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In selecting a suitable air conditioning system for a particular application.html .All Air Systems An all-air system provides complete sensible and latent cooling capacity in the cold air supplied by the system. 2.Air Conditioning System Air conditioning for people is the control of temperature. flexibility. Accessibility to terminals demands close cooperation between architectural. 2 above 3.htm#case There are four basic system categories: 1 Central chilled water air conditioning systems .html . direct expansion of refrigerant. 5.3 4.Air-and Water Systems Induction 2. System Disadvantages 1. to achieve human thermal comfort.html for thermal comfort and related topics.g. mechanical and structural engineers.uwa. See http://fridge.arch. noise control and choice of suitable equipment. acceptable noise level. humidity.1 Window air conditioners Unitary and Rooftop Air Conditioners 4. Seasonal changeover is simple and readily adaptable to climatic control. 3.3 Dual Duct 1.System constraints : Cooling load. draft control. without the chilled water cooling medium ] 4. see http://arch. including cooling towers which can also be applied to systems 1. 6. acceptability of components obtruding into the conditioned space . either in the central system or at a particular zone. . Air conditioning systems can be categorized according to the means by which the controllable cooling is accomplished in the conditioned space.All Water Systems.1 Reheat 1.3 Water cooling tower 4 Direct expansion Systems [i.e.4 Central chilled water air conditioning systems .hku. . They are further segregated to accomplish specific purposes by special equipment arrangement.Architectural Constraints : Size and appearance of terminal devices.hk/teaching/case. Heating can be accomplished by the same air stream.4 Multizone 1. normally with mechanical means. Maintenance cost For case studies.2 Variable Air Volume 1. Case studies See http://ug.hku. All-air systems can be classified into 2 categories:-Single duct systems -Dual duct systems System Advantages 1. and local requirements. heat radiation sometimes [e. Infringes least on perimeter floor space. Allows good design flexibility for optimum air distribution.hk/course/intgtech3/grad_hs/pt1/HVAC/index.au/topics/thermal/index_thermal. Heating and ventilation . Allows the use of the greatest numbers of potential cooling seasons house with outside air in place of mechanical refrigeration. http://ug.1 Fan Coil 2. Well suited to applications requiring unusual exhaust makeup. Adapts to winter humidification.2 Split type and package air conditioning systems 4.hku.Financial Constraints : Capital cost. The central plant is located in unoccupied areas. 10. 3. No piping. electrical wiring and filters are located inside the conditioned space. by chilled ceiling ]. Central chilled water air conditioning systems .arch. Heat recovery system may be readily incorporated. Requires additional duct clearance which can reduce the usable floor space.All Air Systems Single zone 1. 8.3 Two-pipe Three-pipe 2. and humidity control under all operating conditions. 4. consideration should also ven to the following:. 7.1 Fan-coil units 3.5 Central chilled water air conditioning systems . air movement and air cleanliness. Zoning requirements. hence facilitating operating and maintenance.2 2. Operating cost.2 Central chilled water air conditioning system with fan coils and other devices 3.edu. 9. 2.hk/course/intgtech3/grad_hs/pt2/computer/air. Air-balancing is difficult and requires great care. Space available to house equipment and its location relative to the conditioned space.4 Heat pumps 2 3 1. Gives a wide choice of zonability.arch.
medium or high pressure.html . While flexduct has fewer seams. Rectangular metal duct. or plenum box and air handler. The seams in the duct board should be carefully sealed with mastic or high quality duct tape. Both metal and fiberglass duct board are rigid and installed in pieces. or heat pump and the plenum and blower assembly that forces air through the ductwork. electrical appliances. 11. must be equal to the amount of heat generated inside the room (by human being. like flex-duct. building leakage. etc. fiberglass board. shows the control of chilled cooling coil and fan These are components will bring about:-Heat balance: The amount of heat extracted out of the air conditioned room (by the cooling system. continuous piece. doors. for example. The Ductwork is a branching network of round or rectangular tubes generally constructed of sheet metal. Boots connect ductwork to registers. The seams in the insulation are usually stapled together around the duct and then taped. -Air balance: The mass flow rate of the air going into the room = The mass flow rate of air going out of the room. especially the kind used for plenums and larger trunk runs. The Air Handling Unit is a cabinet that includes or houses the central furnace. 9. fiberglass duct board.hk/teaching/project/project502. crawlspaces. fresh air introduced into the room. Fig 1b. should be sealed and insulated. The Supply Ductwork carries air from the air handler to the rooms in a house. Normally. floors. drywall or wood that distribute air to individual ducts or registers. and ceilings. Fiberglass duct board.e. Typically each room has at least one supply duct and larger rooms may have several. 7. 3. and the vapor barrier installed on the outside of the insulation facing away from the duct. Elbows are manufactured pieces of duct used for turns. or a flexible plastic and wire composite material located within the walls. radiation via the glass. Also longer flex-duct runs can restrict the flow of air. 4. or basements. 5 l/s per person for smoking accommodation. good indoor air quality (IAQ) is important. the equipment is located outside the conditioned space but can also be installed within the conditioned are if conditions permit.http://arch. All of the seams should be sealed before insulation is installed. 6. 1.1 Single Zone System The all-air single-zone air conditioning system is the basic central system which can supply a constant air volume or a variable air volume at low. The three most common types of duct material used in home construction are metal. is often insulated on the inside with fiberglass duct liner. All return and supply ducts located outside the conditioned space.hku. hot air leakage into the room through gaps in windows. 2. Registers and Grilles are the coverings for duct openings into the conditioned space. If it is not insulated on the inside.) and transferred into the room (by conduction through the building envelope.hk/teaching/cases/shingmun/shingmun. in attics. 12. metal.html and http://arch. Ducts are built of sections of the duct board. The Return Ductwork carries air from the conditioned space back to the air handler. 8. Distribution systems have a number of important components: 1. metal ducts should be insulated on the outside using a fiberglass batt with an attached metal foil vapor retarder. Most houses have only one or two main return ducts located in a central area. exhaust air systems. Ductwork Joints join pieces of ductwork. and flex-duct. proper design and installation is very important. Flex-duct is installed between the register and plenum box. usually in a single.hku. Total kW going into room = Total kW going out of the room.) i. 5. the inner lining and outer insulated covering can tear or be pinched closed. The insulation should be at least two inches thick. etc. non-smoking. 10. Typical applications include:-Space with uniform loads -Small spaces requiring precision control -Multiple systems for large areas . is made of an insulation material.5 l/s per person. air conditioner. Fresh air coming into the room : 2. Supply and Return Plenums are boxes made of duct board.
1 1. In the reheat system.3 Variable Air Volume System The variable air volume system compensates for varying cooling loads by regulating the volume of cooling air supplied through a single duct. Advantages : Closely controls space conditions Disadvantages : Expensive to operate Fig 1.Fig 1. . -Close control for process or comfort applications.2 1. It is applied to systems requiring full heating and cooling flexibility in interior and exterior zones. (a) Simple Variable Air Volume (VAV) Simple VAV systems typically cools only and have no requirement for simultaneous heating and cooling in various zones. The heating medium can be hot water. heat is added as a secondary process to either preconditioned primary air or recirculated room air.3a Variable Air Volume – Reheat It integrates heating at or near the terminal units. It provides:-Zone or space control for areas of unequal loading.2 Reheat System The reheat system is a modification of the single-zone system. steam or electricity. (b) Fig 1. -Heating or cooling of perimeter areas with different exposures. Heating is turned on when the air flow reaches a predetermined minimum.
3b Advantages a) b) c) d) e) f) When combined with a perimeter heating system. heating and pumping matches diversity of loads (ii) Unoccupied areas may be fully cut-off (iii) Reduced noise level when the system is running at off-peak loads. No seasonal changeover is necessary. 4. Instant temperature response is achieved because of simultaneous availability of cold and warm air at each terminal unit. occupancy. Multi-zone System The multi-zone system applies to a relatively small number of zones served by a single. Virtually self-balancing. Lower operating cost because Fans run long hours at reduced volume (i) Refrigeration. Capital cost is lower since diversities of loads from lights. The system is well suited to provide temperature control for individual spaces or zones. Allows simultaneous heating and cooling without seasonal changeover. 2. solar and equipment of as much as 30% are permitted. 1. g) h) 1. Different zone requirements are met by . central air-handling unit. Zoning of central equipment is not required. It is easy and inexpensive to subdivide into new zones and to handle increased loads with new tenancy or usage if load does not exceed the original design simultaneous peak. No zoning is required in central equipment. Does not operate as economically as other VAV systems.5 Initial cost is usually higher than other VAV systems. Systems with terminal volume regulation are self-balancing. it offers inexpensive temperature control for multiple zoning and a high degree of simultaneous heating-cooling flexibility. 3. Disadvantages 1.Fig 1. 2. Fig 1.4 Dual Duct System The dual-duct system employs two air ducts to supply cold air and warm air to a mixing terminal unit which proportions the cold and warm air in response to a thermostat located in the conditioned space.4 Advantages (in addition to those common to all air systems) 1.
usually has a constant volume which is determined by: 1. These coil units are built in with induction nozzles such that when high pressure air goes through them. Fig.1 The induction system employs air ducts to convey treated air with higher pressure levels and of the right adjustable quantities to various cooling/heating coil units. The primary air is then delivered through nozzles as high velocity jets which induce secondary air from the room and over the secondary coil. Easy to balance. 3. This inducted air stream is either cooled or heated after passing through the coil. The water side consists of a pump and piping to convey water to heat transfer surfaces within each conditioned space. The required sensible cooling capacity at maximum cooling load. 2. ducted primary air is fed into a small plenum chamber where its pressure is reduced by means of a suitable damper to the level required at the nozzles. The maximum sensible cooling capacity following changeover to the winter cycle when chilled water is no longer circulated to the room terminal. and then mixed with the air coming out . 1. a duct distribution system. air room the room is inducted across the fin surface of the water-circulated coils. The supply air. 2. multi-room building that may have reversing sensible heat characteristics. Fig.mixing cold and warm air through zone dampers at the central air handler in response to zone thermostats. In the induction system. called primary air. The ventilation requirement.Air-and-Water Systems An air-and-water system is one in which both air and water (cooled or heated in central plant room) are distributed to room terminals to perform cooling or heating function. Induction units are usually installed at a perimeter wall under a window. Air transmission and distribution is simplified. and a room terminal. Individual room temperature control is by regulation of either the water flow through it or the air flow over it. 2. The air side is comprised of central air conditioning equipment. It is especially adapted to handle the loads of skyscrapers with minimum space requirements for mechanical equipment.5 Advantages (in addition to those common to all-air systems) 1. Central chilled water A/C systems . Some hotel rooms are provide with induction coils.1 Induction System The inducting system is designed for use in perimeter rooms of multi-storey. The water is commonly cooled by the introduction of chilled water from the primary cooling system and is refereed to as the secondary water loop. 2. 2. The plenum is acoustically treated to attenuate part of the noise generated in the duct system and in the unit.
Fig 2. Separate sources of heating and cooling for each space available as needed to satisfy a wide range of load variations. 6. Reduced size of central air handling equipment. The fan section recirculates air continuously from within the perimeter space through the coil which is supplied with either hot or chilled water.2a . 8. making the conditioned space quiet. Not applicable to spaces with high exhaust requirement. 3. Initial cost is usually higher than fan coil systems.2 Limited to perimeter space. 6. A low chilled water temperature is needed to control space humidity adequately. 8. 2. Fan-Coil System The fan-coil system is similar to the inducting system. Seasonal changeover is necessary. The basic elements of the fan-coil units are a finned-tube coil and a fan section. 4. Dehumidification & filtration performed in a central plant room remote from conditioned space. 2. Minimal maintenance required for individual induction units which have no moving parts. Outdoor air supply is positive. 2. 4. Higher energy consumption due to increased power required by the primary pressure drop in the terminal units. Disadvantages 1. 7. The system is well suited to provide temperature control for individual spaces or zones. with the induction unit replaced by the fan-coil unit. 5. 7. The right quantity of high pressure air is adjusted automatically in response to a thermostat located in the conditioned space. Auxiliary air may be delivered to the conditioned space for dehumidification and ventilation purposes. 9. Individual room temperature control.e. 10. Low distribution system space required as a result of reducing the air supply by use of secondary water for cooling and high velocity air design. 3. no fans Air duct dimensions are smaller than VAV systems or CAV systems Zoning of central equipment is not required. 5. The primary air supply is usually constant with no provision for shutoff.of the nozzle. No fan comes together with the coil. Advantages 1. Controls tend to be more complex than for all-air systems. i.
hk/course/intgtech3/grad_hs/pt1/HVAC/index.hk/course/intgtech3/grad_hs/pt2/computer/air. During winter cycle operation. fan-coil or radiant panel systems.arch. 3. Primary air can either connect directly to fan-coil unit or supply the room separately.html . These systems are rarely used today because they consume excess energy.hku. 2.arch. Less capable of handling widely varying loads or providing widely varying choice of room temperature than four-pipe systems. Usually less expensive to install than four pipe systems. 2. 3. the primary air is preheated and supplied at about 10°C to provide a source of cooling. The air velocity is fairly constant regardless of the primary air quantity. More costly to operate than four-pipe systems.Fig 2. The secondary water is cold in summer and intermediate seasons and warm in winter. a warm water pipe and a common return. Case studies See http://ug. a cold water pipe. Fig 2.2b Advantages (in addition to those for induction units) 1. Cumbersome to change over.html .3 Advantages 1.4 ` Three-pipe Systems Three-pipe systems for induction coil. http://ug. 2.hku. Disadvantages 1. fan-coil and radiant panel systems have three pipes to each terminal unit. . 2.3` Two-pipe Systems In two-pipe systems for induction coil. the water distribution circuit consists of one supply and one return pipe. System can be operated with the primary air turned off. The primary air quantity is fixed and the primary air temperature is varied in reverse proportion to outside temperature to provide the necessary amount of heating during summer and intermediate seasons.
System Disadvantages 1. Central chilled water air conditioning systems . More flexible and adaptable to widely varying loads. Cooling and dehumidification is provided by circulating chilled water through a finned coil in the unit.5` Four pipe Systems Four-pipe systems have a cold water supply. Maintenance and service work has to be done in the occupied areas. Fan-coil units . Higher efficiency due to lower operating costs. the other by cold water. Higher initial cost. Heating is provided by supplying hot water through the same or a separate coil.Fig 2. 3. Flexible and readily adaptable to many building module requirements. 2. 4.5b Advantages (as compared with two-pipe systems) 1. The primary air is cold and remains at the same temperature year-round.4 2. Seasonal change over is required.All-water Systems All-water systems are those with fan-coil. 3. Simpler to operate (No summer-winter changeover and primary air reheat schedule). Fig 2. 2. warm water supply and warm water return. No humidification is provided.5a Fig 2. one served by hot water. Disadvantages 1. 2. or valance type room terminals with unconditioned ventilation air supplied by an opening through the wall or by infiltration. System Advantages 1. 3. 3. The terminal unit usually has two independent secondary water coils. cold water return.1 No positive ventilation is provided unless wall openings are used. Provides individual room control. unit ventilator.
engnet. C to 30 deg.nominally 35 deg . the following circuits do not mix with each other. Condenser water pumps move condenser water through this circuit. and . -refrigerant circuit – refrigerant compressors move the refrigerant through this circuit -cooling water circuit .2 Water cooling tower A water cooling tower cools the water entering it from 35 deg. 35 deg. See attached diagram and See http://www. i.files/frame.e.A fan-coil unit basically consists of a finned tube coil. C nominally. F. see http://www. The fan recirculates air continuously from the space through the coil. W.C entering water cooling tower . 12 deg. of Architecture.C entering water chiller. C leaving chiller.for treating fresh air.C entering fan coil units [FCU] /air handling unit[AHU] /primary handling unit[PAU]. 30 deg. a filter and a fan section. and heat exchange is performed via various metal surfaces:-the chilled water circuit – nominally 12 deg . to avoid Legionnaire disease to occur. The air stream going out carries water particles.ekingair.1c 3. The warmer water is sprayed inside the cooling tower admidst the stream of an upward air flow produced by the fan at the top of the tower.C entering condenser of chiller assembly. Dept. . These water particles should not be taken into buildings. C leaving condenser of chiller assembly – Condenser water pumps move condenser water through this circuit.htm 3. Water in this circuit has to be treated. W.e. There is water loss to atmosphere in using cooling towers.chilled water flow return. i. nominally 30 deg . Fig 3. Knowles Building HKU Fig 3.CH. C leaving cooling tower.HTM . For cooling towers.1b Ceiling Building Services in 2/F Staff area.com/Screw.2 Central chilled water air conditioning system with fan coils and other devices In this system. C leaving these devices – chilled water pumps move water through this circuit – CH.chilled water flow .com. which contains either hot or chilled water.1a Fig 3. nominally 7 deg .tw/lc/A2. R. 7 deg.
e. means for circulating and cleaning air. or as a console. direct expansion of refrigerant.tw/lc/LRC-SAS. dehumidification.1c .1b Fig 4. These units are designed for comfort cooling and to provide delivery of conditioned air to a room either without ducts or with very short ducts. Fig 4. They include a prime source of refrigeration. and/or exhausting and heating.engnet.com.1a Fig 4.HTM 4. without the chilled water cooling medium ] -Window Air Conditioners A window unit is an encased assembly designed primarily for mounting in a window. without the chilled water cooling medium ] Direct expansion Systems [i.1 Direct expansion Systems [i.e.http://www. direct expansion of refrigerant . through a wall. and may also include means for ventilating. 4.
aep.not to oversize the fan -(3) naturally leaking of air in and out of the room See http://www.3 Direct expansion Systems [i. Since this compressor gives out most noise.e.aep. offices. direct expansion of refrigerant . the indoor unit and outdoor unit of the split system is put into one single unit. residences. direct expansion of refrigerant . controls. . containing direct expansion coil. with no air conditioning -Air conditioning added to the church in 1990 with minimum interior change – only small portions of the windows inside the church hall were changed for fitting supply air grilles and return air louvers . The refrigerant compressor now is part of the machine locating at the window area. A case study of installing large unitary air conditioners for a church [ See photos and diagrams ] -church building built in 1945-1950. detached from the church hall building. the window unit will make the room acoustically inferior to other air conditioning systems. placed indoor. • • • • The units are the floor – standing type designed for installation outdoors or on the roof. without the chilled water cooling medium ] . with the condenser remotely placed outdoor .Split type and package air conditioning systems • package air conditioning systems . allowing partial operation of the hall with minimum use of air conditioning -fresh air mixes with return air before going through the air conditioner.the large unitary air conditioners were supported by s mild steel frame from the ground.Fig 4.Factory assembled (floor mounting) package.2 • These are commonly air-cooled units. Part of the cooled air coming out of the air conditioner will exhaust into the entrance hall before leaving the church building. etc .1d In a window air conditioner. schools. without the chilled water cooling medium ] -Unitary and Rooftop Air Conditioners Fig 4.htm 4. fan and compressor.com/energyinfo/res_html/recrefr.2 Direct expansion Systems [i. particularly suitable for single flat building with extensive floor areas. incorporating a temperature selection switch & thermostat.3 large unitary air conditioners were installed respectively to serve the front. commonly used in Hong Kong for restaurants. Fresh air exchange for the room can be provided by :-(1) setting the “ventilator” switch of the window air conditioner to “open” position -(2) installing a ventilating extract fan in the room to extract room air to outside – caution.htm and http://www. giving practically no structural loading problem and machinery vibration problem to the church hall -the fan power and the grilles were selected to prevent the use of distributing dir ducting inside the church hall. Application: For general air conditioning of stores.e. 4. factories. A supply air duct and a return air duct are to be connected to the cooling unit. among other components. middle and rear part of the hall.com/energyinfo/res_html/recroom. café shops. A remote controller should be installed on an easily accessible wall. etc.
Refrigerant is circulated inside the finned coil to the outside unit and then back to the indoor unit. the outdoor unit contains a refrigerant compressor. A large part of air heated up in the room. See http://www. is pumping the refrigerant through the indoor unit and the outdoor unit. However. See http://www. refrigerant evaporates. [ i.nsf/fFRM?ReadForm c. small offices. Air circuits for the indoor environment. The basic concepts of a split air conditioning system [ Small system] a. The indoor unit is wallmount or ceiling mount unit. Refrigerant going through this outdoor coil is losing its energy across the metal surface of the coil to the atmosphere. a unit for refrigerant to condense] In an air-cooled outdoor unit. rise in temperature.nsf/fFRM?ReadForm The refrigerant compressor. The outside air passing through the outdoor unit is an open circuit. heat exchange occurs in the same way as the indoor unit.daikin. and rejects energy to the outside atmosphere as it goes through the outdoor unit.e.daikin. etc Case study – see http://arch. This refrigerant circuit is a closed circuit. taking warm air from the room and injecting cooled air into the room in summer. The refrigerant has no direct contact with air. commonly used in Hong Kong for café shops. See http://www. Inside the coil.be/home. and the indoor unit is therefore commonly called an evaporator by the engineers. the outside air is heated up. 2 parts of the system] to take heat from indoor to outdoor. The fan pulls or pushes air around the outer surfaces of the coil inside the indoor unit. d. By passing through this finned coil.Factory assembled (ceiling mounting) indoor unit of fan and direct expansion coil. air path is not recirculated. The refrigerant circulates between these 2 units [i.Fig 4. inside the outdoor unit] The refrigerant takes up energy as it goes through the indoor unit. with the condensing unit [i. C. in addition to having a finned coil and motor-driven fan. The outdoor unit The refrigerant then takes the heat from the indoor unit to the outdoor unit. say to 25 deg.hk/teaching/project/project302. A split air conditioning system consists of an indoor unit and an outdoor unit connected together by refrigerant pipes. compressor and condensing coil ] remotely placed outdoor . Energy rejected is the sum of the energy taken indoor plus the energy consumed by the compressor in pumping the refrigerant through the refrigerant circuit. That is. which is commonly called a condensing unit.1.html 4. before recirculated back to the room. The indoor unit comprises a finned coil and a fan which is driven by an electric motor.be/home. then conveying the heat to the outdoor unit for disposal. The air passing through the indoor unit is cooled. some domestic units. and if pipe joints are well installed .e.aep. say to 15 deg. as outside air is drawn pass the surface of the finned coil by the fan.3b split air conditioning systems .e.com/energyinfo/res_html/reccent. The refrigerant does not have direct contact with air. So the heat of the room air is transferred into the refrigerant in the indoor unit. with an amount of fresh outside air coming in to replenish this • .3.hku. by normally about 5 deg. no leakage of refrigerant should occur.is located outdoor. which usually is installed inside the outdoor unit. [ In the split system therefore the compressor – generating noise when pumping refrigerant. [ Note : Design room temperature is 23 deg C in general for human comfort ] then goes back to the indoor unit for cooling. controls. A small part of room air is extracted to outside by an exhaust fan.htm b.3a Fig 4. by firstly having heat of the room air absorbed into the refrigerant via an airrefrigerant heat exchanger which is the indoor unit.
e. and has been widely used for residential and commercial application. forced convection heat transfer coils are normally employed to transfer the heat between the air and the refrigerant. Heat rejection: air-cooled.html . Indoor air: vertical upflow.org/tutorial .heatpumpcentre. Heat pumps for air conditioning service may be classified according to a) b) c) d) e) type of heat source and sink. Type of building structure. Another efficient option is to have a few additional valves and controls added to the basic split system to make it to serve as a heat pump system in winter. two factors in particular must be taken into consideration: 1) 2) the variation in temperature experienced in a given locality..2 Water-source Heat Pumps The water-source heat pump uses water and air as the heat source or heat sink depending on the mode of operation. Direct expansion air conditioning equipments consist of factory-matched refrigeration cycle components for inclusion is air-conditioning systems which are field designed to meet the needs of the user. is put on the roof top.3. attic. transom. water is used as the heat source and the equipment operates as a water chiller. Placement: floor standing. When heating. See “water cooling tower” below.htm .heatpumpcentre. Outdoor -Rooftop. window. The following list of variations is indicative of the vast number of types of unitary air conditioners presently available. When selecting or designing an air-source heat pup. 2. A packaged system is needed if the outdoor unit.1 Air-to-Air Heat Pumps The air-to-air heat pump is the most common type of heat pumps. with fan. http://www. commonly denotes a system in which refrigeration equipment is used in such a manner that heat is taken from a heat source and given up to the conditioned space when heating service is wanted. Thus the refrigerant goes through a reversed cycle by taking heat from outside and rejecting heat to the room.com/multisplit. For heat pumps. cooling water can be provided by fresh water cooling towers. evaporative condenser. making the machine less quite than the split system.4 Heat Pumps The term ‘heat pump’. Size and configuration. 4. Of course the finned coil f the outdoor unit has to be replaced by a water –cooled condenser.3. 1. C. It is particularly suitable for factory-built unitary heat pumps. into the room. including office buildings. counterflow. http://www. manufacturing facilities and hospitals. 4. . http://www.nrc. hotels.ca/irc/cbd/cbd195e. Heating and cooling distribution fluid. Advantages 1. 4. and is removed from the space and discharged to a heat sink when cooling and dehumidification are desired. Locations: Indoor . i.A packaged system If the refrigerant compressor of the outdoor unit of the split air conditioning system is installed together with the indoor unit. After taking up heat from the outdoor unit. Type of thermodynamic cycle.daikin. there would be a saving of 30% of energy. concealed in closets. crawl spaces. with an increase of unusually 5 deg. water-cooled. The water cooling tower can be placed at the top of a building. However this will allow a larger cooling capacity for the indoor unit.spec-net. Single splits and multiple splits -single split – one indoor unit is connected to one outdoor unit by insulated copper refrigerant pipes -multiple splits– several indoor units are connected to one outdoor unit by insulated copper refrigerant pipes See http://www. Affords opportunity for energy conservation by recovering heat from interior zones and/or waste heat and by storing excess heat from daytime cooling for night time heating.amount exhausted. as applied to a year-round air conditioning system. the refrigerant will do a reverse job in taking heat from outside .totally 5 units of energy. .Exposed with plenums or furred in ductwork.html for a design guide f. Arrangement: single or split. with the indoor unit a few floors below. ceiling suspended.org/winter. functional for equipment room and ducts. Now this make up air can be supplied by connecting a small air duct from an external opening to the indoor unit.au/hitachi/reverse1. Extended surface. see http://www.nsf/fFRM?ReadForm See also http://www. the formation of frost. Unit exterior: decorative for in-space applications. Wall . which then will be floor-mount usually. roof-mounted. with a pump drawing water from it to circulate the condensing water to the outdoor units of the split system.iaheatpump. schools. 90° and 180° degree turns. garages or equipment room. One unit of energy for pumping the refrigerant will cause 4 units of energy to be taken from outside. The water-source heat pump is suitable for many types of multi-room buildings. 5. and the heat pump operates as a water-cooled air conditioner. wall-mounted. wall-mounted or on ground. Energy saving options If heat rejection in the outdoor unit is taken care by cooling water . That is. http://www. Air is used as the heat source and heat sink. 3.htm. When cooling. h. g. In urban areas. 6. A variant of split air conditioning system . See diagram attached e.be/home.com.org/tutorial/buildings. condensing water is circulated back to the cooling tower for cooling again. 4. now called a condenser. water is used as the heat sink. it is called a packaged system. or for use with forced air furnace.ambthair. weatherproofed for outdoors. and rejecting it to the indoor environment. apartment buildings.html .Built-in. basements. horizontal. The compressor now is put indoor.
5. Reduced air flow can cause the heat pump to cycle cutout. 3. 3. Lower noise level because condenser fans are eliminated. Total life cycle cost frequently compares favourably to central systems when considering relative installed cost. and system life. 6. pumps and heat rejector. heat exchanger. . Longer expected life than air-cooled heat pumps. Good filter maintenance is imperative. 4.2. operating costs. Higher initial cost than for most other multiple-packaged unit systems. Space required for boiler. No wall openings required. Energy for the heat pumps can be metered directly to each tenant. Disadvantages 1. 2.
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