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Biology Practicals Maintaining a Balance

Identify data sources, plan, choose equipment or resources and perform a firsthand investigation to test the effect of Aim: To demonstrate the effect of increased temperature, change in pH and change in substrate concentrations on the activity of rennin. Equipment: Large test tube, thermometers, junket, milk, water baths, 0.1 mol/L HCl, 0.1 mol/L NaOH, volumetric pipette Method: Part 1 Temperature 1. 2. 3. 4. A volumetric pipette was used to add 5mL of milk to 4 large test tubes A thermometer and water baths were used to heat the test tubes to 10, 40 (x2) and 90 degrees 1mL of junket was added to each test tube except one of the 40 ones which acted as the control The milk was timed for how long they took to turn semi-solid and this was recorded (max 5 minutes) Part 2 pH 1. A volumetric pipette was used to add 10mL of milk to 3 large test tubes 2. A thermometer and water baths were used to heat the milk to 40oC 3. 2mL of 0.1 mol/L HCl was added to one test tube and 2mL of 0.1 mol NaOH was added to another, and 2mL of water added to the last. 4. 2mL of junket was added to each test tube and the time it took to turn semi-solid was measured and recorded Part 3 Substrate Concentration 1. 5mL of milk was diluted in a test tube to 10mL, and 10mL of milk was added to a separate test tube 2. They were heated to 40oC, with 2mL of junket being added and the time to turn semi-solid recorded. Results: Temperature (Degrees) 10 40 90 pH Acidic Neutral Basic Concentration Concentrated Diluted Control (no enzyme) 40 degrees 5+ Time to Set (m:s) 5+ 3:26 5+ Time to Set (m:s) 1:07 3:03 5+ Time to Set (m:s) 0:30 0:58

Biology Practicals Maintaining a Balance


Discussion: The purpose of this practical was to show how enzymes can only work efficiently in specific conditions, and if these conditions are not met the enzyme works less efficiently or not at all. The control also indicates that the reaction would not occur normally without the enzyme. The time it took for the milk was set was used as an indicator for how active the enzyme was. The less time it took for the milk to set, the more active the enzyme was working. It can be seen that at 10 and 90, there was very little enzyme activity as the milk did not set. The sample at 40 took the least time to set, indicating that this was the most ideal temperature for the enzyme to work out of the three. The lower temperature caused the enzyme to work more slowly, and the higher temperature denatured the enzyme, destroying it so it did not work at all. It can be seen that there was very little enzyme activity in the basic sample as it did not set. The acidic sample set faster than the neutral sample, indicating that the enzyme works better in an acidic environment. Therefore an acidic environment is the most suitable environment for the enzyme to work in, reducing efficiency in neutral environments and denaturing in basic environments, so it does not work at all. The diluted solution of milk took longer to set than the normal sample of milk, indicating that the enzyme worked less efficiently in the dilute solution. This is due to the substrate concentration being higher in the normal sample of milk, so it is more likely for an active site of the enzyme to meet a molecule of milk and bond. This means that more active sites will be occupied at one time in the normal sample of milk than the diluted sample so the enzyme works more efficiently. The enzyme rennin is usually found in the stomachs of calves. The optimal conditions for rennin to work in as shown in the experiment were a temperature of around 40oC in an acidic environment. The average temperature of a cows stomach is 40oC, with the stomach acid creating an acidic environment. These conditions match the optimal conditions of rennin perfectly, allowing it to work at its most efficient rate in this environment. Reliability was achieved by comparing the results of different groups, and achieving consistent results. Controlling the variables and the use of a control ensured validity of the experiment, as well as the method being consistent with the aim in measuring what was intended. Improvements could be made my maintaining the temperature of the water baths more accurately, and reducing the ambiguity on whether the milk had solidified or not. Conclusion: The effects of varied temperature, pH and substrate concentration on the activity of the enzyme rennin were demonstrated. It was found the optimal environment for rennin to function is at 40oC and in an acidic environment. Perform a firsthand investigation using the light microscope and prepared slides to gather information to estimate the size of red and white blood cells and draw scaled diagrams of each Aim: to estimate the size of red and white blood cells and to draw scaled diagrams of each Method: 1. Use a clear ruler to measure the field of view (fov) of a microscope with the lowest power objective lens available 2. Determine the diameter of the fov for the High Power objective lens 3. Examine a prepared slide of a human blood smear using HP 4. Count the number of red blood cells that fit across the diameter 5. Divide the diameter of the fov by the number of rbc that fit to determine the estimate of the average size of the rbc 6. Estimate the relative size of a white blood cell to a rbc and therefore estimate the size of the wbcs 7. Make a scaled diagram of red and white blood cells

Biology Practicals Maintaining a Balance


Results: Given that 1mm=1x m and 1um=1x m 1mm=1000um Diameter of fov of LP: 4.5mm close to 4500 um The lip objective is x4 and the eyepiece is x10 then the combined magnification is 40 times If the HP (high power) objective lens is x40 then the total magnification is 400 times this is different from LP by a factor of 10 The diameter of the fov of the HP lens is 450 The number of rbc that fit across the HP fov was counted to be 60 The average size of rbc is 7.5 um White blood cells are about 2 times bigger so wbc is approximately 15um Discussion Unit most appropriate for blood cells was micrometers which is um um=1x m a measure of uncertainty is an absolute error and this is usually plus or minus 5 the smallest unit on the scale so the absolute error of our measurements of the fov is therefore 0.5um we cannot directly measure size of RBC and had to estimate number of corpuscles that fit across the radius (pointer) and estimate the length of the fov (field of view) We use created slides of human blood because if we use our own it would be unhygienic, risk infections and diseases size 68 m shape biconcave discs function

cell RBC

Transport oxygen Have no nuclei Only live for about 3 months 5 6 mil in a mL of blood

WBC

12 15 m

irregular shape that can change

Defend against disease Largest blood cell Have nuclei unlike RBCs

Biology Practicals Maintaining a Balance

Perform a firsthand investigation to demonstrate the effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the pH of water Aim: To demonstrate the effect of dissolved carbon dioxide on the pH of water Method: i. A beaker was thoroughly rinsed using tap water and 50mL of tap water was added to the clean beaker. ii. 10 drops of universal indicator was added to the beaker and the colour and approximate pH was recorded using a universal indicator chart. iii. A pH probe and data logger was connected, being set to record the pH once every 10 seconds for 60 seconds and was set to graph mode. iv. Air was continually blown into the water by a straw for 60 seconds, and the colour change was noted and pH recorded using the universal indicator chart. Results: Initial Colour Final Colour Green Orange

Discussion: The carbon dioxide in this prac was supplied from the blowing of air from the lungs. The air in the lungs that was being exhaled had carbon dioxide due to it being a by-product of respiration. This is carried to the lungs, where it is removed from the blood stream and exhaled as gas. As more air was exhaled into the water, carbon dioxide was dissolving into the water. The carbon dioxide in the water then reacts with the water to form carbonic acid, a weak acid. This will increase the acidity of the water, lowering the pH, which is indicated in the results. Data logger and indicator ensured reliability - showed the same trend. Compared to other groups. Conclusion: Dissolved carbon dioxide will create carbonic acid which will lower the pH of water.

Biology Practicals Maintaining a Balance


Choose equipment or resources to perform a firsthand investigation to gather firsthand data to draw transverse and longitudinal sections of phloem and xylem tissue Aim: to draw transverse and longitudinal sections of phloem and xylem tissue Method: i. Use the microscopes to observe and carefully draw a transverse section of a vascular bundle in the stem or root of a plant. Label xylem and phloem

ii. iii. iv.

Use the microscope to observe and draw a longitudinal section of vascular tissue in a plant stem. Label xylem vessels, phloem tubes, sieve plates and companion cells Used a one sided razor blade to cut a transversal section of a celery stem and mount on a microscope slide. Observe the vascular bundles on your slide Carefully use to blade to make a longitudinal section of the celery stem, mount on a slide and view using a microscope

Biology Practicals Maintaining a Balance


Perform a firsthand investigation of the structure of the mammalian kidney by dissection, use of model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products Background: The kidney has a nephron where blood from the aorta (maximum pressure) is fed into the Bowmans capsule where everything (bar cells and proteins) is forced out of the blood The filtrate passes through a long tubule surrounded by capillaries and along this tube useful substances like glucose and vitamins are reabsorbed (energy is required) Water diffuses passively in the descending loop of Henle until at the bottom of the loop, it is hypertonic (Having a higher osmotic pressure in a fluid relative to another fluid) compared to surrounding tissue Active transport: A kind of transport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient, which means movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion or movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Hence, this process will require expenditure of energy, and the assistance of a type of protein called a carrier protein Passive transport: A kind of transport by which ions or molecules move along a concentration gradient, which means movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. In the ascending tubule salt is reabsorbed Re-absorption of water is passive transport by osmosis The re-absorption of glucose, sodium salts and amino acids is active transport Some substances like potassium ions are actively secreted in the kidney tubules

Aim: to identify the parts of a mammalian kidney and to identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products Method: i. Work in pairs and lay the kidney on the dissecting tray ii. Examine the external structure of the kidney, notice its surrounding fat (adipose tissue) before removing it. Remove fat and leave vessels and hilum intact iii. Compare the size of the kidney that you have for dissection with the dimensions given for an average human kidney iv. Identify the vessels, distinguishing between the renal artery, vein and ureter. Locate the adrenal gland (in the fat) v. Detach the renal capsule vi. Draw a life size diagram to show the external structure of kidney vii. Cut the kidney in longitudinal section; make incision on side opposite to hilum. Note opening to ureter. Insert probe through hole and see where it exits viii. Identify regions of kidney, outer cortex, the medulla and the renal pelvis. Compare colour and appearance of medulla and cortex ix. Insert probe between renal pyramids, slip the lower blade of the scissors into the gap and slit through each pyramid to follow the path of calyces. Urine from the collecting tubules drains into these calyces, which carry the urine to the renal pelvis, ureters and bladders x. Draw diagram showing internal structure xi. Use toothpicks with coloured flags to identify regions

Biology Practicals Maintaining a Balance


Results:

Perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water Aim: To gather information about structures of plants that assist in the conservation of water Equipment: Microscope, various plant specimens, some prepared slides. Risk assessment: Insects may be on samples and some native samples have spines and hairs so gardening gloves were worn. Working with sharp tools, care must be taken. One cable was frayed on the microscope, care must be taken when working with electrical equipment. Method: i. The gardening gloves were worn and secateurs were used to carefully remove a variety of native plant sample specimens from their environment. ii. The hand lenses were used to make observations of each plant to determine any obvious structures they had to assist in conserving water iii. The stereomicroscope was set up with the lamp iv. The leaves of each plant were viewed under the microscope and observations were made v. Equipment was packed away and plan specimens were disposed of thoughtfully vi. Results were tabulated Results: Eucalypt Casuarina Banksia More stomata on lower surface Flowers have no petals Spines on leaf Sunken stomata Waxy/shiny cuticle on leaves Reduces transpiration by evaporation from stomata. Less flowers reduces metabolism and water requirements. Spines and sunken stomata trap air. Local humidity caused by trapped air reduces concentration gradient and water loss. Reflects solar radiation which allows the plant to be cooler without having to lose water by evaporative cooling.