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Total Points Possible: 120 (Subtract 4 points for each NA given :________) Total Points Earned: 83_ Percentage

Score: _69%_
Directions: Circle the number that best reflects what you observe in a sheltered lesson. You may give a score from 0-4 (or NA on selected items). Cite under “comments” specific examples of the behaviors observed.

Lesson Preparation___________________________
4
1. Content objectives clearly Defined, displayed and reviewed with students

3

2
Content objectives for students implied.

1

0
No clearly defined Content objectives for students

Comments: Content objectives were written on the board and read with the students at the beginning of the lesson.

4
2. Language objectives clearly defined, displayed and reviewed with students

3

2
Language objectives for students implied

1

0
No clearly defined Language objective

Comments: Language objectives were not specifically written or addressed. Language skills such as writing and reading were implied as they were listed on the board as activities rather than objectives.

4
3. Content concepts appropriate for age and educational background level of students

3

2
Content concepts somewhat appropriate for age and educational background level of students

1

0
Content concepts inappropriate for age and educational background level of students

Comments: The content concepts seemed to be appropriate for the age and educational background though, at times, it seemed too easy or that the students already knew the content.

4
4. Supplementary materials used to a high degree, making the lesson clear and meaningful (e.g., computer programs,

3

2
Some use of Supplementary materials

1

0
No use of Supplementary materials

graphs, models, visuals) Comments: Ms. Clark used demonstrations with the stacks of books and the model volcano experiment. She also had the students use a semantic web, a book (Pompeii…Buried Alive), and a worksheet to write the steps that happen before a volcano erupts.

4
5. Adaptation of content (e.g., text, assignment) to all levels of student’s proficiency.

3

2
Some adaptation of content to all levels of student proficiency

1

0
No significant adaptation of content to all levels of student proficiency

Comments: All students had the same book and did the same activities and worksheets. The sequencing worksheet allowed students to refer back to the book as needed, though they did not get to the activity during this lesson. Ms. Clark read the book aloud and paused to ask comprehension questions, but before all students had enough time to finish reading it to themselves. There was not any adaptation or accommodations made for high ability learners or gifted students.

4

3

2

1

0

6. Meaningful activities Meaningful activities that No meaningful that integrate lesson integrate lesson concepts activities that concepts (e.g., interviews, but provides few language integrate lesson letter writing, simulations, practice opportunities for concepts with models) with language reading, writing, listening, language practice practice opportunities for and/or speaking reading writing, listening, and/or speaking Comments: Ms. Clark used two stacks of books to demonstrate what happens when rocks move against each other, however, she did not really relate this to volcanoes. She made a model volcano using a bottle, dish detergent, baking soda, and vinegar, but only a few students got to participate in making it. The students filled out a semantic web, read a book, and shared background knowledge of volcanoes. They did not get to complete the sequencing activity.

Building Background_________________________
4 7. Concepts explicitly linked to students’ background experiences 3 2 Concepts loosely linked to students’ background experiences 1 0 Concepts not explicitly linked to students’ background experiences

Comments: Students completed a semantic web at the beginning of the lesson where they wrote down everything they already knew about volcanoes.

4 8. Links explicitly made between past learning and new concepts

3

2 Few links made between past learning and new concepts

1

0 No links made between past learning and new concepts

Comments: One student tried to link the way precipitation forms to what happens in the formation of a volcano, but no feedback was provided by the teacher to address this attempted linking. Also, Ms. Clark tried to link the gases in volcanoes to the gases plants and humans produce and consume, but did so incorrectly by stating that humans breathe out and plants breathe in carbon monoxide when it is actually carbon dioxide.

4 9. Key Vocabulary emphasized (e.g., introduced, written, repeated, and highlighted for students to see)

3

2 Key vocabulary introduced, but not emphasized

1

0 Key Vocabulary not introduced or emphasized

Comments: The vocabulary was written on the board, read at the beginning of the lesson, and emphasized throughout: during the model volcano experiment and while reading the book.

Comprehensible Input________________________
4 10. Speech appropriate for students’ proficiency level (e.g., slower rate, enunciation, and simple sentence structure for beginners) 4 11. Clear explanation of academic tasks 3 2 Speech sometimes inappropriate for students’ proficiency level 1 0 Speech inappropriate for students’ proficiency level

Comments: Ms. Clark seemed to explain tasks well and used student wording when writing on the board.

3

2 Unclear explanation of academic tasks

1

0 No explanation of academic tasks

Comments: Ms. Clark explained tasks well and asked a lot of questions to check understanding. However, she made an error when explaining what causes a volcano erupts. It is important to use exactly the right terms so the wrong thing is not being taught to students which can misconceptions to form.

4 12. A variety of techniques used to make content concepts clear (e.g., modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations,

3

2 Some techniques used to make content concepts clear

1

0 No techniques used to make content concepts clear

gestures, body language)
Comments: Ms. Clark used modeling when doing the experiment, she wrote students’ answers on the board and discussed them. She had students refer to maps when talking about Italy and Washington. The students used a semantic web to organize their background knowledge. The teacher had the students predict what the book was about and where it took place before they read it and directed students to examine the front cover illustration and title and the summary on the back cover to get clues about what the book was about and where it took place. There were not really many opportunities for students to be hands-on as they could not do the sequencing activity and only a few students got to help with the second experiment.

Strategies____________________________________
4 13. Ample opportunities provided for students to use learning strategies 3 2 Inadequate opportunities provided for students to use Learning strategies 1 0 No opportunity provided for students to use Learning strategies

Comments: The students used strategies such as using background knowledge to fill out the semantic web, and making predictions before reading. However, the use of the strategies was mostly led by the teacher. The students did not really get to use them with other students and were unable to complete the sequencing activity.

4 14. Scaffolding techniques consistently used, assisting and supporting student understanding (e.g., think-aloud)

3

2 Scaffolding techniques occasionally used

1

0 Scaffolding techniques not used

Comments: Ms. Clark used questioning, a diagram of a volcano, semantic webs, demonstrations with the stacks of books and the model volcano, and led the students in the predicting activity before reading. However, she did not really address answers given from students.

4 15. A variety of questions or tasks that promote higher-order thinking (e.g., literal, analytical, and interpretive questions)

3

2 Infrequent questions or tasks that promote higher-order thinking skills

1

0 No questions or tasks that promote higherorder thinking skills

Comments: Ms. Clark asked a lot of questions, but they usually did not require elaborated responses and mostly consisted of identifying or stating facts. A few questions required students to really think. One answer from one student seemed sufficient. She did not ask other students to elaborate or even provided opportunity for other students to respond because she jumped right into the explanation. Though it is difficult to be sure since I did not see the lesson in person, it seemed that she answered a lot of the questions right after she asked them.

Interaction__________________________________
4 16. Frequent opportunities for interaction and discussion between teacher/student and among students, which encourage elaborated responses about lesson concepts 3 2 Interaction mostly teacher-dominated with some opportunities for students to talk about or question lesson concepts 1 0 Interaction teacherdominated with no opportunities for students to discuss lesson concepts

Comments: Ms. Clark asked a lot of questions and interacted with her students, however, the students really only interacted with her and not with other students. It seemed like the students did not work together at all: either on their own or with the teacher.

4 17. Grouping configurations support language and content objectives of the lesson

3

2 Grouping configurations unevenly support the language and content objectives

1

0 Grouping configurations do not support the language and content objectives 0 Sufficient wait time for student responses not provided

Comments: The students were organized in groups, but they did not have opportunities to interact to support the content objectives or even the implied language objectives.

4 18. Sufficient wait time for student responses consistently provided

3

2 Sufficient wait time for student responses occasionally provided

1

Comments: It is difficult to assess wait time as I was not there in person, but it seemed that a lot of the time, Ms. Clark answered her own questions right after she answered them. For example: “She asked them what they knew about plants and then said…” and “She asked if they knew about a volcano in the United States and told them about Mt. St. Helens...”

4 19. Ample opportunities for students to clarify key concepts in L1 as needed with aide, peer, or L1 text

3

2 Some opportunities for students to clarify key concepts in L1

1

0 No opportunity for students to clarify key concepts in L1

Comments: There was a Spanish-speaking bilingual aide that helped the teacher and the newly arrived Spanish-speaking students.

Practice Application ________________________
4 20. Hands-on materials and/or manipulatives provided for students to practice using new content knowledge 3 2 Few hands-on materials and/or manipulatives provided for students to practice using new content knowledge 1 0 No hands-on materials and/or manipulatives provided for students to practice using new content knowledge

Comments: The lesson used manipulatives and hands-on materials such as, the stacks of books for the demonstration and the bottle and other ingredients for the experiment, but only a few students actually got to use them.

4 21. Activities provide for students to apply content and language knowledge in the classroom

3

2 Activities provided for students to apply either content or language knowledge in the classroom

1

0 No activities provided for students to apply content or language knowledge in the classroom

Comments: Students used the semantic web to write down background knowledge. The experiment helped make the concept more visual, but only a few students actually participated directly. Students read about volcanic eruptions and were supposed to complete the sequencing activity to understand the steps of eruptions (though they did not get to this). More opportunity for student-student interaction and to use hands-on materials would have benefitted this lesson greatly.

4 22. Activities integrate all language skills (i.e., reading ,writing, listening, and speaking)

3

2 Activities integrate some language skills

1

0 Activities do not integrate language skills

Comments: Student used all four skills to some degree. There could have been more speaking if there was more group interaction and the only writing that was used was to fill out the semantic web.

Lesson Delivery
4 23. Content objectives clearly supported by lesson delivery 3

________________________
2 Content objectives supported somewhat by lesson delivery 1 0 Content objectives not supported by lesson delivery

Comments: It seems that the students learned the objectives because they were able to orally answer questions though they used the model to help them do this and label the parts of a volcano. It is not clear if students clearly understood why volcanoes erupt though they seemed to understand what a volcano is as demonstrated by their completion of the semantic web at the beginning of the lesson.

4 24. Language objectives clearly supported by lesson delivery

3

2 Language objective somewhat supported by lesson delivery

1

0 Language objectives not supported by lesson delivery

Comments: Since the language objectives were not clearly stated, it is difficult to say if there were supported or not. However, based on the implied objectives, most of them were met. One of the exceptions was the incompletion of the sequencing worksheet.

4 25. Student engagement approximately 90% to 100% of the period

3

2 Students engaged approximately 70% of t period

1

0 Students engaged less than 50% of the period

Comments: It was indicated that all students were watching during the first demonstration of the experiment, however, since only a few students participated the second time and only a few students answered questions, it is hard to say if all students were engaged 90% to 100% of the time.

4 26. Pacing of the lesson appropriate to students’ ability levels

3

2 Pacing generally appropriate, but at times too fast or too slow

1

0 Pacing inappropriate to the students’ ability levels

Comments: The pace seemed appropriate most of the time, but seemed slow at times especially during the second experiment. It was good that some students were able to participate in creating the model, but it seemed unnecessary to complete it a second time. Then it was rushed at the end when Ms. Clark started reading aloud even before all students were finished reading the story and with the wrap-up.

Review/Assessment ________________________
4 27. Comprehensive review of key vocabulary 3 2 Uneven review of key vocabulary 1 0 No review of key vocabulary

Comments: The key vocabulary was reviewed at the beginning of the experiment and throughout the lesson and while they read the story near the end of the lesson.

4 28. Comprehensive review of key content concepts

3

2 Uneven review of key content concepts

1

0 No review of key vocabulary

Comments: The content concepts were reviewed throughout the lesson, but there was no comprehensive wrap-up at the end of the lesson except for the questions about a volcano that students answered.

4 29. Regular feedback provided to students on their output (e.g., language, content, work) 4 30. Assessment of student comprehension and learning of all lesson objectives (e.g., spot checking, group response) throughout the lesson

3

2 Inconsistent feedback provided to students on their output

1

0 No feedback provided to students on their output

Comments: Ms. Clark only gave feedback to a few students’ answers.

3

2 Assessment of students comprehension and learning of some lesson objectives

1

0 No assessment of students comprehension and learning of lesson objectives

Comments: Ms. Clark circulated to monitor students’ understanding of the task and to see how they were progressing. She asked questions to check student understanding, but only a few students answered so there is no way to be sure if all students understood. Plus, the sequencing chart was moved to the next day so there was not really any way she could have assessed individual understanding.

Dear Ms. Clark, It was a great experience to observe your lesson about volcanoes and why they erupt. There were many great aspects of your lesson that I can tell you have mastered during your time implementing SIOP into your teaching. There are also some components and features of the SIOP model that I would like to offer my perspective in helping you improve as your SIOP teaching becomes a more integral part of your lesson planning and delivery. First off, I would like to compliment you on the features and components that I clearly saw as your strengths during this lesson. Writing on the board and reading the content objective with the students was a strong way to start off the lesson. It is exactly what should happen at the beginning of the lesson so students know exactly what they will be learning and the agenda helped them know what expectations you had for their learning. Also, writing down the vocabulary and reviewing these terms throughout the lesson was a great way to ensure students’ understanding of the new words and their contexts. You also have a clear way in explaining tasks which is aided by your modeling and verbal prompts. It is so good that you wrote the objective in student-friendly language and used your students’ wording when you wrote down their answers from their semantic webs. Lastly, you used a variety of supplementary materials and techniques which are so important in making content and learning concrete. You used a variety of visuals and linked them to students’ background experiences which helped make this lesson meaningful to your students. I love how you had students refer to the maps as you talked about places with volcanoes so students could better visualize the diverse environments where volcanoes can be found. Now onto some features we could improve in. Just like you write down and read the content objective with students, it is important that the language objective is written down as an objective and not just activities and that it is read with the students so they know what language skill they will be expected to focus on. It is also imperative for students to have more interactions with each other to support these language objectives. Organize groups to support these objectives and so the students are the ones using the strategies and completing the learning tasks with the hands-on materials and manipulatives. Make clear links to past learning so students can continue to build on what they already know and make connections to make learning more concrete. Also, your ELL students are provided great support from you and your aide, but remember to provide your high ability learners and gifted students with adaptation of content that challenges them and keeps them engaged. Use more high-order thinking questions that require students to elaborate on their responses. In addition, require more students to answer and elaborate, provide more wait time between questions so students can process the question and formulate their thinking into a response, and make sure to give students feedback to validate their answers or clear up misconceptions. To get all students to respond, try other strategies for answering such as having the students use personal white boards to write their answer or share with a buddy. This will help you in assessing their understanding throughout the lesson and at the end as well as providing more opportunities for interaction. Lastly, having students in groups as they complete the experiment as you model it would help strengthen grouping configurations, student interactions, handson and manipulative use, and would help with the pacing of your lesson. Cutting out the second

demonstration of the experiment would give more time for students to read the story on their own and for a comprehensive review of content and vocabulary at the end of the lesson. All in all, you have a good lesson structure with many positive SIOP implementations and a few changes will make it even better. Thank you for allowing me to offer my perspective. Sincerely, Ashley Hobson

Final part B 1) SIOP should be used for all students regardless of English proficiency. It is good teaching. All students will benefit from a learning environment that utilizes the SIOP model. This is also where differentiation comes in which could be as simple as the grouping configurations in the classroom and the meaningful activities that the teacher implements into the lesson. In effective SIOP teaching, there is a high level of student engagement and interaction with the teacher, with other students, and with text. This leads to elaborated discussions and critical thinking for all students. This supports Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory which asserts that students’ learning is promoted through social interaction. Vygotsky’s theory is an important aspect of all teaching and many SIOP features are based off of this theory. In order to keep all your students on task no matter what their English proficiency or educational level is, it is important to use meaningful activities with supplementary and hands-on materials—these are three of the 30 features of SIOP. b. If a teacher even with a few ELLs in their classroom organizes their instruction following the SIOP model, all students will benefit. There is empirical evidence that all students benefit academically when the SIOP model is used to a high degree according to a study done by Echevarria and colleagues in 2011. Using the 30 features of SIOP consistently day by day and from subject to subject will enhance lesson development. 2) a. How are the presidencies of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln similar? How are they different? b. How would America be different if Thomas Jefferson had not completed the Louisiana Purchase? c. Do you agree with President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s decision to send thousands of Japanese-Americans to internment camps during World War II? Why or why not? Questions are fundamental in engaging students in interaction and in exploring how much they understand. It is important to use a variety of questions with all students, but especially with ELLs because questions that promote higher-order thinking require

analysis and more than just a yes/no or one word response. Questions posed to ELLs should provide opportunities for the student to practice and use the language skills that will help with their English acquisition. Using higher-order questioning types from hierarchies of questioning such as Bloom’s taxonomy or Webb’s Depth of Knowledge can help students respond with high levels of thinking and utilize important language skills. 3) The approach described in scenario b. is most appropriate for English learners as well as all students. This approach utilizes all four language skills and consists of several meaningful activities that integrate the lesson concepts with language practice opportunities. In the first scenario, the students’ use of the four language skills is limited. They listen to the lecture, read a diagram of the USDA’s Food Plate, and write a list of appropriate foods. They are not provided opportunities for speaking and interacting with each other and it seems not even with the teacher. They also do not have authentic writing opportunities. In contrast, in the second scenario, students are engaged in activities that promote all four language skills. Students write in a food diary for a week, they analyze their choices according to what they read in the national recommendations, they listen to the teacher’s explanation of the Food Plate and their partner’s input about the weekly menu, and get plenty of opportunity to speak with their partner in the creation of this menu and are expected to defend choices to peer group members. The use of each of these language skills to a high degree makes the content meaningful to students which will help them understand and remember it. 4) A teacher can determine if their students are engaged through formative assessment. Formative assessments occur while the students are still learning. Requiring students to demonstrate their understanding in a concrete way, such as thumbs-up, writing answers on personal white boards, or sharing with a buddy, will provide the teacher with information on whether or not each student is understanding and engaged. Offering choices in task, text, or partnering, and differentiating instruction are key methods for keeping students engaged throughout the lesson as well as clear explanation and meaningful activities. If an assignment has not been scaffolded well, students will not know what to do so they will find something else to do. If a teacher senses that their students are off task they should first determine why: Is the assignment or activity not meaningful? Or was it not clearly explained? After determining the cause, the teacher can then re-teach as necessary or either change the activity or replace it with an assignment that is more meaningful and authentic. Sustained engagement is especially critical for English learners. Many of these learners have had uneven schooling experiences such as missing school for reasons beyond their control, and are further disadvantaged by inefficient use of class time. In Second Language Acquisition, it is imperative that students are immersed in the second language with as much exposure and opportunities to practice as possible. If time is being wasted due to ill-prepared lessons, poor classroom management, or excessive amounts of time making announcements or passing out and collecting papers, these students are not getting the immersion and practice they need.

5) I will be teaching a science unit about the three different types of rocks. After whole group instruction, students will take part in an investigation where they will be given a rock and will work in groups to determine its type. The first grouping configuration consists of four students of varying academic skills and English proficiency. They will each be given a piece of the same rock to examine and classify. While all four students are expected to examine the rock, two students are the designated investigators that are responsible to inspect the rock and share their findings. The third student is responsible for recording the findings, and the fourth student goes off a list of tests and makes sure that all have been tried and verifies its type. After the rock has been classified, students break out of these groups of four and into a group of three. Each student in this group has a different rock type and share what type their rock is and how they know it is that type. They compare with the other students’ rocks to determine if they classified their rock correctly. After this group, students will return to their seats and share with their partner (the student sitting across from them) what they have learned about each rock type. While the students are in their groups, I will walk around and monitor by asking questions about their findings and conclusions. Students will turn in their recorded findings from the first group. ELLs benefit from instruction that frequently includes a variety of grouping configurations. Wholeclass groups are ideal for introducing new information, concepts and modeling processes. Flexible small groups promote the development of multiple perspectives and encourage collaboration. Partnering encourages success because it provides practice opportunities, scaffolding, and assistance from classmates. ELLs have the opportunity to practice language skills with their classmates of varying English proficiencies and academic skills in these group settings.