1

General Comparison between
AISC LRFD and ASD
Hamid Zand
GT STRUDL Users Group
Las Vegas, Nevada
June 22-25, 2005
2
AISC ASD and LRFD
• AISC = American Institute of Steel
Construction

• ASD = Allowable Stress Design
AISC Ninth Edition

• LRFD = Load and Resistance Factor Design
AISC Third Edition
3
AISC Steel Design Manuals
• 1963 AISC ASD 6
th
Edition
• 1969 AISC ASD 7
th
Edition
• 1978 AISC ASD 8
th
Edition
• 1989 AISC ASD 9
th
Edition

• 1986 AISC LRFD 1
st
Edition
• 1993 AISC LRFD 2
nd
Edition
• 1999 AISC LRFD 3
rd
Edition
4
ASD and LRFD
Major Differences
• Load Combinations and load factors
• ASD results are based on the stresses and
LRFD results are based on the forces and
moments capacity
• Static analysis is acceptable for ASD but
nonlinear geometric analysis is required for
LRFD
• Beams and flexural members
• C
b
computation
5
ASD Load Combinations
• 1.0D + 1.0L
• 0.75D + 0.75L + 0.75W
• 0.75D + 0.75L + 0.75E



D = dead load
L = live load
W = wind load
E = earthquake load
6
ASD Load Combinations
Or you can use following load combinations with the
parameter ALSTRINC to account for the 1/3 allowable
increase for the wind and seismic load

1. 1.0D + 1.0L
2. 1.0D + 1.0L + 1.0W
3. 1.0D + 1.0L + 1.0E

• PARAMETER $ ALSTRINC based on the % increase
• ALSTRINC 33.333 LOADINGS 2 3
7
LRFD Load Combinations
• 1.4D
• 1.2D + 1.6L
• 1.2D + 1.6W + 0.5L
• 1.2D ± 1.0E + 0.5L
• 0.9D ± (1.6W or 1.0E)

D = dead load
L = live load
W = wind load
E = earthquake load
8
Deflection Load Combinations
for ASD and LRFD
• 1.0D + 1.0L
• 1.0D + 1.0L + 1.0W
• 1.0D + 1.0L + 1.0E


D = dead load
L = live load
W = wind load
E = earthquake load
9
Forces and Stresses
• ASD = actual stress values are
compared to the AISC
allowable stress values

• LRFD = actual forces and moments
are compared to the AISC
limiting forces and moments
capacity
10
ASTM Steel Grade
• Comparison is between Table 1 of the AISC ASD 9
th
Edition
on Page 1-7 versus Table 2-1 of the AISC LRFD 3
rd
Edition
on Page 2-24
• A529 Gr. 42 of ASD, not available in LRFD
• A529 Gr. 50 and 55 are new in LRFD
• A441 not available in LRFD
• A572 Gr. 55 is new in LRFD
• A618 Gr. I, II, & III are new in LRFD
• A913 Gr. 50, 60, 65, & 70 are new in LRFD
• A992 (F
y
= 50, F
u
= 65) is new in LRFD (new standard)
• A847 is new in LRFD
11
Slenderness Ratio
• Compression
KL/r ≤ 200


• Tension
L/r ≤ 300
12
Tension Members
• Check L/r ratio
• Check Tensile Strength based on the cross-
section‟s Gross Area
• Check Tensile Strength based on the cross-
section‟s Net Area
13
Tension Members
ASD
f
t
= FX/A
g
≤ F
t
Gross Area
f
t
= FX/A
e
≤ F
t
Net Area

LRFD
P
u
= FX ≤ ϕ
t
P
n
= ϕ
t
A
g
F
y
ϕ
t
= 0.9 for Gross Area

P
u
= FX ≤ ϕ
t
P
n
= ϕ
t
A
e
F
u
ϕ
t
= 0.75 for Net Area
14
Tension Members
ASD (ASD Section D1)
Gross Area F
t
= 0.6F
y
Net Area F
t
= 0.5F
u


LRFD (LRFD Section D1)
Gross Area ϕ
t
P
n
= ϕ
t
F
y
A
g
ϕ
t
= 0.9
Net Area ϕ
t
P
n
= ϕ
t
F
u
A
e
ϕ
t
= 0.75
15
Compare ASD to LRFD
ASD 1.0D + 1.0L
LRFD 1.2D + 1.6L

0.6F
y
(ASD) × (1.5) = 0.9F
y
(LRFD)

0.5F
u
(ASD) × (1.5) = 0.75F
u
(LRFD)

ASD × (1.5) = LRFD
16
Tension Members
X
Y
Z
FIXED JOINT
-400.
o
17
Tension Members
• Member is 15 feet long
• Fixed at the top of the member and free at the bottom
• Loadings are:
• Self weight
• 400 kips tension force at the free end
• Load combinations based on the ASD and
LRFD codes
• Steel grade is A992
• Design based on the ASD and LRFD codes
18
Tension Members
ASD

W18x46 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.989

LRFD

W10x49 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.989
19
Tension Members
ASD
W18x46 Area = 13.5 in.
2

FX = 400.688 kips Ratio = 0.989

LRFD
W10x49 Area = 14.4 in.
2

FX = 640.881 kips Ratio = 0.989
20
Tension Members
Load Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
640.881 / 400.688 = 1.599
Equation Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
LRFD = (1.5) × ASD

Estimate required cross-sectional area for LRFD



LRFD W10x49 Area = 14.4 in.
2

Area for LRFD= × × × = 135
640881
400688
10
15
0989
0989
14395 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
21
Tension Members
Code Check based on the ASD9 and using W10x49
FX = 400.734 kips Ratio = 0.928

Load Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
640.881 / 400.734 = 1.599


LRFD W10x49 Ratio = 0.989
LRFD Ratio computed from ASD= × × = 0928
640881
400734
10
15
0989 .
.
.
.
.
.
22
Tension Members
ASD
Example # 1
Live Load = 400 kips
W18x46 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.989
LRFD
Example # 1
Live Load = 400 kips
W10x49 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.989
Example # 2
Dead Load = 200 kips
Live Load = 200 kips
W14x43 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.989
Code check W14x43 based on the ASD9
W14x43 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 1.06
23
Compression Members
• Check KL/r ratio
• Compute Flexural-Torsional Buckling and
Equivalent (KL/r)
e

• Find Maximum of KL/r and (KL/r)
e

• Compute Q
s
and Q
a
based on the b/t and h/t
w

ratios
• Based on the KL/r ratio, compute allowable
stress in ASD or limiting force in LRFD
24
Compression Members
ASD

f
a
= FX/A
g
≤ F
a


LRFD

P
u
= FX ≤ ϕ
c
P
n
= ϕ
c
A
g
F
cr
Where ϕ
c
= 0.85
25
Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios
for Compression Elements
ASD

b/t = h/t
w
=


LRFD

b/t = h/t
w
=

95/ F
y
056 . / E F
y
253/ F
y
149 . / E F
y
26
Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios
for Compression Elements
Assume E = 29000 ksi
ASD

b/t = h/t
w
=


LRFD

b/t = h/t
w
=
95/ F
y
9536 . / F
y
253/ F
y
25374 . / F
y
27
Compression Members
ASD KL/r ≤ C′
c
(ASD E2-1 or A-B5-11)




LRFD (LRFD A-E3-2)
( )
( ) ( )
F
Q
KL r
C
F
KL r
C
KL r
C
a
c
y
c
c
=
÷
'

¸

(
¸
(
(
+
'
÷
'
1
2
5
3
3
8
8
2
2
3
3
/
/ /
( )
F Q F
cr
Q
y
c
= 0 658
2
.
ì
Where ' = C
E
QF
c
y
2
2
t
Where ì
t
c
y
KL
r
F
E
=
ì
c
Q s 15 .
28
Compression Members
ASD KL/r > C′
c
(ASD E2-2)




LRFD (LRFD A-E3-3)
( )
F
E
KL r
a
=
12
23
2
2
t
/
Where ' = C
E
QF
c
y
2
2
t
ì
c
Q > 15 .
F F
cr
c
y
=

¸

(
¸
(
0877
2
.
ì
Where ì
t
c
y
KL
r
F
E
=
29
Compression Members
LRFD

F F
cr
c
y
=

¸

(
¸
(
0877
2
.
ì
Where ì
t
c
y
KL
r
F
E
=
F
KL
r
F
E
F
cr
y
y
=
|
\

|
.
|
|

¸

(
¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
0877
2
.
t
( )
F
E
KL r
cr
=
0877
2
2
.
/
t
( )
F
E
KL r
cr
=
20171
23
2
2
.
/
t
30
Compression Members
ASD LRFD



F
cr
/ F
a
= 1.681

LRFD F
cr
= ASD F
a
× 1.681

( )
F
E
KL r
a
=
12
23
2
2
t
/
( )
F
E
KL r
cr
=
20171
23
2
2
.
/
t
31
Compression Members
ASD

(ASD C-E2-2)

LRFD

λ
c
= Maximum of ( λ
cy
, λ
cz
, λ
e
)
KL r
K L
r
K L
r
KL
r
y Y
y
z z
z e
/ , , =
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
|
Where
KL
r
E
F
e e
|
\

|
.
|
= t
32
Compression Members
LRFD
Where:
ì
t
cy
y y
y
y
K L
r
F
E
=
ì
t
cz
z z
z
y
K L
r
F
E
=
ì
e
y
e
F
F
=
33
Compression Members
Flexural-Torsional Buckling
( )
F
EC
K L
GJ
I I
e
w
x x
y z
= +

¸

(
¸
(
(
+
t
2
2
10 .
34
Q
s
Computation
ASD



LRFD

When 95 195 / / / / / F k b t F k
y c y c
< <
Q b t F k
s y c
= ÷ 1293 000309 . . ( / ) /
When 056 103 . / / . / E F b t E F
y y
< <
Q b t F E
s y
= ÷ 1415 074 . . ( / ) /
( )
k
h t
h t k
c c
= > =
4 05
70 10
0.46
.
/
/ , . if otherwise
35
Q
s
Computation
Assume E = 29000 ksi
ASD



LRFD


When 95 195 / / / / / F k b t F k
y c y c
< <
Q b t F k
s y c
= ÷ 1293 000309 . . ( / ) /
When 9536 1754 . / / . / F b t F
y y
< <
Q b t F
s y
= ÷ 1415 0004345 . . ( / )
36
Q
s
Computation
ASD



LRFD

When b t F k
y c
/ / / >195
( )
| |
Q k F b t
s c y
= 26200
2
/ /
When b t E F
y
/ . / >103
( )
| |
Q E F b t
s y
= 069
2
. / /
37
Q
s
Computation
Assume E = 29000 ksi
ASD



LRFD


When b t F k
y c
/ / / >195
( )
| |
Q k F b t
s c y
= 26200
2
/ /
When b t F
y
/ . / >1754
( )
| |
Q F b t
s y
= 20010
2
/ /
38
Q
a
Computation
ASD



LRFD

b
t
f b t f
b
e
= ÷

¸

(
¸
(
(
s
253
1
44 3 .
( / )
b t
E
f b t
E
f
b
e
= ÷

¸

(
¸
(
s 191 1
034
.
.
( / )
Assume ksi E b
t
f b t f
e
= = ÷

¸

(
¸
(
(
29000
32526
1
57 9
,
. .
( / )
39
Compression Members
X
Y
Z
FIXED JOINT
-100.
o
40
Compression Members
• Member is 15 feet long
• Fixed at the bottom of the column and free at the top
• Loadings are:
• Self weight
• 100 kips compression force at the free end
• Load combinations based on the ASD and
LRFD codes
• Steel grade is A992
• Design based on the ASD and LRFD codes
41
Compression Members
ASD

W10x49 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.941

LRFD

W10x54 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.944
42
Compression Members
ASD
W10x49 Area = 14.4 in.
2

FX = 100.734 kips Ratio = 0.941

LRFD
W10x54 Area = 15.8 in.
2

FX = 160.967 kips Ratio = 0.944
43
Compression Members
Load Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
160.967 / 100.734 = 1.598
Equation Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
LRFD F
cr
= (1.681) × ASD F
a

Estimate required cross-sectional area for LRFD


LRFD W10x54 Area = 15.8 inch
Area for LRFD= × × × × = 14 4
160967
100734
10
1681
10
085
0941
0944
1605 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
44
Compression Members
Code Check based on the ASD9 and use W10x54
FX = 100.806 kips Ratio = 0.845

Load Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
160.967 / 100.806 = 1.597


LRFD W10x54 Ratio = 0.944
LRFD Ratio computed from ASD= × × × = 0845
160967
100806
10
1681
10
085
0944 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
45
Compression Members
ASD
Example # 1
Live Load = 100 kips
W10x49 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.941
LRFD
Example # 1
Live Load = 100 kips
W10x54 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.944
Example # 2
Dead Load = 50 kips
Live Load = 50 kips
W10x49 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.921
Code check W10x49 based on the ASD9
W10x49 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.941
46
Flexural Members
• Based on the b/t and h/t
w
ratios determine the compactness of
the cross-section
• Classify flexural members as Compact, Noncompact, or
Slender
• When noncompact section in ASD, allowable stress F
b
is
computed based on the l/r
t
ratio. l is the laterally unbraced
length of the compression flange. Also, C
b
has to be computed
• When noncompact or slender section in LRFD, LTB, FLB,
and WLB are checked
• LTB for noncompact or slender sections is computed using L
b

and C
b
. L
b
is the laterally unbraced length of the compression
flange
47
Flexural Members
ASD

f
b
= MZ/S
Z
≤ F
b


LRFD

M
u
= MZ ≤ ϕ
b
M
n

Where ϕ
b
= 0.9
48
Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios
for Compression Elements
ASD



LRFD


Assume E = 29000 ksi
d t F
w y
/ / s 640
b t E F
y
/ . / s 038 h t E F
w y
/ . / s 376
b t F
y
/ / s 65
b t F
y
/ . / s 647
h t F
w y
/ . / s 6403
49
Flexural Members
Compact Section
ASD (ASD F1-1)

F
b
= 0.66F
y


LRFD (LRFD A-F1-1)

ϕ
b
M
n
= ϕ
b
M
p
= ϕ
b
F
y
Z
Z
≤ 1.5F
y
S
Z

Where ϕ
b
= 0.9
50
Flexural Members
Compact Section
X
Y
Z
FIXED JOINT
-15.00
-15.00
o
o
FIXED JOINT
Braced at 1/3 Points
51
Flexural Members
Compact Section
• Member is 12 feet long
• Fixed at both ends of the member
• Loadings are:
• Self weight
• 15 kips/ft uniform load
• Load combinations based on the ASD and
LRFD codes
• Steel grade is A992
• Braced at the 1/3 Points
• Design based on the ASD and LRFD codes
52
Flexural Members
Compact Section
ASD

W18x40 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.959

LRFD

W18x40 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.982
53
Flexural Members
Compact Section
ASD
W18x40 S
z
= 68.4 in.
3

MZ = 2165.777 inch-kips Ratio = 0.959

LRFD
W18x40 Z
z
= 78.4 in.
3

MZ = 3462.933 inch-kips Ratio = 0.982
54
Flexural Members
Compact Section
Load Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
3462.933 / 2165.777 = 1.5989
Equation Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
LRFD = (0.66S
z
)(1.5989) / (0.9Z
z
) × ASD

Z
z


LRFD W18x40 Z
z
= 78.4 in.
3

for LRFD= × × × = 684
3462 933
2165777
066
09
0959
0982
783 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
55
Flexural Members
Compact Section
Code Check based on the ASD9, Profile W18x40
MZ = 2165.777 inch-kips Ratio = 0.959

Load Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
3462.933 / 2165.777 = 1.5989


LRFD W18x40 Ratio = 0.982
LRFD Ratio computed from ASD= × × × = 0959
3462 933
2165777
066
09
684
784
0981 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
56
Flexural Members
Compact Section
ASD
Example # 1
Live Load = 15 kips/ft
W18x40 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.959
LRFD
Example # 1
Live Load = 15 kips/ft
W18x40 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.982
Example # 2
Dead Load = 7.5 kips/ft
Live Load = 7.5 kips/ft
W18x40 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.859
Code check W18x40 based on the ASD9
W18x40 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.959
57
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD
• Based on b/t, d/t
w
and h/t
w
determine if the section is
noncompact
• Compute C
b

• Compute Q
s

• Based on the l/r
t
ratio, compute allowable stress F
b

• Laterally unbraced length of the compression flange (l)
has a direct effect on the equations of the noncompact
section
58
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD

f
b
= MZ/S
Z
≤ F
b


LRFD

M
u
= MZ ≤ ϕ
b
M
n

Where ϕ
b
= 0.9
59
Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios
for Compression Elements
ASD




LRFD
65 95 F b t F
y y
< s
d t F
w y
> 640
038 083 . / . E F b t E F
y L
< s
376 57 . . E F h t E F
y w y
< s
h t F
w b
s 760
60
Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios
for Compression Elements
Assume E = 29000 ksi
ASD



LRFD
65 95 F b t F
y y
< s
d t F
w y
> 640
647 1413 . / / . / F b t F
y L
< s
6403 9707 . / . / F h t F
y w y
< s
h t F
w b
s 760
61
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD


(ASD F1-3)



(ASD F1-2)


ASD Equations F1-6, F1-7, and F1-8 must to be checked.
F F
b
t
F
b y
f
f
y
= ÷

¸

(
¸
(
(
079 0002
2
. .
( )
If minimum or L L
b
F d A F
b c
f
y f y
> =
|
\

|
.
|
|
76
20000
62
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD

When



(ASD F1-6)
102 10 510 10
3 3
×
s s
× C
F
l
r
C
F
b
y T
b
y
( )
F
F l r
C
F F Q
b
y T
b
y y s
= ÷
×

¸

(
¸
(
(
s
2
3
1530 10
06
2
3
/
.
63
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD


When




(ASD F1-7)
l
r
C
F
T
b
y
>
× 510 10
3
( )
F
C
l r
F Q
b
b
T
y s
=
×
s
170 10
06
3
2
/
.
64
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD

For any value of l/r
T




(ASD F1-8)
F
C
ld A
F Q
b
b
f
y s
=
×
s
12 10
06
3
/
.
65
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
LRFD

1. LTB, Lateral-Torsional Buckling
2. FLB, Flange Local Buckling
3. WLB, Web Local Buckling
66
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
LRFD
– LTB
• Compute C
b

• Based on the L
b
, compute limiting moment capacity. L
b
is
the lateral unbraced length of the compression flange,
λ = L
b
/r
y

• L
b
has a direct effect on the LTB equations for noncompact
and slender sections
– FLB
• Compute limiting moment capacity based on the b/t ratio of
the flange, λ = b/t
– WLB
• Compute limiting moment capacity based on the h/t
w
ratio
of the web, λ = h/t
w

67
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
LRFD LTB (Table A-F1.1)
For λ
p
< λ ≤ λ
r


(LRFD A-F1-2)

Where:
M
p
= F
y
Z
z
≤ 1.5F
y
S
z

M
r
= F
L
S
z
F
L
= Smaller of (F
yf
− F
r
) or F
yw

λ = L
b
/r
y


λ
p
=
( )
M C M M M M
n b p p r
p
r p
p
= ÷ ÷
÷
÷
|
\

|
.
|
|

¸

(
¸
(
(
s
ì ì
ì ì
176 . E F
yf
68
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
LRFD LTB (Table A-F1.1)

Where:

λ
r
=

X
1
=

X
2
=
X
F
X F
L
L
1
2
2
1 1 + +
t
S
EGJA
z
2
4
2
C
I
S
GJ
w
y
z
|
\

|
.
|
69
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
LRFD FLB (Table A-F1.1)
For λ
p
< λ ≤ λ
r


(LRFD A-F1-3)
Where:
M
p
= F
y
Z
z
≤ 1.5F
y
S
z

M
r
= F
L
S
z
F
L
= Smaller of (F
yf
− F
r
) or F
yw

λ = b/t
λ
p
=
λ
r
=
( )
M M M M
n p p r
p
r p
= ÷ ÷
÷
÷
|
\

|
.
|
|

¸

(
¸
(
(
ì ì
ì ì
038 . E F
y
083 . E F
L
70
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
LRFD WLB (Table A-F1.1)
For λ
p
< λ ≤ λ
r


(LRFD A-F1-3)
Where:
M
p
= F
y
Z
z
≤ 1.5F
y
S
z

M
r
= R
e
F
y
S
z
R
e
= 1.0 for non-hybrid girder
( )
M M M M
n p p r
p
r p
= ÷ ÷
÷
÷
|
\

|
.
|
|

¸

(
¸
(
(
ì ì
ì ì
71
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
LRFD WLB (Table A-F1.1)

λ = h/t
w


λ
p
=

λ
r
=
376 . E F
y
57 . E F
y
72
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD



LRFD
( ) ( )
C M M M M
M M
M M M C
b
b
= + + s
<
=
175 105 03 2 3
10
1 2 1 2
2
1 2
1 2
. . . .
, .
max
If between and
C
M
M M M M
M
M
M
b
A B C
A
B
C
=
+ + +
=
=
= ÷
12 5
2 5 3 4 3
.
.
max
max
absolute value of moment at quarter point
absolute value of moment at centerline
absolute value of moment at three quarter point
73
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
X
Y
Z
Roller
-12.00
-12.00
o
o
Pin
74
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
• Member is 12 feet long
• Pin at the start of the member
• Roller at the end of the member
• Cross-section is W12x65
• Loadings are:
• Self weight
• 12 kips/ft uniform load
• Load combinations based on the ASD and LRFD codes
• Steel grade is A992
• Check code based on the ASD and LRFD codes
75
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD
W12x65 C
b
= 1.0
Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.988
LRFD
W12x65 C
b
= 1.136
Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.971
Code check is controlled by FLB.
C
b
= 1.0 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.973
76
Flexural Members
Noncompact Section
ASD
Example # 1
Live Load = 12 kips/ft
W12x65 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.988
LRFD
Example # 1
Live Load = 12 kips/ft
W12x65 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.971
Example # 2
Dead Load = 6 kips/ft
Live Load = 6 kips/ft
W12x65 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.85
Code check W12x65 based on the ASD9
W12x65 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.988
77
Design for Shear
ASD

f
v
= FY/A
w
≤ F
v
= 0.4F
y
(ASD F4-1)

LRFD

V
u
= FY ≤ ϕ
v
V
n
= ϕ
v
0.6F
yw
A
w
(LRFD F2-1)
Where ϕ
v
= 0.9
h t F
w y
/ s 380
h t E F
w yw
/ . / s 245
78
Design for Shear
Assume E = 29000 ksi
ASD

f
v
= FY/A
w
≤ F
v
= 0.4F
y
(ASD F4-1)

LRFD

V
u
= FY ≤ ϕ
v
V
n
= ϕ
v
0.6F
yw
A
w
(LRFD F2-1)
Where ϕ
v
= 0.9
h t F
w y
/ s 380
h t F
w yw
/ . / s 4172
79
Design for Shear
ASD

f
v
= FY/A
y
≤ (ASD F4-2)


LRFD

V
u
= FY ≤ ϕ
v
V
n
= ϕ
v
(LRFD F2-2)



Where ϕ
v
= 0.9
h t F
w y
/ > 380
245 307 . / / . / E F h t E F
yw w yw
< s
( )
F
F
C F
v
y
v y
= s
289
04
.
.
06
2 45
.
. /
/
F A
E F
h t
yw w
yw
w
|
\

|
.
|
|
80
Design for Shear
LRFD

V
u
= FY ≤ ϕ
v
V
n
= ϕ
v
(LRFD F2-3)



Where ϕ
v
= 0.9
307 260 . / / E F h t
yw w
< s
( )
A
E
h t
w
w
4 52
2
.
/

¸

(
¸
(
(
81
Design for Shear
X
Y
Z
FIXED JOINT
-15.00
-15.00
o
o
FIXED JOINT
Braced at 1/3 Points
82
Design for Shear
• Same as example # 3 which is used for design of flexural
member with compact section
• Member is 12 feet long
• Fixed at both ends of the member
• Loadings are:
• Self weight
• 15 kips/ft uniform load
• Load combinations based on the ASD and LRFD codes
• Steel grade is A992
• Braced at the 1/3 Points
• Design based on the ASD and LRFD codes
83
Design for Shear
ASD (Check shear at the end of the member, equation “F4-1 Y”)

W18x40 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.8

LRFD (Check shear at the end of the member, equation “A-F2-1 Y”)

W18x40 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.948
84
Design for Shear
ASD
W18x40 A
y
= 5.638 in.
2

FY = 90.241 kips Ratio = 0.8

LRFD
W18x40 A
y
= 5.638 in.
2

FY = 144.289 kips Ratio = 0.948
85
Design for Shear
Code Check based on the ASD9, Profile W18x40
FY = 90.241 kips Ratio = 0.8
Load Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
144.289 / 90.241 = 1.5989
Equation Factor difference between LRFD and ASD
LRFD = (0.4)(1.5989) /(0.6)(0.9) × ASD


LRFD W18x40 Ratio = 0.948
LRFD Ratio computed from ASD= × × × = 08
144289
90241
04
06
10
09
0948 .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
86
Design for Shear
ASD
Example # 1
Live Load = 15 kips/ft
W18x40 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.8
LRFD
Example # 1
Live Load = 15 kips/ft
W18x40 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.948
Example # 2
Dead Load = 7.5 kips/ft
Live Load = 7.5 kips/ft
W18x40 Actual/Limiting Ratio = 0.83
Code check W18x40 based on the ASD9
W18x40 Actual/Allowable Ratio = 0.8
87
Combined Forces
ASD f
a
/F
a
> 0.15

(ASD H1-1)


(ASD H1-2)

LRFD P
u
/ϕP
n
≥ 0.2
(LRFD H1-1a)
f
F
C f
f
F
F
C f
f
F
a
a
my by
a
ey
by
mz bz
a
ez
+
÷
|
\

|
.
|
|
+
÷
|
\

|
.
|
s
1
1
10 .
f
F
f
F
f
F
a
y
by
by
bz
bz
06
10
.
. + + s
P
P
M
M
M
M
u
n
uy
b ny
uz
b nz
| | |
+ +
|
\

|
.
|
|
s
8
9
10 .
88
Combined Forces
ASD f
a
/F
a
≤ 0.15

(ASD H1-1)


LRFD P
u
/ϕP
n
< 0.2

(LRFD H1-1a)
f
F
f
F
f
F
a
a
by
by
bz
bz
+ + s10 .
P
P
M
M
M
M
u
n
uy
b ny
uz
b nz
2
10
| | |
+ +
|
\

|
.
|
|
s .
89
Combined Forces
X
Y
Z
90
Combined Forces
• 3D Simple Frame
• 3 Bays in X direction 3 @ 15 ft
• 2 Bays in Z direction 2 @ 30 ft
• 2 Floors in Y direction 2 @ 15 ft
• Loadings
• Self weight of the Steel
• Self weight of the Slab 62.5 psf
• Other dead loads 15.0 psf
• Live load on second floor 50.0 psf
• Live load on roof 20.0 psf
• Wind load in the X direction 20.0 psf
• Wind load in the Z direction 20.0 psf
91
Combined Forces
ASD
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
< Active Units Weight Unit = KIP Length Unit = INCH >
< >
< Steel Take Off Itemize Based on the PROFILE >
< Total Length, Volume, Weight, and Number of Members >
< >
< Profile Names Total Length Total Volume Total Weight # of Members >
< W10x33 2.1600E+03 2.0974E+04 5.9418E+00 12 >
< W12x58 1.4400E+03 2.4480E+04 6.9352E+00 4 >
< W12x65 1.4400E+03 2.7504E+04 7.7919E+00 4 >
< W12x72 2.1600E+03 4.5576E+04 1.2912E+01 12 >
< W6x9 3.2400E+03 8.6832E+03 2.4600E+00 18 >
< W8x40 1.4400E+03 1.6848E+04 4.7730E+00 4 >
< W8x48 1.4400E+03 2.0304E+04 5.7521E+00 4 >
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
< ACTIVE UNITS WEIGHT KIP LENGTH INCH >
< >
< TOTAL LENGTH, WEIGHT AND VOLUME FOR SPECIFIED MEMBERS >
< >
< LENGTH = 1.3320E+04 WEIGHT = 4.6566E+01 VOLUME = 1.6437E+05 >
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
92
Combined Forces
LRFD
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
< Active Units Weight Unit = KIP Length Unit = INCH >
< >
< Steel Take Off Itemize Based on the PROFILE >
< Total Length, Volume, Weight, and Number of Members >
< >
< Profile Names Total Length Total Volume Total Weight # of Members >
< W10x33 3.6000E+03 3.4956E+04 9.9030E+00 16 >
< W10x39 1.4400E+03 1.6560E+04 4.6914E+00 4 >
< W10x49 7.2000E+02 1.0368E+04 2.9373E+00 4 >
< W12x45 1.4400E+03 1.9008E+04 5.3850E+00 4 >
< W6x9 3.2400E+03 8.6832E+03 2.4600E+00 18 >
< W8x31 1.4400E+03 1.3147E+04 3.7246E+00 4 >
< W8x40 1.4400E+03 1.6848E+04 4.7730E+00 8 >
< >
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
< ACTIVE UNITS WEIGHT KIP LENGTH INCH >
< >
< TOTAL LENGTH, WEIGHT AND VOLUME FOR SPECIFIED MEMBERS >
< >
< LENGTH = 1.3320E+04 WEIGHT = 3.3874E+01 VOLUME = 1.1957E+05 >
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
93
Combined Forces
ASD

WEIGHT = 46.566 kips

LRFD

WEIGHT = 33.874 kips
94
Deflection Design
ASD
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
< Active Units Weight Unit = KIP Length Unit = INCH >
< >
< Steel Take Off Itemize Based on the PROFILE >
< Total Length, Volume, Weight, and Number of Members >
< >
< Profile Names Total Length Total Volume Total Weight # of Members >
< W10x33 2.1600E+03 2.0974E+04 5.9418E+00 12 >
< W12x58 1.4400E+03 2.4480E+04 6.9352E+00 4 >
< W12x65 1.4400E+03 2.7504E+04 7.7919E+00 4 >
< W12x72 2.1600E+03 4.5576E+04 1.2912E+01 12 >
< W14x43 1.4400E+03 1.8144E+04 5.1402E+00 4 >
< W14x48 1.4400E+03 2.0304E+04 5.7521E+00 4 >
< W6x9 3.2400E+03 8.6832E+03 2.4600E+00 18 >
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
< ACTIVE UNITS WEIGHT KIP LENGTH INCH >
< >
< TOTAL LENGTH, WEIGHT AND VOLUME FOR SPECIFIED MEMBERS >
< >
< LENGTH = 1.3320E+04 WEIGHT = 4.6933E+01 VOLUME = 1.6566E+05 >
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
95
Deflection Design
LRFD
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
< Active Units Weight Unit = KIP Length Unit = INCH >
< >
< Steel Take Off Itemize Based on the PROFILE >
< Total Length, Volume, Weight, and Number of Members >
< >
< Profile Names Total Length Total Volume Total Weight # of Members >
< W10x33 2.1600E+03 2.0974E+04 5.9418E+00 12 >
< W10x49 1.4400E+03 2.0736E+04 5.8745E+00 8 >
< W10x54 7.2000E+02 1.1376E+04 3.2228E+00 4 >
< W12x40 1.4400E+03 1.6992E+04 4.8138E+00 4 >
< W14x43 2.8800E+03 3.6288E+04 1.0280E+01 8 >
< W14x48 1.4400E+03 2.0304E+04 5.7521E+00 4 >
< W6x9 3.2400E+03 8.6832E+03 2.4600E+00 18 >
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>


<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
< ACTIVE UNITS WEIGHT KIP LENGTH INCH >
< >
< TOTAL LENGTH, WEIGHT AND VOLUME FOR SPECIFIED MEMBERS >
< >
< LENGTH = 1.3320E+04 WEIGHT = 3.8345E+01 VOLUME = 1.3535E+05 >
<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
96
Deflection Design
ASD

WEIGHT = 46.933 kips

LRFD

WEIGHT = 38.345 kips
97
Compare Design without and with
Deflection Design
ASD
Without Deflection Design WEIGHT = 46.566 kips
With Deflection Design WEIGHT = 46.933 kips

LRFD
Without Deflection Design WEIGHT = 33.874 kips
With Deflection Design WEIGHT = 38.345 kips
98
Design same example based on
C
b
= 1.0
Code and deflection design with C
b
= 1.0

ASD
Compute C
b
WEIGHT = 46.933 kips
Specify C
b
= 1.0 WEIGHT = 51.752 kips

LRFD
Compute C
b
WEIGHT = 38.345 kips
Specify C
b
= 1.0 WEIGHT = 48.421 kips
99
Design Similar example based on
C
b
= 1.0 and LL×5
• Code and deflection design with C
b
= 1.0 and increase the live
load by a factor of 5.
• Area loads are distributed using two way option instead of one
way
• Also change the 2 bays in the Z direction from 30 ft to 15 ft.

ASD WEIGHT = 25.677 kips

LRFD WEIGHT = 22.636 kips

Difference = 3.041 kips
100
Design Similar example based on
C
b
= 1.0 and LL×10
• Code and deflection design with C
b
= 1.0 and increase the live
load by a factor of 10.
• Area loads are distributed using two way option instead of one
way
• Also change the 2 bays in the Z direction from 30 ft to 15 ft.

ASD WEIGHT = 31.022 kips

LRFD WEIGHT = 29.051 kips

Difference = 1.971 kips
101
Stiffness Analysis
versus
Nonlinear Analysis
• Stiffness Analysis – Load Combinations or Form
Loads can be used.
• Nonlinear Analysis – Form Loads must be used.
Load Combinations are not valid.
• Nonlinear Analysis – Specify type of Nonlinearity.
• Nonlinear Analysis – Specify Maximum Number of
Cycles.
• Nonlinear Analysis – Specify Convergence
Tolerance.
102
Nonlinear Analysis
Commands
• NONLINEAR EFFECT
• TENSION ONLY
• COMPRESSION ONLY
• GEOMETRY AXIAL
• MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CYCLES
• CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

• NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
103
Design using Nonlinear Analysis
Input File # 1
1. Geometry, Material Type, Properties,
2. Loading „SW‟, „LL‟, and „WL‟
3. FORM LOAD „A‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.4
4. FORM LOAD „B‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.2 „LL‟ 1.6
5. FORM LOAD „C‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.2 „WL‟ 1.6 „LL‟ 0.5
6. FORM LOAD „D‟ FROM „SW‟ 0.9 „WL‟ 1.6
7. DEFINE PHYSICAL MEMBERS
8. PARAMETERS
9. MEMBER CONSTRAINTS
10. LOAD LIST „A‟ „B‟ „C‟ „D‟ $ Activate only the FORM loads
11. STIFFNESS ANALYSIS
12. SAVE
104
Design using Nonlinear Analysis
Input File # 2
1. RESTORE
2. LOAD LIST „A‟ „B‟ „C‟ „D‟
3. SELECT MEMBERS
4. SMOOTH PHYSICAL MEMBERS
5. DELETE LOADINGS „A‟ „B‟ „C‟ „D‟
6. SELF WEIGHT LOADING RECOMPUTE
7. FORM LOAD „A‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.4
8. FORM LOAD „B‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.2 „LL‟ 1.6
9. FORM LOAD „C‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.2 „WL‟ 1.6 „LL‟ 0.5
10. FORM LOAD „D‟ FROM „SW‟ 0.9 „WL‟ 1.6
11. LOAD LIST „A‟ „B‟ „C‟ „D‟
12. STIFFNESS ANALYSIS
13. CHECK MEMBERS
14. STEEL TAKE OFF
15. SAVE
105
Design using Nonlinear Analysis
Input File # 3
1. RESTORE
2. LOAD LIST „A‟ „B‟ „C‟ „D‟
3. SELECT MEMBERS
4. SMOOTH PHYSICAL MEMBERS
5. DELETE LOADINGS „A‟ „B‟ „C‟ „D‟
6. SELF WEIGHT LOADING RECOMPUTE
7. FORM LOAD „A‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.4
8. FORM LOAD „B‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.2 „LL‟ 1.6
9. FORM LOAD „C‟ FROM „SW‟ 1.2 „WL‟ 1.6 „LL‟ 0.5
10. FORM LOAD „D‟ FROM „SW‟ 0.9 „WL‟ 1.6
106
Design using Nonlinear Analysis
Input File # 3 (continue)
1. NONLINEAR EFFECT
2. GEOMETRY ALL MEMBERS
3. MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CYCLES
4. CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE DISPLACEMENT
5. LOAD LIST „A‟ „B‟ „C‟ „D‟
6. NONLINEAR ANALYSIS
7. CHECK MEMBERS
8. STEEL TAKE OFF
9. SAVE
107
General Comparison between AISC
LRFD and ASD


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