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e ,zS e Y N{h .(2008/6/30) jQJ EG ,KQG dG
jQJ EG ,L e ,dG af Y eSh .(2008/7/17) jQJ EG ,L
.(2008-8-3)
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q
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Y ,(2008/5/14) AHQCG d ,fdG dG e LaCG :zdG{


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J JUM M eSEG OG c dG G SdG jGS g
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jdGh dH MCG
H dH kGFL k M dG MG S QUCG :(2008/5/7)
.S e eSEG OG IOb MCG zdG HCG{ OGOQ eS gG dG
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dd da cQGh dG iYH dPh ,dG bh e kGT 22h
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`j`g```dGQ``NCG
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d S h dG dG dG YO
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CG{ NCG dCGh c .G G LSGh


YG M OG c FdG dG c zIY
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jG e edG fl SG H Of aG
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VjdG OG FQ Ye G Y PSCGh W HCG QfCG QcdG QH dPh
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TM YG
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G gCG e Z Mh ddGh dG
.Gh
N d H idGh ddG H cQT bh
QU eCG cM SH M ,TG YG
dG CG cCG dGh eY L bEG IOb Y OhGO
dG da ,dG Qfd k jQJ d
a gdCG a G M c eCG .dG j
M G bdG hDe OGe MCG dG
HdG edG dG dG d Vj Y
.jdG jCG Y Jh bh X e dG e
a eSEG OG cM SH
q c
OG QH dGh ,eS HCG G cG OdG
Le J H kGNDe dH dGh IdG
G j OG MJ ag ,d a
G Gh d dG dG jJh
.OQdG f QYEG IOYEGh SdGh fG
FdG d MG
q ,d dG icdG AMEG da Vh
f
k jgL k MG eSEG OG c FdG dG
ddG M ,(5/18) jQH ,QU
N h .G gCG e Z Mh idGh
HCG Y dG eSEG OG cM OdG G
S Qhe Hh dG dG EG b dG ,gT
JLJh aWCG aH H ,a ZG Y k eY
Rj Se M YG dG ,IOdG H e
QN Y cCdG OL M ,Y dG hBG H G
GhdG Od Mh Qc ehG dG dG

f zFJ{`H f d fCH cDJ OG cM


e eSEG OG cM beh zFdG{ dCe M jGG jG AV
k Fb ,OG cM hDe Qe U
eSEG OG cM O{ :
q
CG cDJh MGh W e dG MG e f FH db Y a
MG CH Yb cDJ G fG e MG SQ dG ZhGGh RGHG
e cG aFGh hG fj eh (NGdG) dG G EG H Fd j
dG Y MG Gh dG e j QJ OdG jb H NGO eRCG
.zNGdG eRCG Y d dG
RGHGh jdH Md f CG dd{ :hDG QG VCGh
k e dh eh
Y OdG H XMG Y cDfh c ,NGdG eRCG
Ye S bOH CG Y jcDeh dG T V dG G FGL
.zeG JHYh MG Lh

`j`g```dGQ``NCG
OG c fl jJh bGe
MhdG JG Sh ..dG jdG GAHh dG icP
HdG fa a GJ Y k bGh kGeCG
feh fGb eJh
Jh HJ ej fdG
q
SdGh ajh Sj jO QRG HCG JJh
b d d IdGh MdG Y T QLE
SG H cG cCGh .dG dG dhO
eSEG bh VQCG g a VQCG CH dCG
Rj h Gh G VQCG gh Gh d
Yh ,dG H e a jdG hCG RdG
.fh Z c gOGOSG S f CG k L
bd e hCG SY GAd
,Re HCG FdG e JGAdh jGQ IQjR Y k Jh
,(5/5) jQH ,OG cM hDe Qe U
q
k Fb
H GAdG QGSG aJ OG cM CH
Jh ,zhCG{ hdG AGQRh FQh Re HCG FdG
G CGh bd e GAdG g QGSG
T H QRG j dG hdG g e MdG
ehG Vh IZ LH JGjJ WEG UGjh
j d GAdG g QGJ CH VCGh .a
.VQCG Y M Ff jCG j dh T

eG icdG OG cM
zaY{ S e jg Qq d
G GQ a eSEG OG cM ebCG
Ihf ,(2008/5/11) MCG j ,IdGh
YdG QdG
Y AME eG icdG
q
fH S e SdG jGS GOb gf dG
jdG iSCG e OY IhdG QTh .zaY{
,QdG
Y J M f G Gfc
q
e OM dG UdG H gMCG ihQ M
M YdGh ddG dG QKBGh W dN
ddG eSEG OG cM iSCG e HQCG
KG a ,848 UCG e kGSCG 112 gOY
zaY{ e e QGdG e ,2003 QjCG 12
M ,G GQ e jdG dG dG
G kGL jW f Y dPh ,hj Gfc
.H
fCG j e G jdG HQCG Gh
j dGh (keY32) N a VjQ :g
dG eSEG OG cM iSCG hDe
GQ a SdG jGS Fbh ,FdG e
b ddG g dG SCGh ,IdGh G
(keY26) jdG CG jRH eH SG
gh ,keY 18 Ie dH k M j ch
e fhY h ,G GQ Ab f c jb e
(keY26) jT dNh L Ab L jb
RQH Ob gh H jdG M e
V dG e jdG qfh SdG jGS
.jG

fdG INCG aGJ cQe


,(2008/5/21) jQH d k fH ,cM QUCG a
H WdG d MhdG De S
REG GH cG MQ
q M ,fdG INCG
c ,DG dG dG d cQHh
JG G``g QhOh HdG bH MQh
q
SG H cG YOh .b dG k UNh
MG e J dG jG a EG d
,fGh PdG bGh Jh ,QGh dGh
Y G d dG ATCG EG IYO Le
q
cM H NGdG dG IOYE dG MdG
JH ISCG aGJ fEG N e SMh a
.MhdG
Md YGdG SCGQ Y TH
,(5/18) jQH d k fH ,OG cM QUCG c
GAdG Y QGUEGh TH hb QGJ CH a cCG
M Ia jf kGO HdG d GQjdGh
Z Y G KCJ V ZQ HCG d
dG dG eCG Mh YO QWEG JCj ,dG
G qfj H dG jeCG hG EGh
.dGh fdGh bGdG ehG HV H
MG LGj dG dG L EG dG bh
k gQ Lh YhG bM Y d aOh O
ZEGh Qd k VY cJh jdG Vh
hdG LGe Yb e f
q j d ZGh
.dG
iNCG keY S j d dG
k J ,(5/16) jQH d k fH ,OG cM QUCGh
zdG dMG{ cQeh TH IQjR Y
cCG M ,IbG JjJh a Z
ZG icP TH QL cQe CG cG
dGh SdG YdG QWEG AL a
dG dhdG jOj Y kGcCJh ,G dG Gd
AGQRh Fd T YO d dhh H iOf
QfGh OdG eRCG e j dG zhG{ hdG
EG cG dbh .cG zc{ F Je
dG jdG OL d U g cQG g
IOdH VGh fSG dc gh TH IQGOEG J
G zGYGh jdG{ QN UCG dG
M a Y k YaO gOL SG jdG
.1948 Y
d 60 icdG
,(5/15) jQH d k fH ,OG cM QUCG c
Gg CH ,a d dG icdG S dPh
Gh dG Y k eY 60 Qhe Oj dG dG
HdG eCG AMCG UdG dG QRh ,AdGh
ZU dG IQGG SCd T h
q ,eSEGh
b
q eY a AYCG h``dGh IG CG
dG dhH aYG eYh 181 QGb Y a

fH a eSEG OG cM QUCG
J dG jdG H e cG bGe dN dhJ
V gRHCG Vf ,HdGh dG MdG hDH
:dG fjJ
Wh L N YG
kfH a eSEG OG cM QUCG
N dG Y /gG CG YG a YG
WdG idG eSEG OG cM
.Wh L ,L a eSEGh
j GdG Y TdG d{: dG ALh
dG eCG ILCG b e jW Me a YG
CG Y dG ``eCG ILCG VY dG
gj CH MG AfEG N dG Y gG
24 Nh L je GHG RL e EG
a dG MG e jh eCG S YS
YLG dG N Y dG eCG ILCG
L je N CG H j dG WdGh
ehG H H dG bh e FGdG QhOh
.Wb IH eCG ILCG UYh
VdG Gg Y N dG Y CG aGh bh
Wb kGOYh J CG Hh ,WdG UM e k bfEG
Z ,ke G AfEGh YS 24 N eCG jH
M OYdGh GdG d k d c M e CG
eCG Ge MCG EG N dG Y gG f
FG e S aZ MGh L WdG
e UGdGh IQjdG e eh HGdG UCGh
BG M cG dH dG OG CG Mh jhP
.zMGS WEG EG ODJ
Y cDf a eSEG OG cM fEG
Qe CG SdG Yd dG aQ :j e
.Wh L QYH ,c
U H bdG dGh eQ .O be jEG
G (Conkurent, LLC) cT ````bhCG
dG ``eCG q T G Y eQ QcdG b
dG QcdGh ,a eSEG OG c
V H dPh ,OG cM SDe bdG a
LCG e fUh jeCG cT b e jJh
.bG jEG
jEG e M ZdHh OG cM fEGh
Ie e cCG QJ a cdh jdGh ,bd
e dc dHh cd HJ bGe IY Yh
k FGO G c CH cDf ,fUh ceCG cT
k FGO jh S G U CHh ,dG g
.JSEG fGYCGh jdG hM e ,dc
OG c HdG dG IMdG CH cDfh c
k ehO a c QG Gg H G PEH S
EG bdG dGh eQ QcdG be IOYE
. bh SCG h jL e ffEG T

10

OG

O```dGO``M
We J SdG jGS
ehG QN Y jH h ..fU bGeh e b

11

.dG
J fc e jb SdG jGS WCG :(5/7)
VN c ,ffH Y bT UN fU Ib
.f IdG e k Y k cTG hgG
e hQH zMe{ e SdG jGS b :(5/7)
.zSb{ RGW
Ze fU jY dBG SdG jGS aSG :(5/7)
.zL.H.QBG{ jH ffN bT
fU jY aGL SdG jGS aSG :(5/7)
.zL.H.QBG{ jH IjG Y bT Ze
c U L b e SdG jGS :(5/7)
IjG Y bT ZG jdG dBG iMEG k e
.ffH
fU Id J dh SdG jGS MCG :(5/7)
M .ehe H J fc ffN T UN
HUEG IdG e Y cTG hgG VN
.IcDe
ZG fdG dBd k SdG jGS b :(5/5)
hgG VN c ,hg FGb KH Y bT
.UN Ib e k Y k cTG
HQCH G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/5)
.zSb{ RGW e jQGU
fdG zMe{ e SdG jGS b :(5/5)
.zSb{ RGW e NhQH
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/4)
QG``VCG bH hdG ``YG a ,z``S``b{ NhQH
.L
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/4)
.zSb{ RGW e NhQH
aQ T zJ f{ e SdG jGS b :(5/4)
.zSb{ RGW e hQH
dG zRY Mf{ be SdG jGS aSG :(5/4)
.hg FGb HQCH dG
fdG dBd k SdG jGS aSG :(5/4)
fU Ib e hgG TG c ,hg jH
.ffN T UN
bT zMe{ e SdG jGS b :(5/3)
.zSb{ RGW e hQH dG L ffN
jdG OG e Y SdG jGS aSG :(5/2)
.FGdGh TTdG SCH RG T
hQH G G je SdG jGS b :(5/1)
.zSb{ RGW e
HQCH G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/1)
e HQCG HUE iOCG .zSb{ RGW e jQGU
.g H
fU jY aGL SdG jGS aSG :(5/1)
.dG L Y bT zL.H.QBG{ jH
fU jY dBG SdG jGS hg SG :(5/1)
.dG L Y bT zL.H.QBG{ jH
h
q UN fU IMh SdG jGS aSG :(5/1)
.hg FGb H fj N T dBd
HQCH G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/1)
HUEG Y dG SCG bh .zSb{ RGW e jQGU
.jU HQCG

OG

T ZJ fU Gd SdG jGS J :(5/14)


hdG YG bh ,TTdG SCGh FGdH ,ffN
.dG JL AGd IOb MCG HUEH
dG dG bG SdG jGS b :(5/14)
.zSb{ RGW e NhQH zS HCG c{ PG
SCH Y LGe SdG jGS VN :(5/14)
SCG ,ffH Y bT fU Gb e TTdG
.TGh dG Y N jg KK HUEG Y
fdG jdG dBG SdG jGS aSG :(5/14)
.zL.H.QBG{ jH IdG Y bT ZG
jdG dBG SdG jGS hg SG :(5/14)
.hg FGb KH IdG Y bT ZG fdG
zIGg f{ e SdG jGS b :(5/13)
.zSb{ RGW e jQGU KH
NhQH Me e SdG jGS b :(5/13)
.zSb{ RGW e
G G je SdG jGS b :(5/13)
SCG HUEH hdG YGh ,zSb{ RGW e NhQH
FGM fG EG aVEH ,Te H dG dG T
.VGQCG
dBd k SdG jGS hg SG :(5/12)
.hg jH jdG HGH e dH fdG
bGdG Me e SdG jGS b :(5/12)
aYG bh ,zSb{ RGW e hQH HdG dG
.fU We hdG QOe
G Y je SdG jGS b :(5/12)
bH hdG YG bh ,zSb{ RGW e NhQH
QGVCG bhh g H WG U HUEG
.jOe
hQH zMe{ e SdG jGS b :(5/12)
.zSb{ RGW e
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/11)
bH hdG QOe aYGh .zSb{ RGW e NhQH
.H QGVCGh HUEG
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/10)
GH e KK HUEG Y SCG ,zSb{ NhQH
.JdG H Y AHdG fGh gh
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/11)
.zSb{ RGW e hQH
hQH zMe{ e SdG jGS b :(5/10)
.zSb{ RGW e
jPG HdG dG We SdG jGS b :(5/9)
hdG QOe aYG bh ,NhQU FGb H d
.jNBG KK HUEGh We
dH k fU k jY k L SdG jGS aSG :(5/9)
.Sf IH jdG HGH e
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/9)
.zSb{ RGW e hQH
T bGdG zMe{ e SdG jGS b :(5/9)
.zSb{ NhQH ffN
dG zRY Mf{ be SdG jGS aSG :(5/9)
.hg FGb HQCH dG
k fU k jY k L SdG jGS aSG :(5/8)
Sh RG T je HCG e e dH Sf IH

OG c dG G SdG jGS UGh


e a jOG JY ,a eSEG
SG c ,hdG FGbh jQGdH hdG bGeh
MLd dH GhJh hdG jGdG hg
EG aVEH We b e G M ,fdG
..iNCG IcDe HUEG
fU aGL J SdG jGS :(2008/5/23)
.jdG T Sf IH
IZ b Sh k Y k cTG VJ SdG jGS :(5/23)
.jg e jr g HUEGh e HCG be b
bT Ze fU OL bf GSG :(5/23)
hgG cCG bh ,R.P.G jH IZ b Sh jdG
.ITe HUEG dG HUEG
T UN fU Ib SdG jGS aSG :(5/22)
.hg FGb 8`H ffN
Y bCG AGT Fch SdG jGS f :(5/22)
fM H e aSG e MH Yf jOSG
,zdG cH{ SG hgG Y WCG ,zR``jEG{
gGHEG gGHEG{ dG dG OSG Y SCGh
Y hdG q J a ,dG dL e (keY23) zf
.FN
dG aU be SdG jGS b :(5/20)
.hg FGb HQCH dG
KH G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/20)
.zSb{ RGW e jQGU
dG zaSc{ be SdG jGS b :(5/19)
.hg jH ffN e dG EG bGdG dG
fdG GHd k be SdG jGS aSG :(5/19)
HQCH dG e be e G EG dG jO T
.hg FGb
NhQH zMe{ e SdG jGS b :(5/19)
.zSb{ RGW e
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/16)
.zSb{ RGW e NhQH
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/16)
.zSb{ RGW e NhQH
zGg f{ e SdG jGS b :(5/16)
.zSb{ RGW e NhQH
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/15)
Oj c eH hdG YGh ,zSb{ NhQH
.L QGVCHh H
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/15)
MCG H hdG QOe aYGh ,zSb{ NhQH
.Fg jM fGh YdG H jQGdG
hQH zMe{ e SdG jGS b :(5/15)
.zSb{ RGW e
G zhjS{ IH SdG jGS b :(5/15)
.zSb{ RGW e NhQH
dG zRY Mf{ be SdG jGS b :(5/15)
.hg FGb H dG
jdG dBG SdG jGS hg SG :(5/14)
.hg FGb fH IdG Y bT ZG fdG
QdG e hg FGb 10 SdG jGS WCG :(5/14)
.IZ b Sh T hdG bGe H dG

`jQ``Jh Q``NCG
dG QYGh ,zFGSEG{ EG dG V bj SfdG
fOQCG WGe
EG HdG dG V IQOe SGQd jL FGSEG jeCG Me CGH TGh CG bKe U QOe c
.bDe H a j fOQCG WGe dG QYGh Te H jdG dhdG
zFGSEG{ EG HdG dG V b jeCG SfdG Yb iMEG kGNDe Y kGDe CH Y jQJ OaCGh
.jeCG jdG Gh dG e dEG YOh SQ IQH
WdG OG{ M Vh dG { FGSEG IQOGz TGh e jOdG WdG SGe f e ah DG bfh
eh HhQhCG dG AYCG H e dhO 13 e Ye cQ jEG H Yj dG G zFGSEG
.GLhQCGh Gch jRGdGh dGh jaCG Lh HdGh GjS fH
Y c Gdh dG H TdG EG GfG jeCGh OdG Z e cQG CG EG eG Jh
zFGSEG{ H bdG KH e gh dH G AG DG J Y TCGh .fGH fH
jeCG SfdG FGSEG AH j EG aVEG ,IG jdG G G GQdGh
.(GjQa) hjh jO QGh (Qjf) EG dCG WGbdG GdG GY Oj gh
WGe fS QYGh zFGSEG{ k VQCG HdG dG QYGh dhdG M aQ Y ,TdG Ve ,IQOG Jh
.AdEG hCG jd Hb IO Ie GP ebEG bH FH j fOQCG
dG fSG IMh 286 Ad VhY GQSG
b jG QH We S IMh 286 Ad VhY GQSG WEG , H FR FGSEG SEG jRh YCG
Ad VhY GQSG d JQGRh EG J QUCG SEG jRh{ CG SQ H ALh .HdG dG H
.HdG dG jOj We cG dK g ,f dCG 32 J dG jG QHh .zjG QH e 286
HhQhCG OGh IG jdGh ShQ) ShCG d YHdG dG YO ,QG (je) QjCG 2 fG cj
.HdG dG WG AdG EG FGSEG kGO (IG CGh

SCG fE FGSEG g JG
G BG{ FGSEG YdG YG bh
Ge d Q``WEG JG zJJ{ jdGh zBG
Y QOU H AL e Y ,dG jY
.FGSEG cdG
bS dG hdG JG CG YG OaCGh
,YadG GdG e SGh Y S k jb
QW hO e GFdGh jQGdG k UNh
.jdG eCGh fhdG fCGh GQGOGdGh
Y SeHO bY FGSEGh dG ebCGh
dG QG FGSEG d dP eh .1992
GQOdG b Jh .ShQ H dG EG d
.kjS QhO Qe EG
T 27 fG ..G dG adG jRh YCGh
e hdH L - VQCG hQU S OH CG
.FGSEG
ce e FGSEG b k jJ T b WCGh
IQOb Gec Ohe gh .dG L JjQjT
M ,IU MCG GP G``gCG jJ Y
.dG bhCG

!!?zQSG{ D GgCGh jJ jDhQ Co q G


..dGh Gd H DGh MG X M QSG :jObG
idG cda .SS j CG b a SSCGh FQ
e dG dG Y eeh H EG dGh
GQe GP dY EG LH iNCG L eh ,L
Y.dG VGQCG OLe Z Ggh dY IQbh
.db M
fCGh ,dG e d IYb H DG CG IQS.O jh
S ,HY GeCG ShDhH YU jQe bCG e GPEG
dG VQCG zFGSEG{{ Sh QG e edG idG
jdG OSh G e SCGQ h G Y j
.G dEG Sj CG j dG GSCGh
GG iS j d DG CG Y IQS.O OTh
,d M QSG CG j dh ,dGh
Y kGH dG e bY ebEH j dG da
.DG d j e Ggh ,dG
jQH bJGh DG
d dH H De ihL Y Y kGcCJh
dG jObG jQH bJG CG Y jObG AGN cCG
J 1993 Y MG dhO e dG dG bh
EG e hCG FH OGSG Y dG IQb Y Y
FGV j Ggh ,fdG GQGh fGG jW Y
FdG ODJh QSCG ae FGSEG QLh
gS f EG dG dG gS Uh EG
zdG{ dG Y WdG CG Qa e FGSEG dG
edG eCG k jT T BG 7 Y j MG dhO
.G Gg Y j a a zdG{
IdG GQSG CG KCG HdG CG AGG VhCGh
eCG ,QSG X Jh J dG g SGh
. MG X Jh J a IdG GQSG
N QSGh QSG CG cDj S e
jGh ``eCGh eCG EG j QSG Gh ,j
k dM j e gh gOj CG LG e QGSGh SdG
Y b k ST kGQSG J dG dG VGQCG
.dG IG ee c

ah g dGh MhG jDhdG H ,aT jJ jDhQ


YU We ebEG J jd IaG dhCG eG
CG fC ,kGL N eCG ff Lh e Ggh ce
.SdG Y ObG f
dG dG O```Gh gCG G T ``eCG
YU We Y jG{ :CG cCa ,jG d
j d ffdG feh GG fe jdG Oj
jG ddG ce j dh ,FGSEG dG EG
.zdG G
GLCGh SS j Y Y dG IQhH dWh
.HGHCG ShCG e dG HdG dG SQ EG J
dG Y d S Y dG IQhV Y IcDe
OU jJ hCG LQdH J ,YLGh jObG
dG e HJh ,VQCG Y dG dG AHCG
jH SdG a j ,IOS GP e dhO d WdG
.eGch
dGh GG
j DG CG ,IQS OY.O ,ObG G ijh
LddGh ObH HdG G SCGdGh ObG eO EG
zFGSEG{{ CG J FdG IQG CG k e .FGSEG
EG J fC ,dG VGQCG QSd J d
.jObGh k SS dG Jh ASG
.a DG Gg j CG IQG e { :IQS.O bh
a ,SSh k jObEG k bS f kGj dG Gg fC
dG AGZEH TH QL jeCG FdG hj L
ee dH d MG dhO e ObG d
.zdG dG Y NCG gh SdG d
dG dG j dP eh :ObG G VCGh
zFGSEG{ `H f :d e HY YR j CG LH d
e jj e EG SSCH J MG dha ,f hCG
FQ SH T d j e gh ,jObG Jb
.G jObG jf N e ,dG dhO
H ,W Z DG Gg cJ CG EG IQS.O QTCGh

( CG /G GQ)
SDGh dG e O``Yh ObG AG``N `q `Y
dG SG e N Y dG Gh
H Yo dG zdG QSG{ De dG
J AZ HdG dG e d c
.dG QSG
Y FdG G ,Gh dG J dWh
e M adG eG aJ IQhH ,hdG DG Gg
S ch ,QSG M a jDhQ e MW S
,QM e bGdG VQCG Y j jDhdG g HQ e
.dG..SGh ,QGLh ,ZEGh
e eh YCG LQ 1000 e cCG DG QTh
jeCG IG jdG dP dG AfCG L
SGh ...dG MG dhOh G hOh HhQhCGh
b J jQe dN VYo jCG 3 Ie DG da
.QhO Qe dLEG
jdG jDhdG Z
DG jDhQ EG{ :jdG G Y ,QGL IdN dbh
J jJ jDhQ g a ,VGh Z dG jdG
jdG JjdhCG dHh ,MG T fc EG
VQCG Y SdG OU RJ jQe EG JJ CG j
.zMG GAGLEG eCG
,a jd dG G Y QGL FdG YGh
SQ U ah cQe CG ,zSG{ `d jM
HdG d L EG dG S IN ,DH
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