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# Energy transfer by radiation occurs at the speed of light and suffers no attenuation in vacuum.

Radiation can occur between two bodies separated by a medium colder than both bodies. According to Maxwell theory, energy transfer takes place via electromagnetic waves in radiation. Electromagnetic waves transport energy like other waves and travel at the speed of light. Electromagnetic waves are characterized by their frequency (Hz) and wavelength (m), where: = c / where c is the speed of light in that medium; in a vacuum c0 = 2.99 x 108 m / s.

The speed of light in a medium is related to the speed of light in a vacuum, c = c0 / n where n is the index of refraction of the medium, n = 1 for air and n = 1.5 for water. The frequency of an electromagnetic wave can range from a few cycles to millions of cycles and higher per second. Einstein postulated another theory for electromagnetic radiation. Based on this theory, electromagnetic radiation is the propagation of a collection of discrete packets of energy called photons. In this view, each photon of frequency is considered to have energy of e = h = hc / where h = 6.625 x 10-34 J.s is the Plancks constant. Note that in Einsteins theory h and c are constants, thus the energy of a photon is inversely proportional to its wavelength. Therefore, shorter wavelength radiation possesses more powerful photon energies (X-ray and gamma rays are highly destructive).

Sample Problems: 1. A 3-mm-thick glass window transmits 90 percent of the radiation between = 0.3 and 3.0 m and is essentially opaque for radiation at other wavelengths. Determine the rate of radiation transmitted through a 2-m _ 2-m glass window from blackbody sources at (a) 5800 K and (b) 1000 K. Answers: (a) 218,400 kW, (b) 55.8 kW

2. A microwave oven is designed to operate at a frequency of 2.8 x 109 Hz. Determine the wavelength of these microwaves and the energy of each microwave.

## 3. The spectral emissivity function of an opaque surface at 1000 K is approximated as

Determine the average emissivity of the surface and the rate of radiation emission from the surface, in W/m2. Answers: 0.575, 32.6 kW/m2

4. The emissivity of a tungsten filament can be approximated to be 0.5 for radiation at wavelengths less than 1 m and 0.15 for radiation at greater than 1 m. Determine the average emissivity of the filament at (a) 2000 K and (b) 3000 K. Also, determine the absorptivity and reflectivity of the filament at both temperatures.

5. A surface has an absorptivity of s = 0.85 for solar radiation and an emissivity of = 0.5 at room temperature. The surface temperature is observed to be 350 K when the direct and the diffuse components of solar radiation are GD = 350 and Gd = 400 W/m2, respectively, and the direct radiation makes a 30 angle with the normal of the surface. Taking the effective sky temperature to be 280 K, determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer to the surface at that time.

6. Two very large parallel plates are maintained at uniform temperatures of T1 = 600 K and T2 = 400 K and have emissivities 1 = 0.5 and 2 = 0.9, respectively. Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the two surfaces per unit area of the plates.

7. Two concentric spheres of diameters D1 = 0.3 m and D2 = 0.8 m are maintained at uniform temperatures T1 = 700 K and T2 = 400 K and have emissivities 1 = 0.5 and 2 = 0.7, respectively. Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the two spheres. Also, determine the convection heat transfer coefficient at the outer surface if both the surrounding medium and the surrounding surfaces are at 30C. Assume the emissivity of the outer surface is 0.35.

8. Consider a 4-m x 4-m x 4-m cubical furnace whose floor and ceiling are black and whose side surfaces are reradiating. The floor and the ceiling of the furnace are maintained at temperatures of 550 K and 1100 K, respectively. Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the floor and the ceiling of the furnace.

Seatwork: 1. Two very long concentric cylinders of diameters D1 = 0.2 m and D2 = 0.5 m are maintained at uniform temperatures of T1 = 950 K and T2 = 500 K and have emissivities 1 = 1 and 2 = 0.7, respectively. Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the two cylinders per unit length of the cylinders. 2. A spherical tank of diameter D = 2 m that is filled with liquid nitrogen at 100 K is kept in an evacuated cubic enclosure whose sides are 3 m long. The emissivities of the spherical tank and the enclosure are 1 = 0.1 and 2 = 0.8, respectively. If the temperature of the cubic enclosure is measured to be 240 K, determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer to the liquid nitrogen. Assignment: 1. Consider a 1.2-m-high and 2-m-wide double-pane window consisting of two 3-mm-thick layers of glass ( k = 0.78 W/m C) separated by a 12-mm-wide stagnant air space (k = 0.026 W/m C). Determine the steady rate of heat transfer through this double-pane window and the temperature of its inner surface for a day during which the room is maintained at 24C while the temperature of the outdoors is _5C. Take the convection heat transfer coefficients on the inner and outer surfaces of the window to be h1 = 10 W/m2 C and h2 = 25 W/m2 C, and disregard any heat transfer by radiation. The thermal conductivity of the glass and air are given to be kglass = 0.78 W/mC and kair= 0.026 W/mC.

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2. A 2-m x 1.5-m section of wall of an industrial furnace burning natural gas is not insulated, and the temperature at the outer surface of this section is measured to be 80C. The temperature of the furnace room is 30C, and the combined convection and radiation heat transfer coefficient at the surface of the outer furnace is 10 W/m 2 C. It is proposed to insulate this section of the furnace wall with glass wool insulation (k = 0.038 W/m C) in order to reduce the heat loss by 90 percent. Assuming the outer surface temperature of the metal section still remains at about 80C, determine the thickness of the insulation that needs to be used. The furnace operates continuously and has an efficiency of 78 percent. The price of the natural gas is \$0.55/therm (1 therm = 105,500 kJ of energy content). If the installation of the insulation will cost \$250 for materials and labor, determine how long it will take for the insulation to pay for itself from the energy it saves. 3. This experiment is conducted to determine the emissivity of a certain material. A long cylindrical rod of diameter D1 = 0.01 m is coated with this new material and is placed in an evacuated long cylindrical enclosure of diameter D2 = 0.1 m and emissivity 2 = 0.95, which is cooled externally and maintained at a temperature of 200 K at all times. The rod is heated by passing electric current through it. When steady operating conditions are reached, it is observed that the rod is dissipating electric power at a rate of 8 W per unit of its length and its surface temperature is 500 K. Based on these measurements, determine the emissivity of the coating on the rod. 4. A thin aluminum sheet with an emissivity of 0.15 on both sides is placed between two very large parallel plates, which are maintained at uniform temperatures T1 = 900 K and T2 = 650 K and have emissivities 1 = 0.5 and 2 = 0.8, respectively. Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the two plates per unit surface area of the plates and compare the result with that without the shield.

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Answers: Seatwork:

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