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Tit th : 36

Tn bi :

Tn chng : Phng php ta trong mt phng

BI 2: PHNG TRNH NG TRN

I. PHN GII THIU


-Bi dy l phn tip theo sau l thuyt v ng thng trong chng trnh hnh hc gii tch
10, l bi m u cho l thuyt v cc ng cong trong mt phng ta .
- Cung cp cho hc sinh mt phng php c tnh khi qut cao trong vic tip cn v gii
quyt cc bi ton v ng trn, cng nh to nn tng c s cho cc em khi hc hnh hc ta
trong khng gian v sau.
- Ni dung chnh ca bi hc bao gm: phn gii thiu v cc yu t cu thnh phng trnh
mt ng trn, cc dng phng trnh biu din ca mt ng trn. Rn luyn cho hc sinh
cch vit phng trnh mt ng trn khi bit mt s yu t c bn; bit cch xc nh mt
phng trnh cho c l dng biu din ca mt ng trn hay khng.
II. MC TIU BI HC:

Sau khi hc xong bi ny, ngi hc c th :


1. V kin thc:
Trnh by c hai dng phng trnh ng trn.
Ch ra c hai yu t cu thnh phng trnh ng trn l ta tm v di bn knh.
Gii thch, kim tra c mt phng trnh cho c phi l phng trnh biu din mt
ng trn hay khng ?
2. V k nng:
Vit c phng trnh ng trn khi bit tm v bn knh.
a phng trnh ng trn t dng bt k v dng chnh tc.
Xc nh c tm v bn knh t phng trnh ng trn cho.
Gii mt s bi ton c bn nh: Vit phng trnh ng trn i qua 3 im phn bit
khng
thng hng, phng trnh ng trn ng knh
vi , l cc im bit ta .
3. V thi :
Mnh dn, tch cc hn trong vic tham gia xy dng bi, hn ch dn li hc th ng.
thc chuyn t t duy hnh hc sang t duy i s.
III. YU CU CHUN B I VI HC SINH:
1. Chun b kin thc :
tip thu c bi hc ny, hc sinh cn phi c nhng kin thc v kinh nghim lin quan
n bi hc sau y :
Kin thc v khi nim ng trn v cc yu t lin quan hc cp II.
1

Kin thc v ta trong mt phng nh cc cng thc tnh di on thng, khong


cch t mt im n mt ng thng, ta trung im ca mt on thng
2. Chun b ti liu hc tp; th nghim, thc hnh, dng c hc tp: SGK Hnh hc 10 ban c bn,
v vit, thc thng, compa, bt ch.
IV. CHUN B CA GIO VIN:
1. Chng trnh ging dy: gio n bi phng trnh ng trn, SGK Hnh hc 10.
2. Chun b thit b, dng dy hc: thc thng, dy v ng trn, bi trnh chiu
powerpoint.
3. D kin hnh thc, phng php nh gi kin thc, k nng ca hc sinh: thuyt trnh, m
thoi kt hp gi m vn , gii quyt vn .
V. TIN TRNH LN LP:
1. n nh t chc (Thi gian : 1 pht):
Kim tra s s, nhc nh hc sinh, ....
2. Kim tra bi c (Thi gian : 6 pht):
TT

Hc sinh th

Ni dung (cu hi, bi tp) kim tra

Tnh khong cch gia 2 im ,

Vit cng thc ta trung im ca

Nu nh ngha ng trn ( lp 9) ?
Mt ng trn c xc nh bi nhng yu t no ?

bit: ( ;

), (

, bit: ( ;

), (

3. Bi mi:
TT

HOT NG DY HC
HOT NG CA GV
HOT NG CA HS

NI DUNG

1 Dn nhp

- GV nu cu hi, gi HS
thc hin.

- Tnh khong cch gia 2 im - CH1: Vit cng thc tnh


, bit: ( ; ), ( ; ).
khong cch gia 2 im
v .
- Vit cng thc ta trung
im ca
, bit:
( ; ), ( ; )
+
-( , ) * |

- CH2: Vit cng thc ta


trung im ca
.
- CH3: Nu nh ngha
ng trn ( lp 9)?
Mt ng trn c xc
nh bi nhng yu t
no?

THI
GIAN

- 3 HS thc hin.
- HS1:
)

- HS2:
(
- HS3:

+ Tp hp tt c cc im
cch u 1 im c nh
cho trc 1 khong
0
cho trc khng i thuc
mt ng trn.
Mt ng trn c xc
nh khi bit tm v bn
knh ca n.

TT

HOT NG DY HC
HOT NG CA GV
HOT NG CA HS

NI DUNG

- Gi HS khc nhn xt,


sa cha.

THI
GIAN

- HS4: nhn xt v sa cha

- GV nhn xt cho im.


2 Ging bi mi
1. Phng trnh ng trn c
tm v bn knh cho trc.
a. nh ngha:

(; )

Hnh 3.16

b. V d

- HS ch , cng xy dng bi
v tr li cu hi.

+ CH2:
Khi no

- HS:
( ; )
- HS:
(
Ta c:

( )?

+ CH3:
? Thay vo ta c
iu g?

(1)

VD1: Xc nh tm v bn knh
trong cc phng trnh sau:
(
1. (
2)
3)
5
(
2.
1)
1
, l
tham s
3. (2
3)
4
5
VD2: Vit phng trnh ng
trn bit:
1. tm v bn knh
1

- GV nhn xt, kt lun:


(1) l phng trnh
ng trn; trong
( , ) l to tm, l
bn knh.

- GV a VD, mi HS lm.

( )
)

) cho ng trn
Trong (
( ) tm ( , ), bn knh v
im ( ; ).
( ; ) ( )
(

- GV gii thiu ni dung


bi hc mi.
- Chiu clip (hoc v Hnh
3.16/SGK/81) ln bng.
- GV da vo hnh v, dn
dt HS tm hiu phng
trnh ng trn.

(
)

)
(

- HS thc hin:
1. tm (2; 3),
2. tm (0; 1),
3
3. tm ( ; 0) ,
2
- HS thc hin:
1.
1
2.

5
2

- Nhn mnh:
+ Khi vit phng trnh
ng trn cn xc nh
c 2 yu t: tm v bn
(3 3)
(2 2)
2. tm ( 2; 3) v i qua
knh.
(2; 3)
52
Khng cn khai cn bn
213
knh.
Phng trnh ng trn:
(
(
2)
3)
52
3.
l ng knh, vi
3. Trung im ca
l
(1; 1) v (7; 5)
(4;
tm ca ng trn:
3)
213
13
2
2
Phng trnh ng trn:
(
(
4)
3)
13
3

TT

HOT NG DY HC
HOT NG CA GV
HOT NG CA HS
- GV yu cu HS khai trin - HS thc hin:
(1)
2
2
phng trnh (1)

NI DUNG
2. Nhn xt.

a. Nhn xt 1:
Phng trnh ng trn ( ):
(
)
(
)
c
th c vit di dng

- GV kt lun.

b. Nhn xt 2:

- CH:
Ngc li hy a
phng trnh dng (2) v
phng trnh dng (1)
xem nu c 1 phng
trnh dng (2) th liu
phng trnh c phi
l phng trnh ng
trn khng?
- GV nhn xt, kt lun.

Ngc li phng trnh


(2) l phng trnh ca ng
trn ( )
0.
Khi ( ) c tm ( ; ), bn
.

Ch :
Phng trnh ( ) dng
2
2
0
th tm ca ng trn c to
l ( ; ).

- Nu nhn xt v c
im ca (1), (2).
H s ca , nh
nhau.
+
0
L phng trnh bc 2
i vi , . Khng cha
s hng tch .
- Nhn mnh ch

c. V d:
VD1: Trong cc phng trnh
- Cho HS lm cc VD.
sau phng trnh no l
- GV nhn xt, sa cha
phng trnh ng trn? Nu
l phng trnh ng trn hy
xc nh tm v bn knh.
1.
2
4
4 0
2. 2

3.

4.

20

5. 2

0
0

16

16

11

- HS thc hin:
2
2
(
)
(

0
)

*
0 th khng
c im ( ; ) no tho
mn phng trnh (2).
*
0 th ch c 1
(
)
im
; tho mn
phng trnh (2).
*
0 th
phng trnh (2) l phng
trnh ca ng trn tm
( ; ), bn knh
.

- C lp lm vo v. 3 HS ln
bng thc hin:
1. l phng trnh ng
trn c tm ( 1; 2),
3.
2. khng l phng trnh
ng trn v h s ca
, khc nhau.
3. l phng trnh ng
trn c tm (2; 1),
5
4. khng l phng trnh
ng trn v
( 1)

20

10

5. khng l phng trnh


ng trn v c cha s
hng
.
6. l phng trnh ng
trn c tm
1 1
( ; ),
1.
2 4

6.
16

(2)

trong

knh

THI
GIAN

TT

HOT NG DY HC
THI
GIAN
HOT NG CA GV
HOT NG CA HS
VD2: (BT3/SGK/84)
- GV hng dn HS
- HS thc hin.
Lp phng trnh ng trn
+ PP1:
+ PP1:
i qua 3 im:
Gi l tm ca ng
Gi ( ; ) l tm ca ng
(1; 2), (5; 2), (1; 3)
trn i qua 3 im , , . trn i qua 3 im , , .
Khi :
Khi ta c h phng trnh
T ta c h phng
(
(
1)
2)
(
(
5)
2)
trnh sau: {
(
(
1)
2)
Gii h ta c phng
(
(
1)
3)
trnh ng trn cn tm. {
3
8
24
1
{
{
10
5
2
41
v bn knh
2
Vy ( ):
1
41
(
3)
(
)
2
4
+ PP2:
+ PP2: Xt phng trnh ( )
Gi phng trnh ng
c dng:
(
)
trn
cn tm l:
2
2
0
2
2
0 ( ) qua 3 im , , ; ta c
Ln lt thay ta ca
h phng trnh:
4
0
, , vo ( ) ta c h: 1 4 2
{25 4 10
4
0
2
6
0
2
0 1 9 2
3
2
1
{
2
0
2
2
1
{
2
0 Vy phng trnh ng
gii h ta c cc h s
trn:
, , thay vo phng
6
1 0
trnh ( ) ta c phng
trnh cn tm.
VD3: Cho phng trnh:
- GV nhn xt
- HS thc hin.
( ) c dng (2) vi
(VD2/SBT/134)
- Nhc li cc dng, iu
,
2 ,
6
1.
2
4
6
1 kin xc nh ca phng
0 ( ) trnh ng trn; cc yu ( ) l phng trnh ca
ng trn nu v ch nu :
1. Vi gi tr no ca th ( ) l t cn khi vit phng
phng trnh ca ng trn? trnh ng trn.
0
2. Nu ( ) l phng trnh
4
6
1 0
5
6
1 0
ng trn hy tm to tm
1
v bn knh ca n theo .
1
5
Khi , ( ) l phng trnh
ca ng trn c tm
( ; 2 ), bn knh
6
1
5
- Cho HS lm cc BT trong
SGK v SBT.
NI DUNG

TT

NI DUNG

HOT NG DY HC
HOT NG CA GV
HOT NG CA HS

Dng 1:

3 Cng c kin thc v kt thc


bi

(
)
(
)
Cho HS nhc li kin thc
trng tm ca bi :
Vi tm ( , ), bn knh .
Cc dng phng trnh
ng trn, cch xc nh Dng 2:
tm v bn knh.
2
2
0
(
),
Vi tm
,
bn knh

PHN TRC NGHIM :


1. Phng trnh no sau y l - GV yu cu HS xc nh
1. Chn cu C
phng trnh ng trn:
tm v bn knh ?
2
. Tm ( , 3)
A. (3
9(
13
2)
3)
3
13
Bn knh R
B. 2
2
4
2
1 0
3
1
. Tm ( 1, )
C. C A v B u l phng
2
trnh ng trn
3
Bn knh R
D. C A v B khng l phng
2
trnh ng trn.

2. Cho (2, 3), (3,0). ng


2. Chn cu B
trn ng knh
c
5 3
phng trnh:
Tm ( ,
)
A.
5
3
1 0
2 2
(2
B. (2
5)
3)
10
5
C. A v u l phng trnh

Bn knh
2
ng trn ng knh
.
D. v khng l phng trnh
ng trn ng knh
.
4 Giao nhim v v nh cho hc - HS lm bi tp trong SGK, SBT
- HS chun b trc phn tip theo: Phng trnh tip
sinh
tuyn ca ng trn
-BT b sung:
Vit phng trnh ng trn:
a. Qua 3 im ( 1,2), (3,4), (1, 3)
b. Qua 3 im (0,1), ( 1, 1), ( 2,5)
5 M rng kin thc
6 Lin h n mn hc khc

- PT qu o chuyn ng ca cht im trong mt


phng (Vt l)

THI
GIAN

4. Rt kinh nghim sau tit ging:


- V ni dung: ...................................................................................................................................
- V phng php: ............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................................
- V phng tin: .............................................................................................................................
- V thi gian: ..................................................................................................................................
- V hc sinh: ...................................................................................................................................

5. Ti liu tham kho:


- Sch Gio Khoa Hnh hc c bn 10 NXB Gio Dc.
- Sch Gio Khoa Hnh hc nng cao 10 NXB Gio Dc.
- Sch Bi Tp Hnh hc c bn 10 NXB Gio Dc.
- Sch Gio Vin.

6. Li ch ca vic ng dng CNTT cho bi dy ny:


- Tit kim thi gian (trnh chiu cc bi v hnh v).
- To hng th cho HS (trnh chiu cc hnh nh ng trn thc t trong i sng)

HIU TRNG
(K tn v ng du)

Ngy 13 thng 09 nm 2013


NGI SON BI

TTCM THNG QUA


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2. Nguyn Thanh Bnh
3. Nguyn Th H n
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