Introduction to Jig & Fixture Design

Outcomes After completing this topic student should be able to:Identify the jigs & fixtures. Objective of tool design Define the elements consist in the jigs & fixtures. Identify limits and fits Define the material used in jigs & fixtures.

FGB40103 - Jigs & Fixtures Design

MTM section

Jigs & Fixtures
General definitions Jigs and fixtures are production-work holding devices used to manufacture duplicate parts accurately. The correct relationship and alignment between the cutter, or other tool, and the workpiece must be maintained. To do this, a jig or fixture is designed and built to hold, support, and locate every part to ensure that each process of drilled or machined within the specified limits.
FGB40103 - Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section

FGB40103 - Jigs & Fixtures Design

Jigs? Cutting tool guided(x fix kt machine table) It provided with tool guiding elements such as drill bushes. These direct the tool to the correct position on the work-piece. Fixtures? Work-piece guided(selalu fix kt machine table) To hold the work-piece securely in the correct position with respect to the machine/cutter during operation.
MTM section

Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . FGB40103 . Design tools that consistently produce parts of high quality Increase the rate of production with existing machine tools Design the tool to make it foolproof and to prevent improper use. Provide protection in the design of the tools for maximum safety of the operator. Select materials that will give adequate tool life. easy to operate tools for maximum efficiency Reduce manufacturing expenses by producing parts at the lowest possible cost.Objective The main objective of tool design is to lower manufacturing costs while maintaining quality and increased production. To accomplish this. the tool designer must satisfy the following objectives: Provide simple.

Clamping Elements: these hold the workpiece securely in the located position during operation.Elements of Jigs & Fixtures Generally all the jigs and fixtures consist of: Locating Elements: these position the workpiece accurately with respect to the tool guiding or setting elements in the fixture. Tool Guiding and Setting Elements: these aid guiding or setting of the tools in correct position with respect to the workpiece.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . FGB40103 .

FGB40103 . positioning and frequent checking.Advantages of Jigs and Fixtures Productivity: jigs and fixtures eliminate individual marking process. Any parts of the machine fit properly in assembly. There is no need for selective assembly. This reduces operation time and increases productivity Interchangeability: jigs and fixtures facilitate uniform quality in manufacture.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . and all similar components are interchangeable.

There is no need for skillful setting of the workpiece of tool. easy assembly and savings in labor costs result in substantial reduction in the cost of workpieces produced with jigs and fixtures. FGB40103 . reduction in scrap.Skill Reduction: jigs and fixtures simplify locating and clamping of the workpieces.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . Cost Reduction: higher production. Tool guiding elements ensure correct positioning of the tools with respect to the workpieces.

respectively. If tolerance is allowed only on one side of the nominal dimension it is called 0. i. For example. 20. 20.02 has got unilateral.Limits and Fits The largest and the smallest of the shaft (or hole) are called the high and low limit.00 + − 0. The difference between these limits.e. the permission variation.01 FGB40103 .01 it is called bilateral. is called tolerance. If tolerance is allowed on both sides of the nominal dimension (e.00 + − 0.g 0.00 unilateral tolerance.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

Locators in production devices are made running fit with workpiece for quick loading and unloading. Push fit: this fit requires light hand pressure or tapping for assembly of the mating parts. It is used mainly for precise assembly of replaceable locators in jigs and fixtures. It is used for bearing diameters of rotating shafts. FGB40103 .Classification of Fits Running fits: this provides for easy rotation as well as axial movement of shaft (male part) in hole (female part).Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

FGB40103 . Force Fit: this is used for permanent assemblies such as wheels and hubs on shaft force fit parts require heavy pressure for assembly.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . This prevents rotary as well as axial movement between the assembled parts.Press Fit: the mating parts are assembled y hammering or with a press. There is a positive interference between the hole and the shaft.

The clearance or interference provided for obtaining the various fits is called allowance. FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

Holes are specified by capital letters A.c. In hole basis. the hole size is kept constant and the shaft size is varied to obtain the various fits.In shaft basis of fits the diameter of the shaft is kept constant while that of the hole is varied. whereas shafts are specified by small letters a. The distribution of the tolerance is specified by alphabets. FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . The tolerance depends upon the mating diameter sizes.B.b. etc. etc.C.D.d.

2.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .16 showing the grade of accuracy.3. Digit 1 signifies the highest accuracy and digit 16 the least.4. FGB40103 .The alphabets are suffixed by digits 1.5 .

the less accurate H8 holes are used. Generally unilateral H type tolerance distribution is preferred. Most of the accurate holes are made to H7 limits which can be obtained by careful reaming. FGB40103 .In tool making accuracy grades 7 to 11 have been found most convenient. For mass production.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

The following combinations are widely used in tool making. the shaft should be: FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . For example for a 20ø H7 hole.

Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .Materials used in Jigs and Fixtures Jigs and fixtures are made from a variety of materials. some of which can be hardened to resist wear. High Speed Steels (HSS) Die Steels Carbon Steels Collet Steels (Spring Steels) Oil hardening Non-Shrinking Tool Steels (OHNS) Case Hardening Steels High Tensile Steels Mild Steel Cast Iron Steel Castings Nylon and Fibre Phospher Bronze FGB40103 . press tools. Given below are the materials often used in jigs. etc. fixtures. collects.

availability and versatility have made it popular for tool construction. Cast iron It used for tool bodies and some commercial of jig and fixture components. Its ease of fabrication.Materials used in Jigs and Fixtures Common materials used in jigs and fixtures construction. Carbon Steel Carbon steel is the primary material of jig or fixture tooling. The advantages of this material.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . low cost. it can absorb vibration during machining operations. There 3 types of this steel as follows: Low Carbon Steels Medium Carbon Steels High Carbon Steels FGB40103 .

30 percent. It works well as clamps. but in areas of tooling require more strength.05 to 0.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . They should only be used in areas where mass is required and no wear or stress will occur such as base plate or support plate. The carbon contents are between 0. FGB40103 . The carbon contents of this steel is between 0.3 to 0.Materials used in Jigs and Fixtures Low Carbon Steels Low Carbon Steels are used mainly for structural part of a jig or fixture. studs. Medium Carbon Steels It used in much the same way as low carbon steels. which is allow cast hardening to resist wear for low production tools. and nut and in almost any area where toughness is required. It can be hardened by case hardening or other conventional hardening processes.50 percent.

The carbon contents are between 0. FGB40103 . wear pads.0 percent and easily hardened by conventional hardening process. and supports can be made of this material.Materials used in Jigs and Fixtures High Carbon Steels High Carbon Steels are generally limited to tool constructions in areas that are subject to most wear. Parts such as drill bushings.50 to 2. locators for clamp.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

Choose a class and type of jig and fixture for selected operations on sample parts. Identify the types of jigs and fixtures.Basic Type and Function of Jig & Fixture Outcomes After completing this topic student should be able to:Identify the classes of jigs & fixtures.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . FGB40103 .

tap. reverse spotface or reverse countersink.Classes of Jigs Divided into 2 classes: . counterbore. FGB40103 .boring & drill Boring jigs are used to bore holes that either are too large to drill or must be made an odd size Drill jigs are used to drill. The only difference is in the size of the bushings used. ream. chamfer. countersink.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . The basic jig is almost the same for either machining operation.

Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . if a fixture is designed to be used in a milling machine. For example.Classification of Fixtures Fixtures are normally classified by the type of machine on which they are used. Fixtures can also be identified by subclassification. it is called a milling fixture. FGB40103 .

Jigs & Fixtures Design . MTM section FGB40103 . on.Template Jig Workpiece Template Jig Normally used for accuracy rather than speed. or into the work and is not usually clamped. Least expensive and simplest type of jig. This type of jig fits over.

depending on the number of parts to be made.Plate Jig Similar to templates The difference is that plate jigs have built-in clamps to hold the work.Jigs & Fixtures Design . This jig can be made with or without bushing. Sometimes made with legs to raise the jig off the table for large work. MTM section FGB40103 .

Sandwich Jig A form of plate jig with a back plate. FGB40103 . Ideal for thin or soft parts that could bend or warp in another style of jig.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

Angle . collars.plate Jig Used to hold parts that are machined at right angles to their mounting locators. and gears are some of the parts that use this type of jig. Pulley.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . FGB40103 .

Box Jig Usually totally surround the part. This style of jig allows the part to be completely machined on every surface without the need to reposition the work in the jig. FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

The work is held between two sides and machined from the third side.Channel Jig The simplest form of box jig. FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

Leaf Jig A small jigs with a hinged leaf to allow for easier loading and unloading.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . The differences between leaf jigs and box jigs are size and part location. Leaf jig normally smaller than box jigs Usually equipped with a handle for easier movement FGB40103 .

Indexing Jig A jig that is specifically designed to locate a part in multiple positions. one after another.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . FGB40103 . Indexing jigs are often used to drill holes around the surface of a cylindrical workpiece.

The basic fixture is made from a flat plate that has a variety of clamps and locators to hold and locate the part.Plate Fixture with hydraulic Swing clamps Simplest form of fixture. FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .

FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . the part is normally machined at a right angle to its locators. With this tool.Angle-plate fixture Is a variation of the plate fixture.

Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . FGB40103 . With this type of tool. the standard vise jaws are replaced with jaws that are formed to fit the part.Vise-Jaw Fixture Used for machining smalls parts.

FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . These fixtures are used for machining parts that must have machined details evenly spaced.Indexing Fixture Similarly to indexing jigs.

FGB40103 .Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section .Multi-station Fixture Used primarily for high speed. highvolume production runs. where the machining cycle must be continuous.

an incorrectly cut shape is almost impossible. Since the fixture continuously contact the tool.Jigs & Fixtures Design MTM section . FGB40103 .Profiling Fixture Used to guide tools for machining contours that the machine cannot normally follow.

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