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Consider the PES spectra shown below, that superimposes the simulated PES spectra for elemental boron

and elemental carbon on the same plot. NOTE: x, y and z are simply labels and do NOT refer to px, py and pz orbitals.

(a) Suggest a reason why the boron and carbon peaks have been paired together in three groups labeled x, y and z. (2)

(b) Explain why the carbon x peak is at a higher energy than the boron x peak. (2)

(c) Why is the boron z peak half the height of the carbon z peak? (1)

Question 1 continued: (d) If one were to superimpose a third PES plot on the same axes for elemental nitrogen; (i) Relative to carbons x peak, where would nitrogens x peak appear on the x-axis? Explain. (2)

(ii)

Relative to carbons z peak, what would the height of nitrogens z peak, be? Explain. (2)

(e) Identify the electrons that are associated with each peak in the boron plot. (3) (i) (ii) boron x peak boron y peak

(iii) boron z peak