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COMPUTER PROCESS CONTROL
PRESENTED BY: Kartik Ayyar (PRN 08020771001) Arpit Desai (PRN: 08020771002) Abhishek Kumar (PRN 08020771003) Deepak Kumar (PRN: 08020771004)
INDUSTRIAL CONTROL - DEFINED
The automatic regulation of unit operations and their associated equipment as well as the integration and coordination of the unit operations into the larger production system
Usually refers to a manufacturing operation Can also apply to material handling or other equipment
INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
Process Industries vs. Discrete Manufacturing Industries Continuous vs. Discrete Control Computer Process Control
CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE VARIABLES AND PARAMETERS
DISCRETE VARIABLES AND PARAMETERS
Categories: Binary - they can take on either of two possible values, ON or OFF, 1 or 0, etc. Discrete other than binary - they can take on more than two possible values but less than an infinite number of possible values Pulse data - a train of pulses that can be counted
CONTINUOUS CONTROL Usual objective is to maintain the value of an output variable at a desired level Parameters and variables are usually continuous Similar to operation of a feedback control system Most continuous industrial processes have multiple feedback loops Examples of continuous processes: Control of the output of a chemical reaction that depends on temperature. etc. pressure. Control of the position of a cutting tool relative to workpart in a CNC machine tool 6 .
TYPES OF CONTINUOUS PROCESS CONTROL Regulatory control Feed forward control Steady-State optimization Adaptive control 7 .
REGULATORY CONTROL 8 .
FEEDFORWARD CONTROL COMBINED WITH FEEDBACK CONTROL 9 .
STEADY STATE (OPEN-LOOP) OPTIMAL CONTROL 10 .
ADAPTIVE CONTROL OPERATES IN A TIME-VARYING ENVIRONMENT The environment changes over time and the changes have a potential effect on system performance Example: Supersonic aircraft operates differently in subsonic flight than in supersonic flight If the control algorithm is fixed. the system may perform quite differently in one environment than in another An adaptive control system is designed to compensate for its changing environment by altering some aspect of its control algorithm to achieve optimal performance 11 .
ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM 12 .
(2) turning switches on and off. controller may have to interrupt current program to respond Timer-initiated actions Controller must be able to execute certain actions at specified points in time (time-driven changes) Examples: (1) scanning sensor values.TWO BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR REAL-TIME PROCESS CONTROL 1. (3) re-computing optimal parameter values 13 . 2. Process-initiated interrupts Controller must respond to incoming signals from the process (event-driven changes) Depending on relative priority.
communications between computer and peripherals Program initiated events . 4.OTHER COMPUTER CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 3. 5. such as printing reports System. Computer commands to process To drive process actuators System initiated events .and program-initiated events Operator-initiated events – to accept input from personnel Example: emergency stop 14 .non-process-related actions.
4.FORMS OF COMPUTER PROCESS CONTROL 1. 3. 2. Computer process monitoring Direct digital control (DDC) Distributed control systems Numerical control and robotics Programmable logic control Supervisory control 15 . 6. 5.
In these operations the products are typically processed in gas. liquid. petroleum.APPLICATION Continuous or semi-continuous production operations involving materials such as chemicals. or powder form to facilitate flow of the material through the various steps of the production cycle. 16 . foods. and certain basic metals.
Actuation of devices as valves. Execution of optimizing strategy. switches.Measurement of important process variables such as temperature. and furnaces that enable the process to implement the optimal strategy 17 . and pressure. flow rate.
COMPUTER PROCESS MONITORING 18 .
USA 19 .Batch Furnace Nominal temperature: up to 900’C commissioned by Bickley Inc..
(B) OPEN-LOOP CONTROL. AND (C) CLOSED-LOOP CONTROL (a) (b) (c) 20 .(A) PROCESS MONITORING.
COMPONENTS OF A DIRECT DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM 21 .
DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEMS (DCS) Multiple microcomputers connected together to share and distribute the process control workload Features: Multiple process control stations to control individual loops and devices Central control room where supervisory control is accomplished Local operator stations for redundancy Communications network (data highway) 22 .
DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM 23 .
then expanded and enhanced as needed in the future Multiple computers facilitate parallel multitasking Redundancy due to multiple computers Control cabling is reduced compared to central controller configuration Networking provides process information throughout the enterprise for more efficient plant and process management 24 .DCS ADVANTAGES Can be installed in a very basic configuration.
Computerized Process Control improves Sugar Refinery Production .
NUMERICAL CONTROL AND ROBOTICS Computer numerical control (CNC) – computer directs a machine tool through a sequence of processing steps defined by a program of instructions Distinctive feature of NC – control of the position of a tool relative to the object being processed Computations required to determine tool trajectory Industrial robotics – manipulator joints are controlled to move and orient end-of-arm through a sequence of positions in the work cycle 27 .
28 ..PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE BLD 280 CNC USE FOR… A) MULTIPLE HYDRAULIC CORE PULLING B) CYLINDER TRANSDUCER CONTROL C) MULTIPLE OPTIONS OF ..
ROBOTS 30 .
sequencing.PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) Microprocessor-based controller that executes a program of instructions to implement logic. counting. and arithmetic functions to control industrial machines and processes Introduced around 1970 to replace electromechanical relay controllers in discrete product manufacturing Today’s PLCs perform both discrete and continuous control in both process industries and discrete product industries 31 .
PLC 32 .
BLOW MOLDING MACHINE 33 .
PONGRASS MODEL 32H 32MM CAPACITY MANDREL TUBE BENDING MACHINE PLC CONTROL USE FOR RISING CLAMP & LENGTH STOP BAR 34 .
supervisory control is the control system that directs and coordinates the activities of several interacting pieces of equipment in a manufacturing system Functions: efficient scheduling of production. supervisory control denotes a control system that manages the activities of a number of integrated unit operations to achieve certain economic objectives In discrete manufacturing. tracking tool lives.SUPERVISORY CONTROL In the process industries. optimize operating parameters 35 Most closely associated with the process industries .
SUPERVISORY CONTROL SUPERIMPOSED ON PROCESS LEVEL CONTROL SYSTEM 36 .
specifically designed to automate systems such as traffic control. water and sewage treatment plants. power grid management. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems are basically Process Control Systems (PCS). and large-scale transportation systems like interstate rail. waste processing etc. SCADA systems make up the critical infrastructure associated with electric utilities.Introduction to SCADA A subset of PCS systems that manage systems over very large geographic areas are typically referred to as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems or SCADA systems. 37 .
a SCADA system will monitor and make slight changes to function optimally SCADA systems are considered closed loop systems and run with relatively little human intervention One of key processes of SCADA is the ability to monitor an entire system in real time 38 .Aspects of SCADA Most often.
they are being used primarily for automation in industrial production. and to some extent for specialized process control Ranbaxy Labs and Voltas are two of the companies in India using SCADA systems for controlling a variety of processes Other examples of pseudo-SCADA usage also observed 39 .SCADA systems in INDIA SCADA systems are still to come into widespread infrastructural use in India Now.
communications.Components of SCADA The basic structure of PCS systems is made up of a wide range of components and several different communication protocols. and control and monitoring systems. such as: Field Devices – Remote Terminal Units (RTU) – Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) – Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) – Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) 40 . The operation of such a large and diverse infrastructure requires an extensive network of electronic devices.
DNP3 – ICCP.Components of SCADA Management systems to monitor and control field equipment – Human Machine Interface (HMI) – SCADA Controller or Real Time Processor – Historian Communications – Ethernet. Wireless. Serial – Modbus. OCP 41 .
A typical control system consists of one or more remote terminal units (RTU) connected to a variety of sensors and actuators.Construction of SCADA SCADA systems are primarily control systems. and relaying information to a master station. 42 .
A typical 3-tiered approach to SCADA systems 43 .
Sensors get the data (supervision and data acquisition) Actuators perform actions dependent on this data (control). and actuators perform control. is done by the master control system (i. 44 .Sensors & Actuators Sensors perform measurement. The processing and determination of what action to take.e. SCADA).
45 .RTU/ PLC Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connect to sensors Convert sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the supervisory system Operate actuators as per control signals received/ generated Provide local processing capability Applications that had previously been programmed at the central master station can now be programmed at the RTU.
46 . logging and archiving. These duties may be distributed across multiple PCs. and facilitation of automation. report generation. either standalone or networked. alarm handling.Master Station Master stations have two main functions: • Periodically obtain data from RTUs/PLCs (and other master or sub-master stations) • Control remote devices through the operator station Other duties include trending.
Segregation of functions of a SCADA system into a functional representation 47 .
Data Flow Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter readings and equipment status reports that are communicated to SCADA as required Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the HMI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC) controls Data may also be fed to a Historian. often built on a commodity Database Management System. 48 . to allow trending and other analytical auditing.
SCADA of Cooling System 49 .
VW) Traffic Signals (USA) Mass transit (Rail crossing gates. transmission & distribution (USA) Water supply. facilities & environment Manufacturing (Robots-Toyota. sewage & drainage (UK & Netherlands) Buildings. USA) Suburban Railway system (Mumbai. Porsche.Applications of SCADA Electric power generation. Western Railway) 50 .
Bibliography SCADA-IBM whitepaper Whitepaper on SCADA systems security-Arjun Venkatraman SACAD-A.org 51 . Daneels-CERN. Geneva www.wikipedia.
Thank You 52 .
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