iyo
ganlagebuli. IVsaukunisaTvis fasisi lazikis (axali kolxuri
samefos) SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda. 542-562ww. bizantia iranis omis
dros erT-erTi gadamwyveti brZola swored fasisTan moxda,
romelSiac bizantia-lazikis gaerTianebulma jarma daamarcxa
iranelebi. VI VIII ss-Si fasisSi iyo konstantinopols
daqvemdebarebuli saepiskoposo. fasisel episkopos Teodores
xelmowera SemorCenilia 553w. msoflio saeklesio krebis gadawyve-
tilebaze. erT-erTi fasiseli episkoposi kvirosi dawinaurebul iqna
aleqsandriis patriarqad. SemdgomSi fasisSi rezidencia hqonda
lazikis mitropolits. XIVs-Si fasisSi mdebareobda genuis savaWro
faqtoria (ix.zemoT CamoTvlili werilobiTi wyaroebi).
foTi-fasisis da misi midamoebis arqeologiur kvlevas karga xnis
istoria gaaCnia. jer kidev 1834w. frederik diubua de monperem
foTis aRmosavleTiT (dRevandeli aerodromis teritoriaze), adgil
"najixurTan" cixe-simagris naSTebi aRmoaCina, romelic arianes
droindel fasisad miiCnia. man am cixis naxazic Seadgina [61, gv.63-
80]. 1953w. n. xoStariam mcire arqeologiuri dazvervebi Caatara q.
foTis midamoebSi [41, gv.30-33]. 1961-65ww-Si iv. javaxiSvilis sax.
istoriis... institutis foTis arqeologiuri eqspedicia ikvlevda
foTis Semogarens; arqeologiurTan erTad Catarda geologiuri
burRvebic. 1969w. amave institutis dasavleT saq. saZiebo-
arqeologiurma eqspediciam dazvervebi awarmova adgil najixuris
axlos. 1971-80ww. fasisis arqeologiis sakiTxebs ikvlevda iv. java-
xiSvilis sax. istoriis... institutis arqeologiuri eqspedicia
64

(xelmZRvaneli T. miqelaZe). 1985w-dan foTSi kvleva-Ziebas awarmoebs
saqarTvelos mecn. akademiis arqeologiuri kvlevis centris
SavizRvispireTis hidroarqeologiuri eqspedicia (xelmZRvaneli g.
gamyreliZe), romelmac paliastomSi III-VIIss-is namosaxlaris naSTebs
miakvlia.
dRevandeli foTis teritoriaze yvelaze Zveli arqeologiuri
monacemi adgil natexebTan paliastomis tbis dasavleT nawilSi
Tixa-torfian fenebSi dadasturda. aq aRmoCnda Zv.w. IVs-is atikuri
Savlakiani WurWlis profilirebuli qusli da rodosuli amforis
Zv.w. IIIs-is Ziri [48, gv.35,sur.5,6]. q. foTis midamoebSi (zusti
topografia ucnobia) aRmoCnda Zv.w. Vs. kolxuri TeTris 2 cali
didraqma (IItipis) da ramdenime sxva ufro mcire nominali (inaxeba
saq. muzeumSi). foTSi, pirveli maisis da kavkasiis quCebis
gadakveTaze geologiuri burRvis Sedegad 6 m-mde siRrmeze aRmoCnda
sinopuris msgavsi Zv.w. II-Iss-is keramikis naSTebi [21, gv.18-19].
malTayvasTan da sufsasTan, zRvaSi Zv.w. IVs-is pontos herakleis da
sinopis amforebi aRmoCnda.
foTis SemogarenSi samosaxlos kvali aRmoCnda sof. qvemo
WaladidSi, md. rionis marjvena mxares (1,5km-ze CrdiloeTiT),
foTisaken mimavali gzis marcxena mxares, n. yifianis nakveTSi.
borcvis farTobi 1800kv.m; aq gaiTxara Semdegi fenebi: moyviTalo
qviSanarevi Tixnari; moyviTalo Tixnari; damwvari baTqaSiani da
Zelebiani nagebobebis naSTebi. namosaxlaris Sua da qveda fena
ganisazRvra gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xaniT. namosaxlarze ZiriTadad
aRmoCnda keramika: qoTnebi, jamebi, Tasebi. isini umetesad Semkulia
Sverilebiani damaxasiaTebeli yurebiT. keramika ZiriTadad moSavoa.
isini Semkulia irib Wdeebiani, talRovani rombiseburi ornamentiT.
aqve aRmoCnda yalibi, qvis xelsafqvavi, kvirisTavebi, namglis
CasarTavebi. qvemo Waladidis "sabaJos" monakveTze arqeologiuri
gaTxrebi Catarda a. beriZis karmidamoSic. namosaxlarebze, ganaTxarSi
aRmoCnda nagebobebis damwvari Zelebis da baTqaSebis natexebi.
65

keramikis garda aRmoCnda metalurgiuli quris saberveli mili da
yalibi [21, gv.33-40]. meore samosaxlo, romelic SeiZleba miviCnioT
q. fasisis sasoflo gareSemortymad, aRmoCnda sof. saqorqios
aRmosavleT nawilSi, "simagres" saxelwodebiT cnobil monakveTSi, f.
facias sakarmidamosTan, md. rionis marcxena napirze. "simagres"
borcvi 3300kv.m-s moicavs. aqedan jerjerobiT arqeologiurad
Seswavlilia 200kv.m. borcvis qvemo moSao fenaSi (60sm.) aRmoCnda
xis nageboba. aq ramdenime samSeneblo donea. "simagris" namosaxlaris
arqeologiuri masala Zv.w. VI-Vss TariRdeba. "simagris" nagebobebi
oTxkuTxaa da Zelebis wyobiTaa jargvalurad nagebi.
dadasturebulia wnuli Robeebis naSTebi. aRmoCnda nagebobebis
iatakebi. erT-erTi nagebobis naSTebi 112kv.m. masSi aris tixrebi.
nagebobis kedlebis Zelebi ZiriTadad erTmaneTSi CaWdomis wesiT
aris nagebi. aRmoCnda aseTi kedlis Zelebis eqvsi rigi.
simagris namosaxlarze aRmoCnda Zv.w. VI-Vss keramika.
aRsaniSnavia, rom adgilobrivi didad sWarbobs ucxour arqeologiur
masalas. aRmoCenili adgilobrivi keramika yvela arqeologiur fenaSi
tipologiurad erTnairia. keramika damaxasiaTebelia Zv.w. VI-Vss
kolxeTisaTvis. aRmoCnda _ sameurneo: qvevrebi, dergebi; samzareulo:
qoTnebi, qoTnis sarqvelebi, sasmisebi, yurmiliani xeladebi, koWbebi,
langrebi, jamebi. dadasturda - konusuri formis kvirisTavebi;
brinjaos danebi; rkinis Subispirebi; rkinis Toxebi; rkinis danebi;
ankesebi; rkinis lagmebi; wagrZelebuli formis qvis xelsafqvavebi;
xis cicxvebi; sardionis da giSris mZivebi; oqros samkuTxa sakidi,
romelzedac cvaraTi Sesrulebulia meandris ornamenti. ucxouri
keramikidan: amforebi - qiosuri, lesbosuri, samosuri; sufris
WurWeli warmodgenilia ionuri keramikiT - jamebi, Wraqebi da
kilikebi; Savlakiani da Savfiguruli atikuri WurWeli - kilikebi.
md. rionis marcxena terasis gayolebiT zRvidan daaxloebiT 9km-ze,
aRmoCnda Zv.w. V-IVss-is Zelur-baTqaSiani nagebobebi. arqeologiuri
masala aq warmodgenilia kolxuri keramikiT _ qoTnebi, koWbebi,
66

sarqvelebi, yurmiliani doqebi da sxv. elinisturi xanis
arqeologiuri masala aRmoCnda simagris namosaxlaris samxreTiT. aq
zeda fenaSi dadasturda qedebiani qvevrebis da kolxuri amforebis
natexebi. aRmoCnda agreTve sinopuri amforis Zirebi [21, gv.50-78].
foTis sanergis nakveTze, romelic foTis aeroportis Crdilo-
aRmosaveleTiT aris, aRmoCnda adreuli Sua saukuneebis ori
welSezneqili adgilobrivi amfora. aqve dadasturda oTxkuTxa,
diagonalurad urTierTmkveTi, orRariani agurebi. arqeologiuri
masala adreul Sua saukuneebs ganekuTvneba. aqve, foTis aerodromis
midamoebSi, adgil najixuris CrdiloeTiT gaWril TxrilSi
aRmoCnda: aguris da kramitis fragmentebi; gofrirebul zedapiriani
amforis natexebi; imperator adrianes (117-138 ww) saxeliT q.
kesariaSi moWrili vercxlis didraqma [12, gv.44].
simagris namosaxlaris Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT, daaxloebiT 300m-ze,
md. rionis marcxena napirze aRmoCnda samarovnis naSTebi. aqve
dadasturda qviT, aguriT da kirxsnariT agebuli Senobis naSTebi.
aRmoCnda urTierTmkveT Rarebiani agurebi, calyura xeladebi,
kaTxebi, oryura qilebi, jamebi. WurWeli damzadebulia kargad
ganleqili Tixisagan da Ria moyavisfrodaa gamomwvari. arqeologiuri
masala adreuli Suasaukuneebisaa.
foTis samxreT-aRmosavleT nawilSi, paliastomis tbasTan, qalaqis
Semosavleli gzis, kaparWinaze axali xidis mSeneblobis adgilze,
aRmoCnda adreuli Sua saukuneebis keramikis fragmnetebi (qvevris
wvetiani Zirebi, jamebi, welSezneqili amforebis natexebi).
paliastomis samxreT-aRmosavleT Senakadis Txorinas SesarTavTan
napovnia gofrirebuli amfora. adreuli Sua saukuneebis amforebis
natexebi napovnia, agreTve, md. fiCoris paliastomTan SerTvis
monakveTSic [6, gv.98-104; 48, gv.33-34]. adreuli Sua saukuneebis
keramika aRmoCnda q. foTis dRevandeli aerodromis teritoriaze,
adgil "najixurSi" (diubua de monperes mikvleuli). kerZod:
urTierTgadamkveT Rariani agurebi, gofrirebuli keramikis natexebi.
67

"najixuridan" samxreT-dasavleTiT md. Savis paliastomTan Sesar-
TavTan, agreTve, aRmoCnda adreuli Sua saukuneebis keramikis
fragmentebi (qvevrebi, gofrirebuli amforebi da sxv.).
fasisTan dakavSirebuli ramdenime epigrafikuli Zeglia
SemorCenili: berZnul warweriani vercxlis fiala, romelic
aRmoCnda yubanSi, e.w. zubovis-yorRanSi (inaxeba s.-peterburgSi,
"ermitaJSi"). fialis diam. 21sm-ia; fskeri amoburculia; gamosaxulia
gveli da irmis Tavebi; pirze aqvs warwera _ >APOLLWNOC
<HGEMONOC >EIMI TOM FASI "apolon winamZRolisa var,
romelic fasisSia". Sesrulebulia berZnuli enis ioniur dialeqtze,
paleografiulad IVs-iT TariRdeba [37, gv.235-236; 71,sur.7-11; 73,
gv.199-216]. laTinur warweriani damRa filaze aRmoCnda sof.
cixisZiris nacixarze (inaxeba saqarTvelos muzeumSi) "VEX.FA",
"VEX[illatio]FA[siana] "veqsilacio fasiana", romelsac q. fasisSi IIs-
Si mdgari samxedro nawilisaTvis damzadebulad miiCneven [39, gv.134-
140]. q. foTSi, paliastomis tbis Crdilo-dasavleT mxares adgil
"natexebSi" aRmoCnda welSezneqili amfora, romelzec berZnuli
grafitoa. amfora VIs. TariRdeba. inaxeba foTis mxareTmcodneobis
muzeumSi [6, gv.115]. zRvaSi sufsis kanionTan aRmoCnda sinopuri
grafitoiani amfora. foTidan, paliastomis tbis midamoebidan, aris
qarTul (mxedrul) warweriani barZimi, romelic q. quTaisis
istoriul-eTnografiul muzeumSi inaxeba (inv.#3788).
1985wels saqarTvelos mecn. akademiis arqeologiuri kvlevis
centrSi Seiqmna SavizRvispireTis Semswavleli hidroarqeologiuri
eqspedicia (g. gamyreliZe). eqspedicias pirvel rigSi daevala
saqarTvelos zRvispireTis hidroarqeologiuri rukis Sedgena.
amisaTvis saWiro Seiqmna hidroarqeologiis TvalTaxedviT
werilobiTi wyaroebis, paleogeografiul- geomorfologiuri
monacemebis xelaxali gadasinjva-Sejereba. am TvalsazrisiT,
saqarTvelos zRvispireTis erT-erTi saintereso ubania foTi da misi
Semogareni. swored am garemoebam ganapiroba hidroarqeologiuri
68

samuSaoebis foTSi dawyeba. paliastomis tbis samxreT nawilSi,
kaparWinas boloSi, adgil "naeklesiarze" riyis qvebiT nagebi kedlis
naSTebi aRmoCnda.
paliastomSi, zRvis SesarTavidan (malTayva) naxevar kilometrze,
tbis dasavleT nawilSi dadasturda III-VIIIss. namosaxlaris naSTebi.
xsenebul punqtSi (top. "natexebi") tba qmnis mcire yures.
paliastomis adgili _ "natexebis" arqeologiuri Seswavlis
dawyebisTanave wamoiWra sakiTxi: es keramika aq Camorecxilia mdinare
rionis mier (winaT rionis nawili paliastomis tbas erTvoda), Tu
namosaxlaris naSTebTan gvaqvs saqme. arqeologiuri kvlevis Sedegad
gairkva, rom punqt "natexebSi" Zveli namosaxlaria. amas mowmobs:
pirveli - aRmoCnda didi raodenobiT keramikis naSTebi erT garkveul
farTobze; meore - vertikalurad Cadgmuli ramodenime amfora; mesame
- aRmoCnda samarxis naSTi; meoTxe - napirze gaWril xuT sadazvervo
TxrilSi dafiqsirda iseTive saxis keramika, rogoric tbis fskerze.
"natexebis" Zveli namosaxlaris naSTebi daaxloebiT cxraas
kvadratul metrze vrceldeba. tbis fskeri qviSiani da Tixian-
torfiania. mocemul monakveTSi napiridan centrisken, daaxloebiT
samasi metri sila-qviSnaria, xolo Semdeg torfiani Tixis fenebi
iwyeba. zogan torfis fena qviSis fenis qveSaa. gamoricxuli ar aris,
rom Tixa-torfian qveda fenebSi ufro Zveli periodis
arqeologiuri masala aRmoCndes. paliastomis tbis farTobi
Tvrameti kvadratuli kilometria. zRvisa da tbis done Tanabaria.
paliastoms daWaobebuli Semogarenidan momdinare mdinareebi erTvis.
amaTgan yvelaze wyaluxvia md. fiCori.
geomorfologebis azriT, paliastomis tba-laguna zRviuri
reliqtia. Zvelad aq md. rionis limani iyo [54, gv.57-59; 40, gv.25-
33]. sruliad bunebrivia, rom winaT swored am moxerxebul limanSi,
romlis napirzedac navTsayudeli mdebareobda, gemebi Semosuliyvnen.
gemebi Semdeg paliastomis gavliT rionze aRma agrZelebdnen svlas,
69

romelic maSin cnobili savaWro-satranzito gza iyo (straboni,
XI,VII,3).
agaTia fasis-paliastomis Sesaxeb gadmogvcems: "iq xom erTi tba
aris, romelsac patara zRvas eZaxian da romelic evqsinis pontos
uerTdeba; es tba arxis saSualebiT gadmouSves aq da swrafad aavses
wyliT (SesaZloa kaparWina -g.g.). satvirTo xomaldebi zRvis napiras
da fasisis SesarTavTan miacures qalaqis maxloblad" [25, gv.102].
toponim paliastomis Sesaxeb sagulisxmo mosazreba aqvs
gamoTqmuli frederik diubua de monperes, romelic paliastomis
saxels Zveli berZnulis moSveliebiT Semdegnairad xsnis - Zveli
SesarTavi (plaic-stma) [72, gv.71] (md. rionis?). igive azrisaa karl
koxi [15, gv.173]. sayuradReboa, rom straboni md. fasisis SesarTavis
mimarT umetes SemTxvevaSi xmarobs lmnh -s (damdgari wyali, Waobi,
wyalsacavi, limani, tba, zRvis yure). magram igi zogierT SemTxvevaSi
iyenebs stma -sac (stmatoc) [32, gv.86], romelic SesarTavs, yures,
Sesasvlelsac niSnavs. Zvel berZnul werilobiT wyaroebSi zogjer
am or sityvas erTad xmaroben - stma - limnon (limani, yure) [51,
gv.1508, 1509]. amdenad, isini ramdenadme sinonimuri mniSvnelobis
arian. sainteresoa agreTve, rom sityva stmwma-s erT-erTi
mniSvneloba aris cixe-simagre. am SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba yofiliyo
plaoc-stmwma (Zveli cixe-simagre) paliastomi // paliastomoma.
paliastomSi adgil "natexebis" namosaxlarze aRmoCenil
arqeologiur masalaSi yvelaze ufro mravalricxovnad
warmodgenilia keramikuli nawarmi. is sxva saxis arqeologiur
monacemebTan erTad warmodgenas gviqmnis "natexebis" Zveli
mosaxleobis cxovrebaze, savaWro urTierTobaze. paliastomSi
("natexebSi") aRmoCenili keramika daniSnulebis mixedviT nawildeba -
samSeneblo, keramikuli tara da sameurneo-saojaxo.
samSeneblo keramika warmodgenilia kramitiT da aguriT.
namosaxlarze dadasturebuli aguri oTxkuTxaa da sisqe 3sm-dan 5
sm-mdea; agurebi zomebiT iseTivea, rogoric dasavleT saqarTvelos
70

adreuli Sua saukuneebis naqalaqarebze - biWvinta, soxumi, oCamCire,
gudava, noqalaqevi, mTisZiri, vaSnari, qobuleT-fiWvnari, cixisZiri,
gonio da sxv. namosaxlarze dadasturda brtyeli gverdebakecili
(soleniseburi) kramiti. gadanakecis simaRle 3,5 sm-dan 5 sm-mdea,
sisqe ki 1,5sm-dan 2,5sm-mde. kramitis Tixa mowiTalo-moyavisfroa da
etyoba minarevebi (kirqva, kvarci). aq adgilobrivis garda aRmoCnda
ucxouri brtyeli kramitis natexebic. am kramitebis Tixa sinopurs
hgavs. samSeneblo masalidan aguris da kramitis garda namosaxlarze
xis Zelebis da damwvari Tixis (baTqaSi) naSTebi aRmoCnda.
gamoricxuli ar aris, rom aq aguriT nageb pirvel sarTulze
Zelebiani TixiT Selesili da kramitiT daxuruli nagebobebi idga.
flavius ariane aRniSnavs, rom fasisSi "winaT kedelebi Tixisa iyo
da xis koSkebi idga masze, magram axla kedeli da koSkebi gamomwvari
agurisaganaa gakeTebuli" [1, gv.40].
Zveli "natexebis" WurWlis umetes, SeiZleba iTqvas, ZiriTad
nawils Seadgens e.w. keramikuli tara amforebis saxiT. "natexebis"
welSezneqili adgilobrivi amforebi yvelaze met siaxloves iCens
noqalaqevSi gaTxrilebTan. saerTod am saxis amforebi
dadasturebulia dasavleT saqarTvelos gvianantikuri xanis -
adreuli Sua saukuneebis Zeglebze: sof. ganTiadi, biWvinta, soxumi,
oCamCire, gudava, mTisZiri, cixisZiri, vardcixe, qobuleT-fiWvnari.
samzareulo keramika warmodgenilia qoTnebiT, jamebiT,
luTeriebiT da doqebiT. qoTnebi sada, mucelgamoberili da
mokleyeliania. maT piri gadaSlili aqvT. kedlis sisqe 6mm-dan 8mm-
mdea; Ziris diametri 7sm-dan 10sm-mdea. qoTnebs fskerze etyoba
wriuli Rarebi. Zveli "natexebis" samzareulo keramikaSi meore
jgufs raodenobis mxriv Seadgenen jamebi. aq ZiriTadad gvxvdeba
kalTamomrgvalebuli brtyelZira dabali jamebi. namosaxlarzeve
aRmoCnda luTeriis tuC-kedlis fragmentebi kecis sisqe 8mm-dan 10
mm-mdea. Tixa moyavisfroa, minarevebiani (kirqva, qarsi, kvarci). Tixis
mixedviT adgilobrivi naxelavia. adgilobrivi warmoebis luTeriebi
71

nanaxia - vardcixeSi, vanSi, biWvintaSi, oCamCireSi, gudavaSi,
noqalaqevSi, mTisZirSi da sxv. sameurneo keramika warmodgenilia
qvevrebiT. kedlebze SeimCneva koncentruli reliefuri xazebi.
qvevrebis Tixa muqi yavisferia. qvevris Zirebi brtyelia da maTi
diametri 12sm-dan - 16sm-mdea. kedlis sisqe 16-19mm-mdea.
paliastomis tbis adgil "natexebis" arqeologiuri Seswavlis
Sedegad aRmoCenili masalis erTi nawili, kerZod, ucxouri keramika
(mTeli arqeologiuri masalis daaxloebiT 25%) zogad warmodgenas
gviqmnis mosaxleobis sagareo urTierTkavSirze. es ucxouri nawarmi
warmodgenilia pirvel rigSi amforebiT, saojaxo moxmarebisaTvis
gankuTvnili wiTellakiani jamebis natexebiT da minis WurWliT.
amforis natexebidan umravlesoba sinopuri Tixis msgavsia. maTi Tixa
Ria monacrisfroa da Tan odnav iisferi dahkravs. amgvari Tixis
amforebi ZiriTadad warmodgenilia Zirebis, kedlebis da yurebis
saxiT. umetesobisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia tanis daRaruloba.
sinopuris msgavsi Tixis amforebSi formis mixedviT gamoiyofa
ramodenime jgufi. zemoxsenebuli Tixisnairi amforebi aRmoCenilia -
biWvintaSi, soxumSi, oCamCireSi, gudavaSi, cixisZirSi, webeldaSi da
sxv. namosaxlarze calke gamoiyofa Ria moyavisfro-mowiTalod
gamomwvari amforebi, romlebsac kargad ganleqili Tixa aqvT. isini
saSualo zomis amforebs miekuTvnebian. amnairi amforebi nanaxia
biWvintaSi, cixisZirSi. msgavsi amforebi aRmoCenilia aTenis agoraze.
ar aris gamoricxuli maTi xmelTaSuazRvuri warmoSoba. mivakvlieT
gofrirebuli amforebis naxevarsferosebur Zirebs, romlebsac
wverze patara burcobebi aqvT. maTi Tixa ZiriTadad moyavisfro-
mowiTaloa. amgvari Zirebi biWvintaSi, webeldaSi, soxumSi da
cixisZirSic aris napovni. yuradRebas ipyrobs samosuri amforebis
Zirebi. dasavleT saqarTveloSi samosuri amforebi dadasturebulia
biWvintaSi, soxumSi, oCamCireSi, cixisZirSi, webeldaSi, noqalaqevSi
da zRvis sanapirodan didi manZiliT dacilebul vardcixeSic.
72

"natexebis" keramikul taraSi calke gamoiyofa moyavisfrod
gamomwvari amforebi; SeimCneva qarsis uwvrilesi minarevebi. amgvar
amforebs grZeli da viwro yeli aqvs; piris kideze lilviseburi
wibo dauyveba. yurebi piris kidesTan axloa da horizontalurad
aris mimagrebuli. xsenebuli saxis amforebi formiT Zalian hgavs
Crdilo SavizRvispireTis naqalaqarebze II-IIIsaukunis fenebSi nanax
amforebs. saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTSi isini jerjerobiT naklebad
aris gamovlenili. samosaxloze wiTellakiani keramikis ramodenime
natexi aRmoCnda. maTi piris kide SigniT aris gadaxrili, sadaa,
kargad ganleqili Tixisaganaa damzadebuli. Tixa Tanabradaa
gamomwvari da baci moyavisfroa. masSi SeimCneva qarsis umciresi
minarevebi. wiTeli laki sakmaod kargad aris SemorCenili. amnairi
WurWeli dasavleT saqarTvelos IV-Vss-is fenebSi gvxvdeba: gonioSi,
cixisZirSi, oCamCireSi, soxumSi, biWvinTaSi, noqalaqevSi, quTaisSi,
webeldaSi, mTisZirSi da a.S. sayuradReboa, rom aseTi keramika didi
raodenobiT aris zRvispireTSi (mag. soxumi, biWvinTa da a.S.).
namosaxlaris arqeologiuri masalis kidev erT jgufs qmnis
minis nawarmi, romelic ZiriTadad fexiani sasmisebiT aris
warmodgenili. e.w. minisfexiani sasmisebis garda aq aRmoCenilia
raRac sxva WurWlebis (maTi formebis gansazRvra Wirs) da
sasarkmle minis natexebi. mina ZiriTadad gamWvirvalea da Ria-
momwvano elferisaa, magram mocisfro fragmentebic gvxvdeba. aseTi
minis natexebi gaTxrilia webeldaSi, gudavaSi, mTisZirSi, soxumSi,
noqalaqevSi da sxv. msgavsi fexiani sasmisebi IV-VIIIss-iT TariRdeba
da bevria napovni aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispira da SavizRvispira
namosaxlarebze. isini, agreTve, nanaxia sanapirodan dacilebul mcire
aziis, kavkasiis, maxlobeli aRmosavleTis regionebSi. minis fexiani
sasmisebi saqarTveloSi dadasturebulia mcxeTaSi, urbnisSi,
rusTavSi, JinvalSi, TbilisSi; biWvintaSi, soxumSi, webeldaSi,
oCamCireSi, gudavaSi, cixisZirSi, vaSnarSi, mTisZirSi, vardcixeSi da
sxva adreuli Suasaukuneebis namosaxlarebze. maT ferSi da formaSi
73

SeimCneva gansxvavebebi. SedarebiT ufro msgavsia saqarTvelos
zRvispireTis samosaxloebis minis sasmisebi.
"natexebis" wyalSi moqceuli nawilis Crdilo-aRmosavleT mxares
ormosamarxis naSTebia. aq dadasturda welSezneqili amfora,
romelsac Tavi watexili da zemodan meore Rarebiani amforis qveda
nawili hqonda damxobili. amforaSi frinvelis da Roris damwvari
Zvlebi iyo. amforasTan adamianis Zvlebi aRmoCnda. samarxSi
dadasturda Semdegi nivTebi: brinjaos sakinZi; sigrZe- 7,7sm;
brinjaos mSvildsakinZi; sigrZe- 4,3sm; brinjaos mSvildsakinZi;
sigrZe- 4,3sm; brinjaos mSvildsakinZi; sigrZe- 5,2sm. amgvari
fibulebi, romlebsac Wvintianebs eZaxian VIs-iT TariRdeba; tyviis
brtyeli oTxkuTxa fila. minis fexiani sasmisi, quslis dm- 4,3sm.
bizantiuri 20numiani spilenZis moneta; zurgze gamosaxuli aqvs "K",
Sublis mxare ar ikiTxeba. moneta iustineII (565-578ww.) dros aris
moWrili. "natexebis" dasavleT monakveTze imperator konstanciusII-
is (337-361ww.) spilenZis monetac aRmoCnda. (namosaxlaris arq.
masalis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ix. [6, gv.97-117;9;10, gv.70-110; 48,
gv.30-48; 69,gv.101-119]). paliastomSi aRmoCenili "natexebis"
namosaxlaris TariRi jerjerobiT III-VIII saukuneebiT unda
ganisazRvros, xolo iqve aRmoCenili samarxi - VIsaukuniT. am
namosaxlaris saxiT Cven saqme gvaqvs bizantiuri xanis, prokofi
kesarielis da agaTias TxzulebebSi aRwerili fasisis naSTebTan,
romelic ganlagebuli iyo md. fiCoris, Savis da kaparWinas
SesarTavebTan da lokaluri geomorfologiuri cvlilebebis gamo
adgilmonacvleobda [ix. 6, gv.97-117; 48, gv.30-48; 69, gv.101-119; 68,
gv.223-236].
berZnul-laTinuri werilobiTi wyaroebis mixedviT q. fasisis
adgilmdebareoba TiTqos zustad aris gansazRvruli. qalaqi
ganlagebuli iyo md. fasisis deltis marcxena mxares; aqve saxeldeba
tbac (albaT paliastomi). amgvari gansazRvra zedmiwevniT miesadageba
dRevandeli q. foTis mdebareobas. amis gamo mecnierebi erTsulovnad
74

mianiSneben, rom Zveli fasisi foTsa da mis mimdebare teritoriazea
saZebneli [ix. 2, gv.3-21; 19, gv.17-36; 12, gv.36-55; 9]. amis miuxedavad
klasikur-elinisturi xanis fasisi mainc mikvleuli ar aris. es ki
imitom xdeba, rom xsenebul monakveTSi urTulesi paleo-
geomorfologiuri situaciaa [43, gv.5-16; 54, gv.21-33; 40; 64, gv.8-
12; 50, gv.21-64]. geomorfologiuri mdgomareobis mxriv yulev-foTi-
urekis zRvispireTi TiTqos amovardnilia saqarTvelos zRvispireTis
(330km.) saerTo konteqstidan. aq bundovania globaluri, Savi zRvis
regresiis da transgresiis faqti fasisTan mimarTebaSi. gaurkvevelia
zRvis sanapiro Selfis lokaluri dinamikis sakiTxic. xSirad
geomorfologebi arqeologebis monacemebs eyrdnobian da sanapiroze
namosaxlarebis ganlagebis mixedviT gamoaqvT zogadi daskvnebi. Cveni
azriT sakiTxi kompleqsur Seswavlas moiTxos. oRond, sasurvelia,
rom jer geomorfologebma gagvcen pasuxi Tu rogori iyo sanapiros
dinamika da Zvelad sad erTvoda rioni zRvas. maT unda
gaiTvaliswinon globaluri (regresia-trangresia) da lokaluri
(mdinareebis gamonatani naSali masala; mdinareebis rionis, fiCoris,
xobis, sufsis Zveli kalapotebi; regionis Waobianoba da torfianoba
da sxv.) monacemebi.
sasurvelia, rom paleogeomorfologiuri kvlevisas gamoyenebuli
iyos kosmosuri gadaRebebi saTanado kompiuteruli deSifrirebiT. es
imitom, rom erTxel da samudamod gairkves Tu winaT md. rion-fasisi
sad uerTdeboda zRvas da ra mimarTebaSia gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis da
antikuri xanis namosaxlarebi masTan. samwuxarod, xsenebul regionSi
mxolod aerofotogadaRebebma sasurveli Sedegi ver mogvca.
sayuradReboa, rom aq erTis mxriv xdeba rionis mier saukuneebis
ganmavlobaSi didZali naSali masalis gamotana, rac albaT deltis
zRvaSi gawevas iwvevda; xolo meores mxriv xdeboda zRvis donis
aweva, rasac sanapiros mitaceba moyva. dReisaTvis yulev-foTi-urekis
sanapiroze, zRvasTan Zveli namosaxlarebi aRmoCenilia, gvianbrinjao-
adrerkinis _ foTis CrdiloeTiT sof. yulevSi, md. xobis
75

SesarTavTan; agreTve md. civasTan Zv.w. VI-IVss.; foTidan samxreTiT
md. sufsis SesarTavTan; agreTve foTSi, paliastomis "natexebis"
namosaxlaris torfian fenebSi aRmoCnda Zv.w.IVs. Savlakiani WurWlis
natexi da rodosuli amforis qusli (ix. zemoT).
sayuradRebo faqtia, rom marto 1872 wlidan 1965 wlamde foTis
midamoebSi zRvam miitaca 200m-mde siganis miwis monakveTi [14,
gv.505-508]. am monacemebiT gamodis, rom fasisi zRvaSi unda iyos
daZiruli. amis dasturia agreTve mecnier-geografebis monacemebi,
romlis mixedviTac Sav zRvaSi e.w. fanagoriuli regresiis
damTavrebis mere daaxloebiT Zveli da axali welTaRricxvebis
mijnaze daiwyo zRvis transgresia [43, gv.5-16; 50, gv.148-159, 37;
64, gv.12, 53]. Sedegad, dRevandlamde zRvis donem sam metramde aiwia.
Sesabamisad Zveli namosaxlarebi zRvis qveS unda moyoliliyvnen [43,
gv.16; 66, gv.17]. kerZod, amgvari procesebi ganviTarda CrdiloeT [45,
gv. 15-27; 66, gv.13-24] da samxreT (mag. sinopi) SavizRvispireTSi,
sadac mTeli rigi antikuri xanis naqalaqarebi moeqcnen wyalqveS.
foTi-grigoleTis zRvis SelfSi hidroarqeologiuri eqspediciis
[6;48;69] kvleva-Ziebisas zRvis fskerze geomorfologiuri
mdgomareoba friad rTulia. md. rionis samxreTi Stos SesarTavTan
zRva xSirad mRvriea da xilvadoba cudia. mdinares didi raodenobiT
Slami gamoaqvs da zRvis Relvis dros wyalqveS warmoiqmneba qviSis
diunebi. Sesabamisad Tu warmovidgenT, rom es xdeboda saukuneebis
ganmavlobaSi, maSin unda vifiqroT - fasisis naSTebi qviSis sqeli
feniT aris dafaruli. hidroarqeologiuri kvlevisas grigoleTis
gaswvriv paliastomis gadmoRma zRvaSi 25m siRrmeSi aRmoCnda e.w.
welSezneqili amforebis mozrdili natexebi. adreuli sinopuri
amfora (piris dm-12sm.; cilindruli yelis simaRle - 15sm.; yurebi
masiuria da WrilSi ovaluri), aRmoCnda zRvaSi sufsis kanionis
maxloblad. pontos herakleis Zv.w. IVs-is meore naxevris amfora
aRmoCnda malTayvasTan zRvaSi.
76

amrigad, geomorfologiuri da topoarqeologiuri monacemebis
Sejerebis mixedviT, klasikuri da elinisturi xanis fasisi
saZebnelia q. foTidan daaxloebiT 12km. radiusis farglebSi -
xmeleTze da zRvaSi. ufro konkretulad ki yulev-foTi-sufsis da
Waladid-saqorqios Soris mdebare samkuTxedSi. lokaluri geomor-
fologiuri cvlilebebis gamo: mdinareebis mier gamotanili naSali
masalis akumulacia zRvispireTSi; torfis Sreebis moZraoba;
niadagis Warbtenianoba; zRvis donis cvalebadoba da sxv. safiqre-
belia, rom q. fasisis nawili xSirad xvdeboda wyalSi. amitom
qalaqi fasisi xsenebuli samkuTxedis farglebSi, sxvadasxva epoqaSi
sxvadasxva adgilze inacvlebda.
literatura:
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77

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32. yauxCiSvili, T. strabonis geografia, Tb., 1957.
33. yauxCiSvili, T. hipokrates cnobebi saq. Sesaxeb, Tb., 1965.

78

79

34. yauxCiSvili, T. berZeni mwerlebis cnobebi saq. ..., I, Tb., 1967.
35. yauxCiSvili, T. berZeni mwerlebis cnobebi saqa..., II, Tb., 1969.
36. yauxCiSvili, T. heraklide da misi cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, kreb.
aRmosavluri filologia, Tb., 1969.
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38.Sardeni, Jan. mogzauroba sparseTisa da aRmosavleTis sxva qveynebSi,
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fasisSi, mecn. akad. macne (ist. ...),1985, # 1, gv. 134-140.
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Amsterdam, 1998.

81

navTobis transportirebis Sesaxeb fasis-foTSi
(arqeologiuri monacemebis mixedviT)

q. foTSi SavizRvispireTis eqspediciis mier (ix. gamyreliZe,
1987, gv.97-117) mikvleul "natexebis" namosaxlarze gamorCeul
yuradRebas ipyrobs sami amforis qveda nawili (tab.I
1
) da amave tipis
amforebis sxva fragmentebi. mocemuli tipis amforebis fskerze
dadasturda bitumiseburi moSavo feris naleqi masa. misi
laboratoriuli gamokvlevis Sedegad gairkva, rom aRniSnuli naleqi
Seicavs navTobproduqtis naxevrad myar asfalt-fisovan narCenebs.
droTa ganmavlobaSi navTobis msubuqi fraqciebi, rogorc Cans,
amforis dazianebisas amoqarda, xolo mZime fraqciebis daJangvis
Sedegad da inertuli naerTebis SereviT iqca asfalt-fisovan masad
(analizi Caatara akc-s interdisciplinarulma laboratoriam,
xelmZR. prof. g. inaniSvili).
"natexebis" namosaxlari, sadac aRniSnuli amforebi dafiqsirda,
mdebareobs q. foTis samxreT mxares, zRvis SesarTavidan (malTayva)
daaxloebiT kilometrze, kaparWinas gadmoRma paliastomis tbis
mcire yureSi. tbis fskeri aq qviSiani da Tixa-torfiania.
namosaxlarze samSeneblo keramika warmodgenilia gverdebakecili
kramitiT da aguriT. aris agreTve urTierTgadamkveTRarebiani
aguric. samSeneblo masalidan aguris da kramitis garda aq xis
Zelebis da damwvari Tixis (baTqaSis) naSTebi aRmoCnda.
samosaxlos WurWlis umetes nawils Seadgens adgilobrivi
warmoebis keramikuli gadasazidi _ satransporto tara _ amforebi.
isini moyavisfrodaa gamomwvari, wagrZelebuli welSezneqili forma
aqvT da konusiseburi qusliT bolovdebian. adgilobrivi warmoebis
samzareulo keramika warmodgenilia qoTnebiT, jamebiT, luTeriebiT
da doqebiT. sameurneo keramika warmodgenilia brtyelZira (diam. 12
sm-dan 16sm-mde) qvevrebiT. aRmoCenili arqeologiuri masalis
daaxloebiT 25% ucxouri nawarmia. kerZod: sinopuri Tixis magvari
82

gofrirebuli amforebi; Ria moyavisfro, kargad ganleqil Tixiani,
gofrirebuli amforebi; samosuri amforis Zirebi; samosuri
amforiskebi (simaRle 16-19sm.); wiTellakiani jamebis da pinakebis
natexebi. aqve aRmoCnda momwvano, molurjo da moyviTalo feris
minis fexiani sasmisebis da lamprebis fragmentebi. (dawvrilebiT ix.
gamyreliZe, 1987, gv.97-117; gamyreliZe, 1998,gv.22; Gamkrelidze, 1992,
gv.101-119; Gamkrelidze, 1990, gv.223-236).
"natexebis" arqeologiuri masalidan, rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT,
sayuradReboa navTobis naleqiani amforebi. am tipis amforis sami
mTliani egzemplari aRmoCnda tbaSi (inaxeba foTis muzeumSi).
saerTod, am tipis amforebi 0,50- 0,65m sigrZisaa da gamoirCeva
wagrZelebuli formiT, konusiseburi qusliT, tanze qveda mxareze
xSirad SeimCneva dabali horizontaluri Rarebi, Tixa baci
moyavisfroa (tab.I
2,3
). isini hgvanan adgilobriv e.w. kolxur
moyavisfro Tixian welSezneqil amforebs; romelTa Tixa xSirad
araTanabarad aris gamomwvari da SeimCneva kirqvis da qarsis wvrili
minarevebi. saerTod, am saxeobebis amfo-rebi bevria aRmoCenili
dasavleT saqarTvelos adreuli Sua saukuneebis arqeologiur
Zeglebze _ ganTiadi, biWvinTa, soxumi, webelda, oCamCire, gudava,
nosiri, baTumi, noqalaqevi, mTisZiri, ureki, cixisZiri da sxv.
(gamyreliZe, 1982,gv.114; zaqaraia, 1974,gv.139; inaiSvili, 1993,gv.54;
ramiSvili, 1965,gv.114; fuTuriZe, 1959,gv.70; fuTuriZe, 1975,gv.148;
jafariZe, 1989,gv.44-51). dReisaTvis maTi nawilis kolxuri
warmomavloba ukve eWvs aRar iwvevs, radgan Catarebulia aseTi
amforebis Tixis petrografiuli analizi (ix. fuTuriZe,1959, gv.70).
Crdilo SavizRvispireTSi aRmoCenili welSezneqili amforebi ki
ufro momcroa da Tixac vizualurad gansxvavebulia. aseTi momcro
welSezneqili amforebi aRmoCenilia yirimSi qalaq tiritakes
gaTxrisas. erT-erT am tipis daxuful amforaSi, romelic gaiTxara
q. tiritakeSi XIII nakveTze, navTobi dadasturda. es amfora
wagrZelebul taniani da welSezneqilia, konusiseburi daboloeba
83

aqvs (simaRle 0,58m). amforis qveda mxares SeimCneva dabali
gofrireba; Tixa baci moyavisfroa (ix. tab.I
4
). amfora IVs-iT
TariRdeba (.1952, gv.62). qimiur-laboratoriuli analizis
Sedegad amforaSi dadasturda Txevadi navTobi, xolo fskerze
bitumiseburi danaleqi masa (. 1952,gv.415). es navTobi,
Semadgenlobis mixedviT, mopovebulia qerCis naxevarkunZulis
Congelekis Zvel sabadoSi. ZiriTadad navTobiT aqedan maragdeboda
CrdiloeT SavizRvispireTi, tiritake, tanaisi, qersonesi da sxv.
(.1971, gv.264-265; .1965, gv.291-293). mocemuli tipis
amforebi mravlad aris aRmoCenili qersonesSi (sadac isini
mopovebuli amforebis saerTo raodenobis naxevars warmoadgens),
tiritakeSi, mirmekionSi, istrieSi, varnaSi da sxv. (.
1979,gv.12). samxreT Savi-zRvispireTSic sinopTan (demirsSi) aRmoCnda
welSezneqili konusisubur Ziriani amforebi (kasab tezgori, 1999,
gv.22).
navTobi da navTobproduqtebis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi icodnen
da moxerxebulad iyenebdnen kidevac mTel Zvel civilizebul
samyaroSi. navTobis erT-erTi saxeobis, asfalt-fisovani, Savfisis
gamoyeneba wyalgaumtar saSualebad, navis, kidobanis, kalaTis
mosafis-mosagozad aRwerilia jer kidev bibliaSi (dabadeba, Tavi
VI,14; gamosvla, TaviII,3). navTobis, navTobis fisis sarewebis da
asfalt-fisis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb samSeneblo-SemakavSirebel masalad,
cnobebs gvawvdis Zv.w. Vs. avtori herodote (I,179; IV,195; VI,119).
navTobis Taobaze cnobebs vxvdebiT sxva berZen-romael avtorebTanac
_ straboni (XVI,I,5,9,15), plutarqe (aleqsandre,35), qsenofonti
(anabasisi, II,4), plinius ufrosi (II,109; XXXV,15), vitruviusi (arq.
I,5,8). es avtorebi mogviTxroben navTobis da navTobproduqtebis
mopovebis da gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. kerZod, maT nawerebSi moyvanilia
cnobebi navTobis, malTis sabadoebis Sesaxeb mesopotamiaSi,
siciliaSi, palestinaSi da iranSi; sadac is moipoveboda bunebrivi
wyaroebidan da mcire siRrmis Webidan.
84

navTobi, malTa, asfalti gamoiyeneboda, rogorc samSeneblo-
SemakavSirebeli masala; wyalgaumtari saSualeba (mag.
dadasturebulia amforebis Signidan mofisvis faqti; ix._ diuponi,
kaWarava, 1999,gv.9); SesaZloa zogjer es navTobis zeTiTac xdeboda;
liTonis koroziisagan damcavi masala; kultmsaxurebisas (cecxlis
sakurTxevlebSi urevdnen sxva zeTebSi); soflis meurneobaSi,
mcenareebis mavne mwerebisagan dasacavad; samedicino da veterinaluri
wamlebis dasamzadeblad; mumificirebisaTvis; samxredro saqmeSi;
gasanaTebel saSualebad (WraqlamprebSi, sazRvao SuqurebSi,
sxvadasxvanair CiraRdnebSi da a.S.).
navTobi, Savi-moyavisfro momwvano elferis wyalSi uxsnadi
zeTovani nivTierebaa. miwis zedapirTan siaxlovisas is msubuqi
fraqciebis amoqarebis da mZime fraqciebis daJangvis Sedegad blant,
sqel malTad gardaiqmneba; Semdgom myardeba; xolo bolos naxevrad
myar bunebriv asfaltad iqceva. sulxan-saba orbelianis leqsikonis
ganmartebiT "asfalti _ kldidam da wylidam gamova, Savfiss hgavs"
(orbeliani, 1928, gv.21). amrigad, bunebrivi wyaroebidan moipoveba
navTobis bunebrivi saxeobebi _ navTobis zeTi, malTa, bitumi,
bunebrivi asfalti da a.S. berZnul-laTinur werilobiT wyaroebSi
isini ZiriTadad moixsenieba _ 5sfaltoc, nfja; naphtha, bitumen, maltha
(ix. Forbes, 1936, gv.4-13). qarTul enaSi sityva "navTi," "nafTi"-s
warmomavloba jerjerobiT bolomde garkveuli ar aris. "wamebai habo
tfilelisa"-Si naxsenebia "...moiRes SeSai da Tiva da nafTi da
daasxes guamsa mas zeda wmidasa da daagznes cecxli..." (Zv. qarT...,
1963,gv.73,5). bibliis Zvel qarTul TargmanebSi "mofisa igi nafTiTa."
"agzebdes mas nafTsa..."(abulaZe, 1973,gv.322). zog enaTmecniers sityva
navTi iranul nasesxobad miaCnia (ix. andronikaSvili, 1966,gv.345).
friad sayuradReboa nikandros kolifonelis (Zv.w.IIs. avtoris)
werilobiTi cnoba _ "medeasi, anu erTdRiani wamalia mosamzadebeli,
romelsac ewodeba kolxiduri, da romelsac isini navTsac (nfjan)
85

86

uwodeben; Tu amiT daizelen sxeuls, an tansacmels,... an sxva rames
gaJRenTaven da mzeze dadgebian, cecxli STanTqavT da moispobian. ...
misi momzadeba medeam aRmoaCina, amitom kolxurs eZaxian" (ix.
sqolioni 249 da Semd. (uruSaZe, 1964, gv.335). kolxi medeas mier
navTobis gamoyenebas adasturebs agreTve plutarqe _ "navTobi is
Sxami iyo, romliTac medeam wamosasxami da Tavsamkauli gaJRinTa,
razedac tragediaSia gadmocemuli." "...Tavsamkaulsa da wamosasxams
cecxli moedoo" (plutarqe, aleqs.,35). aq, tragediaSi igulisxmeba
evripides piesa "medea"(str.1410), sadac medeam, SurisZiebis mizniT,
navTobiT da raRac sxva mcenareebiT damzadebuli naerTiT cecxli
gauCina da daRupa kreonti da misi asuli glavke.
navTobis da kolxi medeas Sesaxeb sayuradRebo cnobas gvawvdis
agreTve VI s. cnobili da sando istorikosi prokopi kesarieli. is
aRwers kolxeTSi, fasisidan samxreTiT qalaq petrasTan (dRevandeli
cixisZiri, qobuleTTan) 550w. romaelebis da sparselebis brZolas,
romelSic adgilobrivi mosaxleobac iRebda monawileobas _ "maT
aavses qoTnebi gogirdiT, asfaltiT da erTi sawamlaviT, romelsac
midielebi navTs eZaxian, elinebi ki medeas zeTs (Mhdeac laion),
moukides maT cecxli da esrodnen kedlis damangrevel manqanebs,
romlebic TiTqmis yvela dawves." "...magram maT didxans ver gauZles
amas; vinaidan cecxli, sadac ki moedeboda, maSinve agizgizdeboda, Tu
is maSinve ar iqneboda ukugdebuli" (prokopi kesarieli, BG, VIII, 11;
yauxCiSvili, 1965, gv.171). amgvarad, kolxeTSi samxedro moqmedebebis
dros gamoiyeneboda "medeas zeTi," navTobi da sxva komponentebi,
romelic Tanamedrove "napalms" hgavda Tavisi moqmedebiT. iqve
TxzulebaSi, prokopi kesarieli dasZens _ "cecxli avarda, moedo da
medeas saxeliT cnobili zeTisa da sxva momaragebul nivTierebaTa
wyalobiT mTeli koSki da iq myofi sparselebi gadawva"(BG, VIII,11).
antikur werilobiT wyaroebSi Semonaxuli cnobebi adastureben
e.w."medeas zeTSi" navTobis Semcvelobas. Sesabamisad kolxeTi
warmoCindeba im qveynad, sadac kargad icnobdnen navTobis Tvisebebs
87

da iyenebdnen kidevac mas. am mxriv sayuradReboa foTi-fasisis (sadac
navTobis naSTiani amforebi dadasturda) samxreTiT ramdenime
kilometrze md. sufsis da natanebis qvemo welze navTobis
sabadoebis da bunebrivi asfaltis (Zvelaia, 1973,gv.51; .
1990, gv.192) naSTebis arseboba, rac aq Zvelad bunebrivi wyaroebidan
navTobis mopovebas ar unda gamoricxavdes. aq dResac aris navTobis
sarewebi. saqarTveloSi sxvagan navTobis bunebrivi wyaroebi
ZvelTaganve cnobilia samgori-patarZeuli-navTluRis (q. Tbilisis
erT-erTi ubnis navTluRis saxeli navTobs ukavSirdeba _ Tbilisis...,
1990, gv.339) monakveTze. navTobis sabadoebi mdebareobs agreTve
mirzaanSi, SiraqSi, eldarSi da foTTan axlos WaladidSi.
q. fasisi, SemdgomSi foTi (sadac navTobiani amforebi aRmoCnda),
kargad cnobili evropa-aziis sazRvao-samdinaro-saxmeleTo
satranzito, savaWro gzis erT-erTi ZiriTadi punqti iyo (ix.
berZniSvili, 1969,gv.99). SesaZloa swored, q. fasisze gavliT
xdeboda transportireba samSeneblo xe-tyis, selis, fisis, Taflis,
Rvinis, liTonis, tyaveulis da sxva produqciis Tu nakeTobis.
gvianantikur xanaSi da adreul SuasaukuneebSi kidev ufro gaizarda
fasisis, rogorc satranzito-savaWro qalaqis mniSvneloba (straboni
XI,II,17; plinius ufrosiNH,VI,52; anonimiXLII,3). sxva savaWro
produqcias axla ukve SeiZleba daematos arqeologiurad
dadasturebuli navTobic, romelic amforebiT transportirdeboda
sazRvao xomaldebis saSualebiT, savaraudod, yirimis
naxevarkunZulidan. SesaZlebelia agreTve, rom foTSi navTobi
satranzito gziT kaspiis zRvis sanapirodan an zemoT moxsenebuli,
saqarTvelos teritoriaze mdebare sarewebidanac moxvedriliyo.

literatura:
abulaZe, il. Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni. Tb., 1973.
andronikaSvili, m. narkvevebi iranul-qarTuli..., t.I. Tb.,1966.
88

berZniSvili m., q. fazisis istoriisaTvis. Tb., 1969.
gamyreliZe g., centraluri kolxeTis namosaxlarebi, Tb., 1982.
gamyreliZe g., wyalqveSa..., saq. mecn. akad. macne (ist.), #1. 1987, gv.97-117.
gamyreliZe g., foTi-fasisis topoarqeologiisaTvis. Tb., 1998.
diuponi p., fisis..., SavizRvispireTis Zv. ist. IXsimpoziumi, vani,1999,gv.9.
zaqaraia p., leqvinaZe v., gudavaSi 1971w. Catarebuli gaTxrebis angariSi, saq.
sax.muzeumis arq. eqspediciebi, III. Tb., 1974, gv.139-153.
Tbilisis istoria (red. m. dumbaZe, v. guCua), t. I. Tb., 1990.
inaiSvili n., cixisZiris I-VI ss. arqeologiuri Zeglebi, Tb.,1993.
kasab-tezgori d., sinopi..., SavizRvispireTis Zv.ist. IXsimpoziumi,1999,gv.21.
lorTqifaniZe oT., vaWroba Sav zRvaze, istoriuli wanamZRvari,
SavizRvispireTis Zveli istoriis IX simpoziumi, vani, 1999,gv.26-28.
orbeliani sulxan-saba, qarTuli leqsikoni, tf., 1928.
ramiSvili, r.arqeologiuri gaTxrebi biWvinTaSi, masalebi saqa. da kavka. arq.-
saTvis, mska, t.IV. Tb.,1965, gv.107-122.
uruSaZe ak., Zveli kolxeTi argonavtebis TqmulebaSi, berZnuli teqstebi
qarTuli TargmaniTa da SeniSvnebiT. Tb., 1964.
fuTuriZe, r. gvianantikuri xanis dasavleT saqarTvelos arq. Zeglebi,
masalebi saq. da kavk. arq., II. Tb., 1959,gv.54-94.
fuTuriZe, r. biWvintis...,. kreb. didi pitiunti, Tb., 1975, gv.127-160.
yauxCiSvili s., georgika, Tb., 1965.
Zvelaia mir., kolxeTis dablobi. Tb., 1973.
Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli lit..., Iw. (il. abulaZe), Tb.,1963.
jafariZe v. vardcixis naqalaqari, Tb., 1989.
. . 1952: 1935- 40. , 25, 15-134.
. . 1979: . .
. . (.) 1990: . .
. . 1971: , , 3, . 264-265.
. . 1965: ,. , 1, . 291-293.
. (.)1984: . . .
. . 1957: -, , . XIX, 3, . 377-394.
. . 1952: ...,. , 25, 415-421.

89

kolxur-mosuinikuri koSkis rekonstruirebis cda
(arqeologiuri monacemebi qsenofontis anabasisis konteqstSi)

vanis Zveli naqalaqaridan dasavleTiT, rva kilometrze sof.
mTisZirSi, adeiSvilebis goraze arqeologiurad SeviswavleT Zv.w. IVs-is
Zelur-baTqaSiani namosaxlaris naSTebi. aq samosaxlo adeiSvilebis
goris terasebze iyo gamarTuli da erTian sasimagro-TavdacviT sistemas
qmnida, romelic qalaq vanisaken mimaval gzas hkravda. amdagvari gorebis
terasebze agebuli Zelur-baTqaSiani samosaxloebi ZiriTadad Zv.w. IIIs.
wina periodis kolxeTisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli.
Zveli saqarTvelos xis arqiteqturis SeswavlisaTvis friad
sainteresoa adeiSvilebis goris zeda terasaze arqeologiurad
Seswavlili, SedarebiT kargad Semonaxuli, Zelur-baTqaSiani nagebobis
naSTebi (sur.1). nagebobis asageb ZiriTad saSen masalad gamoyenebulia
qva da Zelebi. gvxvdeba Tiris, TeTri kirqvis da riyis qvebi, xolo
Zelebad naxmaria Telis xe. nagebobis nangrevebSi bevria baTqaSis natexi.
maT zogierT fragments etyoba xis Zelebis anabeWdi. qvis da xis
Zelebis garda didi raodenobiT aris naxmari Tixamiwa, rac
gamoiyeneboda SemakavSirebel-amosavseb masalad. nagebobas Zlieri xanZari
aqvs gadatanili; qvebi simxurvalisagan damskdaria, xolo Zelebi
TiTqmis danaxSirebulia. nageboba oTxkuTxaa da Sedgeba ori
saTavsisagan. samxreT saTavsis farTobia - 26, 88kv.m, xolo CrdileTis -
13,44kv.m. am saTavsis dasavleT kuTxeSi SemorCenilia ZelebiT mogebuli
iataki, romelzedac zeda sarTulis gadaxurvis Zelebis fragmentebi
SeimCneva. nageboba orientirebulia aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken.
kedlebis fundamentis sigane _ 2,60m. nagebobis kedlebis fundamenti
gamarTulia kldis budeebSi Casmuli qviSaqvis qvebiT, xolo maT mosdevs
kirqvis qvebis wyoba. kedlis cokoli nagebia fleTili qvebis wyobiT.
maT dasakavSireblad gamo-yenebulia Tixamiwa. cokolis Sida mxare
warmodgenilia ZelebiT (diametri 18sm-mde). TeTri kirqvis wyobaze
aRmoCnda baTqaSiT Selesili Zelebis fragmentebi, rac albaT kedlis
90

naSTebia. kedlis fundamentis Sida farTobi amovsebulia qvebiT da
TixamiwiT. aq gvxvdeba riyis da kirqvis qvebi. fundamentSi Catanebulia
kidev erTi Zeli, romelic nagebobis interieris mxaris Zelebis
paraleluria; gardigardmo, sxvadasxva doneze Catanebulia 7 sm
diametris Zelebi. amgvarad iqmneboda armaturis nairi, xis ZelebiT
SemosazRvruli kvadratebis karkasi, rac nagebo-bis cokols met
simtkices aZlevda (sur.2). sayuradReboa aRmosavleTi da CrdiloeTi
kedlebis Sida kuTxe, romelic sxvebisagan gansxvavebiT ukeT
SemorCenilia. aq dadasturda ZelebiT kuTxeebis agebis ori xerxi: erTi
_ Zelebi ubralod erTmaneTzea dadebuli amoWris gareSe (dasturdeba
mxolod cokolis Zelebian karkasSi), xolo meore _ CaWrili ZelebiT
Sesrulebuli kuTxe.
nagebobisaTvis meti mdgradobis misacemad moxerxebulad aris
gamoyenebuli bunebrivi reliefi. nagebobis saZirkvelSi kldis
struqtura iribia da zedapirTan TiTqmis swor kuTxes qmnis. amiT
nagebobas meti simtkice eqmneba da misi CamoSlis saSiSroeba Tavidanaa
acilebuli. kldis iribi struqturave qmnis oRroCoRro reliefs, rac
kargad aris gamoyenebuli xelovnur budeebTan erTad, saZirkvlis qvebis
Casawyobad. adeiSvilebis goris Zelur-baTqaSiani nageboba atikuri
Savlakiani WurWliT, gviandeli qiosuri, mendes (sur.3) amforebiT da
adgilobrivi keramikiT Zv.w.IVs-iT TariRdeba. am monacemebs mxars uWers
radioaqtiuri naxSirbadis daSlis meTodiT miRebuli TariRic,
romliTac dangrevis dro Zv.w. 330 40w. aris gansazRvruli (ix.
gamyreliZe, 1982, gv.63-69).
amgvarad, zemoT aRwerili nagebobis naSTi warmoadgens cokolze
dadgmul Zelur, TixiT Selesil Zv.w. IVs. Senobas. SesaZloa, rom aq
saqme gvaqvs antikuri epoqis avtorebis (hipokratesTan, qsenofontesTan,
apolonios rodoselTan, pomponius melasTan, dionisios
halikarnaselTan) TxzulebebSi naxseneb kolxeTis xis nagebobebis
nairsaxeobasTan (sur.4).

91

92

nagebobaSi kolxuri da ucxouri keramikis garda salesi qvebi,
isrispirebi da brinjaos zaraki aRmoCnda. SesaZloa, rom es zaraki
Camokidebuli iyo Standartze, romelic Zveli "mTisZiris" romelime
warCinebuli piris insignias warmoadgenda. osteologiuri masalidan
nagebobaSi dadasturda gareuli taxis eSvebi da Zroxis beWis Zvali.
Zv.w. IV s. miwurulis, erTi mxriv, azos da, meore mxriv
farnavazqujis mier ZalauflebisaTvis brZoliT gamowveuli saomari
moqmedebebis SedegebiT SeiZleba aixsnas sof. mTisZiris adeiSvilebis
goris gamagrebuli samosaxlos dangreva. SesaZloa, amave dros daangries
vardigoris (varcixesTan), (jafariZe, 1977, gv. 43-50), vanis e.w. TeTri
Senoba da maTi Tanadrouli nagebobebi. rogorc cnobilia, iberiis
samefos Camoyalibebis rTuli procesi swored Zv.w. IV-III ss-is mijnaze
mimdinareobs. am droisaTvis Sida kolxeTic iberiis samefos farglebSi
erTiandeba (ix. "cxovreba qarTuelTa mefeTa da pirvelTaganTa mamaTa da
naTesavTa") (gamyreliZe, 1993, gv.55-56). kolxeTSi xis Zelebiani
nagebobebi mravlad aris arqeologiurad dadasturebuli: sof. anaklia
(dixa-guZubaI,II), sof. reki(naoxvamo), sof. saqorqio (simagre), qobuleTi
(ColoqTan), sof. nosiri, vanis naqalaqari, sof. varcixe (vardigora),
93

quTaisi (daTeSiZe-gabaSvilis gora); xolo maTi naSTebi xis Zelebis da
baTqaSis saxiT dasavleT saqarTvelos TiTqmis mTel teritoriaze
gvxvdeba. es arqeologiuri Zeglebi qronologiurad gansxvavdebian
erTimeorisagan, magram maTSi garkveuli arqiteqturuli memkvidreoba
igrZnoba. aRsaniSnavia, rom jargvalis tipis xis Zelebiani saxlebi
dResac gvxvdeba kolxeTSi. maTi kuTxeebi iseve, rogorc winaT, Zelebis
boloebSi CaWriT aris nakeTebi.
Zelur-baTqaSiani samosaxloebi damaxasiaTebelia
kolxeTisaTvis, sadac bunebriv Tu xelovnur
borcvebze ganlagebuli aseulobiT namosaxlaria
dadasturebuli. mravalricxovani samosaxlo
borcvebi, "gorebiT," "zurgebiT" da
"dixaguZubebiT" aris mofenili kolxeTis
dablobis rogorc zRvispireTi, aseve Sida
mxarec. kolxeTis am samosaxlo borcvebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia garSemo Txrili. aseT
mravalfenian Zeglebze mosaxleoba TiTqmis
uwyvetadaa warmodgenili xangrZlivi drois
ganmavlobaSi.
ukanasknel wlebSi intensiurad warmoebs
mravalfeniani samosaxlo borcvebis Seswavla.
Catarebulma arqeologiurma gaTxrebma erTxel
kidev daadastura, rom TxrilebiT
garSemovlebul xelovnur borcvebze samosaxlos
gamarTvas kolxeTSi didi xnis istoria aqvs.
dasaxlebis amnairi tipi kolxeTSi SemTxveviT
ar ganviTarebula. is aq arsebuli biogeogaremos pirobebiT iyo
ganpirobebuli _ dabali reliefi, niadagis xSiri daweva, gruntis
wylebi, Waobianoba, naleqianoba. aseT situaciaSi cxovrebisaTvis
xelsayreli pirobebis SesanarCuneblad aucilebeli xdeboda
xelovnuri SemaRlebebis gakeTeba.
94

Txrilis Seqmna borcvis garSemo ganpirobebuli unda yofiliyo imiT,
rom xelovnuri borcvisaTvis miwa didi raodenobiT iyo saWiro;
sruliad bunebrivia, rom mas borcvis garSemo, axlo adgilidan
amoiRebdnen. garda amisa, Txrils hqonda TavdacviTi mniSvneloba. is
mosaxleobas icavda mtris, mtacebeli
cxovelis da wylis stiqiisagan.
rogorc Cans, kolxeTis sazogadoeba
moxerxebulad iyenebda fizikur-
geografiul pirobebs (bunebrivi
borcv- gorebis terasebs) da TviTonac
aqtiurad zemoqmedebda masze
(xelovnuri, TxrilSemovlebuli
borcvebi). qronologiurad orive es
tipi Tanaarsebobda. arqeologiuri
monacemebis mixedviT aSkaraa, rom
amgvari samosaxloebis gamarTvis wesi
kolxeTSi jer kidev brinjaos xanaSi
ikidebs fexs (jiblaZe, 1977).
sayuradReboa, rom dasaxlebis
mowyobis meore wesi, xelovnuri
borcvebis mozvinviT, specifikur
kolxur movlenad aris miCneuli.
antikur xanaSi, rogorc Cans,
kolxurma samosaxloebma cvlilebebi
ganicada. zogierTi samosaxlo,
romelsac ufro kargi, moxerxebuli
fizikur-geografiuli da ekonomikur-komunikaciuri adgil- mdebareoba
ekava, dawinaurda da garkveuli regionis qalaquri tipis centrad
Camoyalibda. am centrs hqonda masze damokidebuli sasoflo-sameurneo
(xorisnairi) teritoria. am SemTxvevaSi safiqrebelia, rom "vani"
saqalaqo centri iyo, xolo "mTisZiri" misdami daqvemdebarebul
95

sasoflo teritoriaSi Sedioda. saqalaqo centrs Tavis xoriT, garSemo
garkveuli TavdacviTi sistema hqonda, romelic mis uSiSroebas
emsaxureboda. amdagvari gamagrebuli sofeli, safiqrebelia, iyo Zveli
"mTisZiric." aseTi gamagrebuli soflebi, albaT, ganlagebuli iyo
qalaqisken mimavali komunikaciebis Casaketad. "mTisZiri" ki erTis mxriv,
kontrols uwevda md. rionis xeobaze (marcxena napirze) gamaval gzas,
xolo meore mxriv, md. yumuris xeobidan momaval gzas ketavda (sur.5).
Zv.w. Is. arqiteqtoris, vitruviusis (II,I,4) (ix. Ciqovani,1966) mier
aRwerili, kolxuri Zelebiani nagebobisagan adeiSvilebis goris
nageboba ZiriTadad gansxvavdeba cokoliT. ar gamovricxav, rom aq
cokolze da kedlis horizontalur Zelebze dayrdnobili saxuravi,
96

vitruviusis mier aRwerili piramidul-gvirgvinovani konstruqciuli
sqemiT aigo; an TivaseliT gadaixura (sur.6). nagebobis xis kedlebis
kuTxeebi CaWrili mrgvali ZelebiT ikvreboda, xolo Semdeg Zelebi
TixiT ileseboda (baTqaSiT). gaTxrebisas baTqaSebis natexebze mrgvali
Zelebis anabeWdebi aRmoCnda.
Cven mier arqeologiurad Seswavlili sof. mTisZiris adeiSvilebis
goris nageboba gansakuTrebul msgavsebas iCens sof. varcixis
(vardigoris), quTaisis (daTeSiZe-
gabaSvilis goris) da vanis naqalaqaris
centraluri terasis e.w. TeTr
SenobasTan. isini, adeiSvilis goris
SenobasaviT, cokolze mdgari, xis
Zelebiani nagebobebia. am tipis
nagebobebi konstruqciulad xis
arqiteqturis ramdenadme axal, ufro
ganviTarebul etapze miuTiTebs.
kolxeTSi Tlili qva, alizis aguri da
kramiti farTod mxolod elinistur
xanaSi ikidebs fexs. rogorc Cans,
kolxeTSi, Zv.w. IIIs. win, xe ZiriTadi
samSeneblo masala yofila. xisgan
agebdnen sacxovrebel saxlebs, koSkebs,
zRudemeserebs,gamagrebul samosaxloebs
da sxv. kolxeTSi xis masala uxvad
iyo. cnobili geografi straboni
gadmogvcems _ "... aq izrdeba mravali
tye" (XI,II,17). amasve aRniSnavs
vitruviusi _ "kolxebi pontos mxareSi
tyis siuxvis gamo..." (II,I,4) aSeneben xis nagebobebs.
adeiSvilebis goris Zelur-baTqaSiani, gamagrebuli samosaxlos,
koSkebian kompleqsTan konteqstSi, friad sayuradReboa antikuri epoqis
97

mwerlebis cnobebis ganxilva. sadac qarTveluri mosaxleobiT, kolxebiT
da mosuinikebiT, dasaxlebuli aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis
teritoriebia aRwerili. Zv.w. IVs-is avtori qsenofonti gadmogvcems:
"aRmarTuli iyo zRudemeseri mravali xis koSkiT..." (anabasisi V,2,5).
iqve "basilevsma ar isurva daetovebina mosuini (gamagrebuli samosaxlo
_ g.g.), romelic goraze iyo aSenebuli" (anabasisiV,4,26). iqve "gadaiwva
mTeli daba, koSkebi gamagrebuli meseriT da sxva, garda Sida cixisa"
(anabasisiV,2,27); apolonios rodoseli: "cxovroben mosuinikebi,
romelnic sacxovrebels marTaven xis koSkebSi, romlebic kargad aris
erTmaneTSi Sekruli sasimagro meseriT. am nagebobebs eZaxian mosuinebs"
(argonavtika,II,378-380); dionisios halikarnaseli: "...cxovroben koSkebian
xis Zelebian maRali zRude-meseriT garemocul farTobebze, romelsac
uwodeben mosuinebs" (romis siZveleTmcodneoba, I,26,2); pomponius mela:
"mosuinebi cxovroben xis koSkebSi" (qveynis aRweriloba, I,106).
amgvarad, dasavleT saqarTvelos arqeologiuri masalis da Zveli
werilobiTi wyaroebis Sejerebis safuZvelze SeiZleba davaskvnaT:
qarTveluri mosaxleobiT dasaxlebul aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi
Zv.w. IIIs-is wina periodSi gavrcelebuli iyo borcvze da goraze,
Zelur-baTqaSiani, Zelebiani meseriTve SemozRuduli, koSkebCarTuli
kompleqsebi; xisagan nagebi gamagrebuli samosaxlo, romelsac mosuini
ewodeboda (dawvrilebiT ix. yauxCiSvili, 1977).
socialurad, adeiSvilebis gorisnairi (sur.5) gamagrebuli borcv-
gorebi, albaT, naTesaobriv Temebs warmoadgenda, romlis TavSic
adgilobrivi xelisufali, berZnuli werilobiTi wyaroebis mixedviT,
basilevsi idga. SesaZloa, aseT adgilobriv xelisufals ekuTvnoda
adeiSvilebis gorasTan aRmoCenili nagebobebis Tanadrouli mdidruli
samarxi (ix. gamyreliZe, 1982, gv.69-81).
vfiqrob, adeiSvilebis goris zeda terasaze, arqeologiurad
Seswavlili nageboba, swored amgvari, saTemo, gamagrebuli samosaxlos _
mosuinis erT-erTi koSki iyo.
98

literatura:
gamyreliZe g., centraluri kolxeTis Zv. namosaxlarebi, Tb.,1982.
gamyreliZe g., istoriul-topoarqeologiuri Ziebani, Tb., 1993.
yauxCiSvili T., berZeni mwerlebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Tb., 1977.
yifiani g., amaSukeli n., kolxuri da frigiuli..., Tb.,1995.
Ciqovani T., gvirgvinian-erdoiani sacxovreblis da vitruviusis kolxuri saxlis
urT..., saq.mecn.akad."macne,"1966,#6, gv.211 -222.
jafariZe v., Zv.varcixe, Jur. Zeglis megobari, 1977, #46, gv.43-50.
jiblaZe l., kolxeTis dablobis brinjaos xanis namosaxlarTa stratigrafia,
qronologia da periodizacia, Tb., 1997.

99

kolxi medeas ikonografiisaTvis
(soxumis yureSi aRmoCenil bareliefTan konteqstSi)
soxumis cnobili stela saqarTveloSi aRmoCenili qvis kveTis
sayuradRebo nimuSia. bareliefiani qvasveti zRvaSi, soxumis yuris
fskerze, md. besleTis SesarTavTan napirgasamagrebeli wyalqveSa
samuSaoebisas moulodnelad aRmoCnda. zRvidan amoRebuli e.w.
soxumis stela TeTri marmarilosia da moyviTalo-monacrisfro
elferi dahkravs. is oTxkuTxa formisaa da marcxena qveda kuTxe
momtvreulia. filis zomebia _ 157
x 92 x 12sm. filas zeda mxareze eqvsi
Rrmuli aqvs. amJamad stela soxumis
muzeumSia gamofenili (ix. sur.1) (ix.
lorTqifaniZe,1966,gv.93; Picard, 1956,
gv.81; ciciSvili,1954,gv.20; barnaveli,
1956,gv.8;miqelaZe,1960, gv.189).
soxumis yure swored is adgilia,
sadac ivaraudeba antikur werilobiT
wyaroebSi, kerZod, jer kidev Zv.w.
IVs. avtoris fs. skilaqs kariandelis
(peri...,81) TxzulebaSi moxseniebul
qalaq dioskuriis nawilis mdebareoba.
aq zRvis Relvis Semdeg xSirad
pouloben xolme amforebis,
Savlakiani WurWlis natexebs da
monetebs. winare da antikuri xanis
monacemebi aRmoCenilia agreTve
dRevandeli q. soxumis, soxumis mTis, guadixus da wiTeli Suquras
arqeologiurad Seswavlil mona-kveTebze. e.w. soxumis stelaze
dabali reliefiT (0,5sm-dan 2sm-mde), samfiguriani kompoziciaa
amokveTili, romelic umetesad realisturi maneriT aris
100

gadmocemuli da ZiriTadad berZnuli klasikis stilSia
Sesrulebuli. kompoziciis marcxena pirveli figuraa fexze mdgomi
asuli, romelic ukana planzea ganyenebulad gamosaxuli da zemodan
dascqeris mjdomare figuras. misi mokled SekreWilTmiani, odnav
daxrili Tavi profilSi, xolo sxeuli, romelzedac usaxelo,
welze qamriani peplosi mosavs, anfasSia gamokveTili. peplosi
mxrebTan samagrebiT aris SenaoWebuli da mkerdze vertikaluri da
iribi Wde-xazebiTaa gadmocemuli. qaliSvils swori cxviri, sqeli
tuCebi, loyisagan gamoyofili bibiloiani yuris niJara da nuSis
moxazulobis Tvalis Wrili aqvs; odnav kuTxovani yba mcired win
wamoweuli, energiuli, nebisyofis gamomxatveli nikapiT bolovdeba.
asuls, marcxena mxramde zeaweul xelSi yuTi (kolofi, zardaxSa)
upyria, romelic sqematuradaa warmodgenili.
bareliefis marjvena figura nadiris tyavdafenil, morkalur
fexebian savarZel-klismosSi Camjdari, qitonSi gamowyobili
banovania. qals marjvena xeli gadaxveuli aqvs mis muxlebze
dayrdnobil SiSvel yrmaze, romelic mas saxeSi Sescqeris. profilSi
gamoxatul mokled gakreWil bavSvs qalis marcxena xelze marjvena
xeli aqvs Camodebuli. banovans qitonze moxveuli aqvs himationi,
romelic nawilobriv savarZlis misayrdnobzec aris Camofenili da
gadmocemulia reliefuri naoWebiT. qalis Tavi profilSia
gamosaxuli da axasiaTebs _ nazi ovali, nuSis moxazulobis Tvalis
Wrili, swori e.w. berZnuli cxviri, sqeli tuCebi, ovaluri yuris
niJara; varcxniloba moxdeniladaa ukan aweuli da win talRovani
ornamentiTaa Sesrulebuli. mocemuli bareliefis kvlevisas,
amjerad, ZiriTadad ikonografiuli atribuciiT SemovifarglebiT.
soxumis stela in situ mdgomareobaSi ar aris aRmoCenili da amitom
mis Sesaxeb mxolod reliefis mixedviT Tu vimsjelebT. savaraudoa,
rom bareliefiani fila xomaldiT gadatanisas (gemis CaZirvisas an
zRvis Relvisas gadmovarda) moxvda zRvis fskerze da daniSnulebis
adgilamde ver miaRwia.
101

soxumis stela saflavis qvaa. amgvari qvasvetebiT moiniSneboda is
adgili, sadac gardacvlilisadmi miZRvnili kultmsaxureba
sruldeboda. aq axloblebisaTvis samaxsovro memoriali iyo
gamarTuli. gamoricxuli ar aris, rom reliefi
damzadebuli iyo akldamis kedlis Sesamkobad. am
mosazrebis sasargeblod metyvelebs is, rom
filas zeda mxares sagangebo eqvsi dasamagrebeli
Rrmuli aqvs. amasTanave cnobilia, rom berZnuli
klasikuri xanis stelebi ZiriTadad
frontonianad ikveTeboda, xolo soxumisas aseTi
ar gaaCnia; is ufrontono oTxkuTxa filaa.
saberZneTSi samarxze qvasvetis dadgmis wesi,
jer kidev arqaul xanaSi dasturdeba. soxumis
stelis msgavsi ramdenime figuriani saflavis qva
ki klasikuri xanidan moyolebuli vrceldeba
mTel antikur samyaroSi. klasikuri xanis
saberZneTis samarx qvasvetebze, upiratesad,
gardacvlilTan gamoTxovebis scenas or an
samfiguriani kompoziciiT asaxavdnen (ix.
Boardman, 1985, gv. 165-166; Cook, 1976, gv. 91-108;
. 1939, gv. 47-79; The Oxford History, 1993, gv. 83-147, 143,
136). maTze, xSirad, gardacvlili iseve, rogorc soxumis stelaze,
savarZelSi mjdomare da bavSvTan an axalgazrda qalTan erTadaa
gamokveTili.
berZnul samarx stelebze savarZelSi mjdomi gardacvlili
mandilosnis saxe ganzogadoebulia da ara konkretuli. misi
gaidealizebuli saxe e.w. berZnuli profiliT, qitoniT,
varcxnilobiT, tyavdafenili klismosiT, soxumis reliefzec
garkveulwilad trafaretuli da tradiciulia. magaliTad: mjdomare
qalis figuris modelirebis mxriv sayuradReboa q. aTenis erovnul
arqeologiur muzeumSi gamofenili Zv.w. 400wliT daTariRebuli
102

hegesos samarxi stela, romelzedac iseve, rogorc soxumis stelaze
qalis saxe profilSia, xolo torsi sam meoTxed anfasSia
gadmocemuli. amasTan erTad, orive qali erTnair klismosSi sxedan.
amgvaradvea mjdomare qalis Tavi da sxeuli modelirebuli pireiSi
aRmoCenil Zv.w. IVs-is samarx stelaze (inaxeba aTenis erovnul
arqeologiur muzemSi). asevea klismosSi mjdomare qalis figura
gadmocemuli Zv.w. Vs-is meore naxevris filostrates samarx
stelaze (inaxeba q. s.-peterburgis ermitaJSi). marTalia xsenebul
samarx stelebze mjdomare qalis figuris modelireba zogadad erTi
da igivea, magram maTi gadmocema sxvadasxva mxatvruli donisaa.
soxumis stela dabal reliefSi figuris gadmocemis maneriT
(mdgomare asuli) garkveul msgavsebas iCens q. aTenis akropolisis
muzeumSi dacul Zv.w. 450wliT daTariRebul Subian qalRmerT aTenas
gamosaxulebasTan, romelic marmariloze dabal reliefSia
gamokveTili. stilistur-gamomsaxvelobiTi msgavseba SeiniSneba
agreTve Zv.w.Vs-is bolo meoTxedis, pantikapeonSi (qerCSi) aRmoCenil
marmarilos saflavis qvaze gamoxatul figurasa (. 1972, gv.56-
61) da soxumis stelis mdgomare qaliSvilis gamokveTis maneraSic.
103

kerZod, Tavis daxrilobis, profilis, gakreWili Tmis, Tvalis
gadmocemaSi. sayuradReboa aseve, Zv.w.Vs-is miwuruliT daTariRebuli
elevsinis cnobili samfiguriani bareliefi qalRmerT demetras
gamosaxulebiT (inaxeba q. aTenis erovnul arqeologiur muzeumSi). aq
marjvena da marcxena figurebis Cacmuloba da marjvena figuris
Tavis moxazuloba, ramdenadme soxumis stelisnair maneraSi, dabal
reliefSia gamokveTili.soxumis stelaze gamoxatul figuraTa samosi
(peplosi, qitoni, himationi) da misi modelirebis xasiaTi,
tyavdafenili klismosi, gardacvlili qalis varcxniloba, romelic
ukan aweuli (SesaZlebelia badiT damagrebuli) da win talRovani
ornamentiT aris Sesrulebuli, Zalze damaxasiaTebelia berZnuli
samyarosaTvis. amgvari saxiT klasikuri xanis berZnul xelovnebaSi
banovanebi, maRali wris qalbatonebi da qalRmerTebi gamoisaxebodnen.
ase, rom soxumis reliefis qalTa figurebis pirisaxe, tansacmeli,
104

klismosi, rogorc Cans, sakuTari codna-SesaZleblobis farglebSi
ostatma klasikurad, akademiurad asaxa.
samive figuris gadmocemaSi ramdenadme darRveulia proporciebi.
kerZod, qalebis Tavebi sxeulTan SefardebiT odnav didia; bavSvis
mklavic Seufereblad didia TavTan SefardebiT. cudadaa
gadmocemuli figurebis xelebi; rogorc Cans, xelis mtevnis
gamoqandakeba reliefis SemsruleblisaTvis gadaulaxav sirTules
warmoadgens. es gaocebas iwvevs, radgan iseTi rTulad gamosakveTi
elementi, rogoric yuria (bavSvis yuris garda) garkveulad
akademiur-realisturadaa Sesrulebuli. yuTi, romelic axalgazrda
qals uWiravs, sruliad sqematuria da mxolod oTxkuTxedis saxiT
aris warmodgenili. amitom iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom reliefi arc
Tu maRali klasis ostatis mieraa Sesrulebuli an ubralod
daumTavrebelia (gansakuTrebiT yuTi), an kidev ramodenime sxvadasxva
ostatobis donis xelosani akeTebda. amjerad erTi ram udaoa,
kerZod, soxumis stela berZnuli klasikuri xanis xelovnebis
cxovelmyofeli gavleniTaa Seqmnili. is, Zv.w. Vs-is bolo meoTxediT
aris daTariRebuli (ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1966, gv.104).
bareliefze gamoxatuli bavSvis Subli daqanebulia, cxviri
odnav wawvetebulia, xolo Tavi mcired dabrtyelebulia. qalebis
figurebisagan gansxvavebiT Tvalis Wrili profilSia, xolo yuris
bibilo loyasTan SeerTebulia. saerTod, yrmis figura ramdenadme
mamakacisas (saxe, mklavi, xeli) Camohgavs da sxva figurebisagan
gansxvavebiT, TvalSisacemi berZnuli iersaxe ar gaaCnia (Subli,
cxviri, yuri, Tavis forma). niSandoblivia, rom bavSvis figura
skopasis cnobil stelaze _ "Wabukis saflavis qva," specialistebis
mier alegoriulad aRqmulia rogorc sikvdili, gardacvaleba.
e.w. soxumis stelas stilis mxriv, jerjerobiT, pirdapiri
analogia ar eZebneba. mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT igi axlos dgas
berZnuli klasikuri xanis stilTan, magram misi dabali reliefi
(bavSvi, yuTi, xelis mtevnebi, Tvalis Wrilebi), berZnul e.w. maRal
105

klasikas ar ukavSirdeba. amitom mas ramdenadme antikuri samyaros
periferiaSi an aqedan gamosuli xelosnis nakeTobis ieri dahkravs.
kerZod, samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom stilis
TvalsazrisiT siaxlove SeimCneva soxumis reliefsa da periferiaSi,
ioniaSi, kunZul rodosze aRmoCenil "kritosa da timaristas"
stelas Soris. yuradsaRebia isic, rom berZnuli savaWro kolonia
dioskuria swored ioniis qalaq mileTis dafuZnebul dasaxlebad
iTvleba (flavius ariane, "periplusi Savi zRvis garSemo,"10). amitom,
SesaZloa, rom soxumis stela aqedan iyos kolxeTSi motanili.
warmomavlobiT periferiidan gamosul xelosnebTan dakavSirebiT
sayuradReboa q. aTenSi aRmoCenili Savfiguriani Zv.w.VI da Vss-is
WurWlebi, romlebzedac warmoSobiT kolxi xelosnebis berZnuli
warwerebia _ "kolxma gamakeTa," "evqsiTeosma gaakeTa, kolxma moxata"
(ix. yauxCiSvili, 1976, gv.226). Sesabamisad, ar aris gamoricxuli,
rom aseTive kolxi ostati (moqandake) moRvaweobda ioniaSic,
romelmac gamokveTa soxumis stela.
soxumis stelaze gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs yuTiT xelSi
mdgomare asulis figura, romelic, SesaZloa, alegoriulad kolx
medeas ganasaxierebdes (ix.sur.1,4). is Tavisi ieriT q. herkulaneumSi
aRmoCenil medeas (mxrebi, mklavebi, nikapi) freskas Camohgavs (sur.2).
berZnuli klasikis xanaSi miTologiuri personaJebi realisturad
(Sesabamisi atributebiT), adamianis saxiT gadmoicemoda (Carpenter,
1991, gv.35-48). aRmoCenilia saflavis stelebi, romlebzedac micva-
lebulis gamosaxulebasTan erTad gamosaxulia miTologiuri
personaJebic. magaliTad: Zv.w. 450wliT daTariRebuli reliefi,
romelzedac micvalebulTan erTad warmodgenilia orfeosi da
hermesi (inaxeba q. neapolis muzeumSi); an spartaSi aRmoCenili Zv.w.
VIs-is meore naxevris gveliani saflavis qvasveti (inaxeba q.
berlinis e.w. pergamon muzeumSi); an xuTfiguriani Zv.w.VIs. reliefi
qalkedonis naxevarkunZulidan (Boardman, 1985, sur.248). nimfeonis
nekropolze gaiTxara samarxi stela, romelzedac gamo-saxulia
106

qalRmerTi kibela (inaxeba q. qerCis istoriul muzeumSi). q. odesis
arqeologiur muzeumSi inaxeba samarxi stela (inv.#50122),
romelzedac gamosaxulia kibela da hermesi. marTalia es ori
ukanaskneli romauli xaniT TariRdeba. sakralur simboloebTan unda
gvqondes agreTve saqme skopasis stelaze "Wabukis saflavis qva,"
sadac gardacvlilTan erTad ZaRli _ erTguleba, moxuci _ sibrZne
da momtirali bavSvi _ gardacvalebaa gamosaxuli. berZnuli samarxi
stelebis ganxilvisas Cans, rom ZiriTadi figura, gardacvlili,
yvelgan Tavdaxrilia, sakuTar TavSi Caketili, ganyenebuli da
maradiulobis sakraluri ieriT aris aRbeWdili.
soxumis stelaze gamosaxul mdgomare asuls mxramde zeaweul
xelSi yuTi uWiravs. berZnul miTologiaSi da xelovnebaSi, kerZod,
reliefebsa da moxatul keramikaze, gvxvdeba yuTis (kolofis)
gamosaxulebebi, romelTac ramdenime axsna aqvs (yuTis grafikuli
tipebi ix. Lezzi-Hafter Adrienne, 1976, gv.59, 70). pirveli, esaa pandoras
yuTi, meore _ samkaulebisa da Zvirfaseulobis Sesanaxi yuTi da
mesame _ medeas yuTi, romelic balaxebTan da gvelebTan erTad
grZneuli kolxi qalis erT-erT simbolo-atributs warmoadgens
(Sdr. Simon,1954, gv.204; Boardman,1985, gv.238). medeas ikonografiaSi
yuTi sxvadasxva moyvanilobisaa (oTxkuTxa, cilindruli da sxv.).
pirveli _ "pandoras yuTi" berZnul miTologiaSi farTod
cnobili cnebaa. is aris mexTamtyorcneli zevsis saCuqari pandoras
qmrisadmi, romelSiac damwyvdeulia adamianTa modgmis Semawuxebeli
yovelnairi ubedureba. misi gaxsnisas iqidan amova da mTel dedamiwas
moedeba Wir-varami da Jami. moxatul keramikaze es yuTi TiTqmis ar
aris asaxuli.
meore _ ginaikeionSi samkaulebisa da Zvirfaseulobis Sesanaxi
yuTi; mravlad gvxvdeba keramikis moxatulobasa da, rac
gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, samarx stelebze. aRsaniSnavia, rom
amgvari yuTi ZiriTadad Riaa da stelebze gamosaxvis SemTxvevaSi mas
moaxle an axlobeli (naTesavi) qali awvdis gardacvlil qalbatons.
107

magaliTad: hegesos stela, romelzedac gamosaxulia Ria yuTi,
romelic torss qvemoT gawvdilia gardacvlilisaken. Tanac qals,
romelic yuTs uwvdis gardacvlils, grZelsaxeloebiani, dabali
fenisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli tansacmeli acvia. aseTive qali Ria
yuTiT xelSi gamosaxulia Zv.w. IVs-is wiTelfigurul WurWelze
siciliidan; Ria yuTia agreTve gamosaxuli wiTelfigurul Zv.w. IVs.
pelikaze apuleidan. arc aq da arc sxva gamosaxulebebze Ria yuTi
zeaweul xelSi TiTqmis ar aris gadmocemuli (ix. katalogebi -
Lezzi-Hafter Adrienne, sur. 82, 87, 94, 100, 105, 107, 117, 123, 126, 129,
133, 135, 148, 160, 163, 165, 171, 175; Boardman, 1989, sur. 28, 63, 166,
207, 234, 299, 403; Conze, 1893-1922, t. I-IV). soxumis stelaze ki,
usaxelo peplosSi, maRali wris qalebisaTvis da qalRmerTebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebel samosSi gamowyobili qaliSvilia gamosaxuli da
Tanac daxuruli yuTi, cal xelSi mxramde zeaweuli, amayad uWiravs.
mesame _ yuTi, romelic medeas atributia, yovelTvis daxurulia
da medeas is umetesad zeaweul xelSi uWiravs. aseT pozaSia
gamosaxuli medea, Zv.w. Vs-is meore naxevriT daTariRebul
wiTelfigurul volutebian kraterze (inaxeba q. miunxenis muzeumSi
#3268; ix. sur.3, 5); Zv.w. Vs-is wiTelfigurul kraterze, romelic
inaxeba s.-peterburgis ermitaJSi (inv. . #1718), zeaweul yuTian
medeas Tavze berZnuli warwera aqvs _ MHDEIA (sur.6); medeas
gamosaxuleba gvxvdeba aseve Zv.w. Vis-is kraterze, romelic inaxeba
q. turinis muzeumSi _ inv.#249.
medea berZnuli argonavtikis erT-erTi ZiriTadi personaJia da
mWidro kavSirSia kolxur samyarosTan (ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1986, gv.9;
uruSaZe,1964, gv.13; canava,1982, gv.85). berZnul werilobiT
wyaroebSi aRniSnulia, rom medea heliosis Zis aietis asulia. zogi
versiiT qalRmerTi hekate medeas dedaa. medeas, rogorc hekates
taZris qurums da RvTaeba heliosis SviliSvils aqvs misnobis,
wamalmkeTeblis, gaaxalgazrdavebis da gardacvlilis gacocxlebis
unari (Lexicon Icono-graphicum 1992, medeas Sesaxeb, tab.IV(1),
108

gv.386-398; argonavtebis Sesaxeb, t.II(1), 1984, gv.591-599). misi
mravalmxrivi niWidan am SemTxvevaSi yuradRebas vamaxvilebT swored
micvalebulis gacocxlebis unarze, romelic dakavSirebulia
gardacvlilis kultTan. amitom, gasakviri ar unda iyos, grZneuli
medeas wamlebis yuTiT xelSi alegoriuli gamosaxva saflavis
qvasvetze.
kolxi medea, berZnuli da romauli mwerlobis erT-erTi
popularuli gmiria. is xSirad saswaulmomqmed wamlebiani yuTiT
xelSi moixsenieba. magaliTad: medea "aqedan arCevda xolme hekates
taZrisaken siaruls." "igi, viT grZneul qalebs sCveviaT, xSirad
dadioda micvalebulebisa da miwidan amosuli fesvebis garSemo"
(Zv.w. IIIs-is avtori apolonios rodoseli "argonavtika,"IV,50-54);
"aietis sasaxleSi aris erTi qalwuli (medea), romelsac qalRmerTma
hekatem gansakuTrebulad aswavla wamlebis Semzadeba" (III,529);
"medea gaeSura yuTisaken, romelSiac mravali wamali ewyo, zogi
makurnebeli da zogic momakvdinebeli" (III,803); "medeam yuTi gaaRo
da sawamlavis amoRebas lamobda" (III,835); "heras SegonebiT
gunebaSecvlilma yuTi CamoiRo ..." (III, 818); "medeam ki amasobaSi
yuTidan amoiRo wamali, romelic, amboben, promeTes wamlad
iwodeboda" ("argonavtika,"III,845) (apolonios rodoseli,1970,
gv.205,219,221,253; apolonios rodoseli, 1975, gv.139-141). adre
motanili argumentebis safuZvelze SesaZlod gveCveneba, rom soxumis
bareliefze, romelic qvis kveTis ostatisaTvis kolxeTSi
aRsamarTad unda yofiliyo SekveTili, xelSi yuTiT mdgomare
asulSi kolxi medeas alegoriuli saxe SevicnoT. amrigad,
balaxebTan, gvelebTan da e.w. frigiul qudTan erTad, wamlebis
yuTic medeas erT-erT atributad unda miviCnioT. am mosazrebis
aRiarebis SemTxvevaSi es kolxi medeas pirveli gamosaxuleba iqneba
antikuri xanis saqarTveloSi (sur.4).

109

literatura:
apolonios rodoseli, argonavtika, gamosca ak. uruSaZem, Tb., 1970.
apolonios rodoseli, argonavtika, gamosca ak. gelovanisa, Tb., 1975.
barnaveli, s., marmarilos stela..., xel. ist. inst. XIsesia, 1956, gv.8.
lorTqifaniZe, o. antikuri samyaro da Zv. kolxeTi, Tb., 1966.
lorTqifaniZe, oT., argonavtika da Zveli kolxeTi, Tb., 1986.
miqelaZe, T., qarT.-berZ. urTierTobis genezisisaTvis, moambe,1960,#2,gv.189.
uruSaZe, ak., Zv. kolxeTi argonavtebis TqmulebaSi, Tb., 1964.
canava, r., medea da qarTuli samyaro, macne (ena...), Tb.,1982,#1, gv.85-91.
ciciSvili, i. xelovnebis iSviaTi..., Jur. droSa,1954,#9, gv.20.
yauxCiSvili, T. saq. ist. berZnuli wyaroebi, Tb., 1976.
. . . -. 1939. .47-79.
. . . ... 13. .1972. .56-61.
. . . .1967.
Boardman J., Greek sculpture, The archaic period, "Thomes" London,1985.
Boardman J., Athenian black figure vases, "Thomes..." London, 1985.
Boardman J., Athenian red figure vases, "Thomes" London, 1989.
Carpenter T., Art and Myth in Ancient Greece, "Thomes..." London, 1991.
Conze A., Die Attischen Grabreliefs, Berlin, 1893-1922, B. I-IV.
Cook R., Greek art, " Peli. books," 1976.
Lazzi-Hafter Adrienne, Der Schuwalow-maler, I, Mainz, 1976.
Lazzi-Hafter Adrienne, Der Schuwalow-maler, II, Mainz, 1976.
Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae classical, B. VI (1), 1992, B. II (1), 1984.
Picard C., La stele grecque de Soukhumi en Kolchide, Revue Archeologique, Paris,
1956, serie VI, XLVIII, pp. 81-82.
Simon E., Die Tipen der Medeadarstellung in der Antiken Kunst, Sonderdruck aus
Zeitschrift "Gymnasium," 1954, # 3, pp. 204-226.
The Oxford History of Classical Art, edited by J.Boardman, 1993, pp.83-147; 136.



110

dionises tipis RvTaebis qandakeba vanis naqalaqaridan
vanis naqalaqarze anTropomorfuli mcire qandakebis friad
saintereso nimuSi gaiTxara (vanis arqeologiuri eqspedicia, inv. #
71:1:88:648). qandakeba vanis naqalaqaris qveda terasaze, sakulto-
sataZro nagebobaTa kompleqsSi dadasturda (nakveTi150). es fena
Calewili keramikis siuxviT da mravalricxovani osteologiuri
masaliT gamoirCeoda. aq nanaxia sinopuri moneta (Zv.w. 80-70ww.)
aqvea sakurTxeveli (lorTqifaniZe, maTiaSvili, 1974, gv.45-52, 47).
anTropomorfuli figura grZel samosSi gamowyobil mamakacs
asaxavs, romelsac marcxena xelSi yanw-ritoni (yanw-ritonebis
Sesaxeb ix. gamyreliZe, 1982, gv.76-78) uWiravs. qandakebas Tavi da
marjvena xeli motexili aqvs. yanwis zeda nawilic watexilia.
gamosaxuleba araTanabrad gamomwvari moyavisfro Tixisaa, romelSic
kirqvis da kvarcis wvrili namcecebi SeimCneva. amgvari Tixa
damaxasiaTebelia adgilobrivi keramikisaTvis. qandakebis SemorCenili
simaRlea 126mm, yanw-ritonis SemorCenili nawilis simaRle 51mm.
figuras qvevidan 23x33mm Rru aqvs. albaT am Rrus saSualebiT is
joxze magrdeboda.
gamosaxulebis samosi gadmocemulia amokawruli RarebiT. isini
erT sworze ganlagebuli wamaxuli kuTxeebiT arian warmodgenili.
es kuTxeebi wels zeviT da wels qveviT erTmaneTiskenaa mimarTuli.
figuras zurgzec tansacmlis gamomxatveli Rarebi dauyveba, xolo
welze reliefuri qediT bawrisnairi sartyelia gadmocemuli.
tanisamosis sayeloc reliefuradaa warmodgenili.
figuris samosi usaxeloa da SiSveli, dakunTuli xeli moCans.
gamosaxulebas ganieri mxrebi, masiuri kiseri, farTo weli da swori
mkerdi aqvs. figuris xelis mtevani, romliTac yanwi uWiravs, didi
gulmodginebiT aris gamoqandakebuli. qandakebis ZerwvaSi
proporciebi daculia. mZerwavi Rarebis da Wdeebis gasakeTeblad
wamaxul iaraRs xmarobs.
111

vanis naqalaqarze terakotis bevri fragmentia aRmoCenili. maTi
nawili adgilobrivi warmoebisas ar hgavs. isini stiliTa da
Sesrulebis maneriT antikuri koroplastikis nimuSebs emsgavsebian.
zemoT aRweril anTropomorful figuraze amis Tqma ar SeiZleba.
cnobilia, rom antikurobis gavrcelebam kolxeTSi mTeli rigi
siaxleebi moitana. es Cans, rogorc gamosaxulebis Sinaarssa da
formaSi, aseve Sesrulebis teqnikaSi. vanis sakurTxevelTan gaTxrili
mcire qandakeba gamoirCeva sqematurobiT da realistur-primitiuli
Sesrulebis maneriT. is stilis mxriv
daxvewil nakeTobas ar warmoadgens. aq ar
SeimCneva gamocdili ostatis xelovneba.
figura ufro religiuri ideiT
gamsWvaluli, kultmsaxuris Sesrulebuls
hgavs, romelsac is sakurTxevelTan
Seuwiravs.
saqarTvelos teritoriaze vanis garda
yanwiani gamosaxuleba sxvaganac aris
dadasturebuli. magaliTad: gudauTis r-nSi
aRmoCenili mjdomare adamianis
gamosaxuleba; mcxeTaSi armazisxevis #6
samarxSi nanaxi qalRmerT fortunas saxe
"siuxvis yanwiT" xelSi, an kidev amave
qalRmerTis saxe sof. cixisZiridan
(qobuleTis r-ni).
gamosaxulebebi yanwiT xelSi
saqarTvelos gareT bevrganaa mikvleuli.
yanwi, rogoric vanis qandakebas upyria xelT, SesaZloa "siuxvis
rqaa," romelic simdidris da dovlaTianobis gavrcelebul simbolod
iTvleba. amgvari rqayanwebi erT-erTi atributi iyo geas, eirenes,
plutosis, fortunas, tixes, kibelas, dixSanas, harpokrates,
dionises da kidev zogierTi sxva RvTaebis simbolur saxeSi.
112

cxovelis rqas adamiani didi xania iyenebs sasmisad.
saqarTveloSi amgvar sasmiss Rvinis sasmelad iyeneben da yanws
eZaxian. CvenSi meRvineobis Zalian Zveli fesvebi gvafiqrebinebs, rom
is aq sasmisebis uZvelesi formaa.
SesaZlebelia, rom vanSi aRmoCenili, Tixis yanwiani qandakeba,
gamoxatavs dionises tipis adgilobriv RvTaebas, romelTanac
asimilirda antikuri samyarodan gavrcelebuli dionises kulti
(Fongarl, 1904, gv.26; Lexicon Iconographicum..., gv.474-491). erT-erTi
forma dionises gamoxatulebisa iyo misi gamosaxva sasmisiT xelSi.
vanis qandakebaze misi adgilobrivi prototipi, albaT, asaxulia
meRvineobis, dovlaTianobis, nayofierebis, bunebis ayvavebis mfarvel
RvTaebad.
sainteresoa eqvTime mTawmindelis cnoba qarTvelTa
warmarTobisdroindeli RvTaebebis Sesaxeb: "saxelisdebani igi
sawarmarToTa kerpTani, romelni maT RmrTad Seracxnes romelnime
mamaTa da romelnime dedaTa _ sruliad moispen: dios, anu apolos,
anu artems anu boCi da gaci, da badagon, da armaz anu romel igi
wnexasa yurZnisasa bilwisa mis dionises saxelsa ityvian, da sicilsa
aRazrzenen, ese yoveli saeSmako ars ..." (mcire sjulis kanoni, 1972,
gv.58).

literatura:
gamyreliZe g. centraluri kolxeTis Zveli namosaxlarebi, Tb., 1982.
lorTqifaniZe oT., da sxv., vanis arqeologiuri eqspediciis muSaobis
Sedegebi, savele arqeologiuri kvleva, Tb., 1974, gv.45-52.
mcire sjulis kanoni (gamosca en. giunaSvilma), Tb., 1972.
Fougart P. Le culte de Dionisos en Atique, Paris, 1904.
Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae classical, "Artemis verlag Zrich und
Mnchen," B. III (1), gv. 474-491.


113

erTi keramikuli nivTis interpretaciisaTvis adeiSvilebis goris
nagebobidan

adeiSvilebis goris platos nagebobis arqeologiuri gaTxrebisas
aRmoCnda uCveulo keramikuli nivTi, romelic aq mopovebuli sxva
arqeologiuri masalisagan (tab.I
1
; inv.# 07:6:399) gamoirCeva. misi
analogia jerjerobiT ar Cans danarCen kolxeTSic. adeiSvilebis
gora, sadac es nivTi dadasturda, mdebareobs q. vanidan dasavleTiT
8km-ze sof. mTisZirSi (aq arq. gaTxrebis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ix.
gamyreliZe, 1982,gv.101-114). xsenebuli keramikuli nivTi dadasturda
adeiSvilebis goris platos #12 Txrilis nagebobaSi (nivTi da
imdagvarive keramikis fragmentebis ganlagebis sqema ix. tab.I
3
).
nageboba oTxkuTxaa da Sedgeba ori sxvadasxva zomis saTavsisa-
gan. aRmosavleTi saTavsis Sida farTobia 5,50m x 21,00m, xolo
dasavleTi saTavsis Sida farTobi 5,50m x 5,50m; kedlebis sigane
umetesad 1,30m-ia. nageboba orientirebulia aRmosavleTidan dasavle
Tisaken. masSi gamoiyo ori samSeneblo periodi. arqeologiuri
gaTxrisas gamoirkva, rom nagebobis SenebaSi ZiriTad saSen masalad
gamoyenebulia qva, aguri, kramiti da xe. kirxsnari naxmaria rogorc
SemakavSirebel masalad, aseve kedlis Sesalesad da iatakis
gasakeTeblad. nagebobaSi keramikis, minis da rkinis nawarmi aRmoCnda.
maTSi gansakuTrebiT Warbobs keramikuli naSTebi. arqeologiuri
masalis mixedviT, adeiSvilebis goris #12 Txrilis nageboba III-
VIIIss. TariRdeba (ix. gamyreliZe,1982, gv.107-118). #12Txrilis
nagebobaSi mopovebuli uCveulo keramikuli nivTi cilindruli
moyvanilobisaa, Zirisaken farTovdeba da brtyeli wriuli Ziri aqvs.
zeda mxare ar aris Semonaxuli; nivTis SemorCenili simaRle 16sm,
Ziris dm 14sm, tanis dm 7sm, tani Semkulia msxvili araTanabari
gofrirebiT, xolo qvemoT Zirisaken eSveba oTxi qedi.
114

115

manZili qedebs Soris qvemoT mimarTuli morkaluli RarebiTaa
Sesrulebuli. nivTi damzadebulia mbrunav sameTuneo Carxze.
keramikis Tixa moruxo-yavisferia, kirqvisa da piroqsenis wvrili
minarevebiT. nivTi araTanabrad aris gamomwvari. Tixis mixedviT
adgilobrivi nawarmi unda iyos. masze Wvartlis naSTebi SeimCneva. na-
gebobis sxvadasxva adgilze amdagvarive nivTis kidev 7gofrirebuli
fragmentia mikvleuli (ix. tab. I
3
).
adre es keramikuli nivTi Cven zogadad ganvsazRvreT rogorc
larnakis fexi. amJamad, axali arqeologiuri monacemebis mixedviT
vfiqrobT, rom es unda iyos sanaTis, Wraqis an sasanTlis sadgami.
kerZod, aseTive gofrirebuli sanaTebis ramdenime egzemplari
aRmoCenilia CrdiloeT SavizRvispireTSi (,1984, gv.227).
maTSi yvelaze kargad, mTlianad Semonaxulia gorgipiaSi (axlandeli
anapa) meTunis saxelosnos gaTxrisas aRmoCenili maRalsadgamiani
Wraqi (, 1984, tab.CXXXII,14; , 1962, gv.222;
., 1975, gv.48). es saxelosno Zv.w. I saukuneSi wyvets
arsebobas (, 1962, gv.218). sadgamis gofrirebuli natexebia
fanagoriis Vs. sameTuneo saxelosnoSic gaTxrili (,
1966,gv.179). sayuradReboa, rom CrdiloeT SavizRvispireTSi,
ZiriTadad swored fanagoriaSi, mzaddeboda maRalsadgamiani
horizontalur reliefurwreebiani Wraqebi (, 1988,gv.6).
ureliefo wreebiani e.w. finjaniseburi (ufro marTebuli iqneba,
albaT, fialiseburi) sadgamiani, SedarebiT mcire zomis, naZerwi, ad-
gilobrivad damzadebuli Wraqebi ufro xSirad gvxvdeba CrdiloeT
SavizRvispireTis arqeologiur masalaSi. mag., tanaisSi (,
1988, gv.129), iluratSi (, 1981, gv.175; , 1981,
gv.128,sur.44;2,3), tiritakeSi (, 1952,gv.115, sur.141;2,3),
(ix. tab.II
3,5
; tab.III
2,4
).
e.w. vaziseburi, larnakiseburi Ria tipis Wraq-sanaTebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebelia maRali fexsadgari (zogjer gofrirebuli),
romelsac mcire, tuCiani fiala adgas. varaudoben, rom e.w.
116

larnakiseburi Wraqebi gvianantikuri da adreuli Sua saukuneebis
dabalfexiani Wraqebis ganviTarebis Sedegia (sinauriZe, 1966, gv.5).
larnakiseburi dabalfexiani Wraqebi kavkasiaSi arqeologiurad
gaTxrilia urbnisSi (sinauriZe, 1966, gv.56), ufliscixeSi
(mindoraSvili, 1988, gv.30), rusTavSi (WilaSvili, 1958, gv.53),
TelavSi (Sead. CikoiZe, 1979,gv.78, tab.XV,7), kabalaSi (,1962,
gv.18-19), mingeCaurSi (, 1961, tab.VIII,10) da sxv.
dasavleT saqarTvelos arqeologiur masalaSi e.w. larnakiseburi
gofrirebuli maRalfexiani Wraqebi, adeiSvilebis goris garda
jerjerobiT ar gvxvdeba. samagierod, amdagvari, Sua saukuneebis
Wraqebi maRal fexze, zeda mxareze miZerwili fialiT (etyoba
CamonaRvenTebisaTvis) aRmoCenilia TbilisSi, kabalaSi, loreSi,
SemaxiaSi, mingeCaurSi da aRmosavleT kavkasiis sxva arqeologiur
Zeglebze (arCvaZe, 1973, gv.117,tab.II). sayuradReboa, rom adeiSvilebis
goris nairi, ufro viwro, farTod gofrire buli sasanTleebi
aRmoCenilia gviandeli Sua saukuneebis Tbilisis arqeologiuri
gaTxrebisas (arCvaZe,1973,gv.118,tab. III). sayuradReboa agreTve isic,
rom werilobiT wyaroebSi moxseniebuli arian mesanTle profesiis
Tbiliseli xelosnebi (,1959,gv.12), rac mesanTleobis calke
dargad gamoyofaze dokumeturad migviTiTebs. xsenebuli tipis Tixis
sasanTleebi saqarTvelos teritoriaze jerjerobiT sxva
arqeologiur Zeglebze ar aris mikvleuli(arCvaZe,1973, gv.118).
saerTod, saqarTvelos teritoriaze antikuri xanis da Sua
saukuneebis arqeologiurad Seswavlil sazogadoebriv-sakulto da
sayofacxovrebo nagebobebSi aRmoCenilia ramdenime tipis sanaTi
(tipebis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ix. , 1988, gv.12; ,
1914, gv.27). maTSi gamoiyofa adgilobrivi da ucxouri nawarmi. aq,
ZiriTad tipebad Cven migvaCnia xeliT naZerwi fialiseburi an e.w.
niJariseburi ufexo, dabalfexiani da maRalfexiani larnakiseburi
117

118

Ria tipis sanaTebi; maRalfexianebi xSirad sameTuneo Carxze aris
damzadebuli. meore daxuruli tipis, sapatruqe miliani,
mzaddeboda specialur yalibebSi. arsebobs amgvari sanaTebis
sxvadasxvanairi modifikaciebi (ramdenime sapatruqe miliani da sxv.).
es tipi ucxoeTidan, antikuri samyarodan gavrcelda da
saqarTveloSi aRmoCenilia, rogorc ucxouri, agreTve adgilobrivi
egzemplarebi (kiRuraZe, 1977, gv.211). pirveli, e.w. fialiseburi
tipis sanaTebi safiqrebelia, rom adgilobrivad ganviTarda da
Semdgom e.w. larnakisebur tipad Camoyalibda. maTi damzadebis
teqnologia sameTuneo Carxze ufro martivia, vidre meore,
daxuruli tipisa, romelic yalibSi keTdeboda.
sanaTebis sawvavad zeTs an qons xmarobdnen. maTSi zogan
navTobsac urevdnen. sanaTis patruqad lerwami, seli an kanafi
gamoiyeneboda, romlebic Ria tipis utuCo WraqebSi albaT
specialuri samagrebiT magrdeboda. SesaZloa es gardigardmo
gadebuli mavTuli iyo, romlis SuaSic patruqi iyo garWobili, anda
Tixis gaxvretili mcire konusiseburi sadgari, romlis xvrelSic
patruqi ido da fialis centrSi magrdeboda. aRmosavleT
saqarTveloSi Ria tipis sanaTebad SeiZleba miviCnioT antikuri xanis
calyura jamebi (mag. kamaraxevi, muxaTgverdi, asureTi, kavTisxevi,
ufliscixe, samadlo da sxv.), romlebidanac Semdeg, gvianantikur
xanaSi ganviTarda sadgamiani larnakiseburi sanaTebi (mag., fexiani
sanaTebi urbnisidan, ufliscixidan da sxv.).
sanaTebs etyoba ritualuri daniSnulebac hqonda. gvianantikur
xanaSi da adreul Sua saukuneebSi aseTebi SesaZloa larnakiseburi
maRalfexiani sanaTebi yofiliyo (mag. adeiSvilebis goris #12
Txrilis sanaTi), romlebic formiT elinisturi xanis sacecxle
ritualur WurWlebs e.w. Timiaterionebs Camohgvanan _ mag. vani
(fircxalava, 1986, gv.67, tab.53,sur.1). aseTive e.w. saojaxo mcire
sakurTxevlebi gaTxrilia gorgipiaSic (, 1984, LXV, 5-7).
saqarTvelos teritoriaze arqeologiuri Seswavlis Sedegad
119

gamovlenilia antikuri xanis da Suasaukuneebis sazogadoebriv-
sakulto da sayofacxovrebo nagebobebis mravali gasanaTebeli
saSualeba. am monacemebze dakvirvebis Sedegad dasavleT saqar-
TveloSi, gansakuTrebiT zRvis sanapirosken, albaT, antikuri
samyaros meti gavlenis gamo, sWarbobs daxuruli tipis sanaTebi,
xolo aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi metia Ria tipisa.
amrigad, Tu gaviziarebT mosazrebas, rom adeiSvilebis goris #12
Txrilis nagebobaSi gamovlenili nivTi warmoadgens sanaTis sadgars,
maSin is jerjerobiT am saxis erTaderT dadasturebul nimuSad
gvevlineba dasavleT saqarTvelos adreuli Sua saukuneebis
arqeologiur Zeglebze.
literatura:
arCvaZe, T. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos..., fsaZ,III, Tb.,1978, gv.111-133.
gamyreliZ, g. centraluri kolxeTis Zveli namosaxlarebi, Tb.,1982.
kiRuraZe, n. Wraqebi biWvintidan. didi pitiunti, II, Tb.,1977, gv.211-222. mindoraSvili
d. Suasaukuneebis mouWiqavi...., (Wraqebi),Zm, #2,1988, gv.30-32.
sinauriZe m. aRmosavleT saq. adref... keramika.,msmki,I, 1966, gv.39-90.
fircxalava m., yifiani g. centraluri..., vani,VIII, Tb.,1986, gv.52-78.
CikoiZe c. qalaqi Telavi. Tb., 1979.
, . 1984.
. . , . 1988.
. . . ,67, 1959, gv.221-231.
. . III-VIII ., , 1961.
. . . -, 1914.
. . . . 1981.
. . 1935-40. , 25, 1952. .15-134.
. . . I-X . , 1962.
. . . . 1981.
. . ., 3, 1966, .172-186.
. . . ,2,1962, .218.
. . . ., 1975.
. . . ., 1959.
Perlzweig J. Lamps of the roman period, The Athenian Agora, v.VII, Princeton, 1961.

120

121

prokopi kesarielis da agaTias TxzulebebSi moxseniebuli
muxirisis Sesaxeb
bizantiur werilobiT wyaroebSi moxseniebuli geografiuli
saxeli _ "muxirisi" istorikos-arqeologebs Soris friad did
interess iwvevs. istoriografiaSi miRebuli da gaziarebulia
mosazreba, rom bizantiuri werilobiTi wyaroebis muxirisi aris
kolxeTis is mxare, romelic moicavs dablob, mTiswina imereTs da
aRmosavleT samegrelos _ abaSis da martvilis r-nebs (sakiTxis
Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ix. janaSia, 1952, gv.320-321; javaxiSvili,
1960, gv.254,274,425; yauxCiSvili, georgika,II, 1965, gv.208-210;
berZeniSvili, 1975, gv.442-537; musxeliSvili, 1977, gv.113-115;
lomouri, 1968, gv.50-51; gamyreliZe, 1982,gv.118-122; ,
1992,gv.101-117; .1995, gv.30; lanCava,1974, gv.129-136; jafariZe,
1998, gv.16-18; jafariZe,1999, gv.36-39). md. rionis Sua weli
emTxveva muxirisis mxaris centralur nawils. muxirisis mxareSi
mdebare qalaqi muxirisi ki werilobiT wyaroebSi sul ramdenjerme
ixsenieba. misi mdebareobis Sesaxeb gamoTqmulia mravalnairi
mosazreba.
jer kidev 1979wels daibeWda Cemi mosazreba muxirisis (rogorc
punqtis, qalaqis, cixe-simagris) SesaZlo igiveobis Sesaxeb sof.
mTisZirSi arqeologiurad gaTxril, adreuli Sua saukuneebis
ZeglTan (ix. ,1979,gv.18; gamyreliZe,1982,gv.118). xsenebuli
arqeologiuri Zegli q. vanidan dasavleTiT 8km-ze sof. mTisZirSi,
"adeiSvilebis goraze" da mis mimdebare dablobSi mdebareobs. aq,
1973-1978wlebSi, arqeologiurad SeviswavleT antikuri xanis da
adreuli Sua saukuneebis kulturuli fenebi da nagebobebi
(dawvrilebiT ix. gamyreliZe,1982). amjerad, mokled ganvixilavT
mxolod adreuli Sua saukuneebis arqeologiur monacemebs.
"mTisZiris" samosaxlos istoriis bolo periodi adreul Sua
saukuneebs moicavs. am monakveTis calke gamoyofisas veyrdnobiT sof.
122

mTisZiris stratigrafiul monacemebs da keramikul masalas.
warmodgenili arqeologiuri masala garkveul warmodgenas gviqmnis
Zveli "mTisZiris" cxovrebis zogierT mxareze _ mosaxleobis mier
dakavebuli teritoriis farglebze, dasaxlebis wesze, meTuneobaze
da savaWro urTierTobebze.
dasaxlebis wesi am drois samosaxloze Semdegnairad aris
warmodgenili: samosaxlos nagebobebi terasebzea ganlagebuli,
gansakuTrebiT racionaluradaa aTvisebuli "adeiSvilebis" goris
plato, romelzedac, albaT, nagebobebis mozrdili kompleqsi idga.
saerTod, rogorc Cans, safortifikacio nagebobebi borcvgoris
terasebze iyo gamarTuli. "adeiSvilebis" goris qveda terasaze
SeimCneva qviT nagebi galavnis kvali. goris bunebrivi reliefi
moxerxebulad iyo gamoyenebuli nagebobebis gasamarTavad da
TavdacviTi sistemis Sesaqmnelad. aseTnair gorebzevea am xanis
cixesimagreebi agebuli _ cixisZirSi, quTaisSi, SorapanSi, skandaSi,
SxefSi da sxv. gorebze ganlagebuli, qviT da duRabiT nagebi
cixesimagreebi am drois kolxeTisaTvis friad damaxasiaTebelia.
aseTi sasimagro nagebobebi idga strategiulad mniSvnelovan
punqtebSi _ gzebis Casaketad, garkveuli mxaris an sagamgeblos
sazRvrebis dasacavad. "mTisZiris" samosaxlo, albaT, mcire cixe-
qalaqi iyo, romelic, erTi mxriv, garkveul ekonomikur mxares
sazRvravda, xolo meore mxriv, samcxedan momaval (md. yumuris
xeobaze) erT-erT gzas hkravda. cixe-qalaqis ganviTarebaSi garkveuli
roli unda eTamaSa mis rion-yvirilas (fasisis) savaWro-satranzito
magistralze mdebareobas.
adreuli Sua saukuneebis "mTisZiris" samosaxlos SenebaSi
ZiriTad saSen masalad gamoyenebulia qva, aguri, kramiti, kirxsnari.
samosaxlos nagebobebis warmosadgenad friad sainteresoa
adeiSvilebis goris platos nagebobaTa kompleqsi, romelic in situ
mdgomareobaSia arqeologiurad Seswavlili. samwuxarod,
adeiSvilebis goris mimdebare, dablobi adgili, jerjerobiT
123

gauTxrelia. es is adgilia, sadac qalaqis sameurneo nawili iyo
albaT ganlagebuli. arqeologiuri kvlevis dros gamoirkva, rom
nagebobebis SenebaSi ZiriTad saSen masalad gamoyenebulia qva
(qviSaqva, riyis qva, kirqva), aguri, kramiti, zogjer ki TeTri
marmarilo da xec. kirxsnari gamoyenebulia rogorc SemakavSirebel
masalad, aseve kedlis Sesalesad da iatakis gasakeTeblad. riyis
qvebi md. rionis Walidan aris amotanili, Tiris qva da qviSaqvac
aqvea mopovebuli, xolo kirqva da TeTri marmarilo sxva adgilidan
aris motanili, radgan sof. mTisZiris axlomaxlo maTi arseboba ar
SeiniSneba. kirqva, SesaZloa Semotanili iyos dablagomidan, sadac is
didi raodenobiT moipoveba.
platos ZiriTadi nageboba oTxkuTxaa da Sedgeba ori sxvadasxva
zomis saTavsisagan. aRmosavleTi saTavsis Sida farTobia 5,50m
21,00m_ 115,50kv.m, xolo dasavleTi saTavsis Sida farTobi 5,50m
5,50m_ 30,25kv.m. es mozrdili nageboba orientirebulia
aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisken. nagebobis Seswavlam cxadyo, rom saqme
gvaqvs Senobis or samSeneblo periodTan. nagebobebs strategiulad
xelsayreli adgili uWiravs. "adeiSvilebis" gora, romelzedac es
kompleqsi idga, ramdenadme win aris wamoweuli aseTive gorebis
rigidan da, erTis mxriv, akontrolebs md. rionis xeobis karga
mozrdil nawils, xolo meore mxriv, _ md. yumuris xeobidan
momaval erT-erT gzas hkravs. platos nagebobis aRmosavleTis
saTavsis aRmosavleTi kedlis interieris mxareze SerCenilia
kirxsnariani Selesiloba. nagebobis mTel Sida farTobSi SeiniSneba
danaxSirebuli Zelebis kvali. es Zelebi albaT gadaxurvis
konstruqciaSi gamoiyeneboda. nagebobebi aRmosavleTiT grZeldeboda,
radgan am mimarTulebiT aRmoCnda kedlis naSTebi. danarCeni
dangreul-CaSlilia goris ferdobebze. aseTive mdgomareobaSia
Senobis samxreTiT mdebare nagebobebi.
adeiSvilebis goris platos nagebobaSi sakmaod mravalferovani
arqeologiuri masala aRmoCnda _ keramikis, minis, rkinis nawarmi.
124

maTSi gansakuTrebiT Warbobs keramikuli naSTebi. sof. mTisZirSi
dadasturebul keramikul nawarmSi gamoiyofa samSeneblo, saojaxo,
tara da sameurneo keramika. sof. mTisZiris am drois samSeneblo
keramika warmodgenilia kramitiT da aguriT. maTSi xerxdeba
ramdenime tipis gamoyofa. rogorc Cans, adreul Sua saukuneebSi
kramiti ZiriTadad gamoiyeneboda gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani
Senobebis gadasaxurad. kramitiT iyo gadaxuruli safortifikacio
nagebobebi, magaliTad: vardcixeSi, vaSnarSi, biWvintaSi, cixisZirSi
da sxv. adreuli Sua saukuneebis kramiti Camohgavs antikuri xanis
kramits. es sof. mTisZiris kramitebze dakvirvebisasac SeiniSneba.
sof. mTisZiris teritoriaze dadasturebuli agurebi ZiriTadad
erTnairia, magram maTSi mainc SeiZleba ori tipis gamorCeva. pirveli,
es aris kvadratuli formis aguri, romelsac kuTxeebidan
urTierTgadamkveTi or-ori Rari dauyveba. meore _ mogrZo aguri. is,
rogorc wesi, uRareboa. adeiSvilebis goris nairi agurebi
dadasturebulia dasavleT saqarTvelos adreuli Sua saukuneebis
Zeglebze: biWvinta, inkitis tba, oCamCire, cixisZiri, vaSnari,
vardcixe, Sorapani, skanda da sxv. urTierTgadamkveTi or-or Rariani
aguri, gansakuTrebiT ax.w.IV-VIIss. fenebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli.
"mTisZiris" samzareulo keramikis umetes, SeiZleba iTqvas,
ZiriTad nawils Seadgens qoTnebi. isini ZiriTadad aris
mucelgamoberili, mokleyeliani da sada. qoTnis Zirebi brtyelia,
kedlebi Zirisaken viwrovdeba. sof. mTisZiris teritoriaze
aRmoCenili samzareulo keramikis nawils warmoadgenen jamebisa da
doqebis natexebi."mTisZiris" sameurneo keramika warmodgenilia
ZiriTadad qvevrebiT. maTi naSTebi didi raodenobiT aris
dadasturebuli sof. mTisZiris teritoriaze. aseTi qvevrebi xSirad
gvxvdeba saqarTvelos teritoriaze adreuli Sua saukuneebis
arqeologiur masalaSi. samosaxloze aRmoCnda luTeriebis natexebi.
aRniSnuli tipis adgilobrivi keramika gvxvdeba vardcixeSi,
gudavaSi, oCamCireSi, biWvintaSi, foTSi, inkitis tbasTan da sxva
125

gvianantikuri da adreuli Sua saukuneebis Zeglebze. "mTisZirSi"
aRmoCnda adgilobrivi amforebi. amgvari _ moyavisfrod gamomwvari,
konusurZiriani, ovalurganivkveTiani yurebis mqone amforebi
xasiaTdeba welis SezneqilobiT.
"mTisZiris" arqeologiuri masalebis erTi nawili, kerZod
ucxouri nawarmi, warmodgenas gviqmnis im savaWro-ekonomikur
urTierTobebze, romelSiac kolxeT-lazikasTan erTad Cabmuli iyo
"mTisZiric." es ucxouri nawarmi warmodgenilia keramikiT da miniT.
sof. mTisZiris teritoriaze dadasturda gofrirebuli amforebis
natexebi.samosaxlos kulturul fenebSi dadasturda wiTellakiani
keramikis fragmentebi. amgvari wiTellakiani keramika aRmoCenilia
gonioSi, baTumis cixesa da cixisZirSi, qobuleT-fiWvnarSi,
oCamCireSi, soxumSi, biWvintaSi, vaSnarSi, noqalaqevSi, paliastomis
tbaSi, quTaissa da webeldaSi. sayuradReboa, rom am rigis keramika
bevria zRvispireTSi, gansakuTrebiT soxumsa da biWvintaSi. xolo
zRvidan dacilebul Sida raionebSi ki jerjerobiT cotaa nanaxi.
amdenad kidev ufro sainteresoa mTisZiris "wiTellakiani" keramikis
fragmentebi. amgvari keramika kolxeTis arqeologiuri Zeglebis ax.w.
IV-Vss-is fenebSi gvxvdeba (ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1962, gv.240).
samosaxlos ucxouri nawarmis kidev erT jgufs qmnis mina. is
ZiriTadad minisfexiani sasmisebiT aris warmodgenili. sof. mTisZiris
msgavsi fexiani sasmisebi cnobilia jer kidev mcxeTis ax.w. V-VIIIss-
is samarxebidan. amnairi tipis sasmisebs didi qronologiuri CarCo
aqvs. dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze isini aRmoCenilia
cixisZirSi, gonioSi, foTSi (paliastomis tbaSi), boboyvaTSi,
biWvinTaSi, varcixeSi, vaSnarSi da sxv.
sagulisxmoa, rom sof. mTisZiris adreuli Sua saukuneebis
samosaxlosTan, romelic gamagrebuli punqtis naSTebs warmoadgens,
dadasturda toponimi muxuri (sof. dablagomisken). toponimi
CaviwereT am mxaris istoriul-geografiuli kvlevis dros 1976
wels (istoriul-geogra-fiuli eqspediciis xelmZRvaneli T. beraZe),
126

igive toponimi jer kidev 1930 w. daadastura n. berZeniSvilma,
rogorc amas s. yauxCiSvili gadmogvcems (ix. georgika II, tf., 1934,
gv.178; georgikaII, Tb., 1965, gv.208-210); muxuri megrulad niSnavs
mxares. safiqrebelia, rom es iyos bizantiuri ax.w. VIs-is wyaroebSi
aRwerili gamagrebuli qalaqi muxirisi Tu moxirisi (Mouqerisic,
Moqrhsic), an muxirisis mxaris erT-erTi gamagrebuli punqtis
naSTebi, romelic amave saxelwodebis mxareSi mdebareobda _ prokopi
kesarieli (BP II 29; BG VIII 1,14,16,17), agaTia (II 19,22; III 6,7,19,
28; IV9,13).prokopi kesarieli erTgan "moxiriss" qalaqad ixseniebs
_ lazikaSi "...yvelaze SesaniSnavi qalaqebi ki mainc aris aq
rodopolisi da moxirisi" (BP II29), xolo meoregan aRniSnavs _
arqeopolisidan gamobrunebulma sparselebma "quTaisisa da
moxirisisaken daixies" (BG VIII,17). am SemTxvevaSic muxirisi ufro
raRac punqtad Cans. Tu amas davuSvebT, maSin quTaisi da moxirisi
erTmaneTisagan dacilebul punqtebad unda warmovidginoT. es orive
punqti arqeopolisidan aRmosavleTisaken aris, magram erTmaneTis
axlo ar mdebareoben. meore mxriv, quTaisTan erTad prokopi axsenebs
moxiriss da ar axsenebs "SesaniSnav qalaqs rodopoliss," romelic
axloa quTaisTan. sainteresoa is faqtic, rom quTaiss prokopi
kesarieli "SesaniSnav qalaqebSi" ar ixseniebs. aqedan gamomdinare,
safiqrebelia, rom quTaisi am mxaris (moxirisis) erT nawilSia,
xolo moxirisi (punqti) _ meore nawilSi mdebareobs. prokopi
kesarieli am or punqts (quTaisi, moxirisi) SesaZloa, rom
moxirisis mxaris SemomfargvlelobiT aspeqtSi xmarobda. ase vTqvaT,
asaxelebs am mxaris or ramdenadme ganapira gamagrebul punqts.
meore bizantieli avtori agaTiac muxiriss (moxiriss) zogjer
geografiuli punqtis mniSvnelobiT ixseniebs _ "sparselebi
imyofebian muxirissa da kotaisSi" (agaTia III6); "mermeroe kvlav
dabrunda kotaissa da muxirisSi" (agaTia II 22). aqedanac TiTqos ise
gamodis, rom TiTqos marto kotaisis (qoTaisi, quTaisi) sanaxebSi
yofna mTel moxirisis mxareSi yofnas ar niSnavs; amisaTvis saWiroa
127

muxirisis gamagrebuli punqtis dakavebac. moxiris-muxirisad miiCnia
"Notitia dignitatum"-Si (Vs.), dasaxelebuli simagre moxora akad. s.
yauxCiSvilma. aq bizantielTa erTi kohorta idga (georgika I, 1961,
gv.168-178). am punqts aRmosavleT anatoliaSi eZebs n. adonci (.
1908, gv.100). mas daeTanxma n. lomouric (lomouri, 1975, gv.68-69).
v. leqvinaZe moxoras soWis maxloblad eZebs. moxora cixisZirTan
gaaigiva n. inaiSvilma (inaiSvili, 1993, gv.116).
iustinianes novelebSi daculia cnoba, sadac CamoTvlilia
egrisis cixesimagreebi "...skandisi, sarapanisi, mu(xi)risi (Moursioc)
da lisiri...," (nov.XXXI) (georgikaII, 1965,gv.35-36); agreTve VIIs-is
cnobebSi daculi "mukorisi" _ punqti, sadac gzad gaiares lazikaSi
gadasaxlebulma maqsime aRmsareblis Tanamoazreebma anastasi berma da
anastasi apokrisiarisma (Teodosi gangreli XCVII) (georgika IV,
nakv.I,1941, gv.43). IIs-is berZeni geografosis klavdios ptolemaiosis
"geografiul saxelmZRvaneloSi" moxseniebuli punqtis _ "mexlesos"-
is gaigiveba q.muxirisTan SesaZleblad miaCnia n. lomours (lomouri,
1968, gv.50-51). amrigad, rogorc vxedavT, saxeli muxurisi
(variantebi _ moxirisi, muxirisi, moxora, mu(xi)risi, mukorisi,
mexlesosi) sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba berZnul-romaul wyaroebSi.
isini aq ara marto mxaris, aramed am saxelis raRac gamagrebuli
punqtis arsebobasac gvidastureben. marTlac, sruliad SesaZlebelia,
rom am sxvadasxva variantebiT (moxoras garda) erTi da igive punqti
aRiniSneboda. diubua de monperem geografiuli punqti muxurisi
gaaigiva geguTTan, romelic quTaissa da vardcixes (rodopoliss)
Sua mdebareobs (ix. kekeliZe, 1961, gv.29). magram jerjerobiT, vidre
geguTis cixe-darbazis nangrevebis teritoriaze XIIs-ze adreuli
arqeologiuri naSTebi ar aRmoCenila, aseTi varaudi realobas
moklebulia.
CvenTvis yvelaze sarwmunod gamoiyureba s. yauxCiSvilis
mosazreba, romelic wers: "quTaisi da moxirisi erT strategiul
xazze mdebareoben; ukeT rom vTqvaT, rionze (quTaisSi) dabanakebuli
128

jarisaTvis moxirisi (mxare _ g.g.) materialur, sasursaTo bazas
warmoadgens." iqve: "1930 w. n. berZeniSvilis mier adgilobriv
Catarebulma winaswarma kvlevam am mxriv sagulisxmo Sedegi moitana,
saxeldobr, swored zemoaRweril mxaris midamoebSi, xolo rionis
marcxena napiras, kulaS-eweris pirdapir mdebare adgilebs, romlebic
zed mTis ferdobebs ebjineba sof. dablagomTan, dResac muxurs
eZaxian da mis aRmosavleTiT 5-4km manZilze muxuris cixec
mdebareobs" (georgika, II, 1965, gv.208-210). sof. mTisZirsa da
dablagoms Soris, rogorc zemoTac aRvniSne, toponimi muxuri kidev
erTxel davadastureT, xolo, samwuxarod, nacixaris zusti
mdebareoba ki, Tu romel punqts gulisxmobs avtori, gaurkvevelia
(igi arc sof. mTisZirsa da arc "adeiSvilebis" goras ar axsenebs).
miuxedavad amisa, SesaZlebelia, rom s. yauxCiSvili sof. mTisZiris
adreuli Sua saukuneebis nagebobebis naSTebs gulisxmobs.
mxare, muxirisi, sadac muxirisis punqti iyo ganlagebuli, yvela
werilobiTi wyaros mixedviT centralur kolxeTSi mdebareobda.
prokopi kesarielis aRwerilobiT: "moxirisi erTi dRis saval gzazea
arqeopoliss daSorebuli da Seicavs mraval mWidrod dasaxlebul
sofels. kolxidis miwawyalze is saukeTeso mxares warmoadgens;
Rvinoc kargi modis da sxva nayofic iq kargad xarobs, Tumca
lazikis sxva adgilebze ar SeiZleba igive iTqvas. am mxares Camoudis
erTi mdinare _ saxelad reoni"(md. rioni _ g.g.) (BG VIII14).
muxirisis mxares dasavleTiT md. cxeniswyali unda sazRvravdes,
rodesac 550 w. sparselebis jari kolxeTSi SeiWra da "...lazikis im
adgilSi mivida, romelsac moxirisi ewodeba, dasabanakeblad dadga
moxerxebul adgilas. iq Camodis mdinare hiposi (md. cxeniswyali _
g.g.), arc didi da arc navTsavali, romlis gadasvla SeuZliaT
cxenosanT da fexdafex mavalTac; amis marjvena napiras gaikeTes
simagre..."(BGVIII1). rogorc statiis dasawyisSic aRiniSna, bizantiur
werilobiT wyaroebSi moxseniebuli ekonomikurad dawinaurebuli _
"muxirisis" mxaris centraluri nawili kolxeTis mTavari mdinaris,
129

rionis (fasisis) Sua welze mdebareobda. misi dawinaurebuli
ekonomikuri mdgomareoba TvalnaTliv dasturdeba dRevandeli
arqeologiuri monacemebiTac. rac Seexeba punqt "muxiriss," mis
Sesaxeb azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa (geguTis Sesaxeb ukve mogaxseneT da aq
aRar gavimeoreb). zogma mkvlevarma qalaq muxirisad q. quTaisi
(,1995, gv.30; lanCava,1996) miiCnia. maSin sakiTxavia TviT
quTaisi sadRaa an ra mouxerxoT werilobiT wyaroebs.
muxirisad miiCnia md. gubiswylis marcxena napirze mdebare
arqeologiuri Zegli (namaSevi) arqeologma v. jafariZem, romelic
samarTlianad aRniSnavs, rom am Zeglis "...qalaqobis niSnebi damatebiT
kvlevas saWiroebs" (jafariZe, 1999, gv.38). marTlac, jerjerobiT,
samwuxarod aq aRmoCenili arqeologiuri Zegli srulad ar aris
gaTxrili da gamoqveynebuli. aqve aRvniSnav, rom am striqonebis
avtori 1982 wels (, 1985, gv.49-51) namaSevis mcire nagebobis
gaTxras eswreboda. namaSevTan da mis SemogarenSi toponimi muxirisi
ar dasturdeba. amitom, ver gaviziareb b-n v. jafariZis mosazrebas
namaSevis da muxurisis igiveobis Sesaxeb. rogorc zemoT mogaxseneT
1979w. gamovTqvi varaudi (ix. ,1979, gv.18; gamyreliZe,
1982,gv.118) punqt _ "muxirisad" sof. mTisZiris adreuli Sua
saukuneebis arqeologiuri Zeglis miCnevis Sesaxeb. Cemi argumentebia:
pirveli _ prokopi kesarielis da agaTias Txzulebebis, "muxirisis"
Sesaxeb cnobebis Tanxvedra istoriul-geografiul monacemebTan
(berZnuli werilobiTi wyaroebis damajerebeli analizi ix. s.
yauxCiSvilis _ georgika,II, 1965,gv.208-210); meore _ sof. mTisZiris
adreuli Sua saukuneebis nageboba da arqeologiuri masala; mesame _
toponim "muxurisis" sof. mTisZirTan dadastureba.
miuxedavad CamoTvlili argumentebisa, punqt "muxirisis" Sesaxeb
werilobiT wyaroebSi winaaRmdegobrivi monacemebis gamo, vTvli, rom
muxirisis adgilmdebareobis sakiTxi ar SeiZleba dResdReobiT
gadaWrilad CaiTvalos.

130

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131

sazRvao naosnoba da vaWroba kolxeTSi
(klasikuri periodi)

zRvam didi roli iTamaSa kolxeTis sazogadoebis socialur-
ekonomikur ganviTarebaSi. werilobiTi da arqeologiuri monacemebis
mixedviT sanapiroze mTeli rigi naqalaqarebi da sxva dasaxlebuli
punqtebia mikvleuli. kerZod, afsarosi (goniosTan), cixisZiri-
boboyvaTi, qobuleT-fiWvnari, ureki, fasisi (foTTan), anaklia,
fiCori, gienosi (oCamCiresTan), dioskuria-sebastopolisi (soxumTan),
eSera, pitiunti (biWvinTasTan) da sxv. [9, gv.6-48]. CamoTvlili
dasaxlebebi, bunebrivia, cxovrebis wesiT zRvasTan mWidrod iyo
dakavSirebuli. isini garkveul rols asrulebdnen ucxoeTTan
savaWro-ekonomikur da kulturul-politikur urTierTobaSi. pirvel
rigSi, swored zRvispira qalaqebis meSveobiT xorcieldeboda
kontaqtebi Savi da xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebTan da qalaqebTan:
mileTTan, qiosTan, rodosTan, aTenTan, sinopTan, xersonesTan,
herakleasTan, fanagoriasTan, romTan (ostia). Semdgom konsta-
ntinepolTan, genuasTan, veneciasTan da a.S. [9, gv.45-46].
zRvispira qalaqebSi, vaWrobis garda, xelosnobis sxvadasxva
dargebi_ meTuneoba, mWedloba, xurooba, feiqroba iyo ganviTarebuli.
aq albaT gansakuTrebuli adgili mainc zRvasTan dakavSirebul
saqmianobas _ zRvaosnobas, navTmSeneblobas, meTevzeobas, zRvis
marilis mopovebas da, rac mTavaria, sazRvao vaWrobas eWira.
antikur xanaSi kolxeTis sanapiroze garkveuli sakontaqto regioni
Seiqmna antikur samyarosa da kolxeTs Soris. aRmosavleT
SavizRvispireTSi vaWroba, iseve, rogorc mTel antikur samyaroSi,
ZiriTadad sazRvao-samdinaro gzebiT xorcieldeboda. bizantieli
istorikosi agaTia kolxeTis Sesaxeb gadmogvcems_ isini gamoirCevian
"...Tavisi simdidris siuxviT, aseve qveSevrdomTa simravliT, miwa-
wylis sididiT da mosavlianobiT..." "...mcxovreblebi dacuraven,
SesaZleblobis farglebSi da vaWrobaSi sargebels naxuloben" (III,5).
132

md. rion-yvirilas (fasisis) savaWro-samdinaro gzis bolo punqti,
tba paliastomze mdebare qalaqi fasisi iyo, romlis Semdegac
savaWro karWapebi zRvaSi gadiodnen kabotaJuri curvisaTvis.
geomorfologebis mixedviT, paliastomis tba-laguna zRviuri
reliqtia. Zvelad aq mdinare rionis limani iyo. bunebrivia, rom
winaT swored am moxerxebul limanSi, romlis napirzedac qalaq-
navsayudeli mdebareobda, xomaldebi Semosuliyvnen. am gemebidan
Semdeg tvirTi brtyelZira samdinaro navebSi itvirTeboda da
paliastomis gavliT rionze an fiCorze aRma agrZelebdnen svlas.
werilobiTi wyaroebi migvaniSneben - "iq xom erTi tba (paliastomi -
g.g.) aris"... "satvirTo xomaldebi zRvis napiras, fasisis SesarTavTan
miacures qalaqis (fasisis - g.g.) maxloblad..."(agaTia III,5).
Savi zRva xmeleTSida zRvaa. is bosfor-dardanelis sruteebiT
gadis xmelTaSuazRvaSi. bosforis uviwroesi sigane mxolod 700m-a,
amitom misi gadaketva-kontroli advilia. vis xelSiac es srute iyo,
is akontrolebda xmelTaSu da Sav zRvebs Soris mimosvlas.
antikuri xanis kolxeTis geografiulma mdebareobam ganapiroba
sazRvao da samdinaro (md. rion-yvirilas satranzito gza)
komunikaciebis ganviTareba, rac zegavlenas axdenda maSindeli
kolxeTis kontaqtebze gare samyarosTan. zRva did gavlenas axdens
kolxeTis klimatis formirebaze da Sesabamisad aqaur agroklimatur
situaciaze, sameurneo yofaze. zRva aq Tbili da notio klimatis
Camoyalibebas uwyobs xels.
kolxeTis istoriaSi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani uaryofiTi roli
zRvis napiris geomorfologiurma Secvlam iTamaSa. kerZod,
geomorfologebis varaudiT axalSavzRvurma transgresiam Secvala
fanagoriuli regresia (Zv.w. IaTaswleulis meore naxevarSi), xolo
Zveli da axali welTaRricxvebis mijnaze isev iwyeba zRvis donis
aweva. amis gamo sanapiroze ganlagebuli dasaxlebebi wylis qveS
moeqca da Sewyvita arseboba. kolxeTis zRvispireTSi skilaqs
kariandelis, arianes, pomponius melas, strabonis, klavdios
133

ptolemaiosis, prokopis mixedviT, mTeli rigi naqalaqarebia
moxseniebuli. qalaqebis wyalSi daZirvam zRvispireTSi ekonomikuri
donis stagnacia gamoiwvia. kolxeTis zRvis sanapiroze bunebrivi
yureebi cotaa, rac navTsayudelebis mowyobis simcires iwvevda da
uaryofiTad zemoqmedebda zRvaosnobis intensiur ganviTarebaze.
Zveli saqarTvelos zRvasTan axlo mdebare regionebSi
mcxovreblebs sazRvao brZolebis gamocdilebac hqondaT. amis Sesaxeb
cnobebi Semonaxulia berZnul-laTinur werilobiT wyaroebSi.
qsenofonti gadmogvcems, rom samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi
Zv.w. 401 wels berZenTa jars saomari operaciebis dros erT-erTma
qarTvelurma mosaxleobam - mosinikebma e.w. sazRvao sadesanto
mxedroba miaSveles. kerZod: "...gamogigzavnoT navebi da mebrZolebi,
romelnic TqvenTan erTad iomeben...","...isini (mosinikebi) movidnen
mTliani morisagan gamoTlili samasamde naviT. yvela am navSi sam-sami
mebrZoli ijda; ori amaTgani iaraRs isxamda da napirze gadmodioda,
xolo erTi ki rCeboda navSi;" "...napirze gadmosulebi
(desantirebulebi) daewyvnen amgvarad: daiyvnen aseulebad calkeuli
danayofebis msgavsad, mwyobrad", "...yvelas xelSi eWira suros
foTlis nairi fari,... Subi." "...maT emosaT mkvrivi tilos qitonebi,
...Tavze tyavis muzaradebi exuraT" ... "maT hqondaT agreTve rkinis
orlesuli sabrZolo culebi; roca mwyobrad daewyvnen erT-erTma
maTganma simRera wamoiwyo, sxvebma (am simReras) taqts fexi auwyes
da gaemarTnen sabrZolvelad" (ix. anabasisiV,IV,9-14;4). hipokratec
aRniSnavs, rom md. rionis (fasisis) qvemo welze adgilobrivi
mcxovreblebi "dacuraven aRma-daRma mTliani morisagan gamoTlili
navebiT, radgan aq arxebi bevria"(haerTa, wyalTa... 15). straboni
mogviTxrobs, rom kavkasionis gaswvriv zRvasTan, kolxeTSi
mcxovrebni - "... zRvaze yaCaRoben, aqvT momcro, viwro da msubuqi
navebi, romlebSic daaxloebiT ocdaxuTi mebrZoli eteva, ...berZnebi
maT kamarebs uwodeben." "...eseni kamarebisagan (navebisagan)
flotiliebs hqmnian da Tavs esxmian satvirTo xomaldebs, ...
134

qalaqebs da amgvarad akontroleben zRvas" (ix. straboni XI, II,12).
tacitusis cnobiT: "...kamarebs uwodeben dabal gverdebian, farTo
Zirian (specialur samxedro navebs - g.g.); isini brinjaos anda
rkinis samajurebis gareSe arian Sekruli; roca zRva Relavs,
talRebis sididis mixedviT navebs ficrebiT simaRles umateben,
vidre saxuravis TaRiviT (kamarasaviT) ar gadaixureba... (navebs)
orive mxares erTnairi cxvirebi da erTnairi niCbebi aqvT" (analebi,
III,47;1). nav-kamarebi ZiriTadad brZolis dros moZraobdnen niCbebis
saSualebiT, xolo afras grZel manZilze gadaadgilebis dros
iyenebdnen. am tipis navebi gamoirCeodnen kargi sanavigacio
TaviseburebebiT da napirTan swrafi midgomis unariT, rac napirze
samxedro desantirebisas friad moxerxebuli unda yofiliyo.
kolxebis samxedro flotiliis Sesaxeb cnoba moipoveba,
agreTve, Zv.w. IIIs. avtor apolonios rodoselTanac (ix. argonavtika,
II,1090; IV,235). aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom sof. yoRoToSi aRmoCenil
Zv.w. III s. brinjaos intalioze (inaxeba saq. sax. muzeumis gliptikis
kabinetSi, inv.#696) gamosaxulia niCbebiani katarRa, romelic
SesaZloa nav-kamara iyos. agreTve, albaT kolxuri katarRaa
gamoxatuli vanis naqalaqaris Zv.w. IIs. fenaSi aRmoCenil Tixis
sawafebze [ix. 3, gv.140]. kolxeTSi moipoveba "gemTsaSeni yovelive
masala, radgan izrdeba mravalricxovani tyeebi..." amuSaveben didZal
_ sels, kanafs, cvils da fiss" (ix.straboni XI,II,17). mniSvnelovania
isic, rom straboni Savi zRvis aRmosavleT mxares "kolxeTis zRvas"
uwodebs (ix. straboni, XI,I,6; 7, gv.19-48), riTac xazs usvams Zveli
saqarTvelos am regionis mniSvnelobas sazRvao saqmis codnis
TvalTaxedviT.
pontos samefos samxedro sazRvao Zalebi ZiriTadad kolxeTis
mosaxleobisagan kompleqtdeboda (gemebis ekipaJebi) da xomaldebis
calkeuli nawilebi, aRWurvilobac aqedan miewodebodaT, kerZod -
selis da kanafis Tokebi, afrebi; xis masala da fisi. straboni
aRniSnavs, rom swored kolxeTidan miTridate evpators - "...misdioda
135

umetesi nawili sazRvao-sanaosno ZalebSi samsaxurisaTvis" (ix.
straboni XI,II,18). friad sayuradReboa agreTve aniketis amboxis
ambavi. aniketi uwin samxedro flotis meTauri yofila. SesaZloa,
rom igi warmomavlobiT adgilobrivi, kolxi iyo. mas Semdeg, rac
polemonis samefo romaelebma provinciad aqcies, aniketma amis gamo
protesti ganacxada, risTvisac dasajes da daatyveves. aniketi gaiqca,
miimxro da saTaveSi Caudga pontos adgilobriv ukmayofilo da
upovar mcxovreblebs. is amboxebulebiT swrafad SeiWra aRmosavleT
pontoSi da aiRo qalaqi trapezunti. aq, erTi romauli kohorta
amoxoca da trapezuntis navsadgurSi mdgari flotis nawili xelT
igdo, xolo nawili dawva. man trapezuntis gaswvriv zRvaze
kontroli daawesa; sadac "...adgilobrivebi gabedulad moZraobdnen
saxeldaxelod agebuli navebiT, romlebsac kamarebs uwodeben..." (ix.
tacitusi, analebi, III,47). amis Semdeg "aniketi mdinare xobis
(axlandeli md. xobi) SesarTavSi" (analebi, III,48) Tavisi sazRvao
flotiliiT dabanakda.
SavizRvispireTs romis aRmosavlur politikaSi erT-erTi
ZiriTadi strategiuli adgili ekava. SavizRvispireTis sazRvao-
samdinaro komunikaciebi aucilebeli iyo parTiis msgavs Zlier
saxelmwifosTan qiSpobisas. romaelebi am brZolebSi, albaT
adgilobrivi mosaxleobis sazRvao gamocdilebasac iyenebdnen.
rogorc Cans, antikur xanaSi kolxeTis samxedro sazRvao flotis
ZiriTadi Zala niCbiani katarRebi iyo. Semdgom aq etyoba berZnuli
da romauli [ix.10;13;11], im droisaTvis mowinave sazRvao teqnikis
gamoyenebac daiwyes da maTi msgavsi mozrdili xomaldebis agebac.
saerTod, bunebrivia, rom sazRvao saqmis ganviTarebas Zvel
saqarTveloSi xels uwyobda misi Sav zRvasTaan mdebareoba da
sanapiroze farTo samdinaro qselis arseboba [ix. 8,gv.66,199; 2].
savaraudoa, rom aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi Zv.w. VI-Iss-Si
iseve, rogorc mTel antikur samyaroSi igeboda niCbiani, afriani da
urnaliani samxedro-sazRvao xomaldebi. am tipis xomaldi Sedgeboda
136

- magari jiSis xis korpusisagan, romelsac wylis doneze, cxvirze
rkinis saZgerebeli urnali hqonda; kiCos daboloeba zemoT
morkaluli iyo, romelzedac mimagrebuli iyo saWe; xomaldis
xerxemalze, centrSi aRmarTuli iyo anZa, romlis zeda nawilzec
magrdeboda saafre lartya; korpusis centralur nawilSi
vertikalurad Camagrebuli xis joxebi iyo, romlebzedac magrdeboda
wyalSi CaSvebuli niCbebi (cal mxares daaxloebiT 15-dan 20-mde);
xomalds hqonda selis afra da bagirebi.
aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis savaWro xomaldis Semdgomi
ganviTarebis erT-erTi saxeoba SesaZloa iyos ucxoel misioner-
mogzaurTa (avitabile, kasteli, lamberti, Sardeni, gamba da sxv.)
mier Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroze nanaxi karWap-xomaldebi [8;2].
erT-erTi amdagvari xis satvirTo karWapis naSTebi q. foTTan zRvis
SelfSi, md. rionis marcxena Stodan Svidas metrze aRmoCnda [ix. 12,
gv.101-109]. karWapis sigrZe 23m, maqsimaluri sigane 6m, simaRle 2,3m.
wyalSi mkafiod gairCeva xomaldis Tavi, bolo da gverdebi
(Spangoutebi). xomaldis Sida saTavsi qviSa-lamiT aris amovsebuli.
xomaldis kili wablis xisagan aris gakeTebuli, xolo Spangoutebze
gemis garsakravi cudad aris Semonaxuli. xomaldis agebaSi rkinis
naWedi brtyelTaviani lursmnebia gamoyenebuli. aq mikvleuli
xomaldi konfiguraciiT zemoT naxsenebi misioner-mogzaurTa
aRweril xomaldebs waagavs.
adreul Sua saukuneebSi, kolxeTSi, naosnobis ganviTarebis
Sesaxeb agaTia aRniSnavs - "Zlierni da mamacni arian lazebi; isini
sxva meomar xalxebzec mbrZanebloben; amayoben kolxTa Zveli
saxeliT..." "...mcxovreblebi zRvaosnoben..." (ix. agaTia,III,5). rogorc
Cans, zRvaosnoba antikuri xanis kolxeTSi mWidrod ukavSirdeboda
qveyanaSi Seqmnil istoriul viTarebas. aq sanaosno saSualebebis
tipebi daaxloebiT iseTive iyo, rogorc mTel SavizRvispireTSi.
zRvisa da kolxeTis dablobis naosnobisaTvis momgebiani
137

hidrografiuli pirobebis gamo aq wylis transports qveynis
ganviTarebaSi erT-erTi wamyvani adgili unda sWeroda.

literatura:
1. gamyreliZe, al. tacitusis cnobebi saqarTveloze, Tb., 1973.
2. kutaleiSvili, z. naosnoba saqarTveloSi, Tb., 1987.
3. lorTqifaniZe, g. stumarTmoyvare fasiselebi, kreb. "mneme", Tb., 2000,
gv.140-147.
4. miqelaZe, T. qsenofontis "anabasisi", Tb., 1967.
5. yauxCiSvili, T. strabonis geografia, Tb., 1957.
6. yauxCiSvili, s. georgika, III, tf., 1936.
7. . , ., 1987.
8. . . , ., 1989.
9. . , ., 1992.
10. . ,
., 1982.
11. Casson L. The Ancient Mariners, London, 1960.
12. Gamkrelidze G. Hydroarchaeology in the Georgian Republic, The International
Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 1992, N2, v. 21, p. 101.
13. Tor Cecil. Ancient ships, Chicago, 1964.



138

vercxlis ritoni sof. gomidan
saqarTvelos mTian mxareSi, zemo raWaSi, aRmoCenili brZolis
scenis gamosaxulebiani vercxlis sasmisi torevtikis friad
unikaluri nimuSia. sayuradReboa misi siuJeti da ornamentuli
samkauli. vercxlis sasmisi wagrZelebuli konusis formisaa;
SemorCenili simaRle 13 sm; piris dm 6,5 sm; wona 86 g;
dazianebulia pir-yelis nawili; motexilia qveda nawili. sasmisi
quTaisis muzeumis Zvirfasi liTonebis fondSi inaxeba (inv.#111)
[29,gv.37]. sasmisi vercxlis erTiani furclisaganaa damzadebuli.
gamoricxuli ar aris, rom reliefi jer brtyel furcelze gakeTda
da Semdgom Seikra. amitomacaa, rom figurebi ramdenadme
deformirebuli da proporciebi darRveulia.
sasmiss sami sartyeli amkobs. zemodan pirveli kanelurebiani
frizi; meore oTxi adamianis urTierTbrZolis scena; mesame ori
cxoveli da xe. mocemuli gamosaxulebebi sasmisis kedelze
simetriuladaa ganlagebuli.kanelurebis qvemoT ori orTabrZolis
scenaa gamoxatuli. marcxnidan pirvel wverosan adamians Tavze
muzaradi axuravs; zeaweul xelSi saZgereblad gamzadebuli mokle
Subi upyria, xolo marcxena xelSi oTxkuTxa fari uWiravs. meomars
sxeulze mokle tansacmeli mosavs, xolo mis qvemoT SiSveli fexebi
mouCans. fexze, koWTan, sartylebiT gadmocemuli fexsacmeli acvia.
meore meomari saxiT pirvelisakenaa gamosaxuli da mSvild-isars
umiznebs pirvels. mas Tavze muzaradi, tanze usaxelo samosi da
pirveli meomrisnairi fexsacmeli acvia. mesame meomari meorisadmi
zurgiT dgas, Tavze muzaradi axuravs; marjvena xelSi satevari
upyria, xolo marcxena xelSi pirveli meomrisnairi fari uWiravs.
meoTxe meomris figura saxiT mesamisakenaa mimarTuli da xelSi Subi
uWiravs. figurebis zogierTi nawili dazianebul-deformirebulia.
meomarTa qvemoT rvatotiani xea da erTmaneTis pirispir mdgomi
Sveli da mgelia.
139

sasmisze gamosaxulebebis gadmocemis teqnika daWdevis, amokawvris
da reliefis Signidan amozneqis xerxebiTaa warmoCenili. amozneqili
figurebis konturebi ki mkveTradaa Semovlebuli. figurebi sqematur-
naturalisturia; dabali reliefiT da CaWdeuli xazebiTaa
gakeTebuli. reliefi arc Tu maRali klasis ostatis mier unda iyos
Sesrulebuli. oTxive mebrZolis tani sammeoTxedSi, xolo Tavi
profilSia gamoxatuli. meomrebis wver-ulvaSi xazebiTaa mocemuli.
zeda da qveda kompoziciis sivrcobrivi gadawyveta martivia. qveda
siuJetSi Svlis ukan Cans xe, riTac iqmneba ori sxvadasxva sibrtyis
iluzia. mebrZolebis oTxkuTxa farebze horizontaluri StrixebiT
ki iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom xelosani ecada Seeqmna mxatvruli
perspeqtivis iluzia. brZolis scenis kompoziciis meomarTa
dinamikuri pozebi agresiuli eqspresiis ganwyobas qmnis. centrSi,
ukana planze gamosaxuli xe zeda da qveda siuJetebis da-
makavSirebel, mTavar simbolod aRiqmeba. sasmisze gamoxatul
siuJetebs jerjerobiT kavkasiaSi da mis garSemo zusti mxatvrul-
stilisturi analogia ar moepoveba. SeiZleba zogadi msgavseba
veZeboT mxolod mis sakralur (xe, cxovelebi) da nivTier
(saWurvel-iaraRi) monacemebSi.
samwuxarod, aqamde es sayuradRebo vercxlis sasmisi samecniero
mimoqcevaSi araa Semotanili. mkvlevarTaTvis isic ki ucnobi iyo, Tu
dasavleT saqarTvelos romeli adgilidan moxvda igi q. quTaisis
muzeumSi. muzeumis davTarSi mokled Cawerilia, rom nivTi 1930
wels Caabara istorikos-mxareTmcodne giorgi boWoriZem, romelic
1937 wlis usamarTlo represiebma Seiwira. amdenad, g. boWoriZis
monografia "raWa-leCxumis istoriuli Zeglebi da siZveleebi"
mxolod 1994 wels daistamba. am sayuradRebo wignis gamoqveynebis
Semdeg naTeli moefina mocemuli sasmisis aRmoCenis adgil-
mdebareobas. kerZod, sasmisi g. boWoriZes zemo raWaSi, sof. gomis
(md. gomuras marjvena napirze) mTavarangelozis, savalalod
dangreuli, eklesiidan quTaisis muzeumSi Camoutania.
140

sof. gomi, iseve rogorc sof. jinWvisis da uweris sanaxebi Sua
saukuneebSi aznaur gamyreliZeebs ekuTvnodaT. Semonaxulia 1458w.
mefe giorgi VIII mier maTze gacemuli sigeli (inaxeba xelnawerTa
institutis fondebSi Hd-10149) (dawvrilebiT ix.[3, gv. 209,331, 355;
2, gv.21-23, 82,122]).
g. boWoriZis naSromSi CamoTvlilia sof. gomis mTavarangelozis
eklesiaSi dadasturebuli nivTebi: "vercxlis sasmisi 13 sm, Semkuli
mSvild-isriTa da SubiT meomari xalxis Weduri suraTebiT;
dazianebulia. Zegli ekuTvnis uZveles xanas. spilenZis Tasi 1cali.
brinjaos sartylis nawili, Semkuli cxovelTa saxeebiT 2cali.
brinjaos samajuri did-patara 2cali. brinjaos qinZisTavi 2cali.
brinjaos beWedi 1cali. brinjaos wvrili nivTebi 7cali. minis
samkaulis naSTi. rqis beWedi 1cali. mZivebi erTi asxma, maTSi 8
mozrdili. mZivebis natexebi 16cali..."[3, gv.254].
mkiTxveli Tu daakvirdeba, aq moxseniebuli nivTebi vercxlis
sasmisi, brinjaos Tasi, brinjaos beWedi, mZivebi (maTi dRevandeli
141

Senaxvis adgili ucnobia) is nivTebia, romlebic xSirad
arqeologiurad Seswavlil winaqristianul samarovnebSi gvxvdeba.
sadReisod, sof. gomTan yvelaze axlos mdebareobs sof. RebTan
mdebare brilis cnobili arqeologiuri mravalfeniani Zegli. amdenad,
SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom adgilobriv mcxovrebTa mier aq SemTxveviT
aRmoCenili nivTebi sof. gomis mTavarangelozis eklesias Seswires.
am mxriv sayuradRebo cnobas gvawvdis eTnografi sergi makalaTia.
kerZod, "brilSi oya lobjaniZes miwis xvnis dros araerTxel
gauxsnia Zveli akldama-samarxebi ... amoukrefia WurWeli, brinjaos
samkaulebi, qandakebebi da mZivebi" [14, gv.14]. mTian saqarTveloSi,
Zveli Cveulebis mixedviT, morwmune adamiani, rasac karg, uCveulo
Zvirfas nivTs SemTxveviT ipovida, yvelafers soflis eklesias
swiravda. aqedan ki nivTis gatana did mkrexelobad iTvleboda.
amitom, saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi raWis da svaneTis eklesiebSi uamra-
vi uZvelesi nivTi dagrovda [25, gv.4-7; 14, gv.87].
142

sof. gomSi aRmoCenili sasmisis forma cilindruli yeli da
mogrZo, qvemoTken daviwrovebuli tani, boloSi gadanatexiT (mo-
texilia sasmisis protomi) gvafiqrebinebs, rom is ritoni unda iyos.
ritonebs iyenebdnen sasmisad. isini ZiriTadad orgvaria _
mokleyeliani, cxovelis Tavis gamosaxulebiT da yanwismagvari,
wverTan sxvadasxva arsebaTa mcire figurebiT. saqarTveloSi
meRvineobis uZvelesi fesvebi gvafiqrebinebs, rom yanw-ritoni aq
sasmisis uZvelesi formaa da xangrZlivi periodis ganmavlobaSi
ixmareboda.saerTod, ritonis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb mravalnairi
mosazreba arsebobs [64, gv.6-15; 61, gv.4-13].mkvlevarTa erTi nawili
Tvlis, rom ritoni pirvelad daamzades mcire aziaSi [1,gv.51].meore
nawilis azriT, ritonis samSoblo irania [62,gv.8-14],mesame nawilis
mixedviT, gamoricxulia, rom ritonisnairi sasmisi maincdamainc erT
romelime adgilas SeeqmnaT [54,gv.107-108; 46,gv.215-235].marTlac,
SesaZloa, rom ritoni, sruliad damoukideblad gaCeniliyo
mecxoveleobis mimdevar ama Tu im regionebSi [4,gv.73-81], radgan
gamofxekili rqa bunebrivi da martivad dasamzadebeli sasmisia.
yanw-ritoni, romelic Tavdapirvelad cxovelis rqisagan
keTdeboda, droTa ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva masalisa (Tixa, liToni,
spilos eSvi, mina) da sxvadasxvanairi formis mzaddeba. ritonis
damzadebaSi ufro ganviTarebuli safexuri unda iyos liTonis
masalisagan misi gakeTeba. Cans, am droisaTvis is saritualo
WurWlis daniSnulebas iZens. am periodisaTvis liTonis ritonebi
gansakuTrebiT vrceldeba Savi zRvispireTSi, kavkasiaSi, aRmosavleT
anatoliasa da iranSi [32, gv.36-47]. marto dneprispireTidan Crdilo
kavkasiis CaTvliT, yorRanebSi 21 calia arqeologiurad
dadasturebuli (semibratnis yorRani, kelermesis yorRani, uliapskis
yorRani, kul-oba, tolstaia-mogilas, soloxas yorRani, talaevskis
yorRani, yaragodeuaSxis yorRani da sxv.)[36, gv.65].
143

saqarTveloSi arqeologiurad aRmoCenilia gamosaxulebebi xelSi
yanw-ritoniT. magaliTad: q. gudauTasTan (adgili bombora) napovni
mjdomare adamianis figura, romelsac xelSi yanw-ritoni aqvs; ori
mamakacis figura ritoniT xelSi daba yazbegidan; q. mcxeTaSi,
armazisxevis #6 samarxSi gaTxrili qalRmerTis gamosaxuleba yanwiT
[63,gv.30] xelSi; qalRmerTi yanwiT, vercxlis langarze sof.
cixisZiridan; vanis naqalaqarze gaTxrili RvTaebis qandakeba yanwiT
xelSi [37, tab.XLVIII;27, tab.VII, IX;7, gv.33, tab.VIII
1
; 5, gv.135-138].
"siuxvis yanwi", yanw-ritoni xSirad erT-erTi atributi iyo
RvTaebebis. samarxeul nivTebSi ritonis simravle gvavaraudebinebs,
rom maTi erT-erTi sakraluri funqcia iyo ritonis gamoyeneba micva-
lebulis kultTan dakavSirebul ritualSi saflavSi Cataneba (mag.
lekiTosebiviT), an mis samaresTan yanw-ritoniT mosaxseneblis Sesma.
saqarTvelos teritoriaze ritonebi aRmoCenilia q.
gudauTasTan brinjaos ritoni gareuli Txis protomiT [44, gv.33];
daba yazbegidan vercxlis ritoni verZis Taviani protomiT [27,
gv.52,tab.XV
3
]; yazbegis midamoebidanvea xbos Tavis gamosaxulebiani
vercxlis ritoni (inaxeba s.-peterburgis ermitaJis aRmosavleTis
fondSi); q. borjomTan, borniReles samarovnis brinjaos ritoni [39,
gv.50,tab.65, 8;60,gv.152]; sof. mTisZiris vercxlis ritoni [59, gv.211-
216]; vanis naqalaqaridan taxis Taviani Tixis ritoni; ufliscixis
naqalaqaridan Tixis ritoni [24, gv.76]; md. webeldis xeobidan minis
sami ritoni [38,gv.76-77, sur.20; 7,8,11]; urbnisis naqalaqaris
samarovanidan minis ritoni [17, gv.72,tab.124]; q. mcxeTis, samTavros
samarovanidan minis ritoni [19, gv.26,sur.3].
sof. gomSi aRmoCenili sasmisi yanwiseburi ritonis tips
miekuTvneba. masze gamosaxuli oTxidan or meomars erTnairi konfi-
guraciis fari uWiravs, romlebic menjidan mxramde faravT. fari
oTxkuTxaa da marjvena zeda kuTxe amoWrili aqvs. fari naxatze isea
gamosaxuli, rom mklavze maryuJiT damagrebuli Cans da xelis
CasaWidic unda hqonoda. amgvarad, mebrZols fari ufro marjved,
144

moxerxebulad ekava da Tu dasWirdeboda, brZolis dros orive
xelis xmareba SeeZlo (faris aseT samagrs pirvelad hoplitebi
iyenebdnen [8, gv.35]). gomis sasmisis faris marjvena kuTxe amoWrili
iyo, rac meomars lavirebis dros gamoxedvis saSualebas aZlevda da
moxerxebuli unda yofiliyo. faris amgvari detali mxolod am
gamosaxulebebzea aRniSnuli da sxvagan ar gvxvdeba. amitom,
savarudoa es gamosaxedi sabrZolo aRWurvilobis ganviTarebaSi adgi-
lobriv novaciad miviCnioT. gamosaxediani farebi sxvaganacaa
aRmoCenili, magram maTze simetria araa darRveuli. mag.: e.w. naxevar-
mTvariseburi farebi an gamosaxediani fari, romelic q. xersonesSi I
s-is reliefze gamoxatul meomars ukavia. sasmisis Wedurobaze fari
mocemulia vertikaluri xazebiT da xis faqturas mogvagonebs. xis
mogrZo naWrebi horizontalurad, albaT, liTonis ori sartyliTaa
Sekruli. sartylebs Soris laTinuri ve-s magvari, horizontalurad
gadmocemuli niSani (<), raRac emblema SeimCneva.
oTxkuTxa (momrgvalebul kuTxeebiani) farebi dadasturebulia
yaraSambas vercxlis Tasze, romelic md. razdanis Sua welze, Zv.w. II
aTaswleuliT daTariRebul samarxSi aRmoCnda [51, gv.145]; trapeciis-
eburi farebi stefanavanSi, gvianbrinjaos xanis samarxSi aRmoCenil
sartyelzea [48, sur.65]; karmir-blurSi, karebis brinjaos gar-
sakravze gamosaxulia q. sugunis aReba. sadac asurel meomrebs xelSi
mogrZo, kuTxeebiani farebi uWiravT [52, tab.IV]; Celtis oTxkuTxa
farebi aqvT abu-simbelis taZarSi dadasturebul Zv.w. 1312w. qadeSis
brZolis scenaze, sabrZolo etlebze amxedrebul ramses II
mowinaaRmdege meomrebs [42, gv.132, sur.1]; momrgvalebul kuTxeebiani
oTxkuTxa fari aqvs xelSi soloxas saxeliT cnobil samarxSi
aRmoCenil oqros savarcxelze gamoxatul e.w. skviT meomars [47,
sur.34]. aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom skviTur-sarmatuli samyarosTvis
farebi naklebadaa damaxasiaTebeli. TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba isini arc
maT mravalricxovan arqeologiur masalaSi. samarxebidan cnobilia
145

mxolod xuTiode maTgani, romlebic miCneulia faris naSTebad [50,
gv.78; 55, gv.63].
herodotes mixedviT, qserqses jarSi iranelebi Celtis wriuli
farebiT iyvnen aRWurvili (VII, 61). egeosur-berZnuli samyarosaTvis
oTxkuTxa farebi damaxasiaTebeli araa. adreuli romauli farebi
wriulia, xolo daaxloebiT Zv.w.IIIs-dan Cndeba oTxkuTxa,
vertikalze odnav moRunuli farebi. polibiosi "istoriaSi" (VI,23,
2-4) gadmogvcems, rom farebi Sedgeba xis firfitebisagan da
dafarulia tyaviT (zomebi daaxloebiT 12080sm). fars, zeda da
qveda mxares, Sesakvrelad rkinis garsakravebi ertya. Semdgom,
kuTxeebianTan erTad Tanaarseboben ovaluri da mogrZo wakveTil bo-
loebiani rombiseburi, eqvskuTxa farebic. faris centrSi wriuli
liTonis umboni iyo. samive (oTxkuTxa, eqvskuTxa, ovaluri) tipis
fari q. romSi lucius septimius severusis triumfaluri TaRis
reliefebzea gamoxatuli. oTxkuTxa farebia gamoxatuli q. pompeiSi
aRmoCenil gladiatorTa brZolis scenebzec.
markus furius kamilusis diqtatorobisas, romaeli qveiTis
ZiriTad farad iqca oTxkuTxa fari skutumi (scutum). aqedan
moyolebuli, daaxloebiT ax.w.III saukunemde am tipis farebi
dominireben romis qveiT armiaSi (cxenosnebs ovaluri aqvT). amgvari
oTxkuTxa farebi unda hqonodaT pompeusis legionerebs, roca Zv.w.
65wels pirvelad gamoCndnen transkavkasiaSi da iberiis mefe
artokesTan mouxdaT Setakeba [ix. 5, gv.57-69]. romis imperiis epoqaSi
faris zomebi Semcirda da ZiriTadad meomris torss faravda [57,
gv.230-234].
dasavleT saqarTveloSi, webeldaSi steklianis goraze gaTxril
arqeologiur kompleqsSi, romelic IVs-iT TariRdeba, oTxkuTxa xis
fari, kuTxeebSi rkinis samagrebiT da lursmnebiani garsakraviT (zoma
_ 4868sm) aRmoCnda [38, gv.95,sur.33].
saqarTvelos teritoriaze dadasturebul arqeologiur
monacemebSi xSirad Cndeba faris wriuli, brinjaos an rkinis "guli",
146

umboni. faris xisa da tyavis sxva nawilebi miwaSi cudad inaxeboda.
umbonis wriuloba ar unda niSnavdes imas, rom faric aucileblad
wriuli iyo (mag. wriul umboniani romauli oTxkuTxa skutumebi).
faris wriulobis Sesaxeb mosazreba saqarTvelos mTianeTis
eTnografiul monacemebs eyrdnoba. am farebis diametri 30-40sm-mdea
[26,gv.227-232]. varsimaanTkaris arqeologiur Zeglzec mxolod faris
gulebia SemorCenili da ara farebi [Seadare, 16, gv.67-72].
saqarTveloSi faris liTonis wriuli umbonebi da garsakravebi
arqeologiur Zeglebze ZiriTadad gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanidan
Cans; kerZod, badiaurSi, liloSi, melaanSi, vanTaSi, urekSi, yazbegSi,
samTavroSi, kamaraxevSi, varsimaanTkarSi, vanSi (#9samarxSi),
xucubanSi, webeldaSi, eSerSi, brilSi da sxv. sayuradReboa, rom
hoplituri, wriuli farebia aRmoCenili wiTeli Suquras #7sa-
marxSi da axul-abaas samarxSi [8,gv.32-40]. albaT, liTonis umbonian,
liToniTve SeWedil da ucxour (mag. hoplitur) farebs SeZlebuli,
warCinebuli meomrebi atarebdnen. es SeimCneva, magaliTad, varsimaan-
Tkaris arqeologiuri Zeglidanac, sadac 166 samarxidan mxolod
orSi dadasturda faris "guli"(dm_ 30sm) [16,gv.71]. rigiTi meomrebi
Celtis, totebisagan dawnuli lastis an xis tyavgadakrul farebs
atarebdnen, romlebic miwaSi moxvedris gamo araa SemorCenili.
berZnul werilobiT wyaroebSi moixsenieba qarTveluri
mosaxleobis (kolxebis, mosinikebis, mosxebis, xalibebis) farebi.
kerZod, herodote aRniSnavs "kolxebs Tavze xis muzaradebi
hqondaT, gamouqneli tyavis patara farebi da mokle Subebi, amis
garda danebi" (VII,79; ix. agreTve VII,78). qsenofontis "anabasisSi"
xalibebis xaris tyavisagan gakeTebuli farebi moixsenieba (IV,7,22).
aqve naxsenebia, rom mosinikebis meomrebs "yovels xelSi ekava suros
foTlis nairi fari, xaris TeTri bewviani tyaviT dafaruli" (V,
12). straboni "geografiaSi" gadmogvcems, albanelebi "arian Subosnebi
da mSvildosnebi, aqvT tyavis abjrebi da farebi iberebis msgavsad"
(XI,4,5). aq naxsenebia romauli skutumis msgavsi fari jureoc [ix.
147

40,gv.802]. mniSvnelovania, rom "geografiis" es monakveTi
qronologiurad kavkasiaSi romaeli sardlis pompeusis albanelebTan
da iberebTan brZolis dros exeba.rogorc werilobiTi wyaroebidan
Cans, kolxebi, xalibebi, mosinikebi, iberebi xmarobdnen xaris tyavis
mcire farebs; suros foTlis formis farebs; skutumis msgavs
kuTxeebian farebs. es farebi zogi Celtis iyo, zogic xis da
tyavgadakruli. arqeologiur masalaSi umbonebis dadastureba
migvaniSnebs imaze, rom faris konstruqciaSi xSirad liTonic
gamoiyeneboda. sof. gomis sasmisze ki, momcro skutumis msgavsi
farebia gamosaxuli; mxolod, maT marjvena zeda kuTxis adgilze
gamosaxedi aqvs. am farebis konstruqciis es elementi migviTiTebs
samxedro aRWurvilobis gamorCeul mxareze.
gomis sasmisze asaxul meomrebs mokle samosi acviaT, romelic
menjs qvemoT faravda. tanisamosi gadmocemulia vertikaluri
xazebiT. pirvel da meore meomars TiTqos zemodan usaxelo samosic
mosavs. pirvel da mesame meomars welze qamrebi aqvT. rogorc
zemoTac aRvniSne, gamosaxulebebi friad sqematuria da amitom
dabejiTebiT raimes Tqma SeuZlebelia. gamoricxuli araa, rom
mebrZolebs abjari ecvaT. arc is aris gamosaricxi, rom xazebiT
mocemulia romauli lorikas magvari abjari. mesame meomars
Sarvalic acvia, rac skviTur-sarmatuli samyarosTvis damaxasiaTe-
beli elementia. gavixsenoT mokle zeda tanis da Sarvlis kombinacia,
mag. soloxas savarcxelze gamoxatuli meomris fariani figura.
qsenofonti "anabasisSi" mogviTxrobs: mosinikebs "...ecvaT tilos
mkvrivi mokle qitonebi, romelnic muxlebs ar swvdeboda..."(V, 4, 13).
qsenofonti aqve aRniSnavs, xalibebs "... hqondaT selis abjrebi, muc-
lis qveda nawilamde, xolo qvemoT mWidrod dagrexili Tokebi"
(IV,7,15), welze qamrebi ertyaT. sayuradReboa, rom oTxidan sam
mebrZols fexebi, romaeli legionerebiviT SiSveli aqvs da fexze
koWTan Sekruli fexsacmeli acvia. cnobilia, rom berZeni meomrebi
148

xSirad knemidebiT ifaravdnen fexebs. xalibebsac hqondaT knemidebi
(qsenofonti, anabasisi,IV,7,16).
saqarTvelos teritoriaze arqeologiurad dadasturebulia
brinjaos da rkinis sajavSne firfitebi da jaWvis rgolebi. kerZod,
isini aRmoCnda vanSi, eSerSi, TagilonSi, kldeeTSi, webeldaSi
(Sapka). vanis naqalaqarze, meomris (#2) samarxSi dadasturda asamde
rkinis naxvretiani firfita. aseTi firfitebisagan Sekrul abjars
qercliseburs uwodeben. naxvretebiani firfitebi magrdeboda tyavze
an mkvriv tiloze da faravda meomris torss [10, gv.183-184].
SesaZloa, rom swored amdagvari abjari, romelic CaWdeuli
xazebiTaa gadmocemuli, emosaT gomis sasmisis mebrZolebs.
sasmisze gamoxatul oTxive meomars Tavze axuravs
naxevarsferuli muzaradi. zogierTs TiTqos cxvirsafari da ybebis
safari mouCans. antikuris wina epoqaSi cxvirsafari da ybissafari
ar aqvT muzaradebze [41, gv.101,tab.XVI]. isini araa damaxasiaTebeli
arc iranuli samyarosaTvis. berZnuli da Semdeg romauli
samyarosaTvis ki ybasafarebi SedarebiT xSiria [ix. 56,gv.65-136,327].
saqarTveloSi arqeologiurad aRmoCenilia e.w. qalkiduri,
hoplituri muzaradebi soxumTan, quTaisTan, sof. koxTan (aWara),
sof. SuxuTTan (lanCxuTis r-ni). axlaxan romauli naxevarsferuli
muzaradi aRmoCnda kaxeTSi, dedofliswyaros r-nSi sof. zemo qedSi
(aRmoaCina arqeologma b. maisuraZem). romis respublikis epoqaSi
muzaradebs SublTan simtkicisaTvis ukeTebdnen damatebiT liTonis
sartyels. iseTs, rogoric gomis sasmisze pirvel da meore meomris
muzaradebs mouCanT. respublikis da imperiis xanis romauli
muzaradebisaTvis cxvirsafarebi naklebadaa damaxasiaTebeli [56,
gv.327-365; 57,gv.228]. gomis sasmisze, albaT, Sereuli tipis
(berZnul-romauli) an kolxuri xis muzaradebia mocemuli.
kolxuris Sesaxeb cnobas gvawvdis herodote(VII,79). xis muzaradebi
mosxebsac exuraT (herodote,VII,78). ufro mogviano, kerZod,
149

pompeusis iberebTan brZolis droindel ambebze Txrobisas, straboni
aRniSnavs, iberebs tyavis muzaradebi exuraTo(XI,4,5).
gomis sasmisze gamosaxul pirvel meomars, zeaweul xelSi,
wveriT qvemoT, saZgereblad gamzadebuli Subi uWiravs. Subi moklea
da rombiseburi Subispiri aqvs. Subispiris damagrebis adgili ori
horizontaluri xaziTaa gadmocemuli. amdagvari Subiani mebrZolia
gamosaxuli imperator konstantines triumfalur TaRze q. romSi
[35, sur.279]. Subis wveriT qvemoT daxra TiTqos imaze migvaniSnebs,
rom es Subi saZgerebelia da ara satyorcni.saqarTvelos antikuri
xanis arqeologiur monacemebSi Subispirebi, sxva iaraRTan SedarebiT,
procentulad pirvel adgilze Cans, rac imis niSania, rom im dros
Subi ZiriTad sabrZolo iaraRs warmoadgenda. amasve adasturebs
werilobiTi cnobebic, romelTa mixedviTac Subi wamyvani iaraRia
kolxebis, xalibebis, mosxebis da iberebisaTvis (herodote,VII,78,79;
"anabasisi"V,2,22; V,4,12; V,4,25; straboniXI,4,5). "Subosani iberebis"
specialuri razmis Sesaxeb aRniSnavs plutarqec (lukulsi,31).
gomis sasmisze meore meomars marcxena xelSi mSvild-isari
uWiravs da Subian meomars umiznebs. mSvildi momcro da Tanabrad
morkalulia; laris mibmis adgilebi horizontaluradaa gamoxatuli;
isrispiri, samkuTxa, daqanebul frTebiania. amgvari isrispirebi
gvianelinistur-romauli samyarosaTvisaa ufro damaxasiaTebeli.
saqarTvelos arqeologiur masalaSi isrispirebi procentulad cotaa
aRmoCenili. albaT, im periodSi mSvild-isars samxedro SeiaraRebaSi
meorexarisxovani adgili eWira. amasve adasturebs herodotes
(VII,78,79) da qsenofontis (IV,7,15-16; IV,8,3; V,2,22; V,4,12)
cnobebic. isini kolxebis, mosxebis, mosinikebis, xalibebis
SeiaraRebis CamoTvla-aRwerisas mSvild-isars ar axseneben.
samagierod, Semdeg, romaelebis (pompeusis) laSqrobis dros, iberia-
albaneTSi straboni iberebis SeiaraRebis CamoTvlisas mSvild-
isarsac axsenebs (XI,4,5). mSvildosani iberebis Sesaxeb gadmogvcems
150

apianec (miTridates omebi,101) da dion kasiusic (XXXVII,2). svanebis
mowamluli isrebis Sesaxeb aRniSnavs straboni (XI,2,19).
sasmisze mesame da meoTxe mebrZoli erTmaneTs mokle orlesuri
satevriT da SubiT erkinebian. rkinis satevari saqarTvelos antikuri
xanis arqeologiur masalaSi SubTan SedarebiT cotaa; isini
SedarebiT metia gvianantikur xanaSi. mag.: armazisxevi, kldeeTi,
Cxorowyu, brili, webelda [21, gv.74-75]. herodote SubebTan erTad
axsenebs mokle satevrebs (danebs?) (VII,79). qsenofonti "anabasisSi"
miuTiTebs, rom xalibebs qamarze mokle satevrebi ekidaT (IV,7,16).
gomis sasmisis qveda sartyelze pirispir dedali, urqo Sveli
da mgelia (mtacebeli) gamosaxuli. am jiSis cxovelebi kavkasionis
xeobebSi dResac binadroben. Svelis ukan xe moCans. vfiqrobT, aq
alegoriulad dualisturi keTilisa da borotis brZola aisaxa
(rac ZiriTadad axasiaTebda zoroastrul da Semdgom maniqevelur
religiebs). xe, am SemTxvevaSi keTilis mxaresaa (ukanaa). zeda,
meomarTa brZolis siuJetis, alegoriuli gamosaxva unda iyos qveda
scena, sadac Sveli sikeTes, kargs, mgeli, borotebas, cuds da xe
nayofierebas, sicocxlis gamarjvebas da mtris damarcxebas asaxavs.
gomis riton-sasmisi, albaT, specialurad brZolaSi daRupuli,
warCinebuli meomrisaTvis, Sesawirad iyo damzadebuli da dakrZalvis
ritualSi gamoiyenes. vfiqrobT, meomrebiani sartylis axsnaSi, ufro
miwieri, Cveulebrivi, SesaZloa Crdilo kavkasielebTan, sarmatebTan
an alanebTan brZolaa gadmocemuli [ix. 55, gv.3-4]. sasmisis
damamzadebelma, adgilobrivma xelosanma, misi SesaZleblobis
farglebSi, asaxa is, rac nanaxi hqonda. qvemoTa, cxovelebian
sartyelSi ki zeda sartylis Taviseuli msoflmxedvelobiTi,
sakraluri Sinaarsi Cado, romelic im epoqas axasiaTebda. gomis
sasmisi mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT damoukidebeli da unikaluria
mezobeli qveynebis xelovnebis ZeglebTan mimarTebaSi.
gomis sasmiss pir-gverdze vertikalur-kanelurebiani frizi
dauyveba. kanelurebi qveda mxares e.w. kamarebiT bolovdeba. sa-
151

qarTvelos teritoriaze kanelurebiani, adgilobrivad damzadebuli
liTonis WurWeli jer kidev gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanaSi Cndeba.
mag.: leCxumSi [18, gv.11, tab.IX], TliaSi [53, gv.75, sur.63] aRmoCenili
kanelurebiani situlebi. kanelurebi, winareantikuri xanis kolxuri
keramikis yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli elementia, romelic adreantikur
xanaSic agrZelebs arsebobas [13, gv.57]. magram, am keramikaze, gomis
sasmisisagan gansxvavebiT, kanelurebis boloebi yovelTvis e.w.
kamarebiT ar bolovdeba.vertikaluri kanelurebi ar Cans klasikuri
xanis berZnul keramikaze (samagierod arqiteqturaSia). is, ar
axasiaTebs arc aqemeniduri da arc sasanuri iranis mxatvrul
WurWels. reliefi, kerZod, kanelurebi elinistur-romaul samyaroSi
mxatvrul keramikaze da torevtikaze Cndeba [58, gv.279, 280, 288-
303; 33, gv.238-254]. mag.: romauli, Zv.w. Is-is kanelurebiani ritoni
[43, sur.9; 35, gv.204,sur.197]. kanelurebi, sartyluri frizebis da
e.w. maraoseburi saxis, ufro farTod gvianelinistur-gvianantikur
epoqaSi ikidebs fexs [45, gv.24-25, sur.45].
rogorc Cans, kavkasiaSi WurWelze ufrizo kanelireba (jer
liTonze, xolo mere keramikaze) jer kidev gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis
xanaSi iwyeba. albaT, is aq garkveul tradiciad SeiZleba CaiTvalos.
rac Seexeba frizze ganlagebul kanelurebs cal mxares e.w.
kamaruli daboloebiT, is ufro gvianantikuri xanisaTvisaa
damaxasiaTebeli. swored amgvari kanelurebiani frizia sof. gomis
ritonze. saqarTvelos teritoriaze, arqeologiurad aRmoCenil,
antikuri xanis torevtikul nimuSebSi gamorCeuli simravliT da
mravalferovnebiT aRiniSneba gvianantikuri xana [49, gv.9-23; 12,
gv.77-101,111]. gvianantikuri xanis torevtikuli nawarmi dadastu-
rebulia TagilonSi, urekSi, cixisZirSi, banZaSi, kldeeTSi, borSi,
sargveSSi, xaiSSi, qvaSxieTSi, zRuderSi, cxinvalSi, JinvalSi,
erwoSi, armazisxevSi, bagineTSi, samTavroSi da sxv.
saqarTvelos gvianantikuri xanis torevtika romauli samyaros
garkveul zegavlenas ganicdis [49, gv.138-147]. gomis sasmisze es,
152

albaT, mxolod kanelurebis gadmocemaSi aisaxa. gvianantikuri,
kanelurebiani WurWeli saqarTveloSi aRmoCenilia TagilonSi,
xaiSSi, banZaSi, cixisZirSi [49, gv.28-29; 21, gv.72-74;28, gv.149-150].
saqarTveloSi dadasturebuli gvianantikuri torevtikis zogierTi
nimuSi IVs-Sic Cans. Semdgomi periodis vercxlis Weduri xelovnebis
Zeglebi qristianul xelovnebas ganekuTvneba da qristianuli
msoflmxedvelobis matarebelia.
vercxlis qimiuri analizi adasturebs, rom am liTonisagan
gakeTebul sasmisSi Casxmuli siTxe ufro uvnebeli xdeba; vercxli
bacilebs spobs. vercxlis es Tviseba icodnen Zveladac da am
liTonis sasmisebs sakralur ritualebSi iyenebdnen. aRsaniSnavia,
rom saqarTvelos antikuri xanis vercxlis torevtikuli nawarmi
ZiriTadad maRalsinjiania. saqarTvelos qristianuli xanis Wedur
nawarms ki xSirad vercxlSi, simkvrivis gazrdis mizniT, umatebdnen
spilenZs. aseT nivTebs droTa ganmavlobaSi momwvano Jangi da
korozia uCndeba [6, gv.79-84]. sof. gomis sasmisi moTeTro maRalsin-
jiani vercxlisaganaa damzadebuli, stibiumis minarevebiT. stibiumis,
vercxlis magvari moTeTro liTonis sabado mdebareobs zemo raWaSi
brilTan (zofxitoSi), xolo vercxli moipoveba kvaisaSi (javis r-
nSi). sayuradReboa agreTve, rom sof. gomis axlos brilis cnobil
arqeologiur Zeglze mopovebuli liTonis nawarmi Seicavs stibiums
(analizebi Caatara liTonmcodnem g. inaniSvilma). vercxlis sabadoeb-
Tan dakavSirebiT yuradRebas iqcevs strabonis cnobac xalibebis
mier, rkinis garda, vercxlis mopovebis Sesaxeb (XII,3,19).
amgvarad, kavkasionis samxerT ferdze, zemo raWaSi, sof. gomSi
dadasturebuli vercxlis yanw-ritoni, Cveni versiiT adgilobrivi
nawarmia, zogadad gvianelinistur-gvianantikur xanaSia damzadebuli
da brilis samarovanidan unda iyos. dakrZalvis ritualisaTvis
damzadebul vercxlis sasmisze gamosaxuli siuJeti xelosnis mier
sociogaremos aRqmis gamoxatulebas warmoadgens, rac erTi mxriv
153

Crdilo kavkasiur (sarmatul-alanuri), meore mxriv romaul
samyarosTan iCens garkveul siaxloves.

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155

jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforebi

saqarTvelos zRvispireTis q. foTSi, paliastomis tbis


dasavleT napirTan, adgil "natexebSi" arqeologiurma eqspediciam
friad sayuradRebo damRa aRmoaCina. aq niadagi ZiriTadad Tixa-
qviSiania, xolo qveS Tixa-torfiani fenaa, sadac Zv.w. IV_IIss-is
arqeologiuri masala, kerZod, atikuri Savlakiani WurWlis
profilirebuli qusli da rodosuli amforis Ziri aRmoCnda [ix.
. 1992: tab.5,6,]. aqve jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforis
fragmentic dadasturda. qvemoT, SeZlebisdagvarad vecdebiT,
ganvsazRvroT am aRmoCenis mniSvneloba kolxeTis istoriisaTvis, rac
iTvaliswinebs iseTi sakiTxebis ganxilvas, rogoricaa: 1.damRis
aRmoCenis arqeologiuri konteqsti; 2.kolxeTSi dadasturebuli sxva
jvriani damRebis topografia; 3.jvris, rogorc simbolos
mniSvneloba; 4.kolxeTSi amforebis, savaWro taris warmoebis
sakiTxi; 5.damRa, rogorc uflebrivi savaWro niSani; 6.damRis
aRmoCenis adgili, fasisi, rogorc vaWrobis centri.
q. foTSi "natexebis" namosaxlarze aRmoCenili arqeologiuri
masalis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ix. [gamyreliZe, 1987:97-117; gamyreliZe,
2003:170-185; gamyreliZe, 2002:70-101; Gamkrelidze, 1992:101-119;
, 1992:30-48]. qveda fenebSi Zv.w.IV_IIIss. sxva
arqeologiur artefaqtebTan erTad damRiani kolxuri amforis
yuric dadasturda. foTSi, "natexebis" qveda fenaSi aRmoCenili
kolxuri amforis yurze mkafiod reliefuri damRa zeda mxarezea
dasmuli. yuri ovalurganivkveTiania. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi
moTeTro da moSavo mcirenatexovani namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri
xorklian-forovania. damRa wriulia (dm-1,9sm) da Sig tolmklava
jvaria Casmuli. damRa anepigrafikulia. jvari yurTan mimarTebaSi
gadaxrilia (tab.II, sur.1). sul cotaxnis win wriuldamRiani
kolxuri amforebi mecnierebisaTvis ucnobi iyo. amjerad ki ukve
aRmoCenilia da cnobilia wreSi Casmul jvriani damRebi, romlebic
156

erTmaneTs hgvanan foTidan, fiWvnar-Coloqidan, vanis naqalaqaridan
(ix. tab.I, gavrcelebis ruka). sul dResdReobiT dokumenturad
cnobilia cxra cali. kidev erTi egzemplari zepiri gadmocemiT
dasturdeba. am tipis sami damRa dafiqsirebulia adgilobrivi
warmoebis qvevrze. sxvebTan SedarebiT gansxvavebuli jvari, erTi
cali, jamzec aRmoCnda.
jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforebisa da qvevrebis CamonaTvali:
1) kolxuri amforis ovalurganivkveTiani yuri wreSi Casmuli jvris
damRiT aRmoCnda Coloqis namosaxlarTan, md. Coloqis marcxena
napirze. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi moTeTro da moSavo
mcirenatexovani namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri xorklian-forovania.
TariRdeba Zv.w.IIIs. inaxeba fiWvnaris arqeologiuri eqspediciis
bazis fondSi (ix. [cecxlaZe., iaSvili, 1991:58-61]); (tab. IV,sur.1).
2) kolxuri amforis ovalurganivkveTiani yuri wriuli damRiT,
romelSic tolmklava jvaria Casmuli. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi
moTeTro da moSavo namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri xorklian-
forovania. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze; nakveTi213-212;
sav.#07:1-04:470.fena Zv.w.IV-IIss-isaa (tab.III,sur.1).
3) kolxuri amforis ovalurganivkveTiani yuri wriuli damRiT,
romelSic tolmklava jvaria Casmuli. Tixa mowiTalo-yavisferia da
masSi moTeTro da moSavo mcirenatexovani namcecebi SeimCneva.
zedapiri xorklian-forovania. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris zeda
terasaze; nakveTi222; sav.#07:1-74:360. fena Zv.w. IV_IIss-isaa
(tab.III,sur.2). [gigolaSvili da sxv. 1979: tab.5,sur.30].
4) kolxuri amforis ovalurganivkveTiani yuri wriuli damRiT,
romelSic tolmklava jvaria Casmuli. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi
moTeTro da moSavo mcirenatexovani namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri
xorklian-forovania. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris qveda terasaze;
nakveTi67, cisternasTan; sav.#07:1-79:2067. fena Zv.w. II-Iss-is
artefaqtebs Seicavs (tab.III, sur.3).
157

5) kolxuri amforis ovalurganivkveTiani yuri wriuli damRiT,
romelSic tolmklava jvaria Casmuli. wre mTlianad ar aris jvriT
Sevsebuli. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi moTeTro da moSavo
mcirenatexovani namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri xorklian-forovania.
aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze; nakveTi213; sav.#07:1-03:65.
fena Zv.w. IIs-is artefaqtebs Seicavs (tab.III, sur.4).
6) kolxuri amforis ovalurganivkveTiani yuri momrgvalebul
mklaviani svastikis damRiT. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi moTeTro da
moSavo namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri xorklian-forovania. aRmoCnda
vanis naqalaqaris centralur terasaze; nakveTi 127-142; sav.#07:1-
04:2287. fena Zv.w. III_Iss-is artefaqtebs Seicavs; (tab.II, sur.2).
7) kolxuri amforis ovalurganivkveTiani yuri jvriani damRiT.
jvris qveda mxare odnav wagrZelebulia. jvris garSemo wre ar
SeimCneva. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi moTeTro da moSavo
mcirenatexovani namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri xorklian-forovania.
aRmoCnda md. sulorTan, vanis naqalaqaridan aRmosavleTiT, adgil
"mSvidobis goraze" zedapiruli arqeologiuri dazvervebis dros;
sav.#07:9-05:34. iqve dadasturda Zv.w.III_Iss-is artefaqtebi (tab.III,
sur.5). vanis naqalaqaris centralur terasaze kolxuri amforis
kidev erTi jvriandamRiani yuri aRmoCnda (samwuxarod, sadReisod
ucnobia misi Senaxvis adgili).
8) adgilobrivi warmoebis qvevris pirze wriuli damRaa, romelSic
tolmklava jvaria Casmuli. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi moTeTro da
moSavo namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri xorklian-forovania. aRmoCnda
vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze; nakv.222; sav.#07: 1-74:277. fena
Zv.w. III_ax.w.IVss-is Aartefaqtebs Seicavs (tab.IV, sur.4).
9)adgilobrivi warmoebis qvevris samkuTxaganivkveTian pirze damRaa,
romelSic tolmklava jvaria Casmuli. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi
moTeTro da moSavo mcirenatexovani namcecebi SeimCneva. zedapiri
xorklian-forovania. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze;
nakveTi221; sav.#07:1-70:329. fena Zv.w.III_ax.w. IVss-is Aartefaqtebs
158

Seicavs. qvevris es fragmenti Zlier dazianebul adreSuasaukuneebis
qurasTan aRmoCnda. sadReisod, samarTlianad fiqroben, rom es
keramika Zv.w.IV-IIIss-is unda iyos (Seadare: [cecxlaZe,...,1991: 59].
10) adgilobrivi warmoebis qvevris mxris fragmenti, romelsac
wreSi Casmuli tolmklava jvris tvifri aqvs. aRmoCnda gurianTas
namosaxlarze, romelic md. sufsis marcxena mxares (ozurgeTis r-ni)
mdebareobs. fena Zv.w. IV-IIIss-iT TariRdeba (tab.IV, sur.2); (ix.
[vaSakiZe, 1971: 17]).
vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze aRmoCnda jamis Ziris fragmenti,
romelsac wreSi Casmuli tolmklava jvris tvifri amSvenebs. es
jvari, sxvebTan SedarebiT gansxvavebulia. mas gaoTxmagebuli
mklavebi aqvs. Tixa moyavisfroa da masSi moTeTro da moSavo
mcirenatexovani namcecebi SeimCneva. nak.191-194; sav.#07:1-75:203. fena
Zv.w. III-Iss. artefaqtebs Seicavs (tab.IV,sur.3)[gigolaSvili da sxv.
1979:44]. sayuradReboa, agreTve rom sof. patarZeulSi (sagarejos
r-ni) aRmoCenil samarxeul kompleqsSi, adgilobrivi warmoebis
samtuCa doqi dadasturda, romlis saxeluris Tavzec jvriani damRaa
dasmuli. kompleqsi Zv.w. I_ ax.w. Iss. TariRdeba (ix.[narimaniSvili,
1999: 68, sur.1]).
jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforebi, dResdReobiT, kolxeTis
garda, arsad ar aris mikvleuli. isini, stratigrafiuli monacemebis
da artefaqtebis konteqstze dayrdnobiT, ZiriTadad Zv.w. IVs-is
miwuruliT _ IIs-iT unda daTariRdes. damRebze, jvris formebis
garkveuli sxvadasxvaoba SeimCneva. Semdgom periodSi dasavleT
saqarTveloSi mravlad aRmoCenil Zv.w. II-Iss-is kolxuri amforebis
yurze da yelze, xSirad sxvadasxva niSnebia amokawruli. jerjerobiT
amgvari niSnebis ocdaaTamde saxeobaa dadasturebuli. sayuradReboa,
rom daaxloebiT aseTi niSnebi kolxeTSi jer kidev Zv.w. IVs-dan
qvevrebze, xolo Zv.w. IIIs-dan kramitebze da sawafebzec fiqsirdeba.
isini, mecnierebis mier, ZiriTadad qvevrebis, amforebisa da
kramitebis damamzadebeli saxelosnoebis niSnebadaa miCneuli [ix.
159

fuTuriZe, 2003: 102-103]. am niSnebs Soris aris jvris niSan-
grafitoebic (ix. tab.IV,sur.6). wreSi Casmuli wvriltana jvriani
damRebi cnobilia TazosSi damzadebul amforebze. magram aq
mklavebSua oTx sivrceSi Casmulia berZnuli asoebi [,
1980: 233, sur.132; Bon, 1957: 167; , 1999: 233]. dasavleT
saqarTvelos teritoriaze damRiani Tazosuri amforebi jerjerobiT
ar aris dadasturebuli.
quTaisTan, sof.WognarSi, farnalis goris namosaxlarze, Zv.w. VII-
VIss-is fenaSi mikvleulia ori, gamomwvari Tixis, damRis dasasmeli
sabeWdavi (sav.#227,229; quTaisis arqeologiuri eqspedicia, xelmZR.
oT. lorTqifaniZe, 1964w.). damRebis dasasmeli sabeWdavebi qvis,
Tixis an liTonisagan iyo damzadebuli. magaliTad, Tixis sabeWdavebi
farnalis goris namosaxlaridan (sof. Wognari) an Zv.w.V_IIIss-is
uflebrivi dasadamRi liTonis sabeWdavebi guadixudan, vanidan,
qobuleTis fiWvnaridan, eSeradan, dablagomidan, dafnaridan da sxv.
[lorTqifaniZe mar. 1975: 14-73].
jvris Sesaxeb: jvari idumali sakoordinacio, universaluri
simboloa. is pirvelad paleoliTis periodSi gamosaxes da mas
Semdeg wamyvani adgili uWiravs kacobriobis simbolikaSi. jvari
uxsovari droidan asaxavs adamianis Sexedulebas garemo samyaroze.
jvars xSirad vxvdebiT sxvadasxva ornamentul da miTologiur
siuJetebSi, romlebic arqeologiur artefaqtebze sxvadasxvanairi
grafikiTa da kombinaciiTaa gamosaxuli. is xSirad ornamentuli
qargis erT-erTi ZiriTadi elementi da umetesi kompoziciebis
ganawilebis safuZvelia. jvari wresTan erTad samyaros aRqmis
umTavresi niSania. mecnierebi fiqroben, rom jvari warmoiqmna
gamnklavSi mdgomi adamianis gamosaxulebidan da misi simboloa;
agreTve, xaxuniT cecxlis gasaCeni jvrisebr dadebuli joxebisagan
da aRiqmeba, rogorc cecxlisa da mcxunvare mzis simbolod. jvari,
aseve SeiZleba simetriulad dagegmarebuli sacxovrisis simboloc
iyos, romelic oTx Tanabar nawilad iyofoda. mis centrSi, mTavar
160

moedanze ikveTeboda aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken da samxreTidan
CrdiloeTisaken mimarTuli gzebi. jvari, kosmogoniur-sakraluri,
magiuri Sinagani arsis simboloa da samyaros oTx mxares unda
mianiSnebdes. is wertilovani centridan oTxmxriv usasrulod
viTardeba. misi horizontalur-vertikaluri kveTa centridan
gamomdinare oTx mimarTulebas aRniSnavs. am centris garSemo jvari
simetriuladaa organizebuli.
wreSi Casmuli jvari, oTx nakveTad dayofili mbrunavi wrea,
romelic mzis uZvelesi arqetipi da kacobriobis erT-erTi mTavari
simboloa. jvris Semdgomi ganviTarebaa svastika, romelic jvris
mklavebis daboloebebis gadaxriT miiRweoda da agreTve uZvelesi
simboloa [xidaSeli, 2001: 63-65]. is mbrunav mzes, borjRals
gamoxatavs. rogorc Cans, jvari imTaviTve sakulto-sakraluri
daniSnulebis simbolo-niSani iyo. Semdgom, IVs-dan jvari
qristianobis ZiriTad kanonikur, wminda simbolod iqca. qarTul
werilobiT wyaroebSi pirvelad iakob curtavelis Vs-is nawarmoebSi
(naw. me-16) [Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi,
1964:26] moixsenieba. sayuradReboa, rom Zveli qarTuli
asomTavrulis "jan" aso-niSani jvris moxazulobiT xasiaTdeba da
Tavze horizontaluri xazi azis. jvris forma aqvs, agreTve "qan"
aso-niSans (tab.IV, sur.5) [ix. gamyreliZe T. 1989: 165, 179].
jvari mediteranul sivrceSi wina aziis arealidan gavrcelda.
gamoricxuli ar aris, rom is kavkasiidanac gavrcelebuliyo. amas
garkveulwilad adasturebs jvris xSiri gamosaxva kavkasiaSi
aRmoCenil adreuli samiwaTmoqmedo xanis, TrialeTis kulturis da
saerTod brinjaosa da rkinis epoqis, klasikuri epoqisa da saerTod
winaqristianuli periodis arqeologiur artefaqtebze. jvrebis
sxvadasxva variantebi gvxvdeba WurWelze, sabrZolo da Sromis
iaraRebze, samkaulebze da sxv. Mmravladaa dadasturebuli jvrebis
gamosaxulebebi keramikaze, oqroze, vercxlze, brinjaoze, rkinaze,
qsovilze, qvaze. kavkasiaSi winaqristianul epoqaSi, rogorc Cans,
161

jvars sakulto Tu yofiT cxovrebaSi gamorCeuli adgili eWira. Vs-
dan qristianul saqarTveloSi vrceldeba wreSi Casmuli jvrebi,
romlebic "bolnuri" jvris saxeliTaa cnobili. isini zogadad
winaqristianul epoqaSi dadasturebuli wreSi Casmul jvrebs
Camogvanan.
kolxuri samyaros erT-erTi umTavresi RvTaeba mze iyo.
magaliTad, amas adasturebs vanis naqalaqarze aRmoCenili Zv.w. IIIs-is
oficialuri warwerac, sadac me-18 striqonSi moixsenieba mzis
RvTaeba heliosi. Zvel samyaroSi mas aigivebdnen zevsTan,
apolonTan, osirisTan, iupiterTan, miTrasTan. kolxTa upirveles
RvTaebad, apolonios rodoseli Tvlis helioss (mzes), kolxeTis
mefis aietis mamas. mze nayofierebis kultTanac iyo dakavSirebuli
[yauxCiSvili, 1987: 139-142]. mzis simbolod jvari, svastika,
borjRali, wrea miCneuli. aqedan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelia, rom
romelime kolxma warCinebulma Tavis emblemad airCia jvari,
romelic simbolurad RvTaeba mzes gulisxmobda.
kolxuri amforebis Sesaxeb: aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi,
dasavleT saqarTveloSi, kolxeTSi importuli amforebi savaWro
tarad Zv.w. VIs-is meore naxevridan Cndeba. Aaq dadasturebulia
SavizRvispireTis da xmelTaSuazRvispireTis saqalaqo centrebSi
damzadebuli amforebi [fuTuriZe, 1976: 79-90].
Zv.w. IVs-is meore naxevridan iwyeba adgilobrivi kolxuri
amforebis(resp. yavisferTixiani) warmoeba. Aam periodisaTvis
kolxuri amforebi sinopurs hgvanan. dasavleT saqarTvelos kolxuri
amforebis mravalricxovan arqeologiur monapovarSi, formis,
moculobis da Tixis mixedviT sxvadasxva tipologiuri variantebi
SeiniSneba [ix. fuTuriZe, 2003: 98-109; , 1977:68-71;
lorTqifaniZe, 1966:137-140; kaxiZe, 1971:55-63; .
1970: 81-82; gamyreliZe, 1982: 96-98; , 1980:tab.XXIII;
, , 1991:170-185; xalvaSi, 2002:10-20 da sxv.]. agreTve
sxvaobaa qronologiuradac. kolxuri amforebi, rogorc Cans
162

dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze araerT adgilas mzaddeboda.
Ees, adgilobrivi warmoebis amforebi Zv.w. IVs-is meore naxevridan
ax.w. VIIIs-mde da Semdegac sxvadasxva modifikaciiT keTdeboda
(tab.V). zogadad, kolxuri amforebi tipologiur-qronologiurad
Semdegnairad warmogvidgeba: 1) Zv.w. IVs-is meore naxevris _ IIIs-is
pirveli naxevris kolxuri amforebi sinopurs gvanan, oRond Tixis
zedapiri ufro xorkliania, feri ki moyavisfro. gvxvdeba Ria-
moyavisfro egzemplarebic.Aadgilobrivi, kolxuri amforebis korpusi
kvercxiseburia, lilvakiseburi piri da cilindruli yeli aqvs;
qusli wakveTili konusiseburia, cilindrulTan miaxloebuli; yurebi
Tanabrad morkaluri da WrilSi ovaluria (tab.V, sur.1).
2) Zv.w. II_Iss-is Kkolxur amforebs welze Sezneqiloba uCndebaT;
yeli cilindrulia da SedarebiT mokle; ovalurganivkveTiani yurebi
Tanabrad morkaluri da SedarebiT moklea; Tixa zedapirze
xorkliania da moyavisfro elferisaa; gvxdeba Ria-moyavisfro
egzemplarebic. saerTod, kolxuri amforebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi
damaxasiaTebeli niSania fskerze spiraluri xvia (tab.V, sur.5),
romelsac zogi mecnieri e.w. vardulisebursac uwodebs. amgvari
spiraluri xvia ucxouri amforebisaTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli.
kolxuri amforebis Tixis struqtura xaoian-forovania. Tixa Seicavs
moTeTro da moSavo mcirenatexovan namcecebs. Sereulia diabazis da
bazaltis; piroqsenitebis, kvarcis, qarsis, rkinis hidroJangis
minarevebi da sxv. Catarebulia Tixis mineralogiur-petrografiuli
analizi, ris Sedegadac dadasturda, adgilobrivi, kolxeTis
sxvadasxva regionis TixasTan maTi identurobis faqti [ix. morCaZe,
1979: 81; foforaZe, faradaSvili,... 2006: 220-224].
Zv.w. II_Iss-is kolxuri amforebis zogierT egzemplarze gvxvdeba
niSnebi (mag. ix tab.IV, sur.6). SesaZloa isini xelosnis mier
amforis moculobas an raodenobas aRniSnavdes. kolxur amforaze
datanili niSnebi hgavs adgilobriv damzadebul qvevrebze da
kramitze aRbeWdil niSnebs. agreTve aRsaniSnavia, rom vanSi
163

aRmoCenil erT-erT adgilobriv amforas zedapiri iseve aqvs
damuSavebuli, rogorc adgilobriv qvevrebs _ vertikalur xazebiani
horizontaluri sartylebiT [, 1977: 68-69].
kolxeTSi aRmoCenilia keramikis gamosawvavi qurebi, sadac sxva
tipis keramikis natexebTan erTad amforebis fragmentebicaa
dadasturebuli. aseTi qura aRmoCenilia sofel gvandrasTan
(afxazeTi), romelic Zv.w. IIIs-isaa. aseTive quraa soxumTan wiTeli
Suquras namosaxlarze. quris naSTebia Seswavlili agreTve sof.
gulrifSis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT mdebare namosaxlarze.
Zv.w. IIs. meore naxevris da Zv.w. Is. kolxur amforebs fskerze
isev spiraluri xvia aqvs. cilndruli qusli ufro sokosTavisebr
momrgvalebur formas iRebs da bolo ufro Sesqelebulia. zogi
mecnieri mas e.w. Rilisebursac uwodebs. am periodis kolxuri
amforebis kedeli SedarebiT Txelia. amforebs tanze ufro SesamCnevi
Sezneqiloba uCndebaT. mecnierebi fiqroben, rom es Sezneqiloba
amforis xmeleTze transportirebasTanaa dakavSirebuli. amgvarad,
amforas ufro advilad moedeboda Sezneqilobaze bawari da ufro
moxerxebuli iqneboda cxenis an virisTvis sapalned gadakideba.
kolxuri amforebis tevadoba 13-dan 22litramde meryeobs. kolxuri
amforebi mravladaa aRmoCenili Zv.w.II_Iss-is namosaxlarebze
istoriuli kolxeTis mTel teritoriaze. aq TiTqmis ar aris am
periodis namosaxlari, sadac amgvari amforebi ar aRmoCeniliyo.
specialur samecniero literaturaSi axla TiTqmis erTxmadaa
aRiarebuli, rom es amforebi adgilobrivi, kolxuri warmoebisaa.
kolxuri amforebi dadasturebulia Semdeg punqtebSi: eSeraSi, q.
soxumSi, q. oCamCireSi, md. enguris xeobaSi, q. foTis mimdebare
teritoriaze, sof. urekiSi, md. sufsa-natanebis SuamdinareTSi, sof.
cixisZirSi, q. qobuleTis fiWvnarSi, sof. maxvilaurSi, q. baTumSi,
sof. gonioSi, sof. bukiscixeSi, sof. gurianTaSi, sof. dafnarSi,
sof. dablagomSi, sof. mTisZirSi, q. quTaisis midamoebSi, sof.
sagviCioSi, q. vanSi da mis mimdebare teritoriaze da sxv. Zv.w. II_
164

Iss-is kolxuri amforebi CrdiloeT SavizRvispireTSi sxvadasxva
namosaxlarebzea aRmoCenili. esenia _ gorgipia, kitei, kepi, neapoli
(skviTuri), qersonesi, donuzlavi, beliausi, karatobe, kerkinitida
da sxv. [. . 1991: 170-185].
3) Zv.w.II_ Iss. kolxuri amforebis Semdgomi periodis gagrZelebad
ax.w.II _III ss. e.w. yelwiboiani welSezneqili amforebi unda iyos,
romlebsac wagrZelebuli tani, TiTqmis Tanabrad morkaluli yurebi
da fskerze agreTve spiraluli xvia axasiaTebT. maTi kedeli
SedarebiT kidev ufro Txelia da yelze, yurebis miZerwvis adgilze
gamoxatuli wibo aqvT, romelic Sida mxridan odnav Cazneqilia. am
tipis amforebi mikvleulia _ biWvinTaSi, soxumSi, eSeraSi,
webeldaSi, foTSi (paliastomi), urekSi, qobuleTis fiWvnarSi,
cixisZirSi, gonioSi da sxv. (tab.V, sur.3); [xalvaSi, 2002: 10-20].
4)ax.w. III_IVss-dan welSezneqili da fskerze spiralurxviiani
kolxuri amforebis axali tipi viTardeba. am amforebs yurebi
mkveTrad aqvT zeda nawilSi moxrili da tani kidev ufro viwro da
wagrZelebuli aqvT. zogierT egzemplars tanze dabali gofrireba
uCndeba. yurebi ganivkveTSi ovalurobas kargavs da ufro brtyeli
xdeba (tab.V, sur.4).
damRebis Sesaxeb: damRis dasma, xelSeuxeblobisa da nivTis an
WurWlis SigTavsis visime sakuTrebas niSnavda. damRa mas, am qonebas,
arakeTilsindisieri adamianebis xelyofisagan samarTlebrivad icavda.
damRa daaxloebiT iseTive uflebrivi niSani iyo, rogorc monetaze
gamosaxuli emblemebi. misi gamosaxva mxolod garkveuli warCinebuli
pirebis (kolxeTSi skeptuxi, mefe, mTavari qurumi) prerogativa
iyo. mas ZiriTadad saxelmwifoebrivi gaerTianebis warCinebuli
pirebi da maRali rangis moxeleebi flobdnen da iyenebdnen. amitom,
damRa iuridiuli xasiaTis dokumentad SeiZleba CaiTvalos.
wreSi Casmuli jvari SesaZloa kolxeTis romelime qalaquri
dasaxlebis, regionis uflebamosili warCinebuli piris niSania,
romlis daqvemdebarebaSi myofi keramikuli saxelosnoebis nawarmi
165

aseTi emblemiT idamReboda. aseTi saqalaqo centri SeiZleba "vani",
"qobuleT-fiWvnari" an fasisi iyo. qalaq fasisis saSualebiT
kolxeTis nedleuli da nawarmi saerTaSoriso bazarze gaedineboda.
gamoricxuli ar aris, rom es damRebi mefis moxelisac iyo,
romelsac amforebis taris warmoebis kontroli evaleboda da
garkveuli kavSir-pasuxismgebloba gaaCnda am amforebiT gadasatani
savaWro produqciis xarisxze. Tuki dioskuria-eSeridan Zv.w. IIIs.
kolxuri amforebis cnobil damRebs gaviTvaliswinebT, romelzedac
qalaqis saxelia aRniSnuli [ix. fuTuriZe, 2003: tab.I, sur.2], maSin
SesaZloa, rom jvriani damRac, romelime sxva kolxuri qalaqis
emblemad CaiTvalos, magaliTad, savaWro qalaq fasisis.
q. fasisis Sesaxeb: es qalaqi mniSvnelovani savaWro centri iyo
[Lordkipanidze , 2000; gamyreliZe, 2003: 170-185;. Braund, 1994: 102-103;
, 1992:6-29; da sxv.], (tab.I). umniSvnelovanesi cnoba q.
fasisis mdebareobis Sesaxeb daculia strabonis "geografiaSi"
(XI,2,17). es aRweriloba dRevandeli q. foTis mdebareobas esadageba.
sayuradReboa agreTve arianes sainspeqcio aRweraSi Semonaxuli cnoba
fasisis Sesaxeb. hipokrates "haerTa..."15) Cans, rom md. fasisis qvemo
welis mosaxleoba savaWro punqtSi, fasisis emporionSi dadioda.
roca berZnebi gamoCndnen md. fasisis SesarTavTan, aq
protourbanistuli centri fasisi ukve iyo (gavixsenoT, am
teritoriaze arsebuli gvianbrinjao-adrerkinis xanis
namosaxlarebi). berZnebma am savaWro dasaxlebasTan daamyares
kontaqti da droTa ganmavlobaSi aqve gaCnda berZnuli dasaxlebac.
mogvianebiT, albaT, fasisi ufro dawinaurda. mas komunikaciebis
mixedviT moxerxebuli adgili eWira. kerZod, md. rion-fasisis
delta da is urbanistul centrad ganviTarda. md. rion-fasisis
qvemo welze arqeologiurad aRmoCenili namosaxlarebic amas
mowmobs. q. fasisi evropa-aziis sazRvao-samdinaro satranzito
savaWro gzis erT-erTi ZiriTadi punqti iyo.
166

amrigad, dasavleT saqarTveloSi, kolxeTSi aRmoCenili uaxlesi
arqeologiuri monacemebis safuZvelze da sxva artefaqtebis
moSvelieba-gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba davaskvnaT: Zv.w. IVs-is meore
naxevridan IIsaukunis CaTvliT kolxeTSi mzaddeboda amforebi,
romlebzedac tvifravdnen uflebriv, savaWro damRebs, iseve, rogorc
es xdeboda xmelTaSua da Savi zRvispira saqalaqo centrebSi.
vfiqrobT, es damRebi kolxeTis romelime saqalaqo centris (mag.
fasisis) an regionis warCinebuli piris uflebrivi emblemaa. Ees
pirovneba amforebis warmoebas akontrolebda da pasuxismgeblobas
iRebda am savaWro tariT gadaziduli produqciis xarisxze. es ki,
Tavis mxriv, mianiSnebs imdroindeli kolxeTis sazogadoebis
ganviTarebis ufro maRal doneze da misi integraciis Tvisobriv
xarisxze xmelTaSua da Savi zRvis dawinaurebul saqalaqo
centrebTan.
literatura:
gamyreliZe g. 2002: kolxeTi, gam. "logosi," Tb.
gamyreliZe g. 1987: wyalqveSa..., saq. mec.akad.macne (ist....), #1, gv. 97-117.
gamyreliZe g. 1982: centraluri kolxeTis Zveli namosaxlarebi, Tb.
gamyreliZe g. 2003: qalaq fasisis..., Jur. iberia-kolxeTi,#1, gv. 170-185.
gamyreliZe T. 1989: weris anbanuri sistema da Zv. qarTuli damwerloba, Tb.
gigolaSvili el. kaWarava d. fuTuriZe r. ..., vaniIV, Tb., gv.41-114.
vaSakiZe n. 1971: gurianTis..., samxreT-dasavleT saq. Zeglebi,II,Tb., gv.5-27.
kaxiZe am. 1971: keramikuli tara..., samxreT-dasavleT saq. Zeglebi,II,Tb.,gv.28.
lorTqifaniZe mar. 1975: kolxeTis Zv. V- III ss. sabeWdavebi, Tb.
lorTqifaniZe oT. 1966: antikuri samyaro da Zveli kolxeTi, Tb.
miqelaZe T. 1978: arqeologiuri kvleva rionis qvemo welze, Tb.
morCaZe T. 1979: Sida qarTlis antikuri periodis keramika, Tb.
narimaniSvili g. 1999: antikuri xanis samarxi..., Ziebani, #3,Tb., gv.68-70.
foforaZe n., faradaSvili ir., da sxv. 2006: keramikis mineralogiuri da
petrografiuli kvleva, akc-s kreb. Ziebani, # 17-18, Tb., gv.220-224.
fuTuriZe r. 1976: importuli amforebi..., vani II, Tb., gv.79- 90.
167

fuTuriZe r. 2003: amforebis..., Jur. iberia-kolxeTi,#1, Tb., gv.98-109.
yauxCiSvili T. 1987: vanis, kreb. qarT. wyaroTmcodneoba,VII, Tb., gv.131.
yauxCiSvili T. 1965: hipokrates cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, Tb.
Spaideli m. 1985: kavkasiis..., saq. mecn.akad. macne (ist...), #1, gv.134-140.
cecxlaZe g., iaSvili i., 1991: damRiani kolxuri amforis fragmenti
Coloqidan, _ kerb. samxreT-dasavleT saq. Zeglebi, Tb., gv.58- 61.
Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli lit..., 1964: w. I, Tb.
xalvaSi m. 2002: keramikuli tara gonio-afsarosidan, baTumi.
xidaSeli m. 2001: samyaros suraTi arqaul saqarTveloSi, Tb.
jiblaZe l. 2001: dasavleT saqarTvelos brinjao-adrerkinis xanis
namosaxlarebis arq. ruka, _ akc-is Ziebani, # 8, Tb., gv.34-38.
. 1980: , .
. . 1991: , .
, . . , . 170- 185.
. 1992: , .
. 1970: , .
. 1999: , . , .
. 1977: , . . , 151, 68.
Braund D. 1994: Georgia in Antiquity, Clarendon press, Oxford.
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littoral), The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, v. 21, #2, p. 101-119.
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tabulebis aRweriloba:
tab. I _ jvriani damRebis aRmoCenis adgilebis ruka.
tab. II _ sur. 1 _ q. foTSi, paliastomis tbis dasavleT napirTan,
adgil "natexebSi" aRmoCenili jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforis
yuri. sur. 2 _ kolxuri amforis yuri svastikis damRiT. aRmoCnda
168

vanis naqalaqaris centralur terasaze; sav. # 07:1-04:2287.
(aRweriloba ix. teqstSi).
tab. III _ sur. 1 _ jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforis yuri.
aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze; sav. # 07:1-04:470.
(aRweriloba ix. teqstSi). sur. 2 _ jvriandamRiani kolxuri
amforis yuri. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze; sav. #
07:1-74:360. (aRweriloba ix. teqstSi). sur. 3 _ jvriandamRiani
kolxuri amforis yuri. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris qveda terasaze;
sav. # 07:1-79:2067. (aRweriloba ix. teqstSi). sur. 4 _
jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforis yuri. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris
zeda terasaze; sav. # 07:1-03:65. (aRweriloba ix. teqstSi). sur. 5
_ jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforis yuri. aRmoCnda md. sulorTan,
adgil "mSvidobis goraze" (aRweriloba ix. teqstSi).
tab. IV _ sur. 1 _ jvriandamRiani kolxuri amforis yuri. aRmoCnda
md. Coloqis marcxena napiris namosaxlarze. (aRweriloba ix.
teqstSi). sur. 2 _ jvriandamRiani kolxuri qvevris fragmenti.
aRmoCnda gurianTas namosaxlarze (md. sufsasTan). (aRweriloba ix.
teqstSi). sur. 3 _ jamis fragmenti, romelsac jvris tvifri
amSvenebs. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze; sav. # 07:1-
75:203. (aRweriloba ix. teqstSi). sur. 4 _ qvevris pirze jvriani
damRa. aRmoCnda vanis naqalaqaris zeda terasaze; sav. # 07:1-74:277.
(aRweriloba ix. teqstSi). sur. 5 _ qarTuli asomTavrulis "jan" da
"qan" aso-niSani. sur. 6 _ Zv.w. II_I ss-is kolxuri amforebis
zogierTi niSani (mag. ix tab. IV, sur. 6).
tab. V _ sur. 1 _ Zv.w. IV s-is meore naxevris _ III s-is pirveli
naxevris kolxuri amforebi. sur. 2 _ Zv.w. II_I ss-is welSezneqili
kolxuri amforebi. sur. 3 _ ax.w. II _ III ss. e.w. yelwiboiani
welSezneqili kolxuri amforebi. sur. 4 _ ax.w. III_VIII ss
welSezneqili kolxuri amforebi. sur. 5 _ kolxuri amforisTvis
damaxasiaTebeli spiraluri xvia.

169

170

171

172

173




174

berZnul grafitoiani sinopuri da kolxuri amforebi
qalaq foTi-fasisidan

saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi, qalaq foTTan _ mdinare rionis
SesarTavTan, malTayvis srutis marcxena mxares da paliastomis
tbis dasavleT napirTan arqeologiurma eqspediciam friad
sayuradRebo berZnul warwera-grafitoiani amforebi aRmoaCina.
paliastomis tbasTanve Zv.w. IV_III ss-is arqeologiuri artefaqtebi
_ atikuri Savlakiani kanTarosis qusli, rodosuli amforis Ziri da
adgilobrivi, kolxuri keramika dadasturda. aqve aRmoCnda damRiani
kolxuri amforis yuric [dawvrilebiT ix. gamyreliZe, 1987: 97-117;
, 1992: 30-48, tab.5-8; gamyreliZe, 2010: 176-189]. qvemoT
gTavazobT amforebze amokawruli berZnuli grafitoebis gaSifvris
versiebs (ix. tab.IV) da am masalis aRmoCenis mniSvnelobas qalaq
fasisis, rogorc savaWro centris gaazrebis konteqstSi, rac
saSualebas iZleva zogierTi sakiTxi axleburad davinaxoT.
q. fasisi evropa-aziis sazRvao-samdinaro-saxmeleTo satranzito
gzis mniSvnelovani punqti iyo. qalaq fasisis saSualebiT
gadaizideboda samSeneblo xe, seli, selis zeTi, Tafli, Rvino,
spilenZi, rkina, kanafi, mogvianebiT navTic da sxv. elinistur da
romaul epoqaSi fasisis, rogorc satranzito-savaWro qalaqis
mniSvneloba gaizarda [ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1966: 117-146; inaZe, 2009:
246-251; gamyreliZe, 2001: 26-32; Gamkrelidze, 2009: 175-194].
paliastomis moxerxebul tba-limanSi, romelTanac qalaq-
navTsayudeli mdebareobda, zRvidan gemebi Semodiodnen, saidanac,
Semdeg md. rionze da md. fiCorze agrZelebdnen svlas. swored am
gzis gayolebaze satransporto taris garkveuli raodenoba
dafiqsirda. amJamad yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT grafitoiani amforebis
aRmoCenis faqtze (ix. tab. I,II,III,IV).
I _ grafitoiani amforis zeda nawili aRmoCnda sufsis
kanionisa da malTayvas Soris mdebare zRvis SelfSi. amforis Tixa
175

baci monacrisfro-moiisfroa da moSavo mcire namcecebs Seicavs.
amforis kedeli sqelia; zedapiri xorkliani aqvs da masze zRviuri
danaleqebi SeimCneva. amforis mxrebi daxrilia. piris dm _ 11 sm;
cilindruli yelis simaRle _ 15 sm; mxarTan dm _ 35 sm; yurebis
sigane _ 4,05 sm; piris lilviseburi gadanakecis sigane _ 1,04 sm;
yurebi ovalurganivkveTiania da maTze grZivi dabali wibo SeimCneva.
grafitoebi: 1) BIK (ix. tab.IV) _ yurebs Soris, mxris
dasawyisSia. A versiiT SeiZleba iyos BIK|OE| _ Tixis WurWeli,
xolo Tuki CavTvliT, rom abreviaturaa, maSin B versiiT SeiZleba
B _ Tixis WurWels, I _ Sewiruls, K_ maRali xarisxis an
kolxurs (C versiiT) niSnavdes. aseT SemTxvevaSi warwera SeZleba
gaiSifros amgvarad _ [am] Tixis WurWliT Sewirulia maRali
xarisxis [kolxuri?] [Rvino] (ix. tab. II, IV).
2) HE _ amforis meore mxares, odnav gverdze, yelTanaa
moTavsebuli. es A versiiT SeZleba niSnavdes ricxvs _ 5(xuTs). Tu
ki CavTvliT, rom es aris abreviatura maSin B versiiT iqneba _
Zveli (H) zeTisxilis zeTi (E). aq pi-s marjvena mxare
gaormagebuli xaziTaa warmodgenili da Tavze, kuTxeSi patara xazi
SeimCneva (ix. tab.II, IV).
3) XO _ amforis amave mxares mxarzea amokawruli. es grafito A
versiiT aRniSnavs tevadobas _ xoas. 1 xoa tolia 3,285 litris. (2)
warweris A versiis xuTs Tu gavamravlebT 1 xoaze maSin miviRebT
16,415 lit.-s anu xuT xoas, rac am amforis moculoba gamodis. 16
litriani adreuli, mozrdili amforebi ki sinopuri amforebis
moculobis garkveuli standarti iyo. 16 litriania vanis
naqalaqarze e.w. warCinebuli kolxi meomris samarxSi aRmoCenili
mTliani sinopuri amforac. B versiiT XO SeiZleba zedaSe(X)
Rvinos(O) niSnavdes (ix. tab.II,IV). zemoT aRwerili grafitoebiani
amfora hidroarqeologebis mier aris aRmoCenili da SesaZloa,
zRvaSi CaZiruli savaWro gemis tvirTidan iyos. is arqeologiis
176

centris fondebSi inaxeba (oTaxi #5). amfora morfologiur-
tipologiuri monacemebiT sinopuria da TiTqmis analogiuria vanis
naqalaqarze e.w. warCinebuli kolxi meomris samarxSi aRmoCenili
mTlianad Semonaxuli damRiani amforisa [ix. fuTuriZe, 1976: 82-84],
romelic arqeolog b. grakovis sinopuri amforebis klasifikaciis
mixedviT, adreul, pirvel qronologiur jgufs miekuTneba da Zv.w.
IVs. bolo _ IIIs. dasawyisiT TariRdeba [ix. , 1929: 96-108;
, 1980: 42; , 1999: 487-496].
II _ grafitoiani amforis zeda nawili md. rionis zRvasTan
SesarTavTan, SelfSi, mebadurebis mier Cagdebul bades amoyva.
amforis Tixa monacrisfro-moiisfroa da moSavo mcire namcecebs
Seicavs. amforis kedeli sqelia; zedapiri xorkliania da masze
zRviuri danaleqebi SeimCneva. amforis cali yuri, zeda mxares,
motexilia; mxrebi daxrilia; piris dm _ 10sm; cilindruli yelis
sigrZe 14sm; ovalurganivkveTiani yuris sigane _ 5sm; piris
lilviseburi gadanakecis sigane _ 1,01sm. yurebs Soris mxris
dasawyisSi amokawrulia graffito _ uIAO, romlis gagrZelebac
motexilia (ix.tab.III,1;IV). A versiiT SesaZlebelia aq igelisxmebodes
uIAO|BAKXOE| dionisesTan (bakxosTan) da saerTod Rvinis
siyvarulTan dakavSirebuli sityva. warwera SeiZleba ekuTvnodes
RviniT movaWres, romelic Tayvans scemda RvTaeba dionises. B versiiT
gamoricxuli ar aris ubralod iyos _uIAO|INIA| anu Rvinis
moyvaruli. grafitoSi uA (fi da lambda) warmodgenilia
gadabmulad ligaturis saxiT. aseTi moxazulobis samkuTxa fi
dadasturda qarelis r-nis taxtiZiris samarovnis Zv.w. IVs.
miwurulis #6 samarxSi aRmoCenili kanTarosis quslze (arqeolog
iul. gagaSiZis gaTxrebi). amgvarive, moxazulobis fi aRmoCnda
Crdilo SavizRvispireTis naqalaqar nimfeonSi dadasturebul Zv.w.
IVs. WurWlis fragmentzec [ix. , 1953:86]. sityva moyvaruli
agreTve dadasturebulia Zv.w. IVs. qoTanze Crdilo SavizRvispireTSi
miTridates mTis gaTxrisas [,1953:97-98]. C versiiT
177

SesaZlebelia amforaze igulisxmebodes uIAO |OEOE| RmerTis
moyvaruli [ix. Pape W. 1884: 1624]. aTenis agoraze aRmoCenil Zv.w.
IVs. kilikze amgvarive grafito m. langma aRadgina, rogorc _
Tasis moyvaruli [Lang, 1976:12, sur.C6]. Crdilo SavizRvispireTis
q. pantikapeonSi Zv.w. IV s-is saflavis stelis fragmenti aRmoCnda,
sadac warweraze figurirebs sityva moyvarulis nawili da Semdeg
eTnonimi kolxi, romelic SeiZleba qeifis moyvarul kolxs
(uIAOKOMOE KOAXO) niSnavdes anu im adamians, romlisadmic es
warweriani saflavis stelaa miZRvnili, qeifi da drostareba
uyvarda [Seadare, , 1965: 183; ix. agreTve , 1958: 1730].
foTSi aRmoCenili meore grafitoiani amforac, pirveli amforis
msgavsad, morfologiur-tipologiuri monacemebiT sinopuria da
arqeolog b. grakovis mixedviT pirvel qronologiur jgufs unda
miekuTvnebodes da Zv.w. IVs-is bolo _ IIIs-is dasawyisiT TariRdeba
[, 1929: 97].
berZnuli grafitoebis aRmoCena yvelaze xSiria aRmosavleT
xmelTaSua da Savi zRispireTis regionebSi. saqarTveloSi berZnuli
grafitoebi ZiriTadad dasavleT saqarTvelos, kolxeTis,
arqeologiur masalaSi gvxvdeba, kerZod _ qobuleTis fiWvnaris,
sairxis, eSeris naqalaqaris, oCamCiris, vanis naqalaqaris, biWvinTis
naqalaqaris, soxumis naqalaqaris, webeldis da foTis arqeologiuri
Zeglebis artefaqtebze. saqarTveloSi berZnuli grafitoebis
raodenoba mcirea da upiratesad ucxoeTidan Semotanil keramikaze
gvxdeba. isini jerjerobiT sul 140 erTeulamdea dadasturebuli.
dasavleT saqarTvelos xsenebuli arqeologiuri Zeglebidan,
ZiriTadad erT, or an sam asoiani grafitoebi gagvaCnia [nasiZe, 2002:
10]. asoebis raodenobis simcire maTi sxvadasxvanairi interpretaciis
SesaZleblobas zrdis da xSirad mecnierTa kamaTis sagania.
grafitoebi, ZiriTadad, gamomwvar keramikaze wamaxvilebuli raime
sagniT Sesrulebuli nakawri warweraa. amnairi warwera-grafitoebiT
pirovnebebi, umetesad Tavis sakuTar nivTs, romelime RvTaebisadmi
178

Sesawir saTanado SigTavsian WurWels, savaWro zoma-wonas da sxv.
aRniSnavdnen. arsebobs magiuri, SelocviTi xasiaTis warwera-niSnebic.
grafitoebi xSirad gamoisaxeboda inicialebis, ligaturis,
abreviaturis saxiT. gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobisaa WurWelze da
gadasatan taraze datanili savaWro aRniSvnebi. aRiniSneba Tu ra
produqtia (mag.: zeTi, Rvino, Tafli, ludi da a.S.) WurWelSi da ra
moculobisaa is (mag.: ramdeni xoa an kotila), ra fasi aqvs (mag.:
ramdeni _2 draqma an 3 oboli), rogori Tvisebebisaa (mag.: naTeli an
mJave) da sxv. [ix. , 1980: 72-99; , 1985: 77-91; Lang,
1976:1-5; nasiZe,2002: 5-24]. am tipis grafitoebi maRalganviTarebul
savaWro qmedebaze migvaniSnebs. xSirad grafito mxolod erT
asoiania da SesaZlebelia RvTaebis saxelis pirvel asos
warmodgendes. magaliTad: O_ RvTaeba zogadad, A_ apolonis an
artemides, A_ demetrasi,H H_herasi, B_ bakxosi; an nivTis
mflobelis saxels niSnavdes mag.: u_ fintidos, A_ demes da sxv.
[ix.nasiZe,1999:19-20]. grafitoebis mniSvnelovani nawili warmoadgens
abreviaturas, romlis TiToeuli aso raRacas aRniSavda da im epoqis
sazogadoebis didi nawilisaTvis misi mniSvneloba kargad iyo
cnobili.
berZnul-laTinuri werilobiTi wyaroebis mixedviT qalaqi
fasisi mdinare fasisis (rion-yvirilas) deltis marcxena mxares iyo
ganlagebuli. aqve asaxeleben tbasac(paliastomi?). amgvari gansazRvra
dRevandeli foTis mdebareobas esadageba. amitom mecnierebs erTxmad
miaCniaT, rom Zveli fasisi foTsa da mis mimdebare teritoriaze
mdebareobda [ix. Lordkipanidze, 2000:3-9; , 1938: 315-320;
gamyreliZe,2003: 172]. imis gamo, rom xsenebul teritoriaze rTuli
geomorfologiuri situaciaa, klasikuri periodis fasisi
jerjerobiT mikvleuli ar aris. dRevandel foTsa da mis mimdebare
teritoriaze yvelaze Zveli arqeologiuri monacemi adgil
natexebTan, paliastomis tbis Crdilo-dasavleT nawilSi Tixa-
torfian fenebSi dadasturda. md. rion-fasisis qvemo welze
179

arqeologiurad Seswavlil namosaxlarebze Zv.w. VIs-is ucxouri
nawarmi adgilobrivTan SedarebiT procentulad cotaa. rogorc Cans,
roca md. fasisis SesarTavTan berZnebi gamoCndnen, aq dasaxlebebi
ukve iyo.
foTi-fasisTan aRmoCenili berZnulenovani grafitoebis
dadasturebis da gaSifris safuZvelze da sxva artefaqtebis
moSvelieba-gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba davaskvnaT: Zv.w. IVs-is meore
naxevridan kolxeTSi intensiurad Semodioda sinopuri amforebi
[fuTuriZe, 1976: 79; gamyreliZe, 1982:99]. zogjer am amforebze
mesakuTreebi warwerebs kawravdnen, iseve, rogorc es xdeboda
aRmosavleT xmelTaSua da Savi zRvispira saqalaqo centrebSi. es
grafitoebi xSirad vaWrebis mier keTdeboda, romlebic saqonlis
savaWro tariT transportirebas da aRricxvas awarmoebdnen. es
erTxel kidev, mianiSnebs imdroindeli kolxeTis sazogadoebis
integraciis Tvisobriv xarisxze xmelTaSua da Savi zRvis
dawinaurebul saqalaqo centrebTan. am SemTxvevaSi ki kerZod, qalaq
sinopTan, romelic jerkidev Zv.w. VI-Vss-Si aqtiur ekonomikur
politikas awarmoebs da samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi,
kolxeTTan axlos _ kerasuntSi, kotioraSi da trapezuntSi
axalSenebs aarsebs. aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi, dasavleT
saqarTveloSi, kolxeTSi ucxouri amforebi savaWro tarad Zv.w. VIs-
is meore naxevridan Cndeba. Aaq dadasturebulia Savi da xmelTaSua
zRvispireTis saqalaqo centrebSi damzadebuli amforebi. dasavleT
saqarTvelos sinopuri amforebis mravalricxovan arqeologiur
monapovarSi, formis, moculobis da Tixis mixedviT sxvadasxva
tipologiuri variantebi gvxvdeba [ix. kaxiZe, 1971: 28; fuTuriZe,
1976: 79]. Zv.w. IV_IIss-is sinopuri amforebis zogierT egzemplarze
gvxvdeba grafitoebi, romlebiTac xSirad mflobelis mier amforis
moculoba, SigTavsi, raodenoba an fasi aRiniSneboda. q. sinopeSi
keramikis gadasazidi taris, amforebis warmoebis saxelosnoebi iyo
ganlagebuli (mag. demirsis II-VIss saxelosnoebi [ix. kasab tezgori
180

d. 2006:155]). aq damzadebuli amforebi mTeli SavizRvispireTis
Zvel namosaxlarebzea didi raodenobiT mikvleuli. SesaZlebelia,
rom sinopelebi zogjer carieli tariTac vaWrobdnen, romlebic
gemebiT gadahqondaT. maTi amforebi, rogorc Cans saukeTeso WurWlad
iTvleboda Txevadi da marcvlovani saqonlis transportirebisaTvis.
foTi-fasisis mimdebare teritoriaze gavrcelebuli ucxouri
keramika da kerZod, sinopuri amforebi aq, aRmosavleT xmelTaSua da
SavizRvispireTis qalaqebis savaWro-ekonomikuri aqtivobis
maniSnebelia. Cven viziarebT im mosazrebas, rom qobuleTis fiWvnarSi
sinopelebis axalSeni iyo [ix. inaZe,2009: 278; , 1987:38;
kvirkvelia, 1999: 30; , 2004:91]. sinopelebis, aseTive
ubani albaT qalaq fasisSic mdebareobda. amis erT-erTi
damadasturebeli faqti ki SeiZleba zemoxsenebuli grafitoiani
sinopuri amforebis aq aRmoCenac iyos. Zv.w. IVs-is meore naxevarsa
da Zv.w. III s-is dasawyisSi sinopelebis savaWro aqtiuroba kolxeTSi
da gansakuTrebiT mis zRvispireTSi gamorCeul xasiaTs iRebs. aq
dadasturebulia sinopuri amforebis, luTeriebis da kramitis
fragmentebis didi raodenoba. maTi mibaZviT ki, amforebis da
kramitis adgilobrivi warmoeba iwyeba. am dros aq mimoqcevaSia
mniSvnelovani raodenobis sinopuri monetebic [, 1987: 33],
romlebic dadasturebulia dasavleT saqarTvelos arqeologiur
Zeglebze. aRmosavleT xmelTaSuazRvispireTis savaWro saqoneli q.
sinopis gavliT xvdeboda q. fasisSi da Semdeg md. rionis gavliT
gadanawildeboda Sida kolxeTSi. q. sinopi TiTqmis mTeli antikuri
epoqis ganmavlobaSi, kolxeTis udides savaWro partniors
warmoadgenda, romelic qobuleTis fiWvnarSi da fasisSi arsebuli
vaWarTa da xelosanTa axalSenebis saSualebiT axorcielebda
ekonomikur aqtiurobas, rasac dasavleT saqarTveloSi aRmoCenili
arqeologiuri monacemebi adastureben [ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1966: 117;
fuTuriZe, 1976: 79].
***
181

q. fasisi, adreul bizantiur periodSic evropa-aziis sazRvao-
samdinaro-saxmeleTo satranzito gzis mniSvnelovani punqtis
funqcias asrulebda. amis erT-erTi mowmobaa q. foTSi, paliastomis
tbis dasavleT mxares mdebare namosaxlaric, sadac mesame
grafitoiani welSezneqili amfora aRmoCnda.
III _ grafitoiani amfora wagrZelebultaniani da welSezneqilia;
mxrebis zeda nawili motexili aqvs; SemorCenili simaRle _ 67sm;
tani Zirisaken konusurad viwrovdeba, romelzedac dabali gluvi
horizontaluri Rarebi SeiniSneba; tanze ramdenime xvreli aqvs; Tixa
moyavisfroa; zedapiri xorkliania; mxris dasawyisSi amokawrulia
graffito- uw. (ix. tab.III,2; IV). berZnul grafitoebSi
abreviaturebi ZiriTadad mTavruli asoebiT aRiniSneboda. aq ki
pirveli asoa (u "fi) mTavruli, rac Cveni azriT sakuTar saxels _
fasiss unda niSnavdes, xolo meore aso aRniSnulia ara mTavruliT
(e "omega) da vfiqrobT igulisxmeba zmna yidva. Sesabamisad A
versiiT gamodis_ fasisSi viyide. B versiiT SeiZleba
niSnavdesuO|E| _ naTeli//kargi(Rvino ?). amfora morfologiur
da tipologiuri monacemebiT adgilobrivi, kolxuria; inaxeba q.
foTis kolxuri kulturis muzeumSi. rogorc aRvniSneT, mocemuli
amfora paliastomis tbis dasavleT mxares e.w. natexebis
namosaxlarTan, napirTan axlos, qviSa-Tixian fenaSi dadasturda.
garda aRniSnuli amforisa am Zeglze metad mravalferovani
arqeologiuri masala gamovlinda (dawvrilebiT ix. [gamyreliZe g.
1987: 97-117; Gamkrelidze, 1992: 101-119; , 1992: 30-48 ;
Gamkrelidze, 1990: 223-236.]).






182

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185

186

187


188

kolxur-mosuinikuri saomari istoriis zogirTi sakiTxi
(mosuini; falanga; Zv.w.401w.; inkorporacia)

saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Cveni winaprebi brZolebSi iyvnen Cabmuli.
isini mters Seupovrad erkinebodnen. am brZolebSi viTardeboda da
ixveweboda maTi samxedro-sabrZolo gamocdileba, strategia, taqtika da
SeiaraReba. antikur epoqaSi Zveli saqarTvelos teritoriaze
politikuri hegemonoba kolxeTma da iberiam moipoves, romelTa adgilsa
da safuZvelze momavalSi warmoiqmna erTiani saxelmwifo _ saqarTvelo.
werilobiTi wyaroebis, arqeologiuri da epigrafikuli Zeglebis
monacemebis urTierTSedarebis da kritikulad ganxilvis safuZvelze
garkveulwilad xerxdeba xsenebuli epoqis saqarTvelos samxedro-
politikuri istoriis met-naklebi aRdgena-warmodgena. evropisa da
aziis sazRvarze mdebare kolxeTi samxedro da politikur-ekonomikuri
Zalis, erTi mxriv, iranuli da, meore mxriv, antikuri orientaciis
qveynebis saomari moqmedebebis xSiri asparezi iyo.
Zv.w. I aTaswleulis pirvel naxevarSi urartus (ix.,
1954) agresiulma mezoblobam Zveli saqarTvelos teritoriaze
momxdurTan dasapirispireblad sazogadoebis sxvadasxva jgufebis
TavdacviTi organizeba da konsolidacia gamoiwvia. Zv.w. 720wlidan wina
aziaSi e.w. kimeriul-skviTuri tomebis permanentuli brZolebiT SemoWra
iwyeba. es, nomaduri, meomari tomebi momTabareobas eweodnen da cxenebis
meSveobiT swrafad gadaadgildebodnen. isini mTeli jalabobiT da
qonebiT moZraobdnen. kimeriel-skviTebis saomari taqtikis ZiriTadi
safuZveli iyo - msubuqad SeiaraRebuli swrafi cxenosnebi, romlebic
elviseburad moqmedebdnen; maTi didi raodenoba; rkinis specifikuri
SeiaraReba (mSvild-isrebi, satevrebi, culebi).
kimeriel-skviTebis nomaduri, agresiuli tomobrivi gaerTianebebi
samxreT ruseTis tramalebidan Savi zRvis CrdiloeTi da dasavleTi
sanapiros gayolebiT brZolebiT moZraobdnen. isini bosfor-dardanelis
srutis gadmolaxviT SeiWrnen wina aziaSi (ix., 1976) da im
189

drois mdidar, mowinave qveynebs daerivnen. kimeriel-skviTebis
gaerTianebebma daarbies da daaqcies mTeli rigi qveynebi. brZolebiT
gaiares wina azia da aq geopolitikuri situacia garkveulwilad
Secvales. qarTveluri mosaxleobiT dasaxlebuli samxreT
transkavkasiis teritoriaze misvlisas maTi saomar-agresiuli
potenciali, permanentuli brZolebis Sedegad, ukve mniSvnelovnad
dasustda. SesaZloa, rom am droisaTvis kimeriel-skviTebis nawili
asimilirda adgilobriv mosaxleobaSi. nawili ki Cadga adgilobriv
xelisufalTa samsaxurSi. magaliTad, urartus mefe rusa II-is (Zv.w.685-
645ww.) jarSi kimerielebic ibrZodnen (, 1954, gv.364).
kimeriel-skviTTa didi laSqrobebi ar Sexebia transkavkasias.
dRevandeli saqarTvelos teritoriaze aRmoCenil arqeologiur
masalaSi ar Cans kimeriul-skviTuri tomebis pirveli talRis
damadasturebeli artefaqtebi. aq zogadad Zv.w. VIIs. boloTi da VIs.
daTariRebuli e.w.skviTuri materialuri kulturis elementebi mcire
raodenobiT Cans (akinakebi, qarqaSis bunikebi, culebi, cxenis lagmebi).
ix. arqeologiuri artefaqtebi _ sof. kolxididan, yulanurxvidan,
Coban-lukidan, guadixudan, wiTeli Suquridan, soxumidan, merxeulidan,
paluridan, nigvzianidan, brilidan, Tliadan, rokidan, dvanidan,
wiwamuridan, samTavrodan, xovledan, diRmidan, beSTaSenidan, kumisidan,
Sulaveridan, melaanidan (ix. fircxalava, 1978, gv.31-52 da tab.9-14).
sayuradReboa agreTve, rom saqarTvelos arqeologiur monacemebSi ar
Cans e.w.skviTebis raime saomari moqmedebis kvali. Tumca arqeologiuri
masalidan isic irkveva, rom adgilobrivi kulturisaTvis
damaxasiaTebel elementebTan erTad, zogierT samarxSi, iSviaTad, e.w.
skviTurisaTvis mikuTvnebuli esa Tu is nivTic Cndeba. Zv.w. VIsaukuneSi
qarTveluri xalxiT dasaxlebul centralur, dasavleT da samxreT-
dasavleT transkavkasias aqemeniduri iranis imperia daumezoblda.
aqemenidebma xmelTaSua zRvidan indoeTamde da sparseTis yuridan
aralis zRvamde teritoriebi gaaerTianes (ix., 1985). am
uzarmazarma imperiam, bunebrivia, didi roli iTamaSa transkavkasiis
190

qveynebis ganviTarebaze. aqemenidebma transkavkasiis sruli damorCileba
ver SeZles, albaT rTuli reliefis da geopolitikuri viTarebis gamo,
magram samxreT transkavkasiaze ki ganavrces Tavisi zegavlena. maT
daimorCiles es teritoriebi da imperiis XIX satrapiaSi Seiyvanes;
wliurad 300talants oqroTi axdevinebdnen (ix. herodote, ist.III,94).
Zv.w.400-410wlebisTvis aqemenidebs kolxebi, mosuvinikebi da xalibebi
aRar emorCilebodnen (ix. qsenofonti, anabasisi,VII,8,25). mefe
artaqserqse II-s (Zv.w. 404-359ww.) aumxedrda Zma _ kirosi, ramac
ganapiroba aqemenidianTa gavlenis erTgvari dasusteba imperiis
periferiebSi, kerZod, samxreT-dasavleT transkavkasiaSic. Zv.w. 401wels
kapadokiisa da lidiis (mcire aziaSi) mmarTvelma ufliswulma kirosma
iranis mefe artaqserqseII-s winaaRmdeg samefo taxtis wasarTmevad omi
wamoiwyo. am omSi berZeni daqiravebuli meomrebis erT-erTi samxedro
xelmZRvaneli iyo qsenofonti, romelmac aRwera brZolebi da is
teritoriebi, sadac qarTveluri modgmis xalxi cxovrobda. qalaq
babilonTan momxdari brZolis Sedegad ufliswuli kirosi daiRupa,
xolo misi jari daiSala; daqiravebuli, omebSi gamobrZmedili
daaxloebiT 10.000meomari berZeni gamoemarTa samSobloSi. gzad maT
samxreT-dasavleT transkavkasiaze gaiares, sadac adgilobriv qarvelur
mosaxleobasTan, umetesad brZoliT, xolo zogjer molaparakebebiT
mZimed da rTulad ikafavdnen gzas. 10.000-ian jars didi raodenobiT
sursaTi dasWirdeboda, rac berZeni meomrebis adgilobrivebTan brZolis
ZiriTadi mizezi iyo. zog gamagrebul qalaqs, romelic moicavda
simagreTa mTel sistemas, brZolebiT, SturmiT iRebdnen, zogs ki ver
iRebdnen da amitom gverds uvlidnen. berZenma meomrebma mravali
gamagrebuli qalaqi gaiares, romelTa gamagrebis sistema qsenofontis
gadmocemiT sxvadasxvanairi iyo. magaliTad, maT ver SeZles erT-erTi
cixe-simagris aReba: "rodesac berZnebi am mTian qveyanaSi mividnen
(adgilobrivma mcxovreblebma)... gadawves da miatoves Tavisi simagreebi,
romlebic advilad asaRebad eCvenebodaT...". "...erTi cixe-simagre maTi
dedaqalaqi iyo...", "...mas garSemo Rrma Txrili hqonda da amitom
191

misadgomad saxifaTo iyo. hoplitma meomrebma... ieriSi miitanes cixe-
simagreze. maT ukan misdevdnen mealafeebi, romlebic sursaTs da sxva
qonebas agrovebdnen."..."roca berZnebma sabrZolo ieriSiT ver SeZles
cixe-simagris aReba, radgan mas garSemo ganieri Txrili da miwis yrili
hqonda Semovlebuli; maTze ki xis kedlebi da mravali koSki iyo
aRmarTuli, gadawyvites gasclodnen simagres; magram adgilobrivebi
Tavs daesxen berZnebs. gaqceva SeuZlebeli iyo, radgan simagridan xramis
gadalaxva mxolod saTiTaod SeiZleboda."..."simagre savsea mravali
simdidriT, magram misi aReba SeuZlebelia, radgan is miuvalia da arc
ukan daxevaa advili, radgan (damcvelebi) swrafad gamovardebian xolme
cixe-simagridan da xelCarTul brZolas gvimarTaven" (anabasisi,V,2,3-7).
brZolebSi berZenTa razmebi ukuiqcnen, bevri daiRupa da daiWra
(anabasisi,V,2,7).
qsenofontis, romelic samxedro saqmis kargi mcodne iyo,
Canawerebidan naTlad Cans, rom samxreT-dasavleT transkavkasiaSi
mcxovrebi qarTveluri mosaxleoba kargad flobda maSindeli samxedro
saqmis ZiriTad elementebs. kerZod, maT hqondaT sasimagro-
fortifikaciuli specialuri nagebobebi- Txrilebi, xis sasimagro
kedlebi, koSkebi, miwayrilebi; gaaCndaT im droisaTvis mowinave rkinis
iaraRi: Subi, satevari, culi, mSvild-isari; individualuri Tavdacvis
saSualebebi: fari, muzaradi, javSani; flobdnen saomar xerxebs: swrafi
ieriSi, gadajgufeba, reliefis moxerxebulad gamoyeneba; iyvnen
brZolaSi mamacni, moxerxebulni da Seupovarni (ix. anabasisiIII-V).
Zv.w.401wels kolxTa da berZenTa jaris Serkinebis Sesaxeb,
samxedro saqmis kargi mcodnis, am omSi berZnebis mxedrobis erT-erTi
meTauris, qsenofontis werilobiTi aRweraa Semonaxuli. kerZod, es
brZola kolxeTis samflobeloebis sazRvarTan, maRlobze momxdara. am
maRlobis tradiciuli berZnuli falangiT (berZenTa jaris mTavari
taqtikuri danayofi) aReba rTuli, mTagoriani reliefis gamo martivi
ar iqneboda. mTagorian adgilze falangis qveiTTa mwkrivebi uTuod
aireoda da damarcxdeboda. amitom berZenTa jaris sardlobis
192

(strategosebi - qsenofonti, xeirisofosi, esqine akarnaneli, kleanore
erqomeneli) gadawyvetilebiT "falanga" dayves cal-calke aseulebad -
loxebad (daaxloebiT 80-mde) da isini frontalurad cal-calke
daawyves mowinaaRmdegis ganlagebis mTel perimetrze. es moxda
imdagvarad, rom kolxebis wyobis xazs sWarbobda, rac Semdgom
flangebidan Setevis saSualebas miscemdaT. loxebis erTi meorisagan
dacilebuli mwkrivis win ganalages sami (TiToeulSi 600-mde msubuqad
SeiaraRebuli meomari- peltasti) mobiluri, swrafi danayofi. am Warbma
Zalebma ieriSi miitanes maRlobze mdgar kolxTa ganlagebaze da
Seupovari brZolis fasad strategiulad mniSvnelovani simaRle aiRes.
am brZolis Sedegad berZnebi kolxebis qveyanaSi SeiWrnen da Savi
zRvisaken gza gaikafes. Semdeg isini sanapiroze, kolxebis qveyanaSi,
qalaq trapezuntSi Sevidnen (ix. anabasisiIV-VIII, 17-19,22).
kolxebis samxedro xelmZRvanelobas etyoba dazvevrvis cnobebi
hqonda berZenTa saomari gadaadgilebis Sesaxeb. amitom kolxTa laSqari
sabrZolvelad mzad iyo da kolxebis sazRvarTan strategiul
maRlobebze idga. es adgili aRmosavleT pontos da lazeTis mTianeTSi
unda yofiliyo (axla mdebareobs TurqeTSi). kolxebi marTebulad
moiqcnen, roca strategiul simaRleze ganalages Tavisi mxedroba.
kolxTa ZiriTadi danayofis specialur wyobas, samxedro saqmis kargma
mcodnem, berZnebis mxridan am brZolis erT-erTma xelmZRvanelma
"falanga" uwoda (ix. anabasisi IV,VIII,17) anu "kolxuri falanga".
berZenTa jaris xelmZRvanelobam, rogorc Cans, mniSvnelovnad CaTvala
kolxTa laSqris xelsayreli strategiuli pozicia da taqtikuri
wyoba. amis gamo berZnebma brZolis tradiciuli taqtika Secvales. es ki
imis mowmoba unda iyos, rom "kolxuri falanga" sakmaod saSiSi Zala
iyo. berZnul-doriul falangas (ix., 1998,gv.89) mZimed
SeiaraRebuli (maxvilebiT, SubebiT, farebiT, muzaradebiT, sabarkulebiT,
javSnebiT) meomrebis, hoplitebis, mwkrivebad (daaxloebiT 15)
dalagebul mwyobrs uwodebdnen, romelic mTel xazze iyo ganlagebuli.
193



falanga berZenTa jaris ZiriTadad taqtikur danayofs warmoadgenda
da swor reliefze moqmedebisas SemWidrovebul damrtymel frontis
xazs qmnida, rac mas mrisxane Zalad aqcevda (ix.Connolly,1988, gv.41-
51). falangis mwkrivebis sisworisaTvis aucilebeli iyo fexawyobili
siaruli, rac mkacri wvrTniT, discipliniT da musikaluri sakravebiT
taqtis dacviT miiRweoda. berZnulma samxedro wyobam - falangam, im
epoqaSi araerTxel naTelyo upiratesoba calkeul jgufebad moqmed
meomrebTan SedarebiT.
Zv.w. 401wels momxdari brZolis dros, rogorc amas berZenTa
erT-erTi sardali, qsenofonti gadmogvcems, kolxebis falanga berZnebis
194

Setevisas swrafad, mwyobrad orad gaiyo. amis Sedegad falangis erTi
nawili marjvniv, xolo meore marcxniv gadajgufda. am qmedebiT
kolxebis xelmZRvanelobam garkveuli manevri Caatara. maT falangis
centraluri nawilis gaxsniT iseTi mdgomareba Seqmnes, rom berZnebi
SeetyuebinaT da Semdgom flangebidan apirebdnen Setevas. mocemuli
manevriT kolxebma Tavidan aiciles berZnebis loxebisagan garSemovlis
saSiSroeba. kolxebma taqtikurad swori manevri ganaxorcieles, magram
am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyveti mniSvneloba mainc berZenTa mebrZolebis
ricxobrivma simravlem iTamaSa. isini 10.000-mde iyvnen.
zemoxsenebuli, kolxTa falangis manevri, maTi winaswar
strategiul simaRleze ganlageba, imis maCvenebelia, rom kolxebs
samxedro saqme arc Tu cudad hqondaT dayenebuli. Cans, isini berZnul,
im droisaTvis mowinave samxedro xelovnebasac kargad icnobdnen.
kolxebis da berZnebis brZolis ambavs qsenofonti mokled Semdegnairad
gadmogvcems: "rodesac mowinaaRmdegem (berZeni meomrebi) SeniSna; isini
(kolxi meomrebi) gamoemarTnen maTken da amis mere gaiSalnen nawili
marjvniv, xolo nawili - marcxniv; amgvari gadajgufebiT Tavisi
falangis centrSi farTe derefani Seqmnes" (anabasisi, IV,VIII,17). Tqven
warmoidgineT, rom kolxebma jer kidev Zv.w. 401w. zemoxsenebul
brZolaSi, mowinaaRmdegis Warbi Zalebis winaaRmdeg, e.w. qimiuri iaraRis
magvari ram gamoiyenes. kerZod, roca berZenma jariskacebma aiRes
kolxebis dasaxlebuli punqtebi da iq Sevidnen, adgilobrivebma iq
datoves specifikuri Tafli. berZen "meomarTagan yvelam vinc ki Taflis
fiWa SeWama, goneba dakarga, aRebina, kuWi aeSala da arc erTs fexze
dgoma aRar SeeZlo. isini vinc cota Wama magrad mTvralebs hgvandnen,
xolo vinc bevri - SeSlilebs an momakvdavebs. umravlesoba eyara ise,
rogorc damarcxebis Semdeg brZolis velze" (anabasisi IV,8,20-21).
kolxi mebrZolebis am taqtikurma fandma berZeni meomrebi mwyobridan
gamoiyvana da maTi Seteva ramdenime dRiT SeaCera. specifikuri Taflis
saomari mizniT gamoyeneba werilobiT wyaroebSi agreTve Zv.w. Is-Sia
dadasturebuli. es ambavi daaxloebiT igive adgilebSi moxda. kerZod,
195

romael sardals pompeuss "...amouwyvites sami speira (daaxloebiT 350
meomriani razmi), romlebic moZraobdnen am mTebSi. maT (meomrebis)
gzebze farTopiriani WurWeliT dadges gamacofebeli Tafli," romaelma
meomrebma "...SeWames is da gacofdnen; maSin maT Tavs daesxen da advilad
daxoces" (ix. straboniXII,III,18). aseve e.w. qimiur iaraRad SeiZleba
CaiTvalos specifikuri Sxamiani isrebi. kerZod, specialuri
momwamvleli nivTierebiT dafaruli isrispirebi, romlis moxvedris
SemTxvevaSi mowinaaRmdegis meomrebi mcire WrilobiTac swrafad
iRupebodnen(straboniXI,II,19). Semdgom, kolxeTSi samxedro moqmedebebis
dros gamoiyeneboda "medeas zeTi," navTobic (ix. gamyreliZe, 2001,gv.26-
32) da sxva komponentebi, romelic Tanamedrove "napalms" hgavda Tavisi
moqmedebiT (ix. prokopi, BG,VIII,11,36-40). samxedro saqmis ganviTarebis
garkveul doneze miuTiTebs albaT isic, Zv.w. 400wlebSi moixseniebian
qarTveluri warmomavlobis meomrebi, romlebic aqemenidTa iranis
saxelmwifos jarSi moqiravneebad msaxurobdnen - "... tiribazs yavs jari
da moqiravneebi: xalibebi da taoxebi" (anabasisiIV,4,18). isini omobdnen
gasamrjelosaTvis da, bunebrivia, profesionali meomrebi iyvnen; iseve,
rogorc qsenofontis berZeni meomrebi, romlebic ufliswulma kirosma
daiqirava. SesaZloa moqiravneebzevea laparaki herodotesTanac, roca is
aRwers iranis mefe qserqses mier, Zv.w. 480wels saberZneTSi laSqrobas
(istoria VII,53-79).
Zv.w. IVs.-Si wina aziaSi mniSvnelovani geopolitikuri cvlilebebi
moxda. aqemenidTa iranis imperia aleqsandre makedonelis berZen-
makedonelTa Zlier armiasTan brZolebSi daemxo. aleqsandre
makedonelis saxelmwifo da samxedro moRvaweobis Sedegad
xmelTaSuazRvidan md. indamde samyaro Seicvala (ix. ,1986;
,1989; ,1985; ,1990). aleqsandre didis
samxedro-politikuri strategiisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo _
mowinaaRmdegis resursebis da samxedro Zalebis winaswari yovelmxrivi
Seswavla-dazverva; axali samxedro taqtika (e.w. makedonuri falanga) da
teqnika (individualuri SeiaraReba da saalyo manqanebi); zurgis saimedo
196

momaragebis da komunikaciebis uzrunvelyofa; mowinaaRmdegis mTavari
Zalis ganadgurebisaken swrafva; strategiuli Canafiqris sistemuri,
Tanmimdevruli da mizanswrafuli ganxorcieleba.
Zv.w. 334wels mcire aziaSi omisTvis aleqsandre makedonels
kargad organizebuli da mkacrad disciplinirebuli 48.000-iani
regularuli armia hyavda momzadebuli (ix. plutarqe, aleqsandre
makedoneli, 15). misi armia Sedgeboda - SeiaraRebis mixedviT: mZime,
saSualo da msubuqi qveiTebisagan da mxedrebisagan. amgvari, axali
organizaciuli dayofa, mTlianobaSi armiis taqtikuri manevrebis
saSualebas mkveTrad zrdida. mZimed SeiaraRebuli qveiTebi da mxedrebi
elitur danayofebs warmoadgendnen. aleqsandres armiis mTavari
danayofi "makedonuri falanga" iyo, romelic 15-dan 20-mde mwkrivisagan
Sedgeboda. pirveli mwkrivis meomrebis Subebs ukana mwkrivis grZeli
Subebic emateboda. amgvarad, Subis wverebis mrisxane kedeli iqmneboda.
falangis win msubuqad SeiaraRebuli mobiluri jgufebi midiodnen,
xolo flangebs mZimed SeiaraRebuli mxedrebi umagrebdnen; ariergardSi
msubuqad SeiaraRebuli mxedrebi moZraobdnen (ix.Connolly,1988,gv.64).
aqve aRsaniSnavia, rom aseTi raodenobis da taqtikuri danawilebis
armiisaTvis, albaT, Zneli iqneboda mTagoriani reliefis mqone qveyanaSi
warmatebuli moqmedeba (mag. kavkasiaSi). albaT erT-erTi mizezi esec
iyo, ratomac aleqsandre makedonels, piradad, kavkasiaSi ar ulaSqria.
magram aq, SesaZloa, makedonelebis mxardaWeriT samxreT-dasaavleT
transkavkasiis erT-erTma qarTveluri gaerTianebis (mag. arian qarTlis)
xelmZRvanelma, patrikma azonma ilaSqra (ix. qarTlis cxovreba, 1955,
gv.17-18; aq dasaxelebuli cixe-qalaqebis umetesi nawili arqeologiuri
gaTxrebis Sedegad sadReisod dokumenturad aris dadasturebuli).
azons daupirispirda mcxeTeli warCinebuli farnavazi Tavisi
momxreebiT, romelic agreTve garkveulwilad ucxo Zalas daeyrdno. am
dapirispirebas azonis xelisuflebis damxoba mohyva. farnavazs
SeukavSirda kolxeTis (resp. egrisis) gavleniani warCinebuli piri -
quji da azonis winaaRmdeg saomari samzadisi daiwyes. albaT maT azonis
197

mkacri politikiT ukmayofilo sxva warCinebuli mxedrebic miimxres da
ucxo tomis xalxsac uxmes; amiT "ganimravles spani" da "egrisiT
Sekribes uricxuni spani da momarTes azons" (q.c., gv.23). Cans, kolxeTi
farnavazis winaaRmdegobis erT-erTi centri iyo. azonis da farnavaz-
qujis SeiaraRebul momxreTa Soris Setakeba-sabrZolo moqmedebebiT
gamowveuli ngrevis mowmobaa albaT saqarTvelos teritoriaze
dadasturebuli Zv.w. IVs. miwurulis gadamwvari namosaxlarebi. aseTi
dangreul-gadamwvari namosaxlarebi arqeologebis mier Seswavlilia -
sof. mTisZirSi, adeiSvilebis goris gamagrebuli samosaxlo; sof.
varcixesTan vardigora; vanis naqalaqarze - e.w. TeTri Senoba da 211,
193 nakveTebis ZelurbaTqaSiani nageboba; samadlos (ix.,1979),
cixiagoras, urbnisis (ix. WilaSvili,1968,gv.35-37) gadamwvari sasimagro
nagebobebi (ix. gamyreliZe, 2002, gv.37-38, 111-121).
werilobiT wyaroebSi asaxul am saomar peripetiebSi aSkarad Cans
aleqsandre makedonelis berZen-makedonelTa imperiis da misi
memkvidreebis agresiuli interesebi kavkasiaSi. am interesebs isini
adgilobrivi warCinebulis, klarji azonis xeliT axorcielebdnen.
azonic da farnavaz-qyjic urTierT qiSpisas iyenebdnen gareSe samxedro
Zalebs (e.w. sagareo faqtori). rogorc Cans, aleqsandres sardlebi
aqtiurad ereodnen iberiel warCinebulTa pirvelobisTvis brZolebSi.
isini dainteresebulni iyvnen, rom Tavisi zegavlena wina aziis ukidures
CrdiloeTiT trans-kavkasiaSi gaevrcelebinaT.
Zv.w.IIIs-is dasawyisSi farnavazma moaxerxa mTeli qarTlis da
kolxeTis mniSvnelovani nawilis gaerTianeba. man safuZveli Cauyara
farnavazianebis samefo dinastias. werilobiTi wyaroebi mas miawers
iberiis samefos samxedro organizaciis reformebs. mefe farnavazma
saxelmwifo samxedro-administraciul provinciebad (saerisTavoebad)
dayo, romelTa saTaveSi saero da samxedro xelisuflebiT aRWurvili,
erTguli warCinebulebi daayena (q.c.,gv.24-26). qarTul werilobiT
wyaroebSi daculi cnobebi, romlis mixedviTac azos da SemdgomSi
farnavazis dros (Zv.w.IVs-is bolo -IIIs-is dasawyisi) kolxeTis nawili
198

iberiis samefos farglebSia moqceuli, sandod gamoiyureba. am
droisaTvis kolxeTis samefo dasustebulia da veRar uZlebs
Semosevebs. jer aRmosavleT, xolo Semdeg Sida kolxeTzec vrceldeba
iberiis politikuri gavlena. amas mxars ubams dasavleT saqarTvelos
arqeologiuri monacemebi (ix. lorTqifaniZe, 1972,gv.40). saistorio
tradiciis mixedviT, iberiis mefe farnavazma egrisis saerisTavo
daumtkica qujis, romelic, rogorc Cans, adrec flobda kolxeTis
nawil teritorias. axla farnavazma mas teritoriebi gaufarTova,
samefo xelisuflebis administraciuli uflebebic uboZa; da gaayola
colad da amiT samefo didmoxeled aqcia. sayuradReboa, rom rva
erisTavidan saistorio wyaroSi mxolod qujia moxseniebuli (ix.
q.c.,1955, gv.24). quji warmomavlobiT aristokratiuli gvaridan iyo da
qarTlis mefis xelisuflebisaTvis brZolaSi wvlili miuZRoda.
amrigad, TvalSisacemia, rom saomari faqtori mniSvnelovan, zogjer
gadamwyvet rols TamaSobda kolxeT istoriuli ganviTarebis procesSi.
iberiis samefosTan kolxeTis nawilis inkorporaciam kolxeTis samefos
daSla da politikuri statusis Secvla gamoiwvia. werilobiTi da
arqeologiuri wyaroebidan Cans, rom kolxebi kargad flobdnen
maSindeli saomari saqmis ZiriTad elementebs. maT icodnen da
warmatebiT iyenebdnen taqtikur xerxebs _ swraf ieriSs, gadajgufebas,
reliefis moxerxebulad gamoyenebas, isini omSi mamacni, moxerxebulni
da Seupovarni iyvnen. yovelive amis gansaxorcieleblad ki maT, Setevis
da Tavdacvis, im droisaTvis mowinave SeiaraReba hqondaT.

literatura:
gamyreliZe g., 2002, kolxeTi gamomc. "logosi", Tb., 2002.
lorTqifaniZe g., 1976, sabrZolo da sameurneo iaraRi, vaniII,1976, gv.167-190.
lorTqifaniZe g.,1979, samxedro saqmis ist-saTvis kolxeTSi, Tsu-s Sromebi
(ist...), t.205, 1979, gv.95-107.
lorTqifaniZe oT., 1972, vanis naqalaqari,vani, I., 1972, gv.7-42.
lorTqifaniZe oT., 1976, arqeologia da saq. Zveli ist. zogierTi sakiTxi,
saq.mecn.akad. "macne" (ist...), 1976, # 2, gv.110-128.
199

fircxalava m., 1978, skviTuri kulturis Zeglebis saqarTveloSi.... - saq.
arqeologiis sakiTxebi, I,Tb., 1978, gv.31-51.
., 1979, , ., 1979.
., 1981, , ., 1981.
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, 88,1977, 2, .501-514.
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., 1998, , ., , .-,
1998, . 89-92.
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Connolly P., 1988, Greece and Rome at war, London.


















200

kolxeTSi romanizaciis globalisturi procesis mimdinareobis
Sesaxeb
kolxeTisa da romis urTierTobis istoriis Seswavla,
upiratesad, arqeologiuri masalis safuZvelzea SesaZlebeli, radgan
am periodis werilobiTi wyaroebi cotaa. wlebis ganmavlobaSi
Catarebuli arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad dagrovda sakmaod
mravalferovani monacemebi, romlebic mogvepoveba Semdegi
arqeologiuri Zeglebidan _ kldeeTi, biWvinTa, inkiti, foTi,
cixisZiri, vaSnari, gonio, ureki, soxumi, webelda, Rebi, iTxvisi,
Sorapani, vani, SuxuTi, Tagiloni da sxv. mniSvnelovania am Zeglebze
dadasturebuli calkeuli artefaqtebi, romelTa meSveobiTac
SesaZloa Tvali gavadevnoT romanizaciis process kolxeTSi [ix.
gamyreliZe, Todua, 2006:5-24,97-116]. aziisa da evropis sazRvarze
mdebare Zveli saqarTvelo, samxedro da politikur-ekonomikuri
Zalis, erTi mxriv, iranuli da, meore mxriv, antikuri orientaciis
qveynebis saomari moqmedebebis asparezi iyo [gamyreliZe, 2002: 3-21].
romanizacia Tavisi arsiT globalisturi movlenaa, romelic
imperiis provinciebSi da maTs mezobel qveynebSi romauli politikur-
ekonomikuri normebisa da kulturis gavrceleba-damkvidrebas
gulisxmobs. romanizaciis mTavari arsi romis qveSevrdomsa da misi
gavlenis qveS myof xalxTa erTian sistemaSi CarTva da erTi
centridan marTuli, erTian standartebze dafuZnebuli cxovrebis
wesis damkvidreba iyo [Hopkins,(ed.), 2003:4-9; Shelton, 1998:21-30;
Matthew, Garland, 2005: 134]. globalizaciis procesebi sxvadasxva
formiTa da masStabiT romis imperiis epoqamdec mimdinareobda,
magaliTad, iranis aqemenidTa saxelmwifo an aleqsandre makedonelis
imperia globalizaciis liderebi iyvnen. mogvianebiT, romis imperia
globalizmis procesis arnaxuli masStaburobiT gamoirCeoda. romis
imperiis mTel rig provinciebSi romanizacias mohyva teqnologiuri,
sakomunikacio, aRmosavlur-dasavluri kontaqtebis ganviTareba,
201

xalxTa asimilaciisa da kulturuli sinkretizaciis procesi,
romelic aneqsirebul qveynebSi PAX ROMANA-is egidiT
mimdinareobda. romis imperiis ukidegano sivrceSi romanizaciis
procesi erTnairi tempisa da masStabis rodi iyo. is SedarebiT ufro
daCqarebulad warimarTa imperiis dasavleT provinciebSi, vidre
aRmosavleT qveynebSi, rac aq araerTgvarovani socialur-ekonomikuri
da politikuri struqturebiT iyo ganpirobebuli [Todua, 2003: 112].
Zv.w. 65wels transkavkasiaSi pompeus magnusis xelmZRvanelobiT
romis respublikis legionerebi gamoCndnen. roms kavkasiaSi ZiriTadad
izidavda _ ekonomikur-strategiuli gamorCena; axali qveynebis Tavisi
gavlenis sferoSi moqceva; axali savaWro gzebisa da saqonlis
gasaRebis bazrebis xelSi Cagdeba. maTTvis friad sayuradRebo iyo Sua
aziidan momavali gza, kaspiis zRvidan md. mtkvarze, lixis qedis
gadasvliT, md. fasisze gavliT Sav zRvamde. es gza gansakuTrebul
mniSvnelobas iZens imis Semdeg, rac parTiis gaZlierebulma
saxelmwifom Tavis kontrols dauqvemdebara CineTidan da indoeTidan
momavali samxreTis satranzito magistralebi. amasTanave, kavkasionis
qedi kargi winaaRmdegoba iyo Crdilokavkasieli agresiuli nomaduri
tomebis transkavkasiasa da romaul mcire aziaSi SemoWris
dasaregulireblad. am mxriv sayuradReboa mamisonis, darialisa da
derbentis gadasasvlelebi. vis xelSiac es gzebi iyo, mas SeeZlo
kontroli gaewia Crdilokavkasiuri meomari tomebis moZraobisaTvis
[gamyreliZe, Todua, 2006: 25-57].
kavkasias geopolitikurad erT-erTi sakvanZo teritoria ekava. aq
xdeboda aRmosavluri da dasavluri civilizaciebis garkveuli
Tanxvedra. kolxeTi Tavisi xeobebiT, mTebiT, swrafi, Znelad
gadasalaxi mdinareebiT,^ uRrani tyeebiT advilad dasamorCilebeli
ar unda yofiliyo. romaelebi axerxebdnen garkveulad
gaekontrolebinaT zRvispireTi. amaSi maTi dasayrdeni unda yofiliyo
sanapiro qalaqebi, romlebSic, Sida kolxeTisagan gansxvavebiT,
antikuri sameurneo-kulturuli gavlena ufro Zlieri iyo. kolxeTis
202

zRvispireTi is strategiuli mxare iyo, romelic aucileblad
sWirdeboda roms Tavisi gavlenis dasamyareblad kavkasiaSi, mcire
aziasa da bosforSi [, 1991: 35-52].
romma garkveuli zemoqmedeba moaxdina kolxeTis ganviTarebis
procesze. es zemoqmedeba uaryofiTi gamodga. zRvispireTi romis
politikur gavlenaSi moeqca, xolo zogierT regionSi, romaelTa
moqnili politikis Sedegad, arastabiluri mdgomareoba Seiqmna, rac
Semdgom romisadmi naxevrad daqvemdebarebuli samTavroebis warmoqmniT
dasrulda (ix. ariane, 11). romma, im droisaTvis maRalganviTarebulma
saxelmwifom, ramdenadme dadebiTi rolic iTamaSa. kerZod,^
adgilobrivi mosaxleoba gaecno mowinave romaul kulturas, axal sa-
meurneo-kulturul, saomar taqtikursa da teqnikur inovaciebs;
zRvispira qalaqebSi gamoCnda romauli kapitali.
ax.w. Isaukunis boloSi aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi Camoyalibda
e.w. ponto-kavkasiis Taviseburi sasazRvro sistema. misi umTavresi
amocana kavkasiaSi romis geopolitikuri poziciebis ganmtkiceba da
kontroli iyo. am sistemaSi Semavali afsarosi (gonio) [mamulaZe,
kaxiZe, xalvaSi, 2009:107; xalvaSi,2002; lorTqifaniZe,^miqelaZe,^
xaxutaiSvili,1980], fasisi (foTi) [, 1992:30; Gamkrelidze,
2009:175-194], sebastopolisi (soxumi) [fuTuriZe, 1959:54] da
pitiunti (biWvinTa) [lorTqifaniZe,1991; berZeniSvili, fuTuriZe,1975]
sasazRvro militaristuli xasiaTis cixe-qalaqebad gardaiqmna.
romaelebi imperiis sazRvrebs aramarto samxedro ZaliT,^ aramed
moqnili diplomatiuri xerxebiTac afarToebdnen. imperiaSi
gansaxlebul zogierT xalxs adgilobrivi mefeebi ganagebdnen da
garkveul damoukideblobas inarCunebdnen. romi diplomatiur
Zalisxmevas ar iSurebda,^ raTa am mmarTvelebTan megobruli
urTierToba daemyarebina.
romis aRmosavlur politikaSi aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis
komunikaciebi aucilebeli iyo parTiis msgavs Zlier saxelmwifosTan
qiSpobisas [, 1966]. miuxedavad Zlevamosilebisa, pirvel
203

etapze, romma ver moaxerxa Sida kolxeTis damorCileba. es ver
moxerxda verc aristarqes, verc miTridate pergamonelisa da verc
polemonis xeliT. ramdenadme gamarTlda lukulusis
winaswarmetyveleba, romelic aRniSnavda am mxaris damorCileba
Zalian Zneliao (ix. plutarqe, luk.,14). aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi
romauli dasaxlebebis warmoqmnisa da misi ganviTarebis procesi
Taviseburi, gansxvavebuli gziT warimarTa. aq romauli, klasikuri
tipis kanabeebi ar warmoqmnila. dioskuria-sebastopolisis,
afsarosis, pitiuntisa da fasisis romaul kastelumebTan arsebobda
vikusis tipis mcire savaWro-saxelosno dasaxlebebi, romelTa moqme-
debis are konkretuli sanapiro zoliT Semoifargleboda. ponto-
kavkasiis sasazRvro sistemis Camoyalibebisa da garnizonTa ricxobriv
zrdasTan erTad aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi romauli nawarmi _
keramika, minis, liTonis nakeTobebi, samkaulebi gavrcelda, romelTa
Soris, tradiciulad, mcire aziis centrebis nawarmi Warbobda. am
produqciis transportireba, upiratesad, sazRvao gziT
xorcieldeboda. is, ZiriTadad, romaul samxedro SenaerTebs
amaragebda. romauli garnizonebis momarageba ki II-III saukuneebSi
centralizebulad trapezuntidan [, 1956], xolo
IVsaukuneSi antioqiidan xdeboda. romis imperiis sasazRvro sistemaSi
aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis sanapiro zolis CarTviT,
garkveulwilad, uzrunvelyofil iqna romis aRmosavleT provinciaTa
misadgomebis usafrTxoeba da romaelTa geopolitikuri interesebis
ganmtkiceba kavkasiasa da aRmosavleT mcire aziaSi. romaelTa
ekonomikuri interesebis sferoSi eqceoda is savaWro gza, romelic
aRmosavleTis qveynebs kavkasiaze gavliT dasavleTis qveynebTan
akavSirebda. cnobilia, rom pompeusi sagangebod dainteresda am gzaze
savaWro urTierTobis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobebiT. varonis
mixedviT, "pompeusis laSqrobis dros misi brZanebiT gamokvleul iqna,
rom indoeTidan SeiZleba 7 dReSi Casvla baqtriaSi md. baqtrTan,
romelic oqss erTvis, aqedan induri saqoneli gadaaqvT kaspiis iqiT
204

md. mtkvriT da saxmeleTo gziT. ara umetes 5 dRisa maT SeuZliaT
miaRwion fasiss, romelic Sav zRvas erTvis" (ix. pliniusi, NH,VI,52).
arqeologiurma gaTxrebma warmoaCina, rom romauli periodisa da
adreuli Suasaukuneebis kolxeTis qalaqebSi _ biWvinTaSi,
cixisZirSi, noqalaqevSi, quTaisSi, gonioSi sanitarul-higienuri
normebis dacvas saTanado yuradReba eqceoda, rasac mowmobs am
naqalaqarebSi abanoebis, wyalmomaragebis, wyalgayvanilobisa da
sakanalizacio sistemebis aRmoCena. romsa da kolxeTs Soris
arsebuli intensiuri politikur-ekonomikuri urTierTobebis Sedegad
aq igeboda romauli Termebis tipis abanoebi. kolxi didebulebi
romaelebs baZavdnen ara marto axali, mdidruli inventariTa da
fufunebis sagnebiT, aramed cxovrebis wesiTac. amis mkafio
dasturia kolxeTSi aRmoCenili abanoebis kompleqsebi, romlebsac
civi, Tbili da cxeli ganyofilebebi, sacurao auzi, gaTbobis
sistema, kanalizacia, koleqtori da wyalmomaragebis sistema
hqondaT. zogjer abano mopirkeTebulia romauli stilis mozaikiT.
IIIsaukunis mozaikiiT morTuli abanos kompleqsi aRmoCnda biWvinTis
naqalaqarzec, aq mikvleulia wylis regulirebis sakmaod rTuli
sistema, romelic keramikuli milebiTa da kirxsnariTaa gakeTebuli.
romauli tradiciebis gagrZelebaa adreul Sua saukuneebSi agebuli
abanoebic. am mxriv mniSvnelovania quTaisSi, bagratis taZris
mimdebare teritoriaze, aRmoCenili abanos kompleqsi, romelic aTi
nawilisagan Sedgeboda. is, mcxeTisa da Zalisis abanoebisagan
gansxvavebiT, ufro sazogadoebrivi daniSnulebisaa. aseTive
daniSnulebis iyo biWvinTisa da cixisZiris abanoc. amgvari abanoebi
aRmoCenilia urbnissa da SuxuTSic. sainteresoa SuxuTis abanos
iataki, romelic, Zalisisa da biWvinTis abanoebis msgavsad, mozaikiTaa
Semkuli. arqeologiuri aRmoCenebi adasturebs, rom II-VI saukuneebis
saqarTveloSi farTod yofila gavrcelebuli romauli tipis
abanoebi, romlebic sainJinro-arqiteqturuli TvalsazrisiT sakmaod
rTuli nagebobebia.
205

saqarTveloSi aRmoCenili arqeologiuri masalebi mowmobs aq
adgilobrivi xuroTmoZRvruli skolis arsebobas, romelic kargad
icnobda berZnul-romauli arqiteqturis umTavres principebs da
aviTarebda maT adgilobriv niadagze. es naTlad Cans mcxeTaSi
aRmoCenili IV saukunis epitafiidanac, sadac ixsenieba mcxeTeli
mTavari mxatvar-arqiteqtori avrelius aqolisi. Zv.w I saukunidan
kolxeTSi vrceldeba samkaulebSi Casmuli gemebi, maTgan umravlesi
berZnul-romauli, italikuri, mcireaziuri saxelosno centrebidanaa
Semotanili. amasTanave ivaraudeba gemebis warmoebis adgilobrivi
saxelosnoebic, romelTa nawarmSic gvxvdeba romaul yaidaze
damzadebuli araerTi naxelavi [ix. lorTqifaniZe m., 1954]. ax.w. I
saukuneebSi importul sagnebs Soris mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia
sxvadasxva saxis samkauls. es garemoeba sakmaod naTlad miuTiTebs
kolxeTis mosaxleobis monawileobaze saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi,
kerZod, romauli samyaros savaWro-saxelosno centrebis
aqtiurobaze. mravalricxovan ucxour sagnebs Soris gamoirCeva
sxvadasxva daniSnulebis brinjaosa da vercxlis WurWeli _ surebi,
paterebi, CamCebi. amgvari nawarmis warmoebis centrebi ax.w. I-II
saukuneebSi samxreTitaliuri qalaqebi iyo, magaliTad, kapua. amgvari
WurWlis aRmoCena kolxeTis teritoriaze sakmaod xSiria, rac aq
italikuri produqciis importze miuTiTebs. es nivTebi mihqondaT
sanapiro qalaqebSi, aqedan ki is vrceldeboda qveynis sxvadasxva
kuTxeSi. kolxeTis monawileoba saerTaSoriso vaWrobaSi
numizmatikuri masalebiTac TvalnaTlivaa ilustrirebuli. ax.w I
saukunidan aq romauli aureusic Semodis, romelic male avgustusis
denarTan erTad gadaxdis ZiriTad saSualebad iqceva [dundua g.,
dundua T.,2006: 110]. rogorc Cans, mosaxleobis aqtiur savaWro-
ekonomikur urTierTobas romaul samyarosTan mohyva kulturuli
urTierTobac. es kargadaa asaxuli romauli xanis kolxeTis
materialuri kulturis Zeglebze.
ax.w. II saukunidan kidev ufro farTod vrceldeba romauli
206

xuroTmoZRvrebis calkeuli elementebi. antikur-romauli
arqiteqtoruli sistemis gavrcelebaze miuTiTebs kolxeTSi
aRmoCenili kapitelebi da maTi dekoris xasiaTi. interess iwvevs
zogierTi cvlileba, kedlis wyobis principSi, romelic jer kidev
Zv.w. I saukunSi vrceldeba romaul xuroTmoZRvrebaSi. ax.w. I-III
saukuneebis kolxeTis mosaxleobaSi mimdinare garkveul cvlilebebze
miuTiTebs gliptikursa da torevtikul nivTebze datanili
gamosaxulebebi, romlebic Sinaarsobrivad xSirad romaul
miTologiuri Tematikas asaxavs. gansakuTrebiT gavrcelebulia tixe-
fortunas, fortuna-isidas, minervas, viqtorias, apolonis, marsis,
plutonis, merkuris, iupiteris, heliosis, asklepiosisa da miTras
gamosaxulebebi, romlebic adgilobriv RvTaebebTan Tanaarsebobs. ax.w.
I saukuneebidan kolxeTSi vrceldeba qristianoba. pitiuntSi
arsebobda saepiskoposo kaTedra, xolo sebastopolisSi,
qristianuli Temi, rasac adasturebs aq gaTxrili eklesia da
qristiani romaeli legioneris samarxis stela, romelzedac
warweraa _ qriste SemZle. aq ganisvenebs oreste mamaci legioneri,
gTxovT moxvideT. qristianoba gavrcelebuli Cans afsarosSic, risi
dasturicaa aq aRmoCenili qristianulsimbolikiani beWdebi.
zRvispira kolxeTSi romauli samxedro SenaerTebis
dislokaciis Sedegad es mxare aqtiurad CaerTo romauli samyaros
sistemaSi. uwinares yovlisa, es procesi romauli nawarmis
gavrcelebiT gamoixata, kerZod, romauli samyaros sxvadasxva
centridan kolxeTis zRvispireTSi Semodineba daiwyo axalma
produqciam _ italikurma fibulebma, amforebma, wiTellakianma
keramikam, liTonisa da minis nawarmma, romlebic mTeli romauli
samyarosTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. amgvarive nawarmi vrceldeboda
centralur evropaSi [, 1970]. ax.w. II-III saukuneebSi
romauli samyaros importi meti simravliTaa dadasturebuli
SavizRvispireTis cixesimagreebTan _ pitiuntSi (biWvinTasTan),
sebastopolisSi(soxumTan), afsarosSi (goniosTan), fasisSi (foTTan).
207

ax.w. II-IIIsaukuneebSi saqarTvelos zRvispira centrebSi intensiurad
Semodioda mcire aziis romauli provinciebis sanapiro centrebis
nawarmi. magaliTad, pitiuntis, fasisisa da sebastopolisis
naqalaqarebze mravladaa napovni sinopuri warmomavlobis amforebi.
sinopuri importis intensivobaze miuTiTebs aseve montariumebi.
aRniSnul periodSi zRvispira centrebs mWidro urTierToba hqonda
trapezuntTanac, rasac numizmatikuri masalebic mowmobs.
naqalaqarebze aRmoCenili importirebul produqciaTa Soris sakmaod
mravladaa romauli provinciebis minis nawarmic. romis aRmosavluri
provinciebis nawarmTa wres ganekuTvneba liTonis WurWlisa Tu
samkaulebis mniSvnelovani nawilic, magaliTad, cixisZirisa da gonios
ganZSi Semavali nivTebis umravlesoba mxatvrul-stilisturi niSnebiT
romis provinciebis kulturis wreSi eqceva [inaiSvili,1993;
afaqiZe,1947: 128; lorTqifaniZe,^ miqelaZe,^ xaxutaiSvili,1980]. ax.w.
III-IV saukuneebi romauli nawarmis axali mozRvavebiT xasiaTdeba.
interess iwvevs biWvinTis naqalaqaris nekropolSi aRmoCenili
momwvano feris sanelsacxebleebi, romlebic keiolnis minis
saxelosnos nawarmia. dasavleT saqarTvelos arqeologiur masalaSi
warmodgenilia romauli nawarmis iseTi saintereso nimuSebic,
rogorebicaa oqrosi da vercxlis falera-jildoebi: magaliTad,
kldeeTis #3 samarxSi aRmoCenili rkinis maxvili tarze gemiT;
biWvinTis #345 samarxSi dadasturebuli vercxlis samklavuri tixe-
fortunas gamosaxulebiT; oqros garsakravi goniodan. falerebs,
ZiriTadad, Seadgenda gemiani beWdebi, balTebi, samajurebi, maxvilebi,
Tasebi, sasmisebi da sxv. imperiis epoqaSi falerebiT ajildoebdnen
ara marto calkeul legionerebsa da samxedro qvedanayofebs, aramed
daqiravebul meomrebsa da proromauli orientaciis adgilobriv
mmarTvelebsac. kldeeTis samarxebSi dadasturebulia augustusis,
antonius piusis, markus aureliusis monetebi [lomTaTiZe, 1957].
gonio-afsarosis naqalaqaris teritoriaze aRmoCenil mravalferovan
arqeologiur masalaTa Soris interess iwvevs serapisis qandakeba.
208

ax.w. I saukunidan serapisis kulti mTels romis imperiaSi
popularulia, gansakuTrebiT_ galiaSi, espaneTSi, karTagenSi, dakiaSi.
kolxeTis SavizRvispireTis romauli samxedro SenaerTebis
kontingenti umTavresad berZnul-mcireaziuri provinciebidan da
adgilobrivi warmomavlobis meomrebisagan Sedgeboda. amis mowmobaa
sebastopolisisa da pitiuntis naqalaqarze aRmoCenili berZnuli
warwerebi. niSandoblivia, rom aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis sanapiro
cixe-qalaqTa materialuri kulturis zogierTi komponenti romauli
mcire aziis kulturis identuria. romauli importis didi nawili
romauli garnizonebis mosamarageblad iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. romauli
garnizonebis materialur-teqnikuri momarageba centralizebuli
sistemiT xdeboda trapezuntidan, sadac romaelTa Savi zRvis
flotis ZiriTadi baza iyo. misi roli gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg
gaizarda, rodesac domicianes dros gaiyvanes samosata-satala-
trapezuntis magistrali. romanizaciis, romauli kulturis
elementebis gavrceleba aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi specifikuri
gziT warimarTa. aq romaelebs demografiuli TvalsazrisiT sakmaod
mWidro dasaxlebebi daxvdaT. metic, aq romaelTa yofnis drosac,
rogorc es romael-bizantiel avtorTa (klavdios ptolemaiosi,
ariane, prokopi kesarieli) cnobebidan Cans, adgilobrivi mkvidri
mosaxleoba zRvispira centrebSic cxovrobda. ax.w. I saukunis Sua
xanebidan, romauli garnizonebis Cadgomis Semdeg, adgilobrivebTan
TandaTanobiT saqmiani urTierTobebi myardeba. mkvidri mosaxleoba da
maTi mmarTvelebi loialur damokidebulebaSi unda yofiliyvnen
romauli cixe-qalaqebis administraciasTan. es kavSiri
urTierTTanamSromlobisa da urTierTsargeblobis principebs
efuZneboda. kerZod, mkvidri mosaxleoba cixe-qalaqTa ekonomikur-
politikuri stabilurobis garanti da aq muSaxelis kontingentis
Sevsebis, da cixe-qalaqis sasoflo-sameurneo produqciiT momaragebis
wyaro iyo. swored am ukanasknelis Sedegia adgilobrivi warmoebis
is keramika, rac ase sakmaod mravladaa warmodgenili pitiuntis,
209

sebastopolisisa da afsarosis cixe-qalaqebis teriotoriaze. mkvidr
mosaxleobas garkveuli samxedro valdebulebac ekisreboda, rac Cans
flavius arianes traqtatSi `alanTa winaaRmdeg~ dacul cnobaSi _
`hoplitTa Semdeg daewyos mokavSireTa jari, romlebic arian. . .
trapezuntelebi, kolxebi da rizeli Subosnebi...~ (ariane, taqtika, 7).
ax.w. II saukunidan kolxeTis zRvispireTSi, xolo IV saukunidan
mis Sida regionebSi vrceldeba romauli tipis hidravlikuri xsnari,
romelic gamoiyeneboda safortifikacio, saero da sakulto
nagebobebis asagebad. am droidanve farTod vrceldeba romauli tipis
mobrtyo-kvadratuli, gamomwvari aguri da keramikuli wriuli
filebi, romlebic sruliad ucxo iyo aq wina epoqis samSeneblo
saqmisaTvis. kvadratuli aguri xSirad gamoiyeneboda nagebobebis
kuTxeebis amosayvanad. ase magaliTad, webeldis, noqalaqevis, quTaisis,
cixisZiris IV saukunis safortifikacio nagebobebis wyobaSi
dadasturebulia ormagi da sammagi aguris sartyeli. romis
aRmosavleTi provinciebis cixe-qalaqebi agurisa da qvis Sereuli
wyobiT iyo naSeni. analogiur wyobas vxvdebiT CrdiloeT
SavizRvispireTis naqalaqarebze _ olbiaSi, xaraksSi, tirsa da
xersonesSi. rac Seexeba kvadratul keramikul filebs, isini iatakis
mosagebad gamoiyeneboda. romauli gavlena mkafiod SeiniSneba keramikis
warmoebaSi, rac aisaxa uwinaresad II- IVsaukuneebis minabaZi amforebis
warmoebaSi. romauli keramikis gavleniT damzadebuli Tixis WurWels
ganekuTvneba montariumebis erTi jgufic. isini romauli
montariumebisagan Tixis SemadgenlobiT gansxvavdeba. romaul nawarmTa
adgilobrivi minabaZebia sapatruqemiliani, saxeluriani Wraqebi,
romlebic aseve adgilobrivi Tixisaganaa damzadebuli. aq mTel
romaul samyaroSi gavrcelebuli tipis doqebis minabaZebic
mzaddeboda. romauli keramikis minabaZebTan Tanaarsebobda da
raodenobrivad Warbobda, kolxeTSi adgilobrivi keramikis
tradiciuli saxeobebi.
210

keramikis warmoebis garda, romauli kulturis gavlena Cans
xelosnobis sxva sferoSic. ax.w. I saukunidan aRmosavleT
SavizRvispireTSi romauli tipis mSvildsakinZebis farTod
gavrcelebasa da masze didi moTxovnis gamo III saukunidan adgilobriv
mzaddeboda e.w. orwiladi, budeabmuli, muxlzambariani da jvriseburi
fibulebi. romauli kulturis gavlena SeimCneva sabrZolo iaraRebis
zogierT saxeobaSic, kerZod, dadasturebulia romauli tipis
oTxkuTxa skutumis tipis farebi, gladiumis tipis maxvilebi da sxv.
[gamyreliZe, 2002:39]. oqromWedlobis tradiciebis SenarCuneba-
gagrZelebasTan erTad romauli xanis saqarTvelos saiuveliro
xelovnebaSi vrceldeba axali, e.w. kluazones poliqromuli stili.
amgvaradaa Seqmnili romauli epoqis saqarTvelos oqromWedlobis
brwyinvale nimuSebi_ gonios kldeeTis, urekis, Tagilonis, zRuderisa
da mcxeTis feradi qvebiT Semkuli beWdebi, balTebi, sakidebi,
fibulebi da sxv. iberia-kolxeTis am periodis qalaqebis
urbanistuli xasiaTi, arqiteqtura da gegmarebiTi principebi
emorCileboda qalaqmSeneblobis im saerTo kanonebs, romlebic
miRebuli iyo, antikur samyarosa da romanizebul aRmosavleTSi.
amrigad, kolxeTis dablobis da mTiani regionebis materialur
kulturaSi romauli civilizaciis calkeuli elementebi met-naklebi
intensivobiTaa gavrcelebuli. es impulsebi gansakuTrebiT SesamCnevia
samSeneblo xelovnebaSi, keramikis warmoebasa da materialuri
kulturis mTel rig komponentebSi. mTian regionebSi adgilobrivi
tradiciebi Zalze myari iyo da amitom romauli kulturis radiacia
aq Znelad aRwevda. samagierod, romauli kulturis gavlena romaul-
adrebizantiuri xanis zRvispireTSi aSkarad igrZnoba cixe-qalaqebTan.
amis naTeli ilustraciaa opus mixtum-is teqnikiT nagebi
cixesimagreebi. kulturuli da socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
mxrivac kolxeTis baris sazogadoeba ufro maRal safexurze idga,
vidre mTiani zolisa. saerTod, ax.w. I-IV saukuneebis aRmosavleT
SavizRvispireTSi ar dasturdeba iseTi niSnebi, rac ase
211

damaxasiaTebelia romis imperiis dasavleTevropuli provinciebis
qveynebisaTvis (mag.: germania,britaneTi, galia) [ix. , 1985:167-
302]. mkvidri mosaxleobis mkveTri romanizacia da e.w. kompleqsuri
kulturis warmoqmna, romaul samyaroSi damzadebuli xelosnuri
nawarmis masiurad gavrceleba, aq am etapze romauli kulturis
gavlena, iseve, rogorc imperiis aRmosavleT provinciebSi, ufro
zedapiruli Cans. Zvel saqarTveloSi romanizaciis procesi
Taviseburi, gansxvavebuli gziT warimarTa. aq romaul-evropuli
tipis kultura ar warmoqmnila, radgan didi iyo e.w. aRmosavlur-
elinisturi kulturis fesvebi da gavlena.
aRmosavleTi Aanatolia Tavisi istoriuli bediT saukuneebis
manZilze mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli transkavkasiis qveynebTan.
kolxeTSi romanizaciis gavlenis damadasturebeli faqtebis _
arqeologiuri Zeglebis da werilobiTi monacemebis Seswavlis
Sedegebi gvarwmunebs, rom romauli kulturis miRwevebi yvelaze
mkveTrad ekonomikaSi vlindeba. romaelebis aq gamoCenis droidan
mokle periodSi moxda garkveuli cvlilebebi. romauli kulturis
ekonomikurma miRwevebma kolxeTSi uwinares yovlisa, Tavi iCina
vaWrobaSi. romaelebis mier kolxeTSi, saomari mdgomareobis
Sewyvetis Semdeg savaWro-ekonomikuri kontaqtebis damyarebas xels
uwyobda transkavkasiis xelsayreli geopolitikuri mdebareoba
antikur samyarosTan mimarTebiT. amis naTeli ilustraciaa kolxeTis
teritoriaze antikuri samyarodan iranuli samyaros qveynebisaken
mimavali savaWro gzebi, romelTa gamoyenebac dasturdeba
arqeologiuri aRmoCenebiT. iberia-kolxeTis romanizaciis periodSi
SesamCnevia sagareo vaWrobis xvedriTi wilis zrda, sasaqonlo
warmoebis gafarToeba, ucxouri monetebis didi raodenobiT
mimoqceva, savaWro-saxelosno centrebis ganviTareba, uwinaresad,
SavizRvispireTis romaelTa militaristul cixe-qalaqebSi. Semdgom
romauli kulturis gavlena kolxeTze ufro naTlad vlindeba
sxvdasxva adgilobriv dargSi, kerZod, arqiteqturaSi, keramikis
212

warmoebaSi, xelosnobis sxvadasxva mimarTulebaSi. es procesebi
ufro intensiuri xdeba ax.w. II saukunidan.
romauli kulturis gavlenis gansakuTrebuli gaZliereba
kolxeTSi ax.w. IIIV saukuneebSi aRiniSneba. rac Seexeba romauli
kulturis gavrcelebas, is zRvis sanapirodan da anatoliidan unda
momxdariyo. romaul-adrebizantiuri kulturis gavlena Semdgom
kidev ufro metad aisaxa arqiteqturaSi, kerZod, e.w.romauli betoni,
kedlebis opus mixtum-is wyoba, momrgvalebuli TaRebi, Taviseburi
kapitelebi, gamomwvari oTxkuTxa, brtyeli aguri da sxv. mWidro da
uSualo kontaqtebis Sedegad romanizaciis gavlena ufro Zlierad
Tavs iCens zRvis sanapiro qalaqebSi. ufro adre ki elinisturi
kulturis gavrcelebam da misma teqnikurma miRwevebma kolxeTSi
romaelebis kavkasiaSi mosvlisaTvis niadagi Seumzada romanizaciis
sawyisebis momwifebas.

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Assassination of Julius Caesar. N. Y., pp. 134-46.

(Summary)
The Globalistic process of Romanization and Colchis

Romanization was the Globalization process, which meant wide spreading
of Roman economical, political and cultural behavior in the provinces of the
Empire and in neighboring countries. This process was more rapid in the
western provinces then in eastern provinces of the Empire and was depended
on different political and economical structures of that part of the world. The
214

location of Caucasus, where the western and eastern civilizations were meeting
was very important. The process of Romanization in ancient Georgia had a
different, peculiar way. Here the roots of Hellenistic Culture were deep and the
culture of European-Roman kind did not arise. The study of archaeological
data, written sources and epigraphical data convinces us that the impact of
Roman culture in Iberia- Colchis was most visible in economics. From the
times of first appearance of Romans in Caucasus we can see some changes,
which, first of all are linked with trading. After the end of military actions by
Rome in Iberia- Colchis Geopolitical location of Transcaucasus became played
an important role in trade. The good examples of this fact are numerous trading
roads form the Classical world to the Iranian world, which are well known with
the help of archaeological-numismatic finds. During the period of
Romanization the internal trade became more intensive, the handcrafting
centers were widening, also the big number of foreign coins is found on the
sites of this period. The best examples of this process can be seen in Roman
forts of the Black Sea littoral. Later, the impact of Roman civilization is seen in
other fields (architecture, handicraft, etc) of native population of Iberia-
Colchis. These processes are becoming more intensive from the 2
nd
c AD and
lasts until the 4
th
c AD. The process of Romanization is better represented in
the towns of Black Sea Littoral and in the Capital of Iberian kingdom
Mtskheta.












215


THE LAND OF COLCHIS AND THE CITY OF PHASIS
(Towards a historical-archaelogical study of western Georgia in the Classical
period)
The land of Colchis, famous throughout the Classical world, from where
according to the celebrated ancient Greek myth the Argonauts stole the
Golden Fleece, was on the eastern coast of the Black Sea, i. e. on the western
territory of modern Georgia. The valley of the Rioni, frequently referred to in
ancient Greco-Roman sources as the Phasis, lies in central Colchis. According
to the archaeological and written sources: Herodotus, Scylax of Caryanda,
Hippocrates, Apollonius Rhodius, Strabo, Appian, Flavius Arrian, Marcus
Manilius, Procopius, Agathias and others, as well as by its physico-geographic
environment, the Rioni (Phasis) valley must have occupied an economically
developed position.
The Rioni rises from the mountain glacier Phasis on the south slope of the
Caucasus Range. Up to Kutaisi the Rioni is a turbulent mountain stream.
Leaving Kutaisi, the Rioni flows slowly in the Kolkhian plain. By its
geographic position the Rioni constituted a convenient trade-and-transit
waterway. Evidence on the use of this river as a commercial waterway is
mainly extant in the works of Strabo and Pliny. Strabo describes the waterways
of the Rioni and the Qvirila (Phasis): It is (Phasis) navigated as far as
Sarapana, a fortress capable of admitting the population even of a city. From
here people go by land to the river Cyrus in four days by a wagon-
road.(Strabo, XI, II, 17). The continuation of the waterway is described by
Strabo thus: And he further says that it is navigable and that large quantities
of Indian wares are brought down on it to the Hyrcanian sea, and thence on
that sea are transported to Albania and brought down on the Cyrus river and
through the region that comes next after it to the Euxine. (Strabo, XI, II, 3)
(The Loeb Classical Library, London, 1957). It is thus quite clear that Strabo
describes the trade route running from India to the Black Sea through the rivers
Cyrus and Phasis. Pliny also describes the same route [Latyshev,1904: 178].
216

The fact is worthy of attention that it is along this route that settlements of
the Classical and early medieval periods were situated, the archaeological
study of which yielded items of foreign manufacture (pottery, adornments,
metal and glass ware). Such settlements at the Rioni river are attested: in
Kutaisi; Patriketi-Vartsikhe [Japaridze, V. 1977: 43-50]; Vani [Lordkipanidze,
O. 1977: 159-175]; Tsikhesulori [Mitsishvili, M. 1977: 32-47]; Shuamta
[Gamkrelidze, G. 1982: 49], Dablagomi [Tolordava, V. 1977: 67-78]; Dapnari
[Kighuradze, N. 1976]; Natekhebi (Lake Paliastomi) [Gamkrelidze, G. 1992:
30-48; Gamkrelidze, 1987: 98], and others, with adjoining territory (Pl. I).
Hippocrates supplies interesting information about the natural data of the
Phasis-Rioni basin in his treatise On Air, Waters and Places, in which he
speaks of the influence exerted by the climatic and physical-geographic
conditions of the place and its population. It is believed that Hippocrates had
visited Colchis and that his reports are the result of immediate observations
[Qaukhchishvili, T. 1965: 20]. His evidence appears to deal with the lower and
partly middle course of the Rioni. But some data extend to the entire basin. For
example, when it concerns marshes and numerous canals the territory in the
lower course must be implied: warm weather and frequent rainfalls could not
have been characteristic of a small area, for they were the same almost all over
Colchis. Hence it may be assumed that the region under study and especially
its adjoining elevations were convenient places for farming, and accordingly
for settlement. As to forests and structures built of planed wooden beams and
apparently roofed with reeds, their traces have been found today too on
elevations along the Rioni, where they could by no means have been erected
on water. This circumstance points to the fact that the author was familiar only
with the lower, marshy course of the Rioni (Phasis), which has remained the
same to the present day. The question arises as to what induces people to live
in houses built on marshland. The local residents were probably harassed by
their neighbours; hence they moved to the lower course of the Rioni-Phasis
and began to build their dwellings on the marsh, for such structures were
almost inaccessible. At many places along the Rioni remains of plaster and
beams are attested, which with the aid of archaeological material are dated
to the 4
th
c. BC. The evidence of Hippocrates also relates to the same period.
217

A piece of information of our present interest is contained in Xenophons
Anabasis (see Anabasis V, 6, 36). Here the land of the Phasianoi implies the
Valley of the Rioni (Phasis). The region they intended to conquer could not
have been poor at that time, Apollonius Rhodius, a 3
rd
-century BC author,
writes about the land of Aea (Aia)-Colchis-Phasis in his poem the Argonautica
(III, 215). The poem is the last verse version of the myth. Apollonius Rhodius
describes the city of Kutaisi in the middle course of the Rioni. According to
Strabos Geography (XI, 11; II, 17), Colchis is notable for its fruits and all that
is needed for shipbuilding. The country produces much timber, floating it
down the rivers. The inhabitants manufacture much linen and resin.
Interesting evidence on the Phasis valley is supplied by Pomponius Mela
(1
st
century) in: inde is locus est ubi finem ductus a Bosphoro tractus accipit,
atque inde se in sinu adverse litoris flexus adtollens angustissimum Ponti
facit angulum. hic sunt Colchi, huc Phasis erumpit, hic eodem nomine quo
amnis est a Themistagora Milesio deductum oppidum, . . . (Pomponii Melae,
Chorographia. . ., I, 108). More diverse evidence on the Phasis valley is
preserved in the work of Pliny the Elders Natural History. It has been
ascertained that in describing Colchis he had recourse to various sources. He
reports on towns lying along the course of the Rioni; the concrete evidence on
them, adduced by him, is of entirely real historical-geographic character.
Plinys evidence on the navigability of the Rioni-Phasis attracts special
attention. He (Pliny, VI, II) points out that the Phasis is navigable to the mouth
of the Surium river (the name resembles the Sulori river).
Special interest attaches to Arrians work: Periplus Euxini (2
nd
century).
He was the Governor of Cappadocia in 131; he undertook a voyage along the
Black Sea coast to ensure the security of the borders. Arrian personally
inspected the strongholds existing there, informing the Emperor Hadrian in an
official report on the voyage. Particularly interesting in Arrians Periplus is his
detailed description of the city at the mouth of the Phasis (Arrian, 9, 10).
A list of the towns of the Rioni valley is given by the Alexandrian scholar
Ptolemy (2
nd
cent.) in his treatise Geographical Guide (Book V, Ch. 9). In
this work he enumerates towns and villages; the towns: Mechles, Media,
Saraca, Surium, Zadrida, Aea ( Aia); the rivers: Phasis, Hyppus, Cyaneus,
218

Harius. Valuable evidence is supplied by Dion Cassius in his work Roman
History (XXXVII, 3).
The fortification works along the Phasis are mentioned by the Byzantine
historian Zosymus in his History [Qaukhchishvili, S. 1961: 269] but,
unfortunately, he does not list them, nor point to their location. Much
trustworthy written evidence is found in the work of 6
th
century Byzantine
writer Procopius of Caesarea (BG VIII, 14, 17; BP, II, 29; Agathias, II, 19, 22;
III, 6, 7, 19, 28; IV, 9, 13). According to Agathias Scholasticus, during the war
in the 6
th
century the Byzantine navy, using the Rioni, supported her troops
against Iran. To this end, at the confluence of the Tekhuri with the Phasis a
strategic beachhead was built, where light ships were usually anchored
(Agathias, II, 23).
Of the Georgian sources special interest with respect to the region under
study is evoked by The Lives of the Georgian Kings and Their Forefathers
and Descendants, ascribed to Leonti Mroveli. The source describes the history
of Georgia from ancient times. The chronicle mentions King Parnavaz of
Kartli (Iberia), who confirmed Prince Kuji as ruler of lands in Colchis (for
details see: [Gamkrelidze, G. 1985: 86-97]).
According to historical sources, the Rioni (Phasis) was the main
navigable river of Colchis (Western Georgia). Owing to the mass felling of
forests in the 19
th
-20
th
centuries, the water level of the Rioni lowered
drastically, having a negative effect on the navigation in the region. The Rioni
(Phasis) lows in the Kolkhian Lowland, between the foothills of the Greater
and Lesser Caucasus. The Kolkhian Lowland has the form of a triangle
adjoining the sea with its base. In the east it reaches the vicinity of the
confluence of the Qvirila. In terms of its geographical environment the
Kolkhian Lowland and the foothills surrounding it constitute a unique natural
region, allowing setting up intensive agricultural production. The local climate
enables cultivation of a wide range of high-yielding crops. The Kolkhian
lowland is characterized by a humid subtropical climate. The length of the
vegetation period allows to growing several harvests annually. In the western,
depressed part of the lowland, there are swampy soils, and in the eastern part
219

podzol soils. In terms of agro productive indices these soils are more
favourable. Such soils are successfully used to plant vineyards.
At settlements of the Early Bronze Age of the Kolkhian Lowland (pl. II)
fruits of cultivated plants have been found many-rowed barley, unbearded
wheat (type of common), millet, foxtail millet, spelt, etc. Written sources
referred to the cultivation in Colchis of barley, wheat, chestnut, hazelnut,
grapes, apples, vegetables, ets; exported from Colchis were: timber, honey,
flax, etc. A comparison of the evidence of Greek authors with the specificities
of the modern Kolkhian Lowland shows that the nature of this region has not
suffered substantial changes over the past 2500 years, barring the reduction of
the areas of forest tracts [Janelidze, Ch. 1980: 150]. The upper reaches of the
Rioni are rich in various minerals, where from early times copper was mined,
having played a leading role in the development of copper and bronze
metallurgy. Tin, gold, cornelian, antimonite and rock crystal were mined here.
Such is the geographic environment of the Rioni valley that exerted
cardinal influence on the course of the history of ancient Colchis. The
archaeological material, discovered in Rioni valley, attests also to the
important place held by the cited region in the period under study in the
economic life of Colchis. Exploratory archaeological work was carried out on
the Dateshidze-Gabashvili hill in Kutaisi; a cultural layer of the Early Iron
Age and traces of iron-smelting manufacture were brought to light. A cultural
layer was also found here; Colchian pottery of the 4
th
-5
th
cent. BC. is
represented by fragments of economic and household utensils. Fragments of
black-gloss Attic pottery came to light in the same layer. There also is much
plaster - scorched clay plastering with imprints of wood. On the south slope of
the same hill a dense layer of scorched plastering was uncovered. Fragments of
scorched beams also came to light here. The area of the excavations totals 550
sq. m.; basins, bowls, mugs, etc were found; the pottery is largely dated to the
6
th
-5
th
cent. BC [Kvirkvelia, G. 1978: 62].
According to the data on archaeological excavations on the Gabashvili,
Dateshidze and Ukimerioni hills in Kutaisi, an urban-type settlement of the 6
th
-
5
th
cent. BC was found to be concentrated. An area of approximately 25 ha was
enclosed with defensive walls; towers and other defensive works had been
220

constructed. The high level of the sanitary condition of the city-stronghold is
attested by the ruins of two bathhouses with heating units whitewashed with
hydraulic solution. Cultural layers of the 7
th
-1
st
cent. BC were discovered on
the Parnali hill in v. Chognari, in the environs of Kutaisi. Among items of the
6
th
cent. BC note should be made of a miniature sculptured representation of a
ram, fragments of black-gloss Attic pottery of the 5
th
cent. BC; there is much
plaster with imprints of wood, handles of a Thasian amphora of the 3
rd
cent.
BC, bronze bracelets with concave back and fragments of cups with turned in
lips. In v. Chognari (on the Barona hillock, cultural layers of the 7
th
-1
st
cent.
BC were brought to light (the material is preserved in the archaeological funds
(reserves) of the Kutaisi Historical Museum).
In the middle course of the Rioni, settlement-hills are found also in v.
Partskhanaqanevi on Sabrialo, Kirinebi and Shroshanebi hillocks. Similar
settlements are attested at Kopitnari, Kveda-Metekhi and Kvitiri. These sites
have yielded objects of the 7
th
-2
nd
cent. BC and plaster with imprints of wood.
In Kutaisi and its adjoining territory jar burials have come to light at
Tsatskhvebisubani (Kutaisi), as well as in the villages: Partskhanaqanevi,
Kveda-Meskheti, Maghlaki, Kvitiri, Mukhiani, Ukaneti, Odilauri and Banoji.
The grave goods brought to light are uniform: pyriform jugs, bowls with
inturned lips, bronze bracelets adorned at the ends with a representation of a
snakes head, bronze fingerings, cornelian beads. These jar burials are dated
largely to the 3
rd
cent. BC. Up to eleven archaeological hoards of the Bronze
and Early Iron periods have been revealed.
As is evident, on the basis of the above-named settlements, an urban-type
settlement appears in Kutaisi in the 6
th
-4
th
centuries. The geographical
designation of Kutaisi is first mentioned in the work Alexandra by Lycophron
of Chalcis, a Greek poet of the 3
rd
cent. BC. Kutaisi is mentioned also by
Vallimachus of Cyrene (3
rd
cent. BC). Evidence on Kutaisi is found in the
Argonautica of Apollonius of Rhodes (3
rd
cent. BC). Here mention is made of
Kutaisi, i. e. Aea (Aia). Procopius (BG,VIII,14) identified the Ky(u)taya of
Greek written sources with his contemporary fortress Kotatisi on the bank of
the Rioni. On the basis of archaeological material and written sources the view
221

has become established in the specialist literature on the identity of Ky(u)taya-
Kotatisi-Kutaisi.
The village of Vartsikhe lies in the course of the Rioni. Materials of the
Classical and medieval periods are attested. Special interest in Vartsikhe
undoubtedly attaches to the remains of an early-medieval city-fortress, known
in Byzantine written sources under the name of Rhodopolis (Procopius, BG,
VII (IV); Agathias, IV, 15). The remains of an ancient fortress are attested on
the promontory at the confluence of the Rioni and the Khanistsqali. The above-
ground wall proved to date to the period of the late Middle Ages, while the
walls dating from the early Middle Ages are buried underground. Split-stone,
cobblestones, lime mortar, bricks and tiles were used as construction material.
The archaeological material, brought to light at Vartsikhe, is largely
represented by pottery and glass and iron wares. The pottery includes
fragments of household, table-ware and kitchen ware. Remains of imported
pottery have also been discovered.
Study of adjacent territories is attached major attention in ascertaining the
genesis of the settlements of the city-fortress of Vartsikhe. Here remains of
Classical period settlements have been brought to light evidenced
particularly intensively two hundred metres to the south of the city, on
Giorgobiani hill. Attested here are fragments of stone walls built in dry
masonry and fragments of plaster; a beam structure was apparently erected on
this. The remains of the structure are dated with the aid of the pottery to the
pre-Hellenistic period. Remains of such settlements are noted on the territory
around the Giorgobiani hill. Thus, the environs of Vartsikhe were settled
already in the Classical period, while by the early medieval period the
settlement is concentrated within the city-fortress.
Of the archaeological sites, uncovered in the Rioni valley, the ancient city
site of Vani boasts the longest history of study. It lies on the left bank of the
Rioni, in the river Sulori valley, on the hill Akhvledianis-gora. Excavations on
this hill have been under way for a long time. Vast material has accumulated
and proceedings have been published (for the bibliography, see the collected
papers Vani). In the past, the rise of an urban-type settlement on the
Akhvledianis-gora hill was apparently facilitated by the ancient settlements
222

whose remains have been discovered in large numbers at Vani and its
environs. The Akhvledianis-gora hill in the 5
th
-4
th
cent. BC was evidently a
place of residence of the local Colchian nobility. Various crafts also
concentrated here. Concentration of handicrafts at definite centres and,
accordingly, the emergence of a market, constitutes one of the principal
features of the urbanization of society [Lordkipanidze, O. 1977:19].
The last stage of the existence of Vani involved the entire Akhvledianis-
gora hill, fortified with thick walls and steep slopes. The thickness of the
defensive wall reaches almost three metres, and it is built of rectangular cut
stones of large sizes. The ruins of the city gate have survived on the northern
side of the former city site. Remains of a cultic structure are found here. At the
distance of one hundred metres a fairly large complex of structures of cultic
purpose has come to light. The archaeological material of the 3
rd
-1
st
cent. BC,
found on Akhvlediani-gora, attests to the fact that at that time use was made at
Vani of the achievements of Hellenistic engineering.
Westward of the city site of Vani, approximately at the distance of one
kilometre, in the village of Zedatsikhe Sulori, ruins of a fortress have survived
on the top of the mountain. The mountain is protected by natural steep slopes,
and the road linking it with Vani leads to it from the south-east. Excavations
inside the fortress revealed cultural layers of Early Medieval and Hellenistic
periods. Interesting material came to light remains of architectural details:
fragments of a cornice, a fragment of a column with cannelures, etc. The
remains of a wall of the Hellenistic period in the fortress of v. Zedatsikhe
Sulori, as well as the architectural details and pottery point to the existence
here of a settlement in Hellenistic times as well. It undoubtedly had some
connection with the city of Vani, and was possibly destroyed together with it
[Mitsishvili, M.1977].
Within 8 km of Vani, in v. Mtisdziri, remains of ancient settlements are
traceable on the hills Adeishvilisgora, Naktsevigora, Nabambevisgora,
and on the territory contained between these. In this locality archaeological
material of the Classical period and early medieval periods was attested. At
Mtisdziri, the defensive structure merits special attention: clay, wood and
stones were the basic construction material in erecting the structure. The
223

building is rectangular in shape, with two facilities: 26.88m
2
and 13.44m
2
. The
socle is 2.60 m wide. We may be dealing here with a variety of wooden
structures mentioned in the works of Xenophon and Vitruvius. At Mtsidziri,
along with local pottery, a small quantity of imported ceramic ware was
discovered (Chian, Attic, Mendean, Sinopean). The archaeological remains of
Mtisdziri are closely related to synchronous remains of entire Colchis. By its
geographical location Mtisdziri held a strategically advantageous place. In the
Early Classical and Hellenistic periods Mtisdziri represented a fortified point
within the defensive system of the city of Vani and its environs [Gamkrelidze,
G. 1982].
Along the course of the Rioni, within 2 km of Mtisdziri, lies the village of
Dablagomi, situated on hillocks at the bank of the Rioni. To date the inner
territory as well as the adjoining hills: Natsikhvari, Nasakirevi and Nasaqdrevi
have been studied. Almost over the entire area of Dablagomi fragments of
plaster have been found, some bearing imprints of wood. The remains of the
structure are preserved comparatively better on the Nasaqdrevi hill. The upper
layer dates from the 7
th
-5
th
cent. BC. At Dablagomi the large number of jar
burials evokes special interest. They are arranged on the slopes of the hillocks
of Nasakirevi and Natsikhvari. At Dablagomi, on the west slope of the
Natsikhvari hill, a rich burial, covered with a tile, came to light. Its study
revealed that it dates from the 3
rd
cent. BC [Tolordava, V. 1977: 48-54, 78].
Remains of a settlement typologically and structurally similar to those of
Dablagomi were discovered within the distance of one kilometre, at v.
Dapnari; the chronological limits: 4
th
-3
rd
cent. BC. Apart from this hill,
archaeological remains are in evidence on the Chais-gora and Tsqvetili hills.
Cultural layers of a settlement were investigated on this territory. The
dwellings appear to have been built on the terraces of the hills. Large quantities
of plaster with imprints of wood and charred beams were brought to light on
these terraces. On the Chais-gora hill the remains of a furnace for smelting iron
were found [Kighuradze, N. 1976].
Remains of a settlement resembling Mtisdziri, Dablagomi and Dapnari
have been discovered at Sajavakho, near Dapnari. Colchian pottery of the 6
th
-
224

2
nd
cent. BC has come to light here. Excavattions at Sajavakho have so far not
been carried out.
It is in the 6
th
-4
th
c.c. B.C. that a fairly stable and consolidated
archaeological culture is evidenced on the territory of modern West Georgia,
i.e. ancient Colchis. The following are the most typical features of Colchian
culture in the 6
th
-4
th
c.c. B.C. - A system of settlements situated on natural
hillocks or artificial mounds, surrounded by one or two ditches; the citadels
fortified with a wooden paling built on the edges of an artificial defensive ditch
are also evidenced. Also, there is a specific custom of burying of the common
people. There is found peculiar artifacts - pottery: Pithoi with hatched surface;
jugs, with the shape of to conuses attached by bottom; basins with flat bottom
and slanting walls. Also unique goldsmithery - diadems with a torque and
rhombic plaques, earrings and specific rings, openwork or bi-conic pendants,
etc. During the excavations there is witness wide range of silver coins of
various face-values, known in the scientific literature under the name of
Colchian coins or Kolkhuri-tetri. In West Georgia archaeological studies have
shown the predominance of wooden architecture throughout Colchis from the
end of the 2rd millennium B.C. to the 4
th
c. B.C. inclusive. Such are the houses
at the Namarnu, Anaklia, Simagre, Nosiri, Pichori settlements and etc.
Ancient Greek literature has preserved evidence on the individual
branches of Colchian manufacture. The manufacture was the basis of the
economic and political power of Colchis. The broad scale of iron manufacture
is directly attested by the exceptionally numerous finds of most diverse objects
used in everyday economic life and in war axes, hoes, knives, ploughshares,
daggers, sickles, spears, blades and many others. In West Georgia 6
th
-4
th
c.c.
B.C. during the existence of a major Colchian political entity, there is a
peculiar structure of Colchian settlements, also there are type of burial sites
and religious cults and manufactures (iron metallurgy and goldsmithery)
characteristic for only Colchian culture. All the elements of material culture
just listed above, clearly fits in a well-defined territorial limits corresponding
to the boundaries within which ancient Colchis was placed in the geographical
conception of the ancient Greeks [Lordkipanidze,O.1979].
225

On the basis of the above-cited archaeological and written sources, as well
as geographical data, it may be presumed that the Rioni valley was densely
populated in the period under study. Judging by the archaeological material
discovered in the Rioni valley, the level of economic development of the local
population was high. In the period under study this was one of the developed
regions in Colchis, forming a definite integral whole from the economic and
geographic viewpoints. However, its political status differed at various times.
The archaeological remains, uncovered in the Rioni valley, are closely
linked with synchronous remains of entire Colchis, forming an organic part of
this common archaeological culture. In the period under discussion life in the
Rioni valley obviously continued uninterruptedly, though characterized by
varying intensity. By its natural conditions and geographic position the Rioni
valley held an advantageous place in terms of communications and strategy.
The natural relief was used successfully for building living and defensive
structures. In building fortified dwelling structures use was primarily made of
beams, clay and occasionally stones. Archaeological investigation has shown
that log structures with clay plastering were characteristically practised in the
Rioni valley, as well as in entire Colchis.
In them in terms of design and material a definite genetic link is
observable with the preceding periods of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages (see:
[Apakidze, D. 1991:7-75]). The geographical environment, the geopolitical
situation and economic activity created the preconditions for the rise on the
territory of Western Georgia (with its centre in the Rioni valley) of the
Colchian state, towards the end of the 6
th
cent. BC.
According to the archaeological data of the middle course of the Rioni
River, from the end of the 4
th
cent.BC qualitatively new elements coexist with
ancient ones. The changes concern the burial custom (jar burials). In the
subsequent centuries a new construction material tile appears here, pottery
suffers considerable typological changes.
From the 3
rd
cent. BC buffer city-states Dioskurias- Sukhumi,
Gyenos- Ochamchire, Phasis-Poti and Kobuleti-Pichvnari develop between
Classical countries and inner Colchis in the Colchian Black Sea littoral, while
the hinterland Colchis is subjected to the political and economic influence of
226

the Iberian Kingdom. The skeptuchies: Sairkhe, Kutaisi and Vani were under
this influence (according to Strabo, XI, II, 18). Mithridates VI Eupator, King
of Pontus, appeared on the political horizon from the end of the 2
nd
cent. BC,
laying his hand on the coastal cities. The policy of the Iberian kingdom, under
whose influence inner Colchis was, was probably changeable with respect to
the Pontic kingdom, as evidenced by Georgian written sources and the recent
archaeological materials (for details, see: [Gamkrelidze, G. 1985: 86-97;
Gamkrelidze, G. 1989: 59-69].
Following the defeat of Mithridates VI, Colchis was invaded by Pompey,
appointing Aristarchus as ruler of the country. Colchis was divided into
skeptuchies (see Strabo); it was not turned into a Roman province. Historical
sources say nothing about Pompey leaving part of his troops in Colchis. In the
strategic respect western Colchis was of special significance for Rome.
Successful struggle for dominance in the Northern Black Sea region and in the
East was impossible without complete influence on the Black Sea littoral of
Colchis.
One of most interesting and important towns of Colchis was Phasis and is
generally localized somewhere near the present day Poti town and
adjacent to it territories (pl. III). Study of history of Phasis town has been
continuing for about a century and a half but scantiness of written records
and archaeological evidences makes it almost impossible to throw a light
on certain problems connected with it.
Phasisi town is mentioned by the following aut hors: Pseudo Skylax
(4th c. BC), Asia, 81. Aristotle, Fragment 46, Plato Phedon 109(b),
Heraklides Lembos, Phasians Politia 18, Hippocrates, About Airs,
Waters and Men 15, Theocritus, Idyle 13.24, Strabo, Geography
11. 2t.16.17. 3t.4. Pseudo Plutarch About the Names of Rivers and
Mountains... Phasisi5.1. Gaius Plinius Secundus Natural History 6. 1.
13. 52, Pomponius Mela Description of the world 1. 108, Arrian F.
The Black Sea Periplus 9. 10. ch 1, Claudius Ptolemaeus Geographic
Guidebook 5. 9T. 2, Pseudo-Orpheus Argonautica p. 3, Themistios
Words 27, Castorious so called Tabula Peutingeriana 1011, Ammianus
Marcellinus History22.8t.24, an anonimous author Euxinus Pontus
227

Periplus ...44(3). ZosimosA new History1. 32. Stephanos from
Bizantium Ethnica Phasis(22). Agathias About the Reign of
Justinian3. 19.20.21; 4.23. MenanderHistoryfragment 3ch,
Epiphanius from Constantinople Life of Andrew chapter Svaneti,
Fusta, Djiketi(58-81). Theophanes Chorography Chorography ...
about Phasian episcope Kviros(103). Georgius Cedrenus A Historical
Review about Phasian episcope Kviros(28). Basil from SopheneThe
List of Holy Patriarches,27, Niketas ChoniatesChronicle Port
Phasis(132). Archangelo Lamberti Description of Samegrelo Region
[Lamberti, A. 1938: 172]. J. Chardin Journey in Persia and Other
Oriental Countries(258) etc.
An important and the oldest information about Phasis belongs to
Pseudo-Scylax (periplus Asia81). The most important information
about the localization of Phasis town belongs to Strabo (between the turn
of 1
st
BC 1
st
AD): There is a town of the same name at the Phasis
river. It is Colchians trading post surrounded with the river (Rioni), a
lake (Paliastomi) and the Sea (Strabo Geography 11.2.17). It is
fairly apparent that the description completely coincides with the present
day locality of Poti town.
Noteworthy information belongs to a high-ranking Roman official
Flavius Arrian (2
nd
century) to whom belongs an inspective report The
Black Sea Periplus. F. Arrian wrote: The fortress (Phasis) itself which
accommodates four hundreds of best warriors seemed to me almost
inaccessible. As to the security of the area it is very convenient for
visitors. The town walls are encircled with wide double moats. There
were clay walls with timber towers on them some time before but now
both of them the walls and the towers are built of baked bricks. Their
foundations are quite firm and there are battering machines on the walls.
In whole everything is arranged so that nobody is able to come nearer
and siege the garrison stationed there. The harbor is safe for ships and so
are the adjacent territories settled with retired military men and
merchants. (Arrian Periplus 9).
228

A 4
th
-century BC silver bowl inscribed in Greek (about the
inscription see below) was found at Phasis which is quite frequently
mentioned in Greco Roman and Byzantine written records but the
information is rather controversial because in most cases the data are
taken from one and the same source. According to the traditional
simplified scheme of the written records Phasis was founded at the area,
anciently settled by Kartvelian (Georgian) population, by Ionian
Milesians in order to contact with the locals through a trading post-
emporium [Inadze, M. 1982:119-124].
According to archaeological evidences Phasis has supposedly left far
behind all the other Late Bronze Early Iron period settlements such as:
Namarnu, Dziguri, Siriachkoni, Okhodje, Nandevu, Sagvichio (Zurgani,
Konsha), Nagmipidji, Chaladidi (Zurga, Sabazho, Chkhari), Guripuli,
Naokhvamu (Reka village), Ergeta etc. [see Djibladze, L. 2001, 34- 38
and the map], adjacent to Poti and Paliastomi because it occupied a more
convenient area from communication point of view (the Rioni Phasisi
river delta) and it appeared easier to become an urban centre.
Some scholars suppose that a celebrated scientist Hippocrates had
himself visited the neighboring areas of the Phasisi river [Kaukhchishvili,
T. 1965: 8] and included some very important pieces of information about
the journey in the adjacent territories of Poti Paliastomi in his work
About Airs, Waters and Places: I tell you about people who live in
Phasis;. People have dwellings built in swamps. They are built of
timber and rush. People walk little. They sail up and down to town
(probably to Phasis) or to emporium in their boats because there are
many channels there (Hippocrates, About Airs 15). The passage
shows that people living in down stream of the Rioni Phasisi river went
to a special trading post Phasis emporium. Hippocrates as if stresses
the fact that in the area within the Phasisi river delta (i f it is Phasis town)
there is the locals trading post and not a Greek type town polis.
Normally concentration of trading at special areas points to the presence
of a protourban centre. It seems quite possible that the goods were even
distributed from the area after Greeks come there (e.g. the Antique period
229

imported pieces found at the fortress and the settlements lying along the
Rioni river) which implies the birth of more or less permanently
functioning market and this in its turn is one of the principal
characteristic feature of an urban settlement.
It is quite possible that a protourban centre had already existed at the
estuary of the river Phasisi when Greeks first came to the area (lets
recall to our mind the Late Bronze Early Iron period settlements), and
perceived it as a town and a trading post (emporium). Greeks had come
into contact with the trading settlement and in the course of time there
emerged an area inhabited with them. The main reason for the contacts
with the natives was either export, or local raw materials instead of
imported luxury goods (fine pottery, adornments, metal ware, aromatic
ointments etc) which is perfectly borne out by written records and
illustrated by the archaeological evidences dating from the period after
the 5th century BC. Thus coastal emporii were mutually convenient for
both the locals and the foreigners. In the course of time Greek colonies
established at Phasisi underwent symbiosis and transformation in the
result of the contacts with the natives which in its turn were determined
with the local biological, geographic and social habitats [Gamkrelidze, G.
1993:345].
Phasis gradually transformed into a buffer, ethnically mixed polis-
type town with probable rural areas around it after disintegration of the
Colchis kingdom in the 3
rd
century BC. In this connection there is
Heraklides(2
nd
century BC) very important information about Phasis
Politia which implies the presence of certain statehood there
[Gamkrelidze, 1993:4687].
Another information belongs to a considerably later period (5
th

century) anonymous author who mentions the Caucasian Iberians in the
context with Phasis in his Periplus and goes on: There is a Hellenic
town, so called Phasis, founded by Milesians at the mouth of the river, on
the left bank of the Phasis (river) and as it is said there come together
people speaking 60 different languages among which there are even
Indians and Bactrians (Arrian, Anonymous author, 3).
230

But these somehow summary written records probably concern to the
period after the 3rd century BC. A so called Great Greek colonization of
the 8th 7th centuries BC did not touch Phasis town. The
archaeologically traced settlements (see the list above) at the lower
stream of the Rioni Phasisi river clearly testify to this fact. There are
not found any imported pieces belonging to the period of colonization.
As to the 6th 5th centuries BC, the import is very little about hundred
pieces of pot shards. This is why it is early and absolutely groundless to
speak about some kind of intensive Greek colonization. As to the
written records, they enable me to suppose the presence of only a small
Greek trading settlement (something like an emporium) at or within
Phasis town, or in the Rioni river delta in the 5th century BC, for
instance, something like a Genoese factory existi ng at Poti Phasis in the
14
th
15
th
centuries. It is a very important fact that there are not observed
any traces of great changes anywhere in Colchis in archaeological culture
(pottery, metallurgy, architecture, ideology, burial rites etc.) during the
8
th
6
th
and even the 4
th
centuries BC. The natives kept living traditionally
at the same territory and there is not seen any sign of Greek influence in
their everyday terms.
In spite of the fact that the locality of ancient Phasis is in this or that
way fixed by the Antique period written records (see Strabo, Arrian), the
problem remains still unsolved because the town of the Classical and
Hellenistic periods is not archaeologically traced yet though there are
found the remains of the Early Byzantine period Phasis (see below)
[Gamkrelidze, G. 1987: 97117; Gamkrelidze, G. 2002:101].
Now I want to offer twelve different points of view about the
localization of Phasis town.
1. Dubois de Montpereux considered that the Roman period Phasis lay
between Chaladidi village and Poti town, namely, in the south of the
latter (present day airport) he had found remains of a fortress and thought
that it was Arrians Phasis [Montpereux, F. D. 1839: 63 80].
2. F. Brun thought that Phasis town was in the south east section of
lake Paliastomi [Brun, F. 1880:250].
231

3. N. Shafranov thought that Phasis was situated at the south side of lake
Paliastomi, at the estuary of the Supsa river [Shafranov, N. 1880:3].
4. According to L. Elnitskii Phasis was at the left bank of the Rioni river
estuary, approximately at the area of the present day sea port [Elnitskii,
L. 1938: 319].
5. M. Berdznishvili thought that Phasis lay at the left bank of the Rioni
river, near Patara (small) Poti. As to the Phasisi of Arrians times he
agrees with Dubois de Montpereux [Berdznishvili, M. 1942: 19 20].
6. B. Kuftin considered that Arrians Phasis lay at the estuary of lake
Paliastomi, at the Pichori river banks [Kuftin, K. 1950, 116].
7. According to N. Khoshtaria the ancient and the Roman Byzantine
period Phasisi was situated at the area of the modern Poti town.
8. N. Lomouri agrees with Dubois de Montpereux but thinks that it not
the Phasis mentioned by Arrian, but it is the Phasis of Agathias times
(6
th
century AD).
9. G. Grigolia thinks that Phasis should be searched for at the east side
of lake Paliastomi where the Pichori river flows into the lake [Grigolia,
G. 1973: 54].
10. A palaeogeographer Dj. Djanelidze considers that Phasis town
should be searched for along the Rioni river, in 6 km distance from the
sea, at the territory around Patara (small) Poti and Chaladidi vil lage
[Djanelidze, Dj. 1973: 5 16].
11. Ot. Lordkipanidze and T. Mikeladze had coordinated all the existing
information gleaned from the written sources and archaeological
evidences and came to a conclusion that different period towns known
under name of Phasis should be explored through the researches of those
archaeological sites which are lying at the estuary of the Rioni river, at
the territory among Kvemo (lower) Chaladidi and coastal Grigoleti and
Kulevi villages [Lordkipanidze,O. Mikeladze,T. 1973: 33].
12. The next opinion belongs to me. I think that the 3
rd
7
th
century
Phasis is the same as Natekhebi settlement found in the south part of
Poti town, in the west section of lake Paliastomi. I suppose that a certain
part of Phasis town among Kulevi, the Rioni, Pichori and Supsa rivers
232

was often covered with water (or appeared in a swamp of peats) in the
result of local geomorphologic changes and this is why the town was
dislocated from one place to another at different times but so that it
remained within the confines of the area just menti oned [Gamkrelidze,G.
1987: 97 117; Gamkrelidze,G. 2002:101].
Phasis town always was one of the most important transit points of
sea and river ways or land routs. Gold, iron, timber, flax, flax oil, honey,
wine and later oil etc was taken abroad through the town port. The name
of a bird pheasant so common in European languages is derived from
Phasis and quantites of Phasian birds were taken to foreign countries
from these areas. Importance of Phasis as a transit and trading town
increased greatly in the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
A Roman commander Pompey while leaving Iberia (Caucasian) met
the navy commander Servilius at Phasis. Serviliuss fleet controlled the
town from the sea. Gradual increase of Roman influence over the eastern
Black Sea lands resulted in stationing of their garrison at Phasis. Emperor
Hadrian sent Flavius Arrian to Phasis in 134. He had inspected the
readiness of the garrison, all the fortification systems and wrote an
appropriate description. A Latin stamp deserves a special interest from
this point of view. It probably belonged to the garrison stationed at
Phasis [Shpaidel, M. 1985: 134 140]. There is a mention of Phasis
castellum during the reign of Emperor Constantine I. A high school of
rhetorics functioned at Phasis in the 4th century. Phasis belonged to
Lazika (a new Colchis kingdom) in the 4th century. One of the crucial
battles between Byzantine and Iran took place at Phasis in 542 562
when Byzantine Lazika united troops defeated Iranians. There was an
episcopate subject to Constantinople in the 6th 8th centuries at Phasis.
Phasian bishop Theodores signature is on the resolution of the
Ecumenical Counsel that took place in 553. One more Phasian bishop
Kviros became Alexandrian Patriarch. A bit later there Phasis was the
residence of Lazikan Metropolitan. A Genoese trading station functioned
at Phasis in the 14th 15th centuries (see the previously cited written
records).
233

Archaeological researches at Poti Phasis and adjacent territories
began long ago. E. Dubois de Montpereux had found remains of a
fortress in the east of Poti (present day airdrome) at the site Nadjikhuri
in 1834 and considered that it was the Phasis mentioned by Arrian. He
even made a drawing of the fortress. N. Khoshtaria made surface surveys
of Poti adjacencies in 1953. A team of Poti archaeological expedition of
Iv. Djavakhishvili Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography
investigated the neighborhoods of the town. There were made geologic
boring in 1961 5. Later the same expedition explored Nadjikhuri site
in 1969. One more expedition (director T. Mikeladze) studied
archaeological problems of Phasis in 1971 80. Beginning from 1985 the
Centre for Archaeological Sciences (Academy of Sciences of Georgia)
continued expeditions at Poti. This time the Black Sea hydro
archaeological expedition found the remains of a sett lement dating from
the 3
rd
7
th
centuries in lake Paliastomi.
The oldest artifacts have been found at Natekhebi site, in the west
part of Lake Paliastomi, within clay and peats deposits. This is a profiled
ring-base of a black-slip Attic container dating from the 4
th
century BC
and an underside of Rhodos amphora dating from the 3rd century BC. A
pair of Colchian Tetri a 2nd type didrachm and several smaller
nominals (displayed at the State Museum) dating from the 5
th
century BC
were found at a neighboring area of Poti town (more precise topography
is absent). Pot shards identical of Sinopean pottery and dating from the
2
nd
1
st
centuries BC were found at the depth of 6 m while boring the
soil at the crossroads of Pirveli Maisi and Kavkasia streets. A 4
th

century BC Sinopean and Heraclea Pontica amphorae were found in the
sea at Maltakva and the Supsa River.
Traces of a settlement were uncovered near Poti at Kvemo (lower)
Chaladidi village (right bank of the Rioni river, 1.5 km northwards)
roadside in N. Kipianis farm-yard. The hill occupied 1800m
2
. It
consisted of following layers: clay and sand mixture, yellowish clayey
soil, remains of burnt structure plastering and pieces of timber. Middle
and lower layers are dating from the Late Bronze Early Iron periods.
234

The settlement yielded pots, basins, and bowls decorated with
characteristic handles and bosses on them, mainly blackish in color.
Their bodies are decorated with slanting incisions of wavy, rhomb like
ornaments. There was also found a mould, a quern, a spindle-whorl, flint
sickle bushes etc. Archaeological excavations were carried out at Kvemo
(lower) Chaladidi village, near Sabazho (customs) site, in A. Beridzes
farm yard. Unearthed settlements yielded burnt pieces of timber and
plastering, pottery, a mould and bellows of a melting furnace [Mikeladze,
T. 1978: 33 40].
Another settlement Simagre, supposedly a rural area of Phasis
town, was found in the east part of Sakorkio village. The plot belongs to
P. Patsia. It is on the left bank of the Rioni river. The hill occupies an
area of 3 300 m
2
and only 200 m
2
has been excavated. A lower layer
(depth 60 cm) yielded timber structures. The settlement consists of
several building levels. The artifacts found there are dating from the 6
th

5
th
centuries BC. The structures are rectangular, built like log cabins.
There are also found remains of hurdle fences. The excavators have
managed to fix floors of the log cabins. One of them measured 112 m
2

and contained partitions. The logs were inserted in one another. There
have survived six rows of log walls. The pottery of Simagre settlement
is dating from the 6
th
5
th
centuries BC. Most of the wares are
manufactured locally and typologically are similar in all the uncovered
levels. At the same time they are characteristic to the 6
th
5
th
century BC
Colchian artifacts: jars, clay cisterns, pots and their lids, drinking
vessels, pitchers with tubular handles, tumblers, dishes, basins, cone-
shaped spindle-whorls, bronze knives, iron lance heads, hoes, knives,
hooks, bit wears, oblonged querns, wooden deepers, cornelian and agate
beads, and a gold triangular pendant decorated with a granulated
meander. A group of imported pottery consists of Chios, Lesbos and
Samian amphorae, Ionian table wares basins, oil-lamps and kylixes, Attic
black-slip and black-figured kylixes. 5
th
4
th
century BC plastered log
structures were uncovered in 9 km distance from the sea, along the left
terrace of the Rioni river. There were found Colchian wares pots,
235

tumblers, lids, jugs with tubular handles. The Hellenistic period pieces
were found in the south of Simagre settlement. These were pot -shards
of rimmed clay cisterns and Colchian amphorae, also the undersides of
Sinopean amphorae [Mikeladze, M. 1978: 50 78].
A pair of concave sided, Early Medieval, locally manufactured
amphorae and rectangular bricks with two crossing grooves were found at
Poti arboretum, in the north-east of the airport. Pieces of bricks and tiles,
pot-shards of an amphora with corrugated exterior, Emperor Hadrians
(117 138) silver didrachm minted in Caesarea town were found next to
Poti airport inside a trench made in the north of Nadjikhuri site.
Remains of a cemetery and a structure built of stone, brick and lime
mortar were uncovered in the north-east of Simagre settlement (distance
300m), on the left bank of the Rioni river. Bricks with crossing grooves,
single-handled pitchers, mugs, two-handled pots, and basins also were
found there. The pottery is made of well worked clay and baked in pale
brown color. The finds are dating from the Early Medieval period.
The Early Medieval period pot-sherds (pointed saucers of clay
cisterns, basins and concave sided amphorae) came to light while
building a bridge across the Kaparchina river in the south-east part of
Poti town, at lake Paliastomi. A corrugated amphora was found at the left
estuary of lake Paliastomi (the Thkorina river). Pot -shards of the Early
Medieval period came to light at the mouth of the Pichori river which
also flows into lake Paliastomi. Another group of pot-shards of the same
period were uncovered at Nadjikuri (discovered by Dubois de
Montpereux), present Poti airdrome. The group consisted of bricks with
crossing grooves and pot-shards of corrugated pottery. One more
collection of the Early Medieval period pot-shards (of clay cisterns,
corrugated amphorae etc) were unearthed in the south-west of
Nadjikhuri, where the river Shavi flows into lake Paliastomi.
There are several artifacts bearing Greek and Latin inscriptions
connected with Phasis: A silver chalice (diameter -21 cm) with swelling
inwards underside. It comes from Kuban so called Zubov kurgan. The
chalice is decorated with a snakes and deers heads. A Greek inscription
236

runs round the rim - ALL NO IMI TOM
I . It belongs to Apollo the leader who is in Phasis. The
inscription is made in Ionian dialect of the Greek language and is
palaeographically dated to the 4th century [Lordkipanidze, O. 2000: 7
11; Tsetskhladze, G. 1994:199 216].
A stamped tile with Latin inscription emerged among the ruins of
Tsikhisdziri castellum (now in the National Museum, Tbilisi): - VEX
[illatio] FA[siana]. The tile is considered to be made for the garrison
stationed at Phasis in the 2nd century [Shpaidel, M. 1985:140]. A chalice
bearing a Georgian secular inscription was found at Poti, near lake
Paliastomi (now at the Kutaisi Museum of History, #3788).
A special hydro archaeological exploratory expedition was organized
at the Centre for Archaeological Studies (Academy of Sciences of
Georgia) in 1985 (Director G. Gamkrelidze). The team had to investigate
the Black Sea coastal areas of Georgia and first of all create a special
hydro archaeological map of quite a large territory. Besides making the
map the team had to reconsider all the existing written records,
geographical and geomorphologic data and collate all of them from hydro
archaeological point of view. Poti town and neighboring areas seem the
most interesting and such circumstances had determined the first steps of
the team. Remains of a dew stone wall was uncovered in the south part of
lake Paliastomi, at the end of the Kaparchina river, at Naeklesiari area,
but the pot shards picked there did not allow the scholars to date the site
and the pieces properly.
Remains of a 3
rd
8
th
century settlement were uncovered in a distance
of 0.5 km from lake Paliastomi estuary (Maltakva) at Natekhebi area
where the lake forms a bay. As soon as we began the explorations there
emerged a question was the pottery brought by the river Rioni or were
they the remains of a settlement. Further researches showed that it was a
settlement according to a number of sound features: First large
quantities of pottery gathered at a certain area. Second several
amphorae vertically dug into the soil. Third remains of a burial. Fourth
several test-pits yielded the same pottery as picked on the bottom of the
237

lake. The remains of Natekhebi settlement occupy an area of about 900
m
2
. The bottom of the lake is covered with sand (about 300 m towards
the centre), layers of clay and peats. At some of the areas the peats are
covered with sand. It is not at all excluded that there may be artifacts of
earlier periods beneath the clay and peats. Lake Paliastomi occupies an
area of 18 km
2
. The levels of the Black Sea and the lake are equal. The
rivers flowing into the lake come from swampy areas and the deepest
among them is the Pichori.
Geomorphologists believe that a lake Laguna Paliastomi as a sea-
born relic. In ancient times there was a estuary of the Rioni river
[Dzvelaia, M. 1973: 25 33]. It seems quite natural that seafarers used
the estuary as a very convenient harbor and then continued their way via
Paliastomi sailing upstream the Rioni River a very popular transit
trading seaway.
Dubois de Montpereux offered an interesting interpretation of
Paliastomi. He explained the toponym through the old Greek language
an old estuary PALAIOS -STOMA. Karl Koch agreed with him
[Koch, K.; Spenser, O. 1981: 173]. There are cases when some of Greek
written records mentioned two words together - ivo // oto (liman,
estuary). It is clear that the terms mentioned above have several,
somehow synonymic, meanings. It is also a very interesting fact that one
of the meanings of the word - oto is a castellum.
Pottery predominates among the artefacts uncovered at Natekhebi
settlement excavated in lake Paliastomi which together with other
archaeological evidences (archaeotopographic, glass wares and metal
pieces etc) help to create an impression about the life of ancient settlers
of Natekhebi and their trade contacts. Pot -shards found in Paliastomi
(Natekhebi settlement) may be grouped this way: building material,
container and household wares.
Building material consists of bricks and tiles. The bricks are 3 5 cm
thick. They are of the same size as those picked at the Early Medieval
period towns of west Georgia Bichvinta, Sokhumi, Ochamchire,
Gudava, Nokalakevi, Mtisdziri, Vashnari, Kobuleti Pichvnari,
238

Tsikhisdziri, Gonio ets. The tiles are flat with their sides turned up (solen
like). The height of the turned up side is 3.5 5 cm, thickness of the
tile 1.5 2.5 cm. They are made of reddish-brown clay with some
(limestone, quartz) inclusions. Among the shards some belong to flat
imported tiles, and their clay is like Sinopean clay. Together with the
bricks and tiles there were found the remains of logs and burnt plastering.
It seems quite possible that log cabins, plastered with clay and roofed
with tiles, were built onto a ground floor built of bricks. Flavius Arrian
noted: Earlier the walls were made of clay with timber towers standing
on them at Phasis town but now the walls and the towers both are built of
bricks [Arrian, F. 1961:40].
Amphorae container make the majority, or even the main part of the
containers uncovered at Natekhebi settlement. These locally produced
concave sided amphorae are very close to those found at Nokalakevi.
Normally such amphorae are common at the Late Antique Early
Medieval sites of west Georgia such as Gantiadi village, Bichvinta,
Sokhumi, Ochamchire, Gudava, Mtisdziri, Tsikhisdziri, Varditsikhe,
Kobuleti Pichvnari.
Household pottery consists of basins, jugs, pots and mortaris. The
pots are plain, broad-bodied and short-necked. Their rims are everted,
clay is 6 8 mm thick, undersides are with concentric lines, diameter 7
10 cm. Basins make the majority of Natekhebi settlement kitchen
pottery. They are mostly with rounded, low sides and flat undersides.
There were also found rim and side pieces of mortaris (clay is 8 10 mm
thick). The clay of the mortaris is brownish with limestone, mica and
quartz inclusions and it means that they were produced locally. Such
mortaris are common at Varditsikhe, Vani, Bichvinta, Ochamchire,
Gudava, Nokalakevi, Mtisdziri etc. In addition to above mentioned
household containers there were found clay cisterns with concentric,
relief lines around their bodies and flat undersides. Their clay is dark
brown, 16 19 mm thick.
A quantity of imported pottery (25%) found at Natekhebi
settlement enables me to create a general impression about the contacts
239

between the natives and the foreigners. These are imported amphorae, red
slip basins and glass wares. The clay of the amphorae is like Sinopean
it is pale grayish with a violet shade. There are also underside, side, and
handle pieces of the amphorae with corrugated bodies. There are several
groups of amphorae made of clay like Sinopean. Such amphorae come
from Bichvinta, Sokhumi, Ochamchire, Gudava, Tsikhisdziri, Tsebelda
etc. Reddish-brown amphorae make another group among Natekhebi
household pottery. They are made of well-worked clay and have medium
size. Similar amphorae have been found at Bichvinta, Tsikhisdziri, at the
agora of Athenae. It is also possible that they are of the Mediterranean
origin. The settlement yelded also semispherical undersides of corrugated
amphorae with small warts on their tips. They are made of reddish-brown
clay. Such undersides come from Bichvinta, Tsebelda, Sokhumi and
Tsikhisdziri. There are also undersides of Samian amphorae which are
common at Bichvinta, Sokhumi, Ochamchire, Tsikhisdziri, Tsebelda,
Nokalakevi and Varditsikhe. The latter is quite far from the Black Sea
coastal area.
There is a group of brown-burnished amphorae container among the
ones found at Natekhebi settlement. The clay of such vessels contains
fine inclusions of mica. These amphorae have tubular necks and rollers
around their rims. Their handles are horizontally attached at their rims. In
form they are similar of those found in the 2
nd
3
rd
century layers of the
northern Black Sea towns, but are rather infrequent at Georgian Black
Sea coastal sites. There were also uncovered several pot -shards of red-
slip ware at the settlement. They are plain wi th the rims curved inwards.
Their well-worked brownish clay, with fine inclusions of mica, is baked
evenly. A red slip has survived perfectly. Such wares are common in the
4
th
5
th
century layers of west Georgian sites such as: Gonio,
Tsikhisdziri, Ochamchire, Sokhumi, Bichvinta, Vashnari, Nokalakevi,
Kutaisi, Tsebelda, Mtisdziri etc. It is important to note that large
quantities of such pottery have been found at coastal towns of the country
(e.g. Sokhumi, Bichvinta etc).
240

Glasswares make one more group of containers found at the
settlement. These mostly are pedestal led goblets. In addition to them
there were scraps of some unidentified glass vessels and also pieces of a
window pane. The glass is transparent, pale greenish though there are
sky-blue pieces too. Such glass is unearthed at Tsebelda, Gudava,
Mtisdziri, Sokhumi, Nokalakevi etc. Similar pedestalled goblets are
dating from the 4
th
8
th
centuries and plenty of them are found at coastal
settlements of the Mediterranean and Black seas. They are also found in
regions far from the seas in the Asia Minor, Caucasia and Near East.
Stemmed glass goblets come from Mtskheta, Urbnisi, Rustavi, Zhinvali,
Tbilisi, Bichvinta, Sokhumi, Tsebelda, Ochamchire, Gudava,
Tsikhisdziri, Vashnari, Mtisdziri, Vardistsikhe and the other Early
Medieval period settlements. They differ in form and color. The ones
found at coastal settlements seem comparatively similar.
There were remains of a pit tomb in the north-east underwater part of
Natekhebi settlement. The tomb yielded a concave sided amphora with
a broken rim. The amphora was lidded with an underside of another one.
The amphora contained burnt bones of poultry and a pig. An individual
was next to the amphora. The pit tomb also contained a bronze pin
(length 7.7 cm), three bow-shaped bronze pins with long, sharp tips
(length 4.3 cm, 4.3 cm and 5.2 cm) dating from the 6th century, a
rectangular, flat piece of lead, a pedestalled glass goblet (pedestal
diameter 4.3 cm), a Byzantine 20 nummi copper coin with a letter K on
the reverse, while the obverse is illegible. The coin is minted during the
reign of Justinian II (565 578). Another copper coin of emperor
Constantius II (337 361) was uncovered in the west part of Natekhebi
settlement. Archaeological material of Natekhebi settlement is in the
Poti town Site Museum storage [For more detailed information see
Gamkrelidze, G. 1987,98117; Gamkrelidze, G. 1992:3048;
Gamkrelidze, G. 1990:215-219; Gamkrelidze, G.1992:101-119;
Gamkrelidze, G. 1990:223-236].
At the present stage of study Natekhebi settlement discovered
under the waters of lake Paliastomi may be dated to the 3rd 8th
241

centuries. As to the pit tomb found there, it may belong to the 6th
century. The artifacts found at the settlement point to a close par allelism
to other contemporaneous sites of west Georgia (Kutaisi, Mtisdziri,
Vashnari, Tsebelda etc) and especially to Bichvinta, Sokhumi,
Ochamchire, Gudava and Nokalakevi. It seems fairly possible that
Natekhebi settlement structures are the remains of the Byzantine period
Phasis described by Agathias and Procopius of Caesarea as lying at the
estuaries of the rivers Pichori, Shavi and Kaparchina. The town was
probably dislocating because of certain geomorphologic changes [For
more detailed information see Gamkrelidze 1987: 97 117; Gamkrelidze,
G. 1992: 211-216; Gamkrelidze, G. 1992: 30 48].
The localization of Phasis town is as if strictly fixed by the authors
of Greek and Latin written records the town lay at the left bank of the
Phasisi river delta and after this they mention a lake (probably
Paliastomi). Such description completely coincides with the present day
locality of Poti town. This is why all the scholars note that Phasis town is
to be searched for at Poti and adjacent territories [see: Berdznishvili, M.
1942, 3 21; Grigolia, G. 1973, 36 55, Lordkipanidze, O. Mikeladze,T.
1973, 17 36; Gamkrelidze,G. 1993]. In spite of the circumstances like
this Phasis of the Classical Hellenistic periods is not yet discovered and
the reason for it is a very complicated palaeogeomorphological situation
existing in the area [Djanelidze, Ch. 1973: 5 16, 21 33; Dzvelaia, M.
1973; Djanelidze, Ch. 1980: 21 64]. From geomorphologic point of
view Kulevi Poti Ureki seaside is as if a missing link in a Georgian
coastal context (330 km in length). The fact of global regression and
transgression of the Black Sea with regard to Phasis seems more than
obscure. The problem of local dynamics of the coastal shelf remains still
uncertain. Very often geomorphologists rely upon archaeologists
information and make their own inferences according the locations of the
settlements. As to me, I am sure that this problem needs an all
embracing investigation but first of all the geomorphologists should tell
us what the coastal dynamics was like and where exactly the Rioni flew
into the sea. They should also take into consideration global (regression
242

and transgression of the sea) and local (hill wash or ballast brought by
the rivers, also old beds of the Rioni, Pichori, Khobi and Supsa rivers
swampy and peaty territories) data.
It seems preferable to use properly deciphered space photos in
palaeogeomorphological investigations in order to clarify once and for
ever where exactly the Phasisi Rioni flew into the sea and how the Late
Bronze Early Iron and Antique period settlements were related with the
river. Unfortunately air photos appeared absolutely useless in the case
like this. It is also important to note that the Rioni river has been carrying
an enormous amount of ballast since the periods mentioned above and it
seems quite natural to suppose that the river delta is dislocated and vast
areas are under water today.
There are series of settlements along Kulevi Poti Ureki coastal
areas: the Late Bronze Early Iron period ones at the estuary of Khobi
river, at Kulevi village, in the north of Poti town. A 6
th
4
th
century BC
one at the Tsiva river, at the estuary of the Supsa river, in the south of
Poti town. Here belong Natekhebi settlement too which i s in lake
Paliastomi, at the same Poti where a 4th century BC pot -shard of a black-
slip container and a base-ring of a Rhodosian amphora (see above) was
found.
It is important to note that an area of about 200 m width was covered
with the sea during 1872 1965 [Kekelia, J. 1981: 505 508]. It seems
so that Phasis town sank in the sea. This fact is amply illustrated. The
information offered by geographers says that a so called Phanagorian
regression in the Black sea finished at approximately between the turn of
BC and AD and began its transgression [Djanelidze, Ch. 1973: 5 16;
1980: 148 159]. In the result the level of the sea became about 3 m
higher and covered all the then settlements [Djanelidze, Ch. 1973: 16].
Similar process developed in the northern [Blagovolin, N. Shcheglov, A.
1968: 15 27] and southern (e.g. Sinope) Black Sea lands where a
certain number of the Antique period towns were covered with water.
A geomorphological situation of Poti Grigoleti shelf is too
complicated. The sea is muddy and it is extremely difficult to see
243

anything in it at the estuary of the Rioni river south ramification. The
river carries silt which forms under water dunes during the storms.
Accordingly if imagine that the process has been going on for centuries it
will be easier to suppose that the remains of Phasis town are covered with
the thickest layer of sand.
Good sized pot-shards of concave sided amphorae were found during
hydro archaeological researches in a distance of 25 m from the beach in
the sea. An early period Sinopean amphora (rim diameter - 12cm) with
tubular neck (15 cm high), solid handles (ovoid in section) on the
shoulder was uncovered near the Supsa river canyon in the sea. Another
Heraclea Pontica amphora dating from the 4th century BC was found
again in the sea at Maltakva.
So, collation of the present day geomorphological and
topoarchaeological information enables me to conclude that the Classical
and Hellenistic period Phasisi is to be searched for on the land and in the
sea within the radius of approximately 12 km or more precisely in the
triangle of Poti Kulevi Supsa and Chaladidi Sakorkio. Because of
local geomorpgological changes ie accumulation of ballast (carried by
the rivers), dislocation of peats, extremely moistened soil, change of the
sea level etc a part of Phasis town was probably covered with water from
time to time. This is why the town was often dislocated within the
confines of the just mentioned territorial triangle (see Fig.I,II,III).


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Grigolia, G. 1973: fasisis lok..., ses. mox., 1973 gv.36-55.
Inadze, M. 1982: aRmosavleT SavizRvis. berZnuli kolonizacia, Tb.
Kaukhchishvili, T. 1965: hipokrates cnobebi saq. Sesaxeb, Tb.
Kaukhchishvili, T. 1957: straboni; cnobebi saqarTveloze, Tb.
Kaukhchishvili, T. 1969: heraklide... ;aRmosavluri filol., Tb.
Kaukhchishvili, S. 1961: georgika, I(berZnuli teqstiT), Tb.
Kekelia, J. 1981: fasisis geogra. aspeqtebi, sma, moambe, #2, gv. 505.
Koch, K.; Spenser, 1981: cnobebi saq.-ze, gamo. l. mamacaSvilma, Tb.
K.Ts - Kartlis Tskhovreba, hereinafter, 1955: The Life of the Georgian Kings and of
their Fathers and Ancestors from the Earliest Times; s. yauxCiSvilma),I, Tb.
Kuftin, B. 1950: . , . I., .
Kvirkvelia, G. 1987: . . , , . 62
Kiguradze,N. 1976: , .
245

Kacharava, D. 1991: The town of Phasis as Described in Graeco-Roman and
Byzantine Literary in Sources 114, Tbilisi.
Lamberti, Arkandjelo 1938: lamberti arq., samegrelos, Tb.
Latyshev B., 1904-1906: Scythica et Caucasica; II, St.-Petersbourg.
Lordkipanidze, O. 1977: , . , III, ., .159-175.
Lordkipanidze, O.; Mikeladze T. 1973: fasisis ist.-arqeologi..., sesiis
Tezisebi, Tb., gv.17-36.
Lordkipanidze, O. 2000: Phasis. The river and city in Colchis, Stuttgart.
Lordkipanidze, O. 1979: a, ,
Maruashvili, L. 1970: saqarTvelos fizikuri geografia, t.II, Tb.
Mikeladze, T. 1978: arqeologiuri kvleva-Zieba rionze, Tb.,1978.
Micishvili, M. 1977: cixesuloris gaTxrebis Sedegebi,vaniIII,gv.43-51.
Musxelishvili, D. 1986:
., , 3, . 57-70.
Montpereux, Frederik Dubois 1839: Voyage autour du Caucase,v.III.
Shafranov, N. 1880: ,, 71, .3.
Spaidel, M. 1985: kavkasiis sazRvari...,saq.mecn.akad. macne, #1,gv. 134.
Tolordava, V. 1977: arq. gaTxrebi dablagomSi 1974. vaniII, gv.71-80.
Tsetskhladze, G. 1994: The Silver Phiale Mesomphalos from the Kuban, Oxford
Journal of Archaeology 13, 199216, Oxford.
Tsetskhladze, G. 1998: Die Griechen in der Kolchis, Amsterdam.

Figures:
Fig. I The Map of Classical and Early Medieval Archaeological sites of
West Georgia (Colchis);
Fig. II - The Map of Late Bronze- Early Iron Age Archaeological sites of
Colchis;
Fig. III - The Map of Classical and Early Medieval Archaeological sites
In the vicinity of town Poti.


246


247


248


249

ON THE EVOLUTION THE COLCHI AN AMPHORAE
(the 4
th
cent. BC to the 3
rd
cent. AD)

A study of these ties between the Greek world and Colchis (Western
Georgia) are of interest not only as regards the history and Archaeology of
Old Georgia, but also as regards the Greek world and its relations with the
Pontus Euxinus (Black sea) seaboard. In the Hellenistic epoch, one of the
commercial routes connecting East and West lay through Old Georgia. This
route ran from India as far as the Caspian Sea, then through the Caucasus
along the riv. Kur, across the Lixiis cedi pass, down the Black sea at the city
Phasis and the stretched across the sea to the cities in Asia Minor and on the
Black sea seaboard. Imported amphorae in Colchis, the eastern Black Sea area
in western Georgia, emerge as commercial containers from the second half of
the 6
th
cent. BC. Amphorae made at urban centers of the Black and
Mediterranean Seas are attested here [Puturidze, R. 1976:79-90].
The manufacture of local Colchian amphorae (resp. brown-clay)
began from the second half of the 4
th
cent. BC. By this period, Colchian
amphorae resemble their Sinopean counterparts. In the numerous
archaeological finds of Colchian amphorae of western Georgia, different
typological variants are noticeable in terms of form, capacity and clay.
[Puturidze, R. 2003:98-109; Puturidze, R. 1977:68-71; Lordkipanidze, O.
1966:137-140; Kakhidze, A. 1971:55-63; Lordkipanidze, G. 1970:81-82;
Gamkrelidze, G. 1982: 69-98; Brashinski, I. 1980:pl. XXIII; Vnukov, S.
Tsetskhladze, G. 1991:170-185; Khalvashi, M. 2002:10-20, and others]. There
is a difference chronologically as well. Colchian amphorae appear to have
been manufactured at many sites on the territory of western Georgia.
Amphorae of local production from the second half of the 4
th
cent. BC to the
8
rd
cent. AD were made subsequently too with various modifications (Fig.IV).
In 1950 archaeologist B. Kuftin was the first who put forward an idea
about the possibility of producing amphorae in West Georgia (Colchis).
Archaeologist R. Puturidze was the first who began studying of
amphorae. R. Puturidze had treated the Late Classical and Hellenistic
period concave sided amphorae and regarded them as manufactured in
250

Colchis. In 1959 R. Puturidze had gained herself at the archaeological
sites and Georgias museums and paid a special attention to the concave
sided amphorae from the Kutaisi, Poti and Vani museums.
I. Zeest, speaking about Bosphorus ceramic container had singled
out one group among the Hellenistic period amphorae and called them
brown clay amphorae produced somewhere in the southern Black Sea
lands. O. Lordkipanidze orally stated opinion and wrote that the
Hellenistic period brown clay amphorae were pottered in Colchis. A.
Kakhidze too had agreed with the opinion and divided Pichvnari
amphorae of this type into two groups: Colchian comparatively high
amphorae of brown clay with cylindrical ring-bases and Colchian shorter
ones with button-like ring-bases. O. Lordkipanidze believed that the
Colchian origin of brown clay amphorae has been borne out by not only
their wide distribution in Colchis or with close similarity of the local clay
used for manufacturing of native pottery but also by the signs made on
them before baking which are like those made on Colchian pithoi. I. Zeest
agreed with Georgian archaeologists about the possibility of producing
brown clay amphorae in Colchis and stressed how important it was to
localize the manufacturing centre. G.Tsetskhladze had made numbers of
petrographic analyses and contributed to the study of the problem. He has
published a number of his own papers and some more in co-authorship
with other scholars. He has rendered great services to the problem of
dating of Colchian amphorae found in the northern Black Sea lands. He
had singled them out and then dated them properly.
Find of burning kilns together with pot shreds of brown clay
amphorae, other pottery and tiles around them once again proved that
amphorae were made in Colchis not only in the Hellenistic period but
even later and they had various forms and shapes, even more, they were
produced at many Colchian sites. Excavations of Vani town were
exclusively productive and important from the point of view of Colchian
amphorae, which made it easier to date them better according to their find
spots and accompanying artifacts. Most of them had completely been
restored. In the result we have got a full picture of alterations in their
251

forms and shapes beginning from the later half of the 4th century BC and
until the 1st century BC when the town was perished. Many dozens of
shreds of Colchian amphorae were found in the suburb of Vani town.
Native amphorae dating from the 2nd 1st centuries BC are found in
abundance at Vani town that enables me to suppose that they had almost
completely displaced other kinds of such vessels. They had been found in
the ruins of the town and many of them were even restored. It appeared
that they slightly differ from one another that make it possible to suppose
that either they were made at different local workshops, or they were
made by different potters. Signs engraved on unbaked surfaces of necks,
handles and seldom on bodies of these amphorae (but not on all of them)
first appeared in the Late Hellenistic period. About 40 different signs
made on the amphorae have been found at Vani town.
In general, typological-chronologically, Colchian Amphorae present the
following picture: Colchian Amphorae of the second half of the 4
th
cent. BC to
the first half of the 3rd cent. BC resemble Sinopean ones; however, the surface
of the clay is coarser, and the color brownish. Light-brownish specimens also
occur. The body of local, Colchian Amphorae is egg-shaped, close to
cylindrical; the handles are equally curved and oval in section (Fig.I, fig. 1-4).
Colchian Amphorae of the 2
nd
cent.-1
st
cent. BC develop a concavity in
the belly; the neck is cylindrical and comparatively short; clay on the surface is
coarse and of brownish hue; light-brown specimens also occur (pl.II, fig.2-4).
In general, one of the principal characteristics of Colchian Amphorae is a
spiral at the bottom (Fig.III), the so-called rosette-like in some researchers
terminology. Such spirals are not characteristic of foreign Amphorae. The clay
structure of Colchian Amphorae is nappy-porous. The clay contains whitish
and blackish small-fragment specks. Admixtures occur of diabase and basalt;
pyroxenites, quartz, mica, iron (III) hydroxide, etc. Mineralogical-petrographic
analysis of the clay has been carried out, demonstrating its identity with local,
Colchian clays of different regions [see Morchadze, T. 1979:81; Poporadze, U.
Paradashvili, I. Akhvlediani, D. Gasitashvili, A. 2006: 220-224].
Some specimens of Colchian Amphorae of the 2
nd
-1
st
cent. BC bear signs
(e. g. see Fig.V, fig. 2). Perhaps they were made by the potter to indicate the
252

capacity of the vessel or the number of specimens made. The signs on
Colchian Amphorae resemble those made on locally made wine pithoi and
tiles. It should be noted also that in one local amphora, brought to light at Vani,
the surface is treated in the same way as local wine pithoi horizontal bands or
vertical lines [Puturidze, R. 1977:68-69]. Kilns for firing pottery have been
discovered in Colchis, where fragments of amphorae have been attested along
with those of other types of ceramic wares. A kiln of this type has been found
near the village of Gvandra (Abkhazia), dating from the 3
rd
cent. BC. A similar
kiln came to light on the Red Beacon settlement site near Sukhumi. Remains
of a kiln have been studied on a settlement site south-west of v. Gulripshi.
Colchian amphorae of the 2
nd
cent. BC and 1
st
cent. BC have a special
spiral at the bottom. The cylindrical foot assumes mushroom-like rounded
shape and the end is thickened. The walls of Colchian amphorae of this period
are relatively thin. Some scholars even call it button-like. The body of the
amphora has more concavity; scholars believe that this concavity is connected
with transportation on land. The concavity would easier hold the rope and it
would be easier to load it on a horse or ass. The capacity of Colchian
amphorae ranges from 13 to 22 liters.
Amphorae with ribbed neck and concave body of the 2
nd
-3
rd
cent. AD
must be a continuation of the subsequent period of Colchian amphorae of the
2
nd
-1
st
cent. BC; they have an elongated body, almost equally curved handles
and a spiral at the bottom. Their walls are relatively thinner, and they have a
rib on the neck, at the place of attachment of the handles. Amphorae of this
type have been found at Bichvinta, Sukhumi, Eshera, Tsebelda, Poti
(Paliastomi), Ureki, Kobuleti Pichvnari, Tsikhisdziri, Gonio, etc (Fig.IV, 3);
[Khalvashi, M. 2002:10-20].
From the 3
rd
-4
th
cent. AD a new type of Colchian amphora with concave
body and spiral at the bottom develop. The handles of these amphorae are
sharply curved in the upper part, and the body is narrower and elongated.
Some specimens have low corrugation on the body. The handles lose its oval
shape in section, becoming flatter (Fig.IV, 4). Colchian amphorae have been
discovered in large numbers on settlement sites of the 2nd-1
st
cent. BC all
over the territory of historical Colchis. There is almost no former settlement
253

site here with such amphorae not coming to light. It is almost unanimously
acknowledged in the specialist literature that these amphorae are of local,
Colchian, manufacture. Colchian Amphorae are attested at the following
points: Eshera, Sukhumi, Ochamchire, the River Inguri valley, the area
adjoining Poti, v. Ureki, the interfluve of the Supsa-Natanebi, v. Tsikhisdziri,
Pichvnari near Kobuleti, v. Makhvilauri, Batumi, v. Gonio, v. Bukistsikhe, v.
Gurianta, v. Dapnari, v. Dablagomi, v. Mtisdziri, the environs of Kutaisi, v.
Sagvichio, Vani and its environs, and others. Colchian Amphorae of the 2
nd
-1
st

cent. BC have come to light at various settlement sites of the northern Black
Sea area, namely Gorgippia, , Cyteus, Cepoi, Naples (Scythian), Chersonesus,
Donuzlav, Belyaus, Karatobe, Cercinitides, etc [Vnukov, S. Tsetskhladze, G.
1991:170-185].
A high relief stamp is fixed on the upper part of the handle of the Colchian
amphora discovered in the lower layer of Natekhebi(in Poti). The handle is
of oval section; the clay brownish, with whitish and blackish noticeable in it;
the surface is coarse-nappy-porous. The stamp is circular (diam.: 1.9 cm), with
an equal-beam cross in it; the stamp is an epigraphic; the cross is slanted in
relation to the handle (Fig.V, fig. 1).
Until quite recently, circular stamped Colchian amphorae were unknown
to scholarship. At present cross stamps placed within a circle have been
brought to light, resembling one another: from Poti, Pichvnari-Choloki, former
city site of Vani. To date nine specimens are known in all. One piece is attested
by oral communication. The stamps of this type are attested on a wine jar of
local production. A cross placed within a circle may have been a sign of a
prominent person of authority of some urban settlement or region of Colchis.
The product of the ceramic workshops under him was branded with such an
emblem. Vani, Kobuleti-Pichvnari or Phasis may have been such an
urban centre. The raw material and manufacture of Colchis were exported onto
the international market via the city of Phasis. It is not ruled out that these
brands belonged to a kings official who was charged with control of the
manufacture of amphora-containers and was responsible for the quality of the
commodities to be transported in them. Bearing in mind the well-known
brands of 3
rd
cent. BC Colchian amphorae from Dioscurias-Eshera, with the
254

name of the city inscribed [see Puturidze, R., 2003; pl. I, 2], then a brand with
a cross may be taken for an emblem of some other city, e. g. the trading city of
Phasis. This city was an important trade centre [Lordkipanidze, O. 2000;
Gamkrelidze, G. 2003:170-185; Braund, D. 1994:102-103; Gamkrelidze, G.
1992:6-29, and others], (Fig.I). It is mentioned by the following authors:
pseudo-Scylax (4
th
cent. BC), Aristotle , Plato, Heraclides Zembos, Hipocrates,
Theocritus, Strabo, pseudo-Plutarch, Pliny, Gaius Secundus (Elder),
Pomponius Mela, Flavius Arrian, Plutarch, Claudius Ptolemaios, pseudo-
Orpheus, Themistios, Castorius, Ammianus Marcellius, Zosimus, Stephanus
Byzantinus, Agathias, Theophanes the Chronograph, George Cedrenus, and
others [see Gamkrelidze G. 2003:170-173].
The city of Phasis was one of the principal points of the sea and river
transit commercial route of Asia-Europe. Through the city of Phasis iron,
timber, flax, linseed oil, honey, wax, wine, etc. were exported abroad
[Lordkipanidze, O. 1966:117-120; Gamkrelidze, G. 1992:6-18].
Thus, on the basis of the recent archaeological evidence discovered in
Western Georgia or Colchis, as well as by recourse to and consideration of
other artifacts we may conclude that from the second half of the 4
th
-to the 2
nd

cent. BC inclusive amphorae were made in Colchis, on which proprietary,
trade brands were stamped, as was the practice in Mediterranean and Black
Sea urban centre. I believe these stamps constitute the proprietary (legal)
emblem of an urban centre (e.g. Phasis) of Colchis or of some person of
advanced position who was in control of the manufacture of amphorae and
assumed responsibility for the quality of the products, exported in these
commercial vessels (containers). This, in its turn points to the higher level of
development of the Colchian society of the period and to the quality of its
integration in advanced urban centre of the Mediterranean and Black Seas.

References:
Brashinski, I. 1980: , .
Gamkrelidze, G. 1982: centraluri kolxeTis Zveli namosaxlarebi, Tb.
Gamkrelidze, G. 2003: q. fasisis... , - iberia-kolxeTi,#1, gv. 170-185.
Gamkrelidze, G. 1992: , .
255

Gigolashvili, E.; Kacharava, D.; Puturidze, R.; 1979: vanis naqalaqaris zeda
terasaze 1970-1977. arq. masalis katalogi, vaniIV, Tb., gv.41-114.
Kakhidze, A. 1971: keramikuli tara fiWvnaridan, kreb. samxreT-dasavleT
saqarTvelos Zeglebi, II, Tb., gv. 28- 66.
Khalvashi, M. 2002: keramikuli tara goniodan, baTumi.
Lordkipanidze, M. 1975: kolxeTis V- III ss. sabeWdavi-beWdebi, Tb.
Lordkipanidze, O. 1966: antikuri samyaro da Zveli kolxeTi, Tb.
Lordkipanidze, G. 1970: , .
Monakhov, S. 1999: , . , .
Morchadze, T. 1979: morCaZe T. Sida qarTlis keramika, Tb.
Poporadze, N.; Paradashvili, I.;...2006: keramikis mineralogiuri-petrografiuli
kvleva _akc-s, Ziebani # 17-18, gv. 220-224.
Puturidze, R. 2003: amforebis warmoeba kolxeTSi - iberia-kolxeTi,#1, 98.
Puturidze, R. 1977: , - , 151, ., . 68- 71.
Vashakidze, N. 1971: gurianTis..., kreb. samxreT-das. saq. Zeglebi,II,gv.5- 27.
Vnukov, S.; Tsetskhladze, G. 1991: - .
- . , . .
, . 170-185.

Figures:
Fig. I - 1-4 Colchian Amphorae from Kobuleti Pitchvnari settlement;
Fig. II - 1,2, 4 - Colchian Amphorae from Vani; 3 - Colchian Amphora from Grigoleti
settlement; 5 - Colchian Amphora from Poti Natekhebi settlement;
Fig. III - Bases of Colchian Amphorae from the Hellenistic period settlements of
West Georgia;
Fig. IV 1. Colchian Amphorae of the 3
rd
c. BC.; 2. Colchian Amphorae of the 2
nd
-1
st

cc. BC.; 3. Colchian Amphorae of the 1
st
3
rd
cc. AD.; 4. Colchian Amphorae of the 4
th

-8
th
cc. AD.;
Fig. V 1. Stamped handles of Colchian Amphorae of the Hellenistic period; 2. The
inscriptions on the Colchian Amphorae of the Hellenistic period.

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SemoklebaTa ganmarteba
bamS

baTumis arqeologiuri muzeumis Sromebi


iberia-kolxeTi saqarTvelos klasikuri da adremedievuri periodis
arqeologiur-istoriuli kvlevani http://www.nplg.gov.ge/dlibrary/coll/0001/000772/.
macne

saqarTvelos mecn. akademiis sazogadoebriv mecn. ganyofilebis


Jurnali
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masalebi saqarTvelos da kavkasiis arqeologiisaTvis


mski

masalebi saqarTvelos da kavkasiis istoriisaTvis


sdsZ

samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos Zeglebi


smam

saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis moambe


ssmm

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis moambe


Ziebani saqarTvelos arqeologiaSi

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis


oT. lorTqifaniZis arqeologiis centris gamocema (yofili akc-s Jur.)
Zm

Zeglis megobari








AJA American Journal of Archeology
AS Anatolian studies
BSA The annual of Ahe British school of Athens






262

About the author
gela gamyreliZe. ist. mecn. doqtori, prof. saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis
mTavari mecnier-TanamSromeli. amave muzeumis arqeologiis centris samecniero
sabWos Tavmjdomare. Jurnal iberia-kolxeTis mT. redaqtori. 1997-2006ww.-Si
antikuri periodis arqeologiis ganyofilebis xelmZRvaneli. daibada 7.01. 1951w.
TbilisSi. daamTavra Tsu-s ist. fakulteti. 1979w. daicva i.m. kandidatis, xolo
1990w. ist. mecn. doqtoris xarisxi. monawileobda vanis, mTisZiris, foTis,
biWvinTis, quTaisis, TeTriwyaros, vales da sxv. arqeologiur eqspediciebSi. 1997-
2001ww.-Si aSS-s teqsasis Statis universitetis arqeologiis institutTan
saerTaSoriso arqeologiuri eqspediciis xelmZRvaneli saqarTvelos zRvispireTS.
ikvlevs antikuri xanis da adreuli Sua saukuneebis saqarTvelos istoria-
arqeologias. kerZod, arqeologiuri Zeglebis statistikur-tipologiur
klasifikacias; urTierTobebs antikur da iranul samyarosTan; Zveli saqarTvelos
istoriaze biogeogaremos gavlenas; samxedro istorias (SeiaraRebas,
fortifikacias). CamoTvlil problematikaze gamoqveynebuli aqvs 96 naSromi, aqedan
12 wigni.ix. http://www.nplg.gov.ge/bios/en/00000291/.
***
GELA GAMKRELIDZE, Doctor of historical sciences, Prof., Leading scientist of the Centre of
Archaeology of Georgian National Museum. He is the editor-in-chief of the Journal Iberia
Colchis (Researches of Georgia in the Classical period); see - http://www.nplg.gov.ge/dlibrary/coll
/0001/000772/. He was born in Tbilisi in 7.01.1951. In 1973 he graduated Tbilisi state university.
In 1979 he defended Ph.D. thesis and in 1990 DHS dissertation. He participated in Vani, Mtisdziri,
Poti, Namakhvami, Vale and other archeological expeditions. In 1979 he explored terms of
Mtisdziri settlement. He has discovered the settlement near city Poti-Phasis. He has been studying
issues related to the history and archeology of the Georgian Classical period and early middle
ages. In particular, relationship of Iberia and Colchis with Greek, Roman and Iranian world;
typological classification and topographical archeology of settlements; influence of bio-geo
environment on the process of historical development of community in Georgia; the military
history of Iberia-Colchis (armament and fortification). He has published 12 books and 89
scientific essays dedicated to the above-mentioned problems. He is an authority on the history and
archeology of Georgian Classical period and early middle ages. see-
http://www.nplg.gov.ge/dlibrary/coll/0001/000499/.&
http://www.nplg.gov.ge/bios/en/00000291/.

Address: Centre of Archaeology of Georgian National Museum.
14, D. Uznadze str. Tbillisi, 0102, GEORGIA.
e-mail: gamkr.gela@gmail.com.