Reliable Sources Affirm Mirabeau Was Illuminatus

1 Mirabeau & The Illuminati
Reliable Sources Affirm Mirabeau Was Illuminatus
Rene Verrier’s two books on masonic history were Grasse-Tilly (1954) and Mirabeau, franc-maçon, 1749-1791 (1951).1 Rene Verrier was the Grand Commander of the French Scottish Rite at this time. He relied upon internal records of the Scottish Rite of France. He said Mirabeau was an Illuminatus of Weishaupt, with the alias of Leonidas. Soon after the 1953 reprint of Verrier’s work, it was summarized in a 1954 article in the journal Symbolisme:
In Mr. Verrier is the text of three letters of Mirabeau (9 and 16 May 1779, 19 November 1780), where he spoke of his membership in Freemasonry. But Mr. Verrier goes further, and he shows that Mirabeau was admitted into the order of Illuminés as Léonidas. Indeed, relations between Mirabeau and the Illuminés were constant.2

1. The full title in is René Verrier, Mirabeau, francmaçon, 1749-1791; suivi du Mémoire concernant une association intime à établir dans l’Ordre de la F...M... pour le ramener à ses vrais principes, 1776 (Marseille: Éditions du centenaire, 1951). 2. André Bouton, “Mirabeau Franc-Maçon,” Le Symbolisme (avril-mai 1954) N°4/314 available at (accessed 1/9/09). Illuminati of Bavaria 1

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Le Forestier, a specialist historian on the Illuminati who also did not attribute much importance to them, concedes that Mirabeau must have been an Illuminati member for his “name we find on all the lists of the [Illuminati] Order.”3 Also, the Foreign Minister of Bavaria reported Mirabeau was an Illuminatus in confidential diplomatic correspondence to Austria in 1791 found sixty years later during archival research.4 Evidently because of all of this evidence, even the skeptical acknowledge that Mirabeau was an Illuminatus. Lepper, for example, who dismisses any suggestion that secret societies were involved in the French Revolution, nevertheless agrees that Mirabeau was an Illuminatus as well as that he initiated Talleyrand upon his return to France.5 The evidence is strong, direct, documentary and circumstantial.

3. René Le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la Franc-Maçonnerie allemande, supra, at 663 (he cites as a source Eine Rede ueber d. Ill. Ord.) 4. René Le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la Franc-Maçonnerie allemande, supra, at 654 (Letter of Minister of Bavaria, Count Vieregg to Count Lehrbach, Imperial Ambassador from Vienna discussed in S. Brunner, Die Mysteries der Auflklaerung in Oesterreich 1770-1800 (Mainz: 1869) at 35). 5. John Heron Lepper, Famous Secret Societies (Gryphon Books: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1971) at 312. Interestingly, Mirabeau wrote at this time with the highest esteem about “Abbé de P,” an apparent reference to Abbé de Perigord, Talleyrand, as someone capable of joining any plot. In recommending Talleyrand to produce a propaganda piece, he tells a confederate that Talleyrand combines “talent of the highest quality with well-trained and profound discretion and inviolable secrecy. You could never select anyone more reliable....” See Wilson, “Mirabeau's Plan for the Political Penetration of Freemasonry,” supra, at 169. Illuminati of Bavaria 2

The Sequence of Mirabeau’s Contacts Which Explain His Enlistment Into The

The Sequence of Mirabeau’s Contacts Which Explain His Enlistment Into The Illuminati
To understand how Mirabeau was brought into the Illuminati, one must know his personal movements, personal contacts, and important publications during 1786 and 1787. The following chart summarizes the information.

Date December 1785

City Paris

Contacts Amis Reunis members Talleyrand, Claviere, etc. unite on sending Mirabeau to Berlin as French agent to help spy out banking opportunities. Amis Reunis are likely source of Mirabeau’s contacts with Illuminati in Berlin. Mirabeau meets Nicolai of Berlin, alias Lucian in Illuminati. Nicolai publishes Mirabeau’s Secret History of the Court of Berlin to great embarrassment of both Prussia and France. M. meets at Brunswick Jacob Mauvillon, an important Illuminatus. He also meets Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick

January 1786

Arrives Berlin

April 1786

after leaving Berlin

Illuminati of Bavaria


Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Date June 1786

City Arriving Paris

Contacts Meets Johann Schweizer, Swiss Illuminatus who is banker setting up bank in Paris. Mirabeau socializes at Schweizer’s home with Talleyrand, and bankers Claviere, etc. Working with Mauvillon, Illuminatus, on book On The Prussian Monarchy which will detail Illuminati legislative program for France. Introduces Bode to Amis Reunis Lodge

July-1786 to January 1787

Germany (Cassell)

July 1787


In this section, we will provide an overview without citation to proofs, delaying them for a more detailed discussion below. Hence, this section is simply an overview to help the reader comprehend the details in later sections. First, we begin with 1786. In that year, Mirabeau was merely a writer. As we shall see below, financiers who were members of the Amis Reunis lodge used their influence with lodge member Talleyrand to have the crown appoint Mirabeau as a secret envoy to Berlin. These Swiss financiers at the lodge Amis Reunis wanted to send Mirabeau to search for the opportunity to found a bank at Berlin. In January 1786, Mirabeau left Paris and arrived in Berlin and stayed through May 22, 1786. At Berlin, Mirabeau met Nicolai, alias Lucian in the Illuminati. Nicolai openly defended his Illuminati membership in a book-length defense. Nicolai formed a close association with Mirabeau, publishing Mirabeau’s highly controversial book On the Secret History of the Court of Berlin.

Illuminati of Bavaria


The Sequence of Mirabeau’s Contacts Which Explain His Enlistment Into The

As Mirabeau was leaving Germany near May 1786, he made the acquaintance of Jacob Mauvillon, an important member of the Illuminati. Thus, their association was brief before he left, but Mirabeau would return to Germany in July 1786 and begin joint publication efforts on a book later published in 1788 entitled On The Prussian Monarchy. Regardless, prior to Mirabeau’s return to Germany in July 1786, he was in Paris — from approximately June to July 1786. During this Paris period, Mirabeau became close friends with Johan Schweizer — an Illuminatus of Weishaupt’s branch in Switzerland. Schweizer moved to Paris in June 1786 to found a bank. Meanwhile, just as Schweizer was heading to Paris from Switzerland in June 1786, so was J.C. Bode, the leading Illuminatus, who was on his way to address the lodge Amis Reunis at Paris. At the same lodge, Mirabeau met Bode who presented a paper on the history of Freemasonry. Mirabeau in 1788 soon thereafter commented on obscure writings of J.C. Bode, and proclaimed that Bode’s name should be “dear to humanity.”6 After the Bode & Schweizer contact, Mirabeau was in Germany again from July 1786 to January 1787 working with Mauvillon (in Cassell), an important Illuminatus, on their joint writing project entitled On The Prussian Monarchy. Mirabeau left in January 1787 for Paris, and then from May 1787 to September 1787, Mirabeau was back in Paris.7 Then in 1788 Mirabeau had published his work entitled On The Prussian Monarchy.

6. Mirabeau, De La Monarchie Prussienne (London: 1788) Vol. V at 74. Speaking of J.C.Bode’s Examen impartial du livre intitulé: des Erreurs...; par un frère laïque en fait de science (1782), Mirabeau remarks as to Bode, “Un homme dont le nom deviendra cher à l’humanité....” Id. (On Bode as the author of Examen, see La bulletin du bibliophile Belge (Brussels: Olivier, 1869) at 26.) 7. Le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Baviere (Paris: Hachette, 1914) at 662. Illuminati of Bavaria 5

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Mirabeau Assignment To Berlin
Mirabeau arrived in Berlin in January 1786 and stayed through May 22, 1786. He was in Germany again from July 1786 to January 1787, and then from May 1787 to September 1787.8 Johnston in the American Historical Review (1901) is uncharacteristically frank of how significant secret societies were to explain why this trip was established and how lodge affiliations opened doors for Mirabeau once in Berlin. R.M. Johnston says, “Unless some general view of the operation of the secret societies of France and Germany be obtained, no correct survey of the basis of Mirabeau's mission to Berlin can be had.”9 Johnston explains how the Amis Reunis circle around Talleyrand, Panchaud, Clavière (bankers), and the Duke d’Orleans at Paris sent Mirabeau to Berlin with instructions likely to make contacts to set up a bank at Berlin. Mirabeau was also likely given local contacts available through certain masonic friends of the Paris Amis Reunis. In particular, Johnston notes that everywhere Mirabeau went in Germany, Mirabeau was welcomed and assisted by members of the Illuminati. A chronology confirms Johnston’s statements.
Early Arrival — Meets Nicolai

During a visit to Germany in early 1786, Mirabeau became close friends with Friedrich Nicolai, the publisher of Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliotek. Nicolai was alias Lucian in

8. . Le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Baviere (Paris: Hachette, 1914) at 662. 9. “Mirabeau’s Secret Mission to Berlin,” American Historical Review (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1901) Vol. VI (Oct. 1990-July 1901) at 235, 242. Illuminati of Bavaria 6

Mirabeau Assignment To Berlin

the Illuminati.10 In fact, Nicolai was such an ardent Illuminatus that in 1787, Nicolai wrote a defense of his membership in the Order.11 Nicolai was also a radical anti-cleric in Berlin. He opened up a whole new vision to Mirabeau of the future. Vallentin, a biographer of Mirabeau, says “Mirabeau adopted all his [that is, Nicolai’s] views.”12 German historians report it was Nicolai who first initiated Mirabeau into the Illuminati.13 Nicolai also published in secret at Berlin the scandalous work of Mirabeau’s entitled Histoire secrète de la cour de Berlin (1788).14
Mirabeau’s Contact With Mauvillon Near April 1786

Mirabeau at the end of this same trip enjoyed an intimate friendship with Mauvillon. Mauvillon made a career as a major in the Engineers of the Prussian Army. Mauvillon was also a Professor of Tactics at Carolinum College in Prussia.15 Mirabeau wrote with Mauvillon in 1788 the book On the Prussian Monarchy (London: 1788). Mauvillon was an
10.. Leopold Engel, Geschichte des Illuminaten-Ordens. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte Bayerns (Berlin: 1906) at 426, cited in Dunan, Napoleonic Germany, at 545. 11.See Chapter Seven, Volume I. 12.Vallentin, Mirabeau, supra, at 232. 13.René Le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la Franc-Maçonnerie allemande (Paris: 1915) at 662 (citing Endl. Schick and Tissot, Vie de Zimmerman, conseiller d’état & premier médecin du roi d’Ingleterre (Lausanne, 1797) at 145. [?]).(Available The Tissot citation appears an error in two ways. There is no page 145, and the primary discussion of the Illuminati appears on page 92-99, but nowhere is there mention of Nicolai. Thus, the source is apparently Endl. Schick. 14.See Chapter Five. 15.Vallentin, Mirabeau, supra, at 236; Amand Neut, De La Necessite D'Etudie La Franc-Maçonnerie (Paris: Grand & Bruges, 1870) at 64. Illuminati of Bavaria 7

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Illuminatus closely tied to Knigge, one of the elite of the Illuminati Order. Mauvillon was alias Arcesilaus in the Order. In 1782, Weishaupt proclaimed his complete satisfaction with Knigge’s recruitment of Jakob Mauvillon into the Illuminati. Mauvillon was then the Grand Master of a Templar lodge (Lodge Friedrich zur Freundschaft) in northern Germany. Mauvillon was a former student of Knigge.16 Interestingly, Mauvillon introduced Mirabeau to the circle of men who voted in 1782 at Wilhemsbad to overthrow France using Freemasonry. Mauvillon was the personal secretary to the Duke of Brunswick. Mirabeau became friends with the Duke of Brunswick as a result of Mauvillon’s introduction. In April 1786, Mirabeau met with the Duke of Brunswick and Mauvillon at Magdeburg in Prussia. There Mirabeau formed a deep friendship with Mauvillon which Mirabeau described later as a “marriage of souls.” Mirabeau developed a deep admiration also for the Duke of Brunswick as well. The Duke was the same Duke who chaired the Congress of Wilhemsbad which voted in 1782 to overthrow France using the Templar lodge system.17 Also, Mirabeau and Mauvillon began a correspondence in 1786 which they maintained up to Mirabeau’s death in 1791. Many of these letters were posthumously published in two works: Lettres amicales du comte de Mirabeau a M. Mauvillon a Brunswic (1794) and Lettres du comte de Mirabeau a un de ses amis en Allemagne [Jacob von Mauvillon], ecrites durant less anees 1786, 1787, 1788, 1789 et 1790 (Brunswick/Brussels 1792).

16.Amand Neut, De La Necessite D'Etudier La Franc-Maçonnerie (Paris: Grand & Bruges, 1870) at 64; see also Wilson, “Mirabeau’s Plan for the Political Penetration of Freemasonry,” supra, at 164. A more extensive biography of Mauvillon is below, at “A Brief Biography on Jacob Mauvillon” on page 21. 17.“Un Prince Allemand Du XVIII Siecle D'Apres des Memoires Inedits,” Revue des Deux Mondes (Jan. 1, 1866) at 922. Illuminati of Bavaria 8

Mirabeau Assignment To Berlin

In one of these letters, Mauvillon alludes quite plainly to Mirabeau being one of the Illuminati. This letter was dated June 1791. Mauvillon wrote: “[t]he affairs of the Revolution everyday are going better in France; I hope above all that within a few years that the flame will take hold also and be embraced generally, then our Order will be able to do grand things.”18 In another letter, Mauvillon on May 13, 1791 wrote Mirabeau: “How God must regard the French Revolution!... I am convinced in particular that within ten years the revolutionary flame will shine throughout Germany. The Dear Brothers, maintained within our fraternal association, will be able to render great services for the good cause....”19 Interestingly, Mauvillon’s rank in the Illuminati must have been high because at the same time Mauvillon wrote Savioli, one of Weishaupt’s leading Illuminati lieutenants at Munich, that he hoped Freemasonry could do something “really great.”20 Mauvillon obviously means the Illuminati.21 True to the ambition of the Illuminati, Mirabeau once wrote Mauvillon in 1790 that the goal was for France to have “The Rhine for a boundary, and irresistible influence over all the governments of Europe!”22
18.In French, this reads: “Les affaires de la Révolution vont toujours mieux en France; j’espère que dons peu d’années cette flamme prendra aussi partout et que l’embrasement deviendra general, alors notre order pourra faire de grandes choses.” The full letter appears in René Le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Bavière et la Franc-Maçonnerie allemande, supra, at 663. For further discussion on the letter, see John Heron Lepper, Famous Secret Societies (Gryphon Books: Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1971) at 312. 19.Le Forestier, Les Illuminés de Baviere, supra, at 663. The original quote set forth by Le Forestier was: “Que Dieu garde de la Revolution Francaise... Je sais des particularite qui me convainquent qu’avant dix ans la flamme revolutionnaire brillera dans toute l’Allemagne. Chers Freres, conservons avec soin notre association fraternelle, elle pourra rendre de grand services a la bonne cause [footnote 3] pour qu’on n’aille pas trop loin dans l’autre sens.” 20.Le Forestier, Les Illuminés, supra, at 343. Illuminati of Bavaria 9

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Incidentally, Mauvillon’s idea of the good cause was self-evident in the Brunswick Journal of March 1792 where he courageously wrote that “he heartily rejoiced in the French Revolution, wished it all success, and thought himself liable to no reproach when he declared his hopes that a similar revolution would speedily take place in Germany.”23

Mirabeau’s Contact With An Illuminatus from Switzerland Who Moved To Paris, June 1786
The Grand Commander of the French Scottish Rite in 1951 said Mirabeau was an Illuminatus of Weishaupt, with the alias of Léonidas. He thought that the relationship that Mirabeau formed with a rich Illuminatus from the Swiss branch of Weishaupt’s Illuminati who moved to Paris in June 1786 was a key player in Mirabeau’s involvement with the Illuminati. This Swiss Illuminatus was Gaspard Schweizer, a wealthy Swiss financier. The source of the following information is René Raymond, then Grand Commander presiding over the Scottish Rite of France since his election to the post on September 15,1926.24 Raoul L. Mattei, 33°, the Past Sovereign Grand
21.Another possibility is Mirabeau and Mauvillon both belonged to the Templar Freemasons. Robison said he recalled Mirabeau gave a speech at the Chevaliers Bienfaissants (Templars). If true, since Mauvillon also belonged to the Templars of Germany, Mauvillon possibly was referring to the Templars. However, if one accepts Firminger’s insistence that there is no record that Mirabeau was a Templar Freemason, then Mauvillon’s remark could only realistically mean the Illuminati Order. See Firminger, “The Romances of Barruel and Robison, etc.,” A.Q.C., supra. 22.Letter to Mauvillon of January 31, 1790, quoted in John Adolphus, Esq., The History of England (London 1842) Vol. V at 357. 23.John Robison, paraphrasing a quote, in Proofs of A Conspiracy, supra, at 240. Illuminati of Bavaria 10

Mirabeau’s Contact With An Illuminatus from Switzerland Who Moved To

Commander then explained: “He occupied the chair to his death, 32 years later, the longest term of office of a Grand Commander in the history of the Supreme Council of France.”25 This means Raymond died in about 1958. The same article mentions that Raymond used a professional name when writing:
Grand Commander Raymond wrote books signing himself Rene Verrier. One of them relative to the Mother Scottish (Rite) Lodge of Marseilles, 1751-1814, is remarkable for its clarity and the documents it conveys.26

Rene Verrier wrote many reputable historical works. Rene Verrier was also a professor of sociology with many accredited professional works.28 Rene Verrier’s two books on masonic history were Grasse-Tilly (1954) and Mirabeau, franc-maçon, 1749-1791 (1951).29 As mentioned above, the Scottish Rite USA saying

24.Raoul L. Mattei, 33°, Past Sov. Gr. Cmdr. For France, “The Supreme Council for France” reprinted at journal/jun99/mattei.html (accessed 1/9/09). This is the journal and website for the Supreme Council Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction, USA. 25.Id. 26.Id. 27.Amazon has several: René Verrier. François Clary, 1725-1794, et ses filles, Julie Clary, reine d’Espagne, 1771-1844, Désirée Clary, reine de Suède, 1777-1860. Suivi de Clisson, roman autobiographique inachevé du général de brigade d'artillerie Bonaparte, 1795 (1951); René Verrier, Petite histoire de Roquevaire. Fascicule 1. L’antiquité, la féodalité... 5 dessins à la plume de M. Paul Pierrel et 3 cartons de l’auteur par (1939); René Verrier, Émile Berthelot, 1875-1952 (1955). 28.René Verrier, Le positivisme russe et la foundation de sociologie (1934); R. Verrier, Etudes sur Arnaud de Villeneuve (Leiden, 1949) 29.The full title in is René Verrier, Mirabeau, francmaçon, 1749-1791; suivi du Mémoire concernant une association intime à établir dans l'Ordre de la F. M... pour le ramener à ses vrais principes, 1776 (Marseille: Éditions du centenaire, 1951). Illuminati of Bavaria 11

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Grasse-Tilly (the Scottish Rite commander who held the post in France prior to Rene Verrier) “is remarkable for its clarity and the documents it conveys.” The work by Verrier entitled Mirabeau, franc-maçon similarly utilized original materials to which the French Scottish Rite had access. Rene Verrier in the 1951 book on Mirabeau identified correspondence to Sophie, Mirabeau’s wife, in 1779 and 1780 discussing Mirabeau’s participation in a Freemason lodge. Then Verrier affirmed unequivocally that Mirabeau joined the Illuminati as Leonidas. He explains this was apparently what explained Mirabeau’s association with a Swiss member of Weishaupt’s Illuminati’s upon his coming to Paris in June 1786. As quoted elsewhere, soon after the 1953 reprint of Verrier’s work, it was summarized in a 1954 article in the journal Symbolisme:
In Mr. Verrier is the text of three letters of Mirabeau (9 and 16 May 1779, 19 November 1780), where he spoke of his membership in Freemasonry. It is also affirmed by his natural and adoptive son, Lucas de Montigny, that he was initiated in his youth, which allowed him to be accredited to a Dutch Lodge. But Mr Verrier goes further, and he shows that Mirabeau was admitted into the order of Illuminés as Léonidas. Indeed, relations with Mirabeau Illuminés were constant. The Swiss Gaspard Schweizer,30 whose father had remarried sister Lavater, with political ambitions and could not enter the City Council of Zurich, became opponent and joined the Zurich section of Illuminés, putting at its disposal considerable funds. In June 1786,31 he left Zurich and came
30.Johann Kaspar Schweizer (1754 — 1811). Illuminati of Bavaria 12

Mirabeau’s Contact With An Illuminatus from Switzerland Who Moved To

to settle in Paris. Mirabeau soon became his friend, to the point that the financier aware of [Mirabeau’s] financial trouble, gave him the key to his desk to take money [as necessary].32

Schweizer’s membership in the Illuminati is mentioned by many reputable sources. Some only imply it such as in a biography of Pestalozzi who was his friend and clearly was an Illuminatus. This biography mentions that Schweizer was “friends with Pestalozzi” who “had been a member of the Illuminati of Weishaupt with the alias of Alfred.”33 Then, like Verrier, some scholarly sources unequivocally affirm Schweizer “belonged to the Order of Illuminati.’34 Based upon Verrier’s reliable statements, and the connection to Pestalozzi, it is fair to conclude Schweizer was a true member of the Illuminati Order. Schweizer came to Paris to found in 1786 a bank with his colleague Francois Jeanneret. His home soon became “the rendezvous of persons involved in political affairs: “Panchaud,35 Claviere [note: both Swiss bankers], l’Abbe

31.Please note that this allowed Schweizer to arrive in time to meet Bode who was travelling in late May 1786, intending to arrive close to June 1786 at Paris. Bode was a chief in the Illuminati at this time. 32.André Bouton, “Mirabeau Franc-Maçon,” Le Symbolisme (avril-mai 1954) N°4/314 available at (accessed 1/9/09). 33. In “Pestalozzi pedagogue,” an excerpt from Alfred Rufer, Pestalozzi,die Französische Revolution und die Helvetik (Bern, Paul Haupt), reprinted online at, it explains that Pestalozzi’s “ami le Zurichois Gaspard Schweizer” and it notes Pestalozzi “s’était affilié aux Illuminés de Weishaupt sous le nom d’Alfred.” 34.James Guillaume, Pestalozzi (“Jean-Gaspard Schweizer, ancien membre de l’Ordre des Illuminés....”), published by l’Institut national de recherche pédagogique at their website (accessed 1/9/09). Illuminati of Bavaria 13

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

d’Espagnac, Mirabeau.”36 Then “full of the new ideas, [Schweizer] was admitted into the clubs of 1786 where were Talleyrand, Lauzun, Mirabeau, etc.”37
A Biography of Claviere

Claviere, a banker by 1786, was a refugee from Geneva as a result of a failed revolution he led in Geneva in 1782.38 In the spring of 1782, Claviere had “initiated the overthrow of the...Small Council [i.e., the Petit Conseil, which served as both mayor’s office and the court of Geneva]....; their intention was to create a constitution based on the Contrat social [of Rousseau] which would maintain a direct form of democracy in a society without social hierar35.Isaac Panchaud, a Swiss, living at Paris was founder of the bank Caisse d’Escompte (Discount Bank) in 1776 and the Caisse d’Ameortissement. (Charles P. Kindleberger, A Financial History of Western Europe (London: Taylor & Francis, 1984) at 96.) Panchaud also held an appointment in 1787 to a finance department position. However, in August 1787, he was dismissed. Mirabeau wrote a letter about this on August 2, 1787. The editor-publisher explains, alluding to loans from Panchaud to Mirabeau: “[Mirabeau] was very intimate, as we have already stated, with Panchaud the banker, to whom he was under obligations. Panchaud was dismissed from an important appointment in the finance department; Mirabeau felt this severely....” (Mirabeau, Mirabeau’s Letters During His Residence in England (London: 1832) Vol. II at 368). R.M. Johnston explains that after a pamphlet Mirabeau wrote in 1785 while in England, “the well-known Swiss bankers, Panchaud and Claviere...soon made the acquaintance of the pamphleteer. Panchaud was the biggest operator in stocks of Paris, and, like his successors of the present day, placed much reliance on secret and exclusive information and on the influencing of public opinion through the press;....Panchaud was also a freemason, and finance, free-masonry, and the opposition aristocracy all jostled very closely in his salons. It was there that Mirabeau met the Due de Chartres, the most important personage in the masonic world, soon to be known as Philippe Egalite, Duc d’Orleans, his boon companion, the Due de Lauzun, and, among others, the Abbe de Perigord, who achieved renown later as the Prince de Talleyrand.” (R.M. Johnston, “Mirabeau’s Secret Mission to Berlin,” American Historical Review Vol. VI (1900-1901) at 239-240.) Illuminati of Bavaria 14

Claviere Was Another Swiss Banker With Liberal Ideas

chy and characterized by virtuous manners.”39 The young republic briefly survived until French armies invaded accompanied by troops from the city of Berne. Together they reversed the revolution. This forced Claviere to flee.40 Claviere was thoroughly a follower of Rousseau yet financially successful as a banker.41 In 1783, he tried to establish a Rousseau-community in Waterford, Ireland. However, he soon found himself in Paris by 1784. Then Claviere “came to public notice in Paris as a leading player in the bull and bear games in the late 1780’s, attempting to manipulate the markets by employing hack writers such as Brissot and... Mirabeau to condemn by means of pamphlets of certain companies, with the expectation of taking advantage of the resulting share collapse.”42

Claviere Was Another Swiss Banker With Liberal Ideas
This group at Schweizer’s house was important to the Revolution. Among this circle just named was Claviere. He spoke in Rousseau-ist language. Claviere was a Swiss citizen in exile in France since 1784.

36.F.A. Aulard (Editor, Société de l'histoire de la révolution française), La Revolution française (Paris, France) at 222. 37.F.A. Aulard (Editor, Société de l'histoire de la révolution française), La Revolution française (Paris, France) at 222, citing Stern, Vie de Mirabeau, Vol. I at 334. 38.Robert Darnton, “How Historians play God,” Cromohs, 11 (2006): 1-3, <URL: (1/9/09). 39.Richard Whatmore, Republicanism and the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2004) at 11. 40.Richard Whatmore, Republicanism and the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2004) at 11. Illuminati of Bavaria 15

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

First, in 1787, he and Brissot founded the GalloAmerican society. Thus, Brissot identified himself as a “Philadelphien” as member and founder of the Gallo-American Society (Société Gallo-Américain).43 Unlike Rousseau, Claviere believed a large state could have a republic. On February 19, 1788, he brought these names together in a significant club: Société des Amis des Noirs — Society of the Friends of the Blacks. They desired to liberate the enslaved black peoples. Claviere’s club had as founding members: Mirabeau, Brissot, the Marquis de Condorcet, Lafayette, Lavoisier, Volney,44 Carra, Cerisier, Duchesnay, Valady, Guillotin, and others.45 By 1789, this society had over 140 members. Thus, here is the powerful center at Paris of foreignerfinanciers, all Swiss, who were willing to aid a revolution in France.

41.Étienne Claviere, a Swiss exile living at Paris since 1784, introduced Mirabeau to Pinchaud. Claviere had Brissot write pamphlets under Brissot’s name which Claviere wrote which were designed to attack government financial administration. (Louis Barthou, Mirabeau (London: Heinemann, 1913) at 114.) Claviere’s “importance to the Revolution is even now not sufficiently acknowledged.” (Henry Heller, The Bourgeois Revolution in France, 1789-1815 (Berghahn Books, 2006) at 77.) Clavierre had a “Rousseauist...rhetoric,” which he combined with shrewd business dealings. Claviere would sell short on stock of companies that were failing. With such great riches, Claviere “became the financial backer of both...Mirabeau...and Jacques-Pierre Brissot.” “With the help of the writing skills of Mirabeau and Brissot, he carried on pamphlet campaigns as part of his business activities.” (Id., at 77.) 42.Richard Whatmore, Republicanism and the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2004) at 11. 43.Robert Darnton, 44.Henry Heller, The Bourgeois Revolution in France, 1789-1815 (Berghahn Books, 2006) at 77. 45.“Amis des Noirs,” index.php?title=Soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9_des_Amis_des_Noirs (accessed 1/9/09). Illuminati of Bavaria 16

Claviere Was Another Swiss Banker With Liberal Ideas

The proof of a broader-disinterested liberalism among the Illuminists is this Amis des Noirs. It was an important and bold group of that time. They championed idealistic efforts at liberal reform. This impacted thinking critical to the advancement of the French Revolution of 1789. However, its idealistic program was typically met with resistance in the Assembly during 1789-1790. In an article by the Louverture Project, it nevertheless eulogizes the group’s significant impact:
Abolitionist groups such as les Amis were radical organizations in a time of significant political and economic upheaval particularly in Europe and the still-young United States. What they achieved ultimately — provoking an end to the then-accepted nearly-global concept of enslaving people, particularly enslaving masses for use as manufacturing fodder -- created havoc in the short term, but in the long term unleashed a new energy that made possible the next level of human endeavor. The fact that slavery still exists in various countries and in various guises does not diminish the powerful impact of les Amis and its ilk in their day and time. If anything, it underscores how much can be achieved by dedicated people who, despite the odds, work together diligently for a cause that matters.46

We mention this society for multiple reasons. It shows that Mirabeau was part of a group assisting politically-liberal financiers who were Swiss — among them Schweizer, an Illuminatus, and they were dedicated to worthy noble causes by all accounts.

46.“Amis des Noirs,” index.php?title=Soci%C3%A9t%C3%A9_des_Amis_des_Noirs (accessed 1/9/09). Illuminati of Bavaria 17

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Mirabeau’s Association with Schweizer
Of Mirabeau’s subsequent long association with Schweizer, and Schweizer’s loyalty to Mirabeau above almost any other affection, there is no doubt. The correspondence was published later47 and even after Mirabeau tried to seduce Schweizer’s wife, Schweizer stood behind Mirabeau.48 Thus, Schweizer is justly described by scholars as the “confidant of Mirabeau.”49 Schweizer put his own monies into promoting the revolution. In 1790, reports by the French police mention that Schweizer is providing money to establish patriotic societies in France — “he has assisted an assembly.”50 Thus, Schweizer’s connection to Mirabeau after he arrived in June 1786 at Paris provides another link between Weishaupt’s Order and Mirabeau. A strong link.

47.The Letters of Mirabeau to Schweizer is cited James C. Riley and Pieter Jan van Winter, American Finance and Dutch Investment, 17801805 (Arno Press, 1977) at 538. 48.F.A. Aulard (Editor, Société de l'histoire de la révolution française), La Revolution française (Paris, France) at 222 recounts: “Schweizer, enthusiastic about him, opened his purse (Mirabeau in 1790 had loans up to 20,000 francs), and, despite moments of failure, especially when Mirabeau, which did not accomplish much, wanted to seduce his wife he remained attached to the end. He composed an ode to his death....” 49.Marie D. Mackie Hottinger, Pestalozzi and His Times (Zürich, Buchdruckerei Berichthaus, 1928) at 11. 50.Alfred Stern, “Le Club des Patriotes Suisses a Paris,” Revue historique (1889) Vol. 39 at 282, 289. Illuminati of Bavaria 18

Mirabeau’s Possession Of The Plan of Arcesilaus

Mirabeau’s Possession Of The Plan of Arcesilaus
Further evidence that Mirabeau was an Illuminatus in league with Mauvillon is that Mirabeau’s secretary had copied by hand a document prepared by Mauvillon for an Illuminati plan to influence Freemasonry. This amazing document of unquestioned authenticity was found in Mirabeau’s effects after his death by his son. He included it to show the humanitarian impulse of his father. Mirabeau’s son assumed his father wrote it because it was in Mirabeau’s secretary’s handwriting. This Plan of Arcesilaus can now be retrieved from the 1835 English translation of the Memoirs of Mirabeau in volume two, beginning at page 184. It is available through Books-google. It is titled Memorandum of the Plan of Arcesilaus. (Id., on page 185.) It identified its author as Mr. “Mi....” Arcesilaus was Mauvillon’s alias in the Illuminati. Because Mauvillon met Mirabeau for the first time in April 1786, this could only have been prepared by Mirabeau’s secretary after April 1786. According to the scholarly work of Richard van Dülmen’s Der Geheimbund der Illuminaten (1975), in the list of the Illuminati members identified on pages 439-453, it indicates with a single asterisk mark that Mauvillon’s membership is securely proven, along with his alias:
• “Mauvillon, Jakob (1743-1794), Professor in Kassel-Braunsdtweig (Agesilaus/Arcesilas)”51

The German Stark in 1803 and again in 1804 likewise said Mauvillon’s alias was “Arcesilaus.”52
51.Richard van Dülmen, Der Geheimbund der Illuminaten. Darstellung, Analyse, Dokumentation (Stuttgart: Bad Cannstatt 1975) at 439-453. This membership list was scanned and excerpted by the Grand Lodge of British Columbia and the Yukon: anti-masonry/zwack.html#1 (accessed 1/6/09). Illuminati of Bavaria 19

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

This is why René Le Forestier as a Frenchman agrees that because Mauvillon’s alias was “Arcesilaus,” Mirabeau must have received the original draft of the “Plan of Arcesilaus” from Mauvillon.53 Since they both met in 1786, this transmission of the Plan of Arcesilaus must have been in 1786 or later. At the same time, Mirabeau clearly was aware of this document and wished to circulate it because it was in his secretary’s handwriting.54 Why is it dated 1776? The Plan of Arcesilaus is dated 1776 in its opening paragraph, like one dates a contract. Contracts are often dated at the top to show their legally-effective date. This can be significantly earlier than the signature date. This 1776 date is likely thus intended to reflect the foundational date of the Order which the Plan describes as an inner order which developed this plan to steer Freemasonry to more productive ends. It likely is to reflect the date Weishaupt founded the Order of Illuminati, which happens to be 1776. Hence, because the location of the date on this document is where a legal document identifies its starting date, it was not intended to signify the date of last preparation or signing. This is likely a revised work originally written by Weishaupt. Yet, some historians like Henri Martin, thought it important to explain what Mirabeau was doing in 1776, and try to assert Mirabeau wrote this in 1776. That is certainly a wrong interpretation. For clearly Arcesilaus was Mauvillon’s

52.Johann August Stark, Der Triumph der Philosophie im achtzehnten Jahrhunderte (1804) at 210 (“der Professor Mauvillon (Arcesilaus), das mals ‘Meister der Loge zu Cassel.’”) See also, August Stark, Triumph de Philosophie in 18 Jahnhundert (1803) Vol. II at 350. Both books are available through 53. See Les Illuminés de Bavière et la Franc-Maçonnerie allemande, supra, at 664. 54.Bro. Lt.-Col. H.C. Bruce Wilson, “Mirabeau’s Scheme for the Political Penetration of Freemasonry,” Ars Quatuor Coronatorum Vol. LVII (W.J. Parrett Ltd., 1947) at 139-48 Illuminati of Bavaria 20

A Brief Biography on Jacob Mauvillon

Illuminati alias, and Mirabeau only met him in April 1786. Hence, Mirabeau could not have seen the Plan before that time.

A Brief Biography on Jacob Mauvillon
It is helpful to stop and understand the person within the Illuminati who most intimately was linked to Mirabeau. It is significant and a likely proof that Illuminati’s position was opposed the killing of the French king in 1792 because this was Mauvillon’s position. In Rose’s A New General Biographical Dictionary, Rose explained: “on the breaking out of the French Revolution, [Mauvillon] adopted the republican principles; but [Mauvillon] highly disapproved of the horrid massacres which then took place in France, and particularly of the murder of Louis XVI.”55 Thus, when we find the Brissotins were the Illuminati in the French Revolution of 1792, we can prove their constant alignment with the true Illuminati by seeing their opposition to killing the king. This was a view shared by the leading Illuminatus who had brought Mirabeau more deeply into the fold: Mauvillon. At the same time, Mauvillon and Mirabeau openly spoke of revolution. Mirabeau in a letter to Mauvillon wrote: “How strange this destiny of mine, always to be the promoter of revolution and always between a dunghill and a palace.”56

55.Rev. Hugh James Rose, “Mauvillon,” A New General Biographical Dictionary (London: 1857) Vol. X at 53. A dissertation thesis which serves as biography in German is: Jochen Hoffmann, Jakob Mauvillon: Ein Offizier und Schriftsteller im Zeitalter der bürgerlichen Emanzipationsbewegung (Duncker & Humblot, 1981). 56.Hermann Von Holst, The French Revolution Tested by Mirabeau’s Career (Chicago: Callaghan & Co.: 1894) Vol. I at 218 (quoting Lettres à Mauvillon, 449.) Illuminati of Bavaria 21

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Was Mauvillon’s Disapproval of The Killing Of The King Likely The View of Leading Illuminati?
Mauvillon’s status among the Illuminati can be gaged in part by his personal accomplishments. Hence this brief additional biography: Jacob Mauvillon was born in 1743 at Leipzig, and died in 1793 at 50 years of age. His family were from Provence, France.57 During the Seven Years War, he was a military engineer. He then wrote his Letters on the Merits of the German Poets. In 1775, he demonstrated his fluency in French by translating Raynal’s History of both the Indies; Turgot’s work Sur les Richesses, and Ariosto. Then attracted by the Physiocratic doctrine in France, Mauvillon in 1780 wrote his Phisiocratic Letters. Mauvillon’s Physiocratic views likely are what also explain the favor toward free-markets shared by the Cercle Social/Brissotins during 1792-93 when the Robespierrists were assaulting such a notion. Such free-market ideas were a hall-mark of Physiocratic thinking.58
57.Claude Manceron, Toward the Brink, 1785-1787 (1977) at 326. 58.Turgot and Quesnay were the leading Physiocrats. According to the Wikipedia article on “Physiocrats,” we read: “Individualism and laissez faire. The Physiocrats, especially Turgot, believed that self-interest was the motivating reason for each segment of the economy to play its role. Each individual was best suited to determine what goods he wanted and what work would provide him with what he wanted out of life. While a person might labor for the benefit of others, he will work harder for the benefit of himself; however, each person’s needs are being supplied by many other people. The system works best when there is a complementary relationship between one person’s needs and another person’s desires, and trade restrictions place an unnatural barrier to achieving one’s goals. “Private property. None of the theories concerning the value of land could work without strong legal support for the ownership of private property. Combined with the strong sense of individualism, private property becomes a critical component of the Tableau's functioning.” See (accessed 8/13/09). Illuminati of Bavaria 22

Was Mauvillon’s Disapproval of The Killing Of The King Likely The View of

In 1780, Mauvillon was elected as member of the Society of Antiquaries of Cassell, and contributed several papers to its transactions. In 1781, Mauvillon wrote two significant articles in a book entitled Military Science. He then wrote for the Military Journal. In 1785, he published his Dramatic Proverbs. Then in 1785, Mauvillon was invited to Brunswick to be major in the corps of engineers and become professor at the Caroline college. Then he translated Templehoff’s History of the Seven Year’s War.59 In 1787, Mauvillon wrote a work entitled System of Religion published in Berlin.60 It was:
in 1786 [Mauvillon] formed an acquaintance with Mirabeau, which soon ripened into an intimate friendship; a history of which may be seen in Mirabeau’s Letters to Mauvillon, published under the title Lettres du Comte de Mirabeau à un des Amis en Alemagne, écrits durant les Années 1786-1790, Brussels, 1792.61

This first encounter with Mirabeau in 1786 took place when Mirabeau “was on his way back to Paris from Berlin.”62 This could only mean around May 22, 1786 which was the only time when Mirabeau left Berlin for Paris during 1786. Mirabeau then returned to Germany in 1786 but left again in early 1787 for Paris. Because Mirabeau felt they both had to be in the same place to finish their project On The Prussian Monarchy, Mirabeau then “returned [to Germany to be with Mauvillon] in the month of June, and remained until August.”63 Then Mirabeau took leave of Mauvillon with the
59.Rose, “Mauvillon,” id., at 52-53. 60.John Aikin, M.D., “Mauvillon,” General Biography (London: 1807) Vol. VI at 653. 61.Rose, “Mauvillon,” id., at 53. 62.Aikin, “Mauvillon,” supra, at 653. Illuminati of Bavaria 23

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

manuscript, travelled to Hambourgh, and travelled by boat to Paris. Then Mirabeau published “under his own name” On The Prussian Monarchy.64 This date of their first encounter in 1786 thus establishes the Plan of Arcesilaus in Mirabeau’s papers could not have been in Mirabeau’s possession until 1786 or later. The date 1776 on the Plan itself has another explanation, as we already mentioned. Mirabeau then persuaded Mauvillon to “draw up jointly a kind of politico-philosophical work on the Prussian states....”65 Rose in his biography states that Mirabeau urged Mauvillon to write a “similar work in regard to England....” To which Rose adds, “which country he and Mauvillon, attended by the eldest son of the latter [i.e., Mauvillon], visited for that purpose.”66 Mirabeau’s letters from England have been the subject of their own volumes.67 The biography of Mauvillon ends with mention that he next wrote a book entitled Man and Woman in reply to a book on the same subject written by Brandes. In 1792, Mauvillon began Life of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick which Rose says “is the best of all his productions.” Thus, we see in Mauvillon a great literary talent, a person of many professions and interests. Yet, a man of sentiments aligned to Weishaupt. No doubt, Mauvillon was an important voice within the movement. This is why his Plan of

63.Aikin, “Mauvillon,” supra, at 653. 64.Aikin, “Mauvillon,” supra, at 653. 65.Rose, “Mauvillon,” id., at 53. 66.Rose, “Mauvillon,” id., at 53. 67.Mirabeau, Mirabeau’s Letters During His Residence in England (London: 1832). Volume II has such topics as “Probability of Renunciation of Christianity by the Northern Nations” (at page 14). Letter 84 discusses the “Possibility of Universal Peace amongst men.” (Page 262). “Nothing is impossible to a man of determination.” (Page 278). Illuminati of Bavaria 24

Plan of Arcesilaus

Arcesilaus found in Mirabeau’s secretary’s handwriting is a reflection as of 1786 of what the Illuminati were still intending.

Plan of Arcesilaus
The contents of the Memorandum of Arcesilaus is one of the most certain proofs of Illuminati involvement in the French Revolution. As mentioned, this Memorandum of Arcesilaus reveals the Illuminati’s political positions.68 It thereby illuminates greatly how the Revolution would be prepared. While it ostensibly appears to seek a reform of Freemasonry, this is by creating a supervisor secret inner circle which slowly changes the Freemasons into a secret political society. Hence, it is precisely the same plan as the Illuminati had for making themselves superiors over Freemasonry. The Plan simply dresses this up to sound like a ‘reformation’ of Freemasonry.
Summary of the Plan of Arcesilaus

In the memorandum, Mirabeau said this inner order would revitalize Freemasonry and make it more than simply a curiosity for many. They should see “what utility, what greatness, what worth there is in a universal place from which threads go out to all countries to unite a very great number of enlightened people.”69 It says that the time had come for “the most enlightened and the most magnanimous F [Freemasons] should unite to turn the O. [Order] toward the great aim it is capable of attaining.” He explained that the first aim should be education. The second should be to deal with “despotism

68.See Chapters Twenty-Three and Twenty-Four for a discussion of these congresses. 69. Vallentin, Mirabeau, supra, at 115 (quoting Plan of Archesilaus). Illuminati of Bavaria 25

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

and its consequences.” So the “second main pivot of the association should be the correction of the present system of governments and legislatures.”70 The Order would seek to end feudalism in France and its laws of the Dead Hand.71 The Inner Group should exclude those who had devout beliefs. Instead, recruits must agree that religion is alone between God and the individual. Also, the members could neither be poor nor without talent nor property.72 The Plan was entirely worked out by a constitution and well laid-out structure. Those details are not necessary to relate except to say the system was identical to Weishaupt’s ideal form of union with Freemasonry — an inner core group who alone knows the political aims that the outer group is being led slowly by gradual revelation to accept and accomplish.

More on Mirabeau and the Illuminati
Further evidence that Mirabeau was an Illuminatus is his own words about the Illuminati in his 1788 work entitled On the Prussian Monarchy. This book was published in 1788—one year before the riots and disturbances began in France. In certain passages that historians of the French Revolution apparently are either unaware of or are unwilling to discuss, Mirabeau virtually admits his affiliation with the Illuminati. He clearly expresses agreement with the Illuminati plans. Mirabeau says the Illuminati were men who were truly “virtuous, zealous for the good of humanity” which “arose in

70.Vallentin, Mirabeau, at 115. 71.As we shall see elsewhere, Mirabeau in his book On the Prussian Monarchy described the Illuminati of Bavaria as seeking these same reforms in France. 72.Vallentin, supra, at 116. Illuminati of Bavaria 26

More on Mirabeau and the Illuminati

Bavaria.” The Illuminati “founded secret associations to remedy abuse. . .” and to “improve the present system of governments and legislatures.”73 (This is the exact same phrase that Mirabeau used here to describe his goals in the Arcesilaus Memorandum). Mirabeau continues. The Illuminati then put their recruits “in the Freemason lodges, to turn the lodges into something useful to humanity,” he explains. This tactic, as we have just seen, matches Mirabeau’s own private documents where he proposed the same thing. He extols the Illuminati, saying they “seek to make a universal link into one of a very great number of enlightened men by their primitive entreaties of fraternity and equality [“fraternité et d’egalité”], which result in an obligation and means to help work together for the good of the human race.” They also want to establish “a wholesome knowledge of the rights of men [“droits des hommes”].”74 Their means to do this was simple. “The improvement of the present system of governments and law was the great end of the Association [of Illuminati],” Mirabeau acknowledged. To do this, “It would by an imperceptible agreement... by sensible men who surround [government leaders, use such influence to] limit, little by little,... despotism....”75 The Illuminati are men who are “enlightened, virtuous, and zealous for the good of humanity.”76 “This project [of the Illuminati]

73. Mirabeau, De La Monarchie (1788), supra, Vol. V at 96. 74. Id. at 96-103 (emphasis added). 75. Id. at 96-103. 76.His original words were, next to a margin header of “Illuminés de Bavière” the following: “Dans un temps où tous ces mystères d’iniquité étoient moins connus, des hommes éclairés, vertueux, zélés pour le bien de l'humanité, crurent, en Bavière, trouver dans le sein même des associations secrètes, le remède à leurs abus, à leurs dangers.” (Comte de Mirabeau, De La Monarchie Prussienne, sous Frederic Le Grand Avec Un Appendice (London: 1788) Vol. V at 96.) Illuminati of Bavaria 27

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

was beautiful, noble and grand,” he gushed with admiration.77 His total agreement with their goals could not be set forth any plainer.78 Then Mirabeau next says in On the Prussian Monarchy that he agrees with the plan of revolution sought by the Illuminati. Immediately after discussing the persecution of the Illuminati, he say “[l]et us work hard to spread true principles and the desired revolution will work precisely in the manner as we can aspire—slowly, sweetly, but surely, and without the rascal to abuse the measures.”79 He thus leaves very little doubt that he has the warmest enthusiasm for the Illuminati’s goals to cause a revolution done slowly but surely. Speaking as a Frenchman, he could only mean the Illuminati desired a revolution in France. The full text of this quote deserves examination.
Let us work hard to spread true principles and the desired revolution will work precisely in the manner as we can aspire—slowly, sweetly, but surely, and without the rascal to abuse the measures. What are these measures? The courage to write of great truths, and to publish by the printing [press]. Such is the cure to achieve the happiness of humanity. The art of publishing, if rendered impossible, in
77.“Ce projet étoit beau, noble, grand;....” (Comte de Mirabeau, De La Monarchie Prussienne, sous Frederic Le Grand Avec Un Appendice (London: 1788) Vol. V at 100.) 78.Quite remarkably—we should pause to note—the slogans that Mirabeau learned from the Illuminati of “fraternity and equality” and the “rights of man,” as he reveals in 1788, became slogans of the revolutionary movement in just the next couple of years. 79.“Travaillons donc à répandre les vrais principes, et la révolution désirée s’opérera précisément de la manière dont nous pouvons l’ambitionner, lentement, doucement, mais surement, et sans que les fripons puissent abuser du moyen.” (Comte de Mirabeau, De La Monarchie Prussienne, sous Frederic Le Grand Avec Un Appendice (London: 1788) Vol. V at 102.) Illuminati of Bavaria 28

More on Mirabeau and the Illuminati

the long run, [without] the maintenance of secret societies, themselves formed of the worst rogues, would be opposed without doubt by men of virtue; but their work [that is, secret societies] of a thousand resources is preferable. Let us employ the sublime measures, which multiplies the forces of Mankind a hundredfold, and gives to Opinion a capable empire to balance against a Powerful Army [that is, the Jesuits, et al]. Let us serve ourselves to destroy these secret associations; the pest among the most profound... After a long time perhaps these [Secret] Associations will endure and take on an importance comparable to today, and the good hearts and generous heads will seek out an active role [in them]. It is the most sure measure to blow the air out of the subterranean machinations, to abort the infamous conspiracies, and destroy itself... The teaching art of publishing is the power [to destroy them].80

Mirabeau's language had to be disguised somewhat to pass the censor’s scrutiny. He was saying in effect:
• Be patient and the revolution sought by the Illuminati will come; • The measures to use are the printing press; • If the printing press were only able to operate by the intervention of secret societies, good men might oppose the printing press; • The work of the secret societies in protecting the printing press is, however, preferable to having no printing press because the printing press serves as a formidable weapon against the forces of despotism and fanaticism (euphemisms for the King and the Church);

80.Comte de Mirabeau, De La Monarchie Prussienne, sous Frederic Le Grand Avec Un Appendice (London: 1788) Vol. V at 102-03. Illuminati of Bavaria 29

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

• Our aim should be, one day (after the Revolution), no longer to need secret societies to protect liberty of the press; and • One day secret societies could become a place where virtuous men congregate and still the secret societies could hold the importance that they hold today (that is, 1788).

Thus, this prime mover of the early stages of the French Revolution, Mirabeau, says that secret societies are indispensable to a revolution that he personally hoped for. These are what his words clearly mean. For he says secret societies protect freedom of the press. The press is the weapon to bring about the revolution to defeat despotism and fanaticism. And he says this in the context of praising the ambition of the Illuminati for a Revolution in France. He virtually admitted in print one year before 1789 that he and the Illuminati were going to overthrow France. His zeal almost could not stop his mouth. Somehow historians of the Revolution simply have not stumbled across this golden nugget even though it resides on bookshelves open to inspection via

Connection to J.C. Bode
Another proof of Mirabeau’s membership is his connection to J.C. Bode, the head of the Illuminati as of 1787. In July 1787, Bode came to Paris to a lodge meeting of the Amis Reunis of Paris. He spoke to a select audience after the main congress was over in March. When Bode was introduced to the audience, it was reputedly Mirabeau along with Bonneville who introduced Bode to the lodge.82
81.Una Birch notes that a few have used this passage to deny that Mirabeau was an Illuminatus. (She does not mention who they are). They supposedly claim Mirabeau denounced all secret societies and asserted that they should not be tolerated by any government. This was an inaccurate twist by those to whom Birch refers. Illuminati of Bavaria 30

Connection to J.C. Bode

Is this true? This is corroborated by the fact that a year later, in 1788, Mirabeau made an uncharacteristically pleasant and personal remark about J.C. Bode in On the Prussian Monarchy. Mirabeau says Bode’s name “should be dear to humanity” for his contribution on the studies of Freemasonry.83 Mirabeau’s high compliment bespeaks his personal acquaintance with the man. What likely was going on in Mirabeau’s mind when he wrote this passage was he wanted to flatter his superior in the Illuminati. In fact, Bode was its chief at the time, according to Schiller. Unless we are somehow misguided, then it appears clear that Mirabeau was on a familiar basis with the head of the Illuminati since 1787. Should we be surprised if we later seeing this Mirabeau trying to lead a revolution at Paris?

Mirabeau’s 1788 Endorsement of An Agrarian Law

And finally, if any doubt could remain, we can deduce Mirabeau’s Illuminati affiliation from his political speeches, ideology, and conduct. It copied the Illuminati’s principles. In Mirabeau's On the Prussian Monarchy, he explains that the foremost change he personally seeks for France is implementation of the agrarian law—the redistribution of land.84 He repeatedly makes this demand in this work. This, of course, perfectly serves as a first step to achieve the Illuminati objective of libertarian communism.

82.See “Illuminati Visits To French Lodges” on page 1 83. Mirabeau, De La Monarchie Prussienne (1788), supra, Vol. V, at 74. Speaking of J.C.Bode’s Examen impartial du livre intitulé: des Erreurs...; par un frère laïque en fait de science (1782), Mirabeau remarks as to Bode, “Un homme dont le nom deviendra cher à l’humanité....” Id. (On Bode as the author, see La bulletin du bibliophile Belge (Brussels: Olivier, 1869) at 26.) 84.Mirabeau, De La Monarchie Prussienne (1788), supra, Vol. IV, at 13. Illuminati of Bavaria 31

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

Arthur Young, the objective and faithful observer of French affairs, commented on this in 1789. Referencing Mirabeau amongst “men who contend that the property of land cannot be too much divided,” Young replies that “Count de Mirabeau’s system, of an equal dispersion of a people over the whole territory, is yet so truly visionary, that it does not demand a moment's attention.” Then Young gives Mirabeau’s idea further attention in a footnote. He says that Mirabeau’s advocacy of the small family farm as the basis of a future society “implies at once the annihilation of towns and manufactures being beneficial to a modern state, provided the people be found in the country.”85 The Illuminati likewise favored restoring an agrarian way of life in prefernce over city-life — restoring the nomadic existence of early man. Young recognizes in Mirabeau’s rhetoric the same object.
Mirabeau, the Machiavellian World Revolutionary

Also, just as the Illuminati said one must have a certain heartlessness at times, Mirabeau once said that “liberty should have for her bed mattresses of corpses.”86 And like the Illuminati, Mirabeau advocated world revolution. He said, “all free people [should] form between themselves a society
85.. Arthur Young, Travels in France during 1787... 1789 (Peter Smith), supra, at 311, 317-318 & n. 86.. Nesta Webster, The French Revolution -- A Study In Democracy (London: Constable and Co., Ltd., 1919) at 489. Oddly enough, Mounier in 1801 concluded from Mirabeau’s advocacy of violence that Mirabeau could not be an Illuminatus. See “Mounier’s Influential Book” on page 1 et seq. Mounier misunderstood that the Illuminati’s lessons in their early degrees that violence would not be used to achieve their goals was indeed the final lessons in higher grades of the Illuminati. As elsewhere revealed, the upper grades in the Illuminati were taught that violence was going to be the means of achieving victory if subversion from within did not work. See “Illuminati Strategies, Indoctrination & How Final Aim Was Progressively Revealed” on page 1 et seq. Illuminati of Bavaria 32

Revelations By Mirabeau’s Brother

of assurance against tyrants.”87 Mirabeau also saw the French revolution as inspiring a similar world-wide movement. He said,
The national colors waves on the sea; they achieve the respect of all countries, not as a symbol of combat or of victory, but as of that holy confraternity of friends of liberty throughout the world.88

Revelations By Mirabeau’s Brother
And significantly, Mirabeau’s brother was MirabeauTonneau (1754-1795).89 He was elected as deputy to the Estates General on March 21, 1789.90 Previously, he had come to America to fight alongside the revolutionaries at Yorktown. In 1782, he was named colonel, and decorated within the Order of Cincinnatus — an honorary society with George Washington at its head.91

87.P. Sagnac, La Revolution (1789-1792), Vol. I to Histoire de France Contemporaine (Depuis La Revolution Jusqu'a La Paix de 1919) (Ed., Ernest Laisse) (Libraire Hachette, De L'Academie Francaise, 1921) at 262. 88.. Sagnac, id., at 263. 89.“André Boniface Louis Riquetti, vicomte de Mirabeau, dit “MirabeauTonneau”, né à Paris, le 30 novembre 1754, mort à Fribourg-en-Brisgau, Allemagne, le 15 septembre 1795.” Andr%C3%A9_Boniface_Louis_Riquetti_de_Mirabeau (accessed 1/3/ 09). 90.Eugene Berger, Le Vicomte de Mirabeau (Mirabeau-Tonneau)(17541792) (Paris: Hachette, 1904) at 68 et seq. 91.Eugene Berger, Le Vicomte de Mirabeau (Mirabeau-Tonneau)(17541792) (Paris: Hachette, 1904) at 43 et seq. Illuminati of Bavaria 33

Mirabeau & The Illuminati

It was Mirabeau’s brother who first warned of a plan at world revolution was behind the revolutionary turmoil from 1789 to 1792. He even attacked his own brother and once wrestled him from the podium to give his speech. Mirabeau-Tonneau said the revolutionaries at Paris were animated by a spirit unchecked by national boundaries:
The same factions, the same conspirators who in France have sapped the foundations of throne and altar, who have delivered the royal family, the clergy, nobility, magistrature, and proprietors of all classes to the fury of a blind, unbridled people, would like to entrain in the same downfall all the princes and governments of Europe; the scoundrels see safety only in increased numbers of victims and accomplices.92

Why was Mirabeau-Tonneau a lone voice who issued such warnings?. It may just be that Mirabeau-Tonneau knew from direct contact with his own brother that something more than a national revolution was involved.

92.. Reflexions du vicomte de Mirabeau, Sur les déclarations des Frères Prêcheurs, de la Propagande Jacobiste et Monarchiste (Paris, n.d.) at 2, quoted in Paul H. Beik, The French Revolution Seen From the Right: Social Theories in Motion, 1789-1790 (N.Y.: Howard Fertig, 1970) at 29. Because of this statement of Mirabeau-Tonneau, Beik says Mirabeau-Tonneau “never understood” the revolution. Id. at 30. It turns out the reverse is true. Mirabeau-Tonneau was prophetic, and knew better, it seems, than anyone what the revolution was all about, for better or worse. What Beik would have been more correct to say that despite knowing the aim of the Revolution, Mirabeau-Tonneau could not accept its goals. Illuminati of Bavaria 34


In sum, we know Mirabeau was an Illuminatus for many reasons even if we did not think the Bavarian dispatch naming him among “Illuminati and Freemasons” suffices. Mirabeau was close friends with Nicolai and Mauvillon when in Berlin, Prussia. Both Nicolai and Mauvillon were important figures in the Illumination of Weishaupt. Furthermore, Mirabeau in his own words in On the Prussian Monarchy gave special honor and defense to the Illuminati, including a friendly personal reference to its new leader (Bode). Mirabeau then outlined their program for France, later voted his agreement with that program, and was the lead crusader in France to realize all the legislative points itemized in 1788 by Mirabeau as the goals of the “Illuminati of Bavaria.” Also, in the same book, Mirabeau offered an Illuminati-style idea of dividing up all land equally in France. Moreover, Mirabeau received two letters from Mauvillon referring to “our order” and our “fraternal association” achieving its goals — an obvious reference to the Illuminati Order of which Mauvillon was a member. And in Mirabeau’s papers was a “Memorandum of Arcesilaus”—Arcesilaus being the Illuminati-alias of Mauvillon. It was hand-written by Mirabeau’s secretary. It was an Illuminati plan for penetrating Freemasonry and turning it toward politics. There is seemingly no escape from the conclusion that Mirabeau was an Illuminatus of Weishaupt.
Comment on Mounier’s Work

We now see Mounier’s hasty conclusion that no Illuminatus was involved in the Revolution is demonstrably false. In fact, the quintessential spokesman of rebellion at the earliest stages of the revolutionary movement was Mirabeau—and he most probably was an Illuminatus.
Illuminati of Bavaria


Mirabeau & The Illuminati

This should make all historians of the French Revolution ponder for a moment about the accuracy of their assumptions on the causes of this event. As we shall see, the Illuminati’s principles, structure, and system provided the blueprint that Mirabeau used to set in motion the revolution for France. Mirabeau along with other Illuminati like Bonneville are the key to unlocking the role of the secret societies in the revolution.

Illuminati of Bavaria


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