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Electrical Circuits
3.1 Basic Concepts
• Electric charge
— 1 coulomb of negative change contains 6.241 ×10
18
electrons.
• Current
— 1 ampere is a steady ﬂow of 1 coulomb of change pass a given point in a con
ductor in 1 second.
1(amperes) =
Q(coulombs)
t(seconds)
. (3.1)
— Time varying current
i(t) = lim
{t<0
¡(t +{t) ÷¡(t)
{t
=
{¡
{t
(3.2)
• Voltage
— Voltage digerence between two points is the work in joules required to move
1 coulomb of charge from one point to the other.
\ (volts) =
\(joules)
Q(coulombs)
. (3.3)
• Power
— The rate at which something either absorbs or produces energy.
— The power absorbed by an electric element is the product of the voltage and
the current.
1(Watts) =
\(joules)
t(seconds)
= \ (volts) ×1(amperes). (3.4)
3.2 Circuit Elements
• Ideal voltage source
17
Sec 3.2. Circuit Elements
Resistor Capacitor Inductor
i
R
v
R
v
C
v
L
i
C
i
L
Current Source Voltage Sourse
i v 5V
DC Voltage Sourse
GND
Figure 3.1: Basic circuit elements.
v
I
v
i
(pure AC)
V
I
(pure DC)
t
v
v
I
= V
I
+ v
i
Figure 3.2: DC signals versus AC signals.
— Voltage source provides a speciﬁed voltage across the two terminals and does not
depend on the current ﬂowing through the source.
— The output impedance of ideal voltage source is zero.
+ The current ﬂowing through an ideal voltage source is completely deter
mined by the circuit connected to the source.
• Ideal current source
— Current source provides a speciﬁed current and does not depend on the voltage
across the source.
— The output impedance of ideal current source is inﬁnite.
+ The voltage across an ideal current source is completely determined by the
circuit connected to the source.
• DC signals v.s. AC signals
— Figure 3.2 shows the deﬁnitions of DC signals and AC signals.
• Resistor 1
— Resistance is the property of materials that resists the movement of electrons.
18
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
— Ohm’s Law
1(ohms) =
\ (volts)
1(amperes)
(3.5)
— Conductance is the inverse of resistance.
— For parallel resistors,
1
T
=
1
1,1
1
+ 1,1
2
+ 1,1
3
.... + 1,1
.
(3.6)
+ When two resistors are connected in parallel, the equivalent resistance is
smaller than any of the two resistors.
1
T
=
1
1
1
2
1
1
+1
2
< 1
1
1
T
=
1
1
1
2
1
1
+1
2
< 1
2
(3.7)
— For series resistors,
1
T
= 1
1
+1
2
+1
3
.... +1
.
(3.8)
• Capacitor C
— Capacitance is the ability of a capacitor to store charges on its two conductors.
C(farad) =
Q(coulombs)
\ (volts)
(3.9)
— For timevarying voltage ·
C
(t) across the capacitor
+ The capacitor is an open circuit, i.e., i
C
(t) = 0, when ·
C
(t) is a constant.
+ The voltage across the capacitor can not jump. However, the current ﬂow
ing through the capacitor does not have such constraint.
i
C
(t) = lim
{t<0
{¡
{t
= C ×
d·
C
(t)
dt
(3.10)
·
C
(t) =
1
C
Z
t
3"
i
C
(t)dt (3.11)
— For parallel capacitors,
C
T
= C
1
+C
2
+C
3
.... +C
.
(3.12)
— For series capacitors,
C
T
=
1
1,C
1
+ 1,C
2
+ 1,C
3
.... + 1,C
.
(3.13)
• Inductor 1
19
Sec 3.3. Circuit Laws
— For timevarying current i
1
(t) ﬂowing through the inductor
+ The inductor is a short circuit, i.e., ·
1
(t) = 0, when i
1
(t) is a constant.
+ The current ﬂowing through the inductor can not jump. However, the
voltage across the inductor does not have such constraint.
·
1
(t) = lim
{t<0
{`c(ﬂux linkages)
{t
= lim
{t<0
{1i
1
{t
= lim
{t<0
1 ×
i
1
(t +{t) ÷i
1
(t)
{t
(3.14)
= 1 ×
di
1
(t)
dt
i
1
(t) =
1
1
Z
t
3"
·(t)dt (3.15)
— For parallel inductors,
1
T
=
1
1,1
1
+ 1,1
2
+ 1,1
3
.... + 1,1
.
(3.16)
— For series capacitors,
1
T
= 1
1
+1
2
+1
3
.... +1
.
(3.17)
• Dual circuit
— Capacitor and Inductor formulas are the same except that the symbols diger.
— Capacitor
i
S
(t) =
·
c
(t)
1
+C
d·
c
(t)
dt
(3.18)
— Inductor
·
S
(t) = i
c
(t)1 +1
di
c
(t)
dt
(3.19)
3.3 Circuit Laws
• Kirchhog’s voltage law ( KVL )
— The algebraic sum of the voltages around any closed loop of a circuit is zero.
• Kirchhog’s current law ( KCL )
— The algebraic sum of the currents entering every node must be zero.
20
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
i
S
v
O
R C
v
S
i
O
R
L
Curr ent Source Voltage Source
Parallel Serial
v i
C L
R R
Figure 3.3: Similarity between capacitor and inductor.
3.4 Network Theorems
Deﬁnition 3.1 Linear circuit is formed by interconnecting the terminals of independent sources,
controlled sources, and linear passive elements to form one or more closed paths.
• Linear passive elements include Resistor, Capacitor, and Inductor.
— The i ÷· characteristics of these elements satisfy the conditions of linearity.
+ Resistor
·
1
(t) = i
1
(t)1
·
2
(t) = i
2
(t)1 (3.20)
c ×·
1
(t) +/ ×·
2
(t) = (c ×i
1
(t) +/ ×i
2
(t))1
+ Capacitor
i
1
(t) = C
d
dt
(·
1
(t))
i
2
(t) = C
d
dt
(·
2
(t)) (3.21)
c ×i
1
(t) +/ ×i
2
(t) = C
d
dt
(c ×·
1
(t) +/ ×·
2
(t))
+ Inductor
i
1
(t) = 1
Z
t
0
·
1
(t)dt
i
2
(t) = 1
Z
t
0
·
2
(t)dt (3.22)
c ×i
1
(t) +/ ×i
2
(t) = 1
Z
t
0
(c ×·
1
(t) +/ ×·
2
(t))dt
Theorem 3.2 In a linear network containing multiple sources, the voltage across or current
21
Sec 3.4. Network Theorems
A
V
1
R
2
R
A
I 3
R
V
A
V
1
R
2
R
3
R
1
V
1
R
2
R
A
I 3
R
2
V
+
=
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 3.4: Example of linear circuit with multiple independent sources.
through any passive element may be found as the algebraic sum of the individual voltages
or currents due to each of the independent sources action along, with all other independent
sources deactivated.
• Voltage source is deactivated by replacing it with a short circuit.
• Current source is deactivated by replacing it with an open circuit.
• Controlled sources remain active when the superposition theorem is applied.
Example 3.3 Given the circuit in Figure 3.4, ﬁnd the voltage across the resistor 1
3
using
the superposition theorem of linear network.
1. The voltage across the resistor 1
3
is the superposition of the voltage when each
independent source actions alone, as shown in Figure 3.4 (b) and (c).
\ = \
1
+\
2
(3.23)
2. The contribution of the voltage source \
¹
.
• The current source 1
¹
is replaced with an open circuit.
\
1
=
1
3
1
1
+1
2
+1
3
\
¹
(3.24)
3. The contribution of the current source 1
¹
.
22
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
• The voltage source \
¹
is replaced with an short circuit.
\
2
=
1
1
1
3
1
1
+1
2
+1
3
1
¹
(3.25)
3.4.1 Equivalent Circuits of OnePort Networks
Linear
Network
A
Linear
Network
B
1
2
Linear
Network
B
1
2
T H
Z
T H
V
Linear
Network
B
1
2
N
I N
Y
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 3.5: Equivalent circuits. (a) The original circuit. (b) Thevenin’s equivalent. (c)
Norton’s equivalent.
• Equivalent circuit
— A reduction of a complex linear circuit into a simpler form.
— A model of a complex linear circuit contained in a black box.
Theorem 3.4 Thevenin’s theorem states that an arbitrary linear, one port network such
as network A in Figure 3.5 (a) can be replaced at terminals 1. 2 with an equivalent series
connected voltage source \
T1
and impedance 2
T1
as in Figure 3.5 (b).
• \
T1
is the opencircuit voltage of network A at terminals 1. 2.
• 2
T1
is the ratio of the opencircuit voltage over short circuit current determined at
terminals 1. 2.
— The equivalent impedance looking into network A through terminals 1. 2 with
all independent sources deactivated.
+ Voltage sources are replaced by short circuits.
+ Current sources are replaced by open circuits.
23
Sec 3.4. Network Theorems
Theorem 3.5 Norton’s theorem states that an arbitrary linear, one port network such as
network A in Figure 3.5 (a) can be replaced at terminals 1. 2 with an equivalent parallel
connected current source 1
.
and admittance 1
.
as in Figure 3.5 (c).
• 1
.
is the shortcircuit current ﬂowing through terminals 1. 2 due to network A.
• 1
.
is the ratio of shortcircuit current over opencircuit voltage at terminals 1. 2.
• Conversion of equivalent circuits.
— Any method for determining 2
T1
is equally valid for ﬁnding 1
.
.
1
.
= 1
SC
=
\
T1
2
T1
(3.26)
\
T1
= \
OC
= 1
.
×
1
1
.
(3.27)
2
T1
=
1
1
.
(3.28)
Example 3.6 In Figure 3.6, \
¹
= 4\ , 1
¹
= 2¹, 1
1
= 2 l, 1
2
= 3 l, ﬁnd the Thevenin’s
equivalent circuit and Norton’s equivalent circuit for the network to the left of terminals
1. 2.
1
2
A
V
1
R
2
R
A
I
Figure 3.6: Examples of Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalent circuits.
1. Thevenin’s equivalent
• \
T1
is the opencircuit voltage at terminals 1. 2.
\
T1
= \
¹
+1
¹
×1
1
= 4 + 4 = 8\. (3.29)
• 2
T1
is the ratio of the opencircuit voltage over short circuit current determined
at terminals 1. 2 with network B disconnected.
— By the superposition of the shortcircuit current caused by \
¹
and 1
¹
. the
24
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
short circuit current can be found.
1
1,2
= 1(\
¹
) +1(1
¹
)
=
1
11 +12
\
¹
+
11
11 +12
1
¹
(3.30)
=
8
5
¹.
— By deﬁnition, 2
T1
can be derived as \
T1
,1
1,2
= 5 l.
• Alternatively, 2
T1
can be found as the equivalent impedance for the circuit to
the left of terminals 1. 2.
— \
¹
is replaced with short circuit.
— 1
¹
is replaced with open circuit.
2
T1
= 1
1
+1
2
= 5 l. (3.31)
2. Norton’s equivalent
• 1
.
is the shortcircuit current at terminals 1. 2. which can be derived as in Eq.
(3.30).
• 1
.
is the ratio of the shortcircuit current over the opencircuit voltage with
network B disconnected. From Eq. (3.29), the open circuit voltage is 8\ .
Thus, 1
.
=
8
5
¹,8\ = 1,5o.
• Alternatively, 1
.
= 1,2
T1
= 1,5 = 0.2o.
3.4.2 Equivalent Circuits of TwoPort Networks
• A twoport network is an electrical circuit or device with two pairs of terminals.
— Figure 3.7 depicts a twoport linear network.
— Only two of the four variables \
1
, \
2
, 1
1
, 1
2
can be independent.
Linear
Network
2
V
1
V
+

+

1
I
2
I
1
I 2
I
Figure 3.7: Twoport linear network.
Characterization of TwoPort Networks
• 2 parameters (\
1
, \
2
depend on 1
1
, 1
2
)
25
Sec 3.4. Network Theorems
— The four .
i)
parameters represent impedance.
— .
12
and .
21
are transfer impedances.
— Each of the .
i)
parameters can be evaluated by opencircuiting an appropriate
port of the network.
\
1
= .
11
1
1
+.
12
1
2
\
2
= .
21
1
1
+.
22
1
2
(3.32)
.
11
=
\
1
1
1

1
2
=0
.
12
=
\
1
1
2

1
1
=0
.
21
=
\
2
1
1

1
2
=0
(3.33)
.
21
=
\
2
1
2

1
1
=0
— 2 parameters in matrix form.
"
\
1
\
2
#
=
"
.
11
.
12
.
21
.
22
#"
1
1
1
2
#
(3.34)
• 1 parameters (1
1
, 1
2
depend on \
1
, \
2
)
— The four ¸
i)
parameters represent admittance.
— ¸
12
and ¸
21
are transfer admittances.
— Each of the ¸
i)
parameters can be evaluated by shortcircuiting an appropriate
port of the network.
1
1
= ¸
11
\
1
+¸
12
\
2
1
2
= ¸
21
\
1
+¸
22
\
2
(3.35)
¸
11
=
1
1
\
1

\
2
=0
¸
12
=
1
1
\
2

\
1
=0
¸
21
=
1
2
\
1

\
2
=0
(3.36)
¸
21
=
1
2
\
2

\
1
=0
26
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
— 1 parameters in matrix form.
"
1
1
1
2
#
=
"
¸
11
¸
12
¸
21
¸
22
#"
\
1
\
2
#
(3.37)
— Relation between ¸
i)
parameters and .
i)
parameters.
"
¸
11
¸
12
¸
21
¸
22
#
=
"
.
11
.
12
.
21
.
22
#
31
=
1
.
11
.
22
÷.
12
.
21
"
.
22
÷.
21
÷.
12
.
11
#
(3.38)
• H parameters (\
1
, 1
2
depend on 1
1
, \
2
)
— The /
11
represents impedance.
— The /
22
represents admittance.
— Parameters /
11
and /
21
are obtained by shortcircuiting port 2.
— Parameters /
12
and /
22
are obtained by opencircuiting port 1.
\
1
= /
11
1
1
+/
12
\
2
1
2
= /
21
1
1
+/
22
\
2
(3.39)
/
11
=
\
1
1
1

\
2
=0
/
12
=
\
1
\
2

1
1
=0
/
21
=
1
2
1
1

\
2
=0
(3.40)
/
22
=
1
2
\
2

1
1
=0
— H parameters in matrix form.
"
\
1
1
2
#
=
"
/
11
/
12
/
21
/
22
#"
1
1
\
2
#
(3.41)
Example 3.7 In Figure 3.8, 1
1
= 10 l, 1
2
= 6 l, ﬁnd the . parameters and the /
parameters for the network.
27
Sec 3.4. Network Theorems
1
R
2
R
a
I
a
I 3 . 0
1
V
+

1
I
1
I
2
V
+

2
I
2
I
Figure 3.8: Example of twoport linear network.
• From Eq. (3.33), the .
i)
parameters can be obtained as follows.
.
11
=
\
1
1
1

1
2
=0
=
(10 + 6)1
o
1
o
+ 0.31
o
=
16
1.3
= 12.31 l
.
12
=
\
1
1
2

1
1
=0
=
61
o
÷0.31
o
×10
1
o
+ 0.31
o
=
3
1.3
= 2.31 l
.
21
=
\
2
1
1

1
2
=0
=
61
o
1
o
+ 0.31
o
=
6
1.3
= 4.62 l
.
22
=
\
2
1
2

1
1
=0
=
61
o
1
o
+ 0.31
o
=
6
1.3
= 4.62 l
• From Eq. (3.40), the /
i)
parameters can be calculated as follows.
/
11
=
\
1
1
1

\
2
=0
=
1
1
×1
1
1
1
= 1
1
= 10 l
/
12
=
\
1
\
2

1
1
=0
=
1
o
×1
2
÷0.31
o
×1
1
1
o
×1
2
=
3
6
= 0.5
/
21
=
1
2
1
1

\
2
=0
= ÷1
/
22
=
1
2
\
2

1
1
=0
=
1
o
+ 0.31
o
1
o
×1
2
=
1.3
6
= 0.217o.
Equivalent Circuits of Special TwoPort Networks
• TModel network. (Figure 3.9 (a))
— 21. 22.and 23 can be derived from the 2 parameters of a twoport networks.
"
.
11
.
12
.
21
.
22
#
=
"
21 +23 23
23 22 +23
#
(3.42)
• :Model network. (Figure 3.9 (b))
28
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
— 2c. 2/.and 2c can be derived from the 1 parameters of a twoport networks.
"
¸
11
¸
12
¸
21
¸
22
#
=
"
1
Zo
+
1
Zc
÷
1
Zc
÷
1
Zc
1
Zb
+
1
Zc
#
(3.43)
• Transformation from :Model to TModel.
21 =
2c2c
2c +2/ +2c
22 =
2/2c
2c +2/ +2c
(3.44)
23 =
2c2/
2c +2/ +2c
• Transformation from TModel to :Model.
2c =
2123 +2122 +2223
22
2/ =
2123 +2122 +2223
21
(3.45)
2c =
2123 +2122 +2223
23
Z1 Z2
Z3
1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
(a) TModel Network
Zb
1
V
2
V
1
I
2
I
Za
Zc
(b) :÷Model Network
Figure 3.9: Equivalent circuits of two port networks. (a) TModel Network. (b) Pi
Model Network.
29
Sec 3.5. Laplace Transforms
3.5 Laplace Transforms
• Laplace Transform
— A mathematical tool for representing system transfer functions of causal LTI
systems.
— A generalization of Fourier transform.
+ The result of Fourier transform can be obtained by evaluating the Laplace
transform along the imaginary axis.
Deﬁnition 3.8 Given )(t) with )(t) = 0 for t < 0, its Laplace Transform, which is
deﬁned as follows, is a complex function over a complexnumber domain.
1(:) = L[)(t)] ,
Z
"
0
3
)(t)c
3ct
dt =
Z
"
0
3
¡
)(t)c
3ot
¢
c
3).t
dt. (3.46)
Deﬁnition 3.9 Correspondingly, the Inverse Laplace Transform is as follows:
)(t) = L
31
[1(:)] =
1
2:,
I
c
1(:)c
ct
d:. (3.47)
Example 3.10 Given )(t) & q(t) ()(t) = q(t) = 0 for t < 0) and their Laplace Trans
forms 1(:) & G(:),the following shows the properties of Laplace Transform.
• Linearity
¸(t) = c)(t) +/q(t)
L
÷÷1 (:) = c1(:) +/G(:) (3.48)
• Time Derivatives
¸(t) =
d)(t)
dt
L
÷÷1 (:) = :1(:) ÷)(0
3
) (3.49)
¸(t) =
d
a
)(t)
dt
L
÷÷1 (:) = :
a
1(:) ÷:
a31
)(0
3
) ÷:
a32
d)(0
3
)
dt
....... ÷d
a31
)(0
3
)
dt
• Time Integrals
¸(t) =
Z
t
0
3
)(t)dt +¸(0
3
)
L
÷÷1 (:) =
1(:)
:
+
¸(0
3
)
:
(3.50)
• Time Scaling
¸(t) = )(ct)
L
÷÷
1
c
1(
:
c
). where c 0. (3.51)
• Time Delay
¸(t) = )(t ÷t
0
)
L
÷÷1 (:) = c
3ct
0
1(:). where t
0
0. (3.52)
30
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
• t Multiplication
¸(t) = t
a
)(t)
L
÷÷1 (:) = (÷1)
a
d
a
1(:)
d:
a
(3.53)
• : Shift
¸(t) = c
ot
)(t)
L
÷÷1 (:) = 1(: ÷c) (3.54)
• Convolution
¸(t) = r(t) + /(t)
L
÷÷1 (:) = A(:)H(:) (3.55)
• Product
¸(t) = )(t)r(t)
L
÷÷1 (:) =
1
2:,
I
c
1(:)A(: ÷`)d`. (3.56)
Example 3.11 Laplace Transform Pairs
1
)(t)
L
÷÷ 1(:)
o(t)
L
÷÷ 1
¹
L
÷÷
¹
:
¹t
a
L
÷÷ ¹(
:!
:
a+1
)
¹c
ot
L
÷÷
¹
: ÷c
cos .
0
t
L
÷÷
:
:
2
+.
2
0
sin .
0
t
L
÷÷
.
0
:
2
+.
2
0
2¹c
ot
cos (.
0
t +o)
L
÷÷
¹c
)0
: ÷(c +,.
0
)
+
¹c
3)0
: ÷(c ÷,.
0
)
=
2¹cos o(: ÷c ÷.
0
tan o)
(: ÷c)
2
+.
2
0
3.6 Equivalent Circuits in Laplace Domain
• Capacitor
— i ÷· characteristic in Laplace domain.
+ Admittance of capacitor in Laplace domain is :C.
i
C
(t) = C
d·
C
(t)
dt
L
÷÷1
C
(:) = C(:\
C
(:) ÷·
C
(0
3
)) (3.57)
+ Figure 3.10 (a) depicts the KCL equivalent circuit in Laplace domain.
— · ÷i characteristic in Laplace domain.
1
Footnote
31
Sec 3.6. Equivalent Circuits in Laplace Domain
) (s I
C
) (s V
C
s C ) 0 (
C
C v
) (s I
C
) (s V
C
s C / 1
) 0 (
1
C
v
s
(a) (b)
) (s I
C
) (s V
L s L / 1
) 0 (
1
L
i
s
) ( s I
L
) (s V
L
s L
) 0 (
L
L i
(c) (d)
Figure 3.10: (a) KCL equivalent circuit of a capacitor in Laplace domain. (b) KVL
equivalent circuit of a capacitor in Laplace domain. (c) KCL equivalent circuit of an
inductor in Laplace domain. (b) KVL equivalent circuit of an inductor in Laplace domain.
+ Impedance of capacitor in Laplace domain is 1,:C.
·
C
(t) =
1
C
Z
t
3"
i
C
(t)dt (3.58)
=
1
C
Z
t
0
i
C
(t)dt +·
C
(0
3
)
L
÷÷\
C
(:) =
1
:C
1
C
(:) +
1
:
·
C
(0
3
)
+ Figure 3.10 (b) depicts the KVL equivalent circuit in Laplace domain.
• Inductor
— i ÷· characteristic in Laplace domain.
+ Admittance of inductor in Laplace domain is 1,:1.
i
1
(t) =
1
1
Z
t
3"
·
1
(t)dt (3.59)
=
1
1
Z
t
0
·
1
(t)dt +i
1
(0
3
)
L
÷÷1
1
(:) =
1
:1
\
1
(:) +
1
:
i
1
(0
3
)
+ Figure 3.10 (c) depicts the KCL equivalent circuit in Laplace domain.
— · ÷i characteristic in Laplace domain.
+ Impedance of inductor in Laplace domain is :1.
·
1
(t) = 1
di
1
(t)
dt
L
÷÷\
1
(:) = 1(:1
1
(:) ÷i
1
(0
3
)) (3.60)
+ Figure 3.10 (d) depicts the KVL equivalent circuit of an inductor in Laplace
32
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
domain.
3.7 System Transfer Function in Time and Laplace
Domains
• Two ways to deduce the system transfer function in time and Laplace domains.
— Start in time domain and then take the Laplace transform.
— Start in Laplace domain and use Inverse Laplace transform to return to time
domain.
Example 3.12 Consider the RC circuit in Figure 3.11, the input is the current source
i
c
(t) and the output ·
c
(t) is the voltage across the RC components. Find out the system
transfer function and the outputs w.r.t. digerent inputs.
S
i
o
v
R C
Figure 3.11: The RC circuit to be solved in time domain and Laplace domain.
• By writing the node equation with KCL in time domain, we obtain the system
equation.
i
S
(t) =
·
c
(t)
1
+C
d·
c
(t)
dt
(3.61)
• By taking Laplace transform to both sides, the system equation in Laplace domain
can be derived.
1
S
(:) =
\
c
(:)
1
+C(:\
c
(:) ÷·
c
(0
3
)) (3.62)
• The system transfer function in Laplace domain.
H(:) =
\
c
(:)
1
S
(:)

·
r
(0
3
)=0
=
1
:C + (1,1)
=
1
1 +:1C
(3.63)
33
Sec 3.7. System Transfer Function in Time and Laplace Domains
Initial Value (Driving Free) Response
• Given i
S
(t) = 0. 1
S
(:) = 0, the output can be obtained from Eq. (3.62).
0 =
\
c
(:)
1
+C(:\
c
(:) ÷·
c
(0
3
))
= \
c
(:) =
·
c
(0
3
))
: + (1,1C)
(3.64)
• The time domain response can be calculated by taking Inverse Laplace transform.
·
c
(t) = ·
c
(0
3
)c
3t¸1C
(3.65)
Impulse Response
• Given i
S
(t) = o(t); 1
S
(:) = 1, the output can be obtained from Eq. (3.63).
— For simplicity, we do not consider initial condition, i.e., ·
c
(0
3
) = lim
t<0
3 ·
c
(t) =
0.
\
c
(:) =
1
1 +:1C
(3.66)
• The time domain response can be calculated by taking Inverse Laplace transform.
·
c
(t) =
1
C
c
3t¸1C
(3.67)
Step Response
• Given i
S
(t) = n(t); 1
S
(:) =
1
c
, the output can be obtained from Eq. (3.63).
— For simplicity, we do not consider initial condition, i.e., ·
c
(0
3
) = lim
t<0
3 ·
c
(t) =
0.
\
c
(:) =
1
C
:(: + (1,1C))
=
1
:
÷
1
: + (1,1C)
(3.68)
• The time domain response can be calculated by taking Inverse Laplace transform.
— The capacitor is like an open circuit once it is fully charged.
·
c
(t) = 1 ÷1c
3t¸1C
= 1(1 ÷c
3t¸1C
) (3.69)
Sinusoidal Response
• Given i
S
(t) = cos (.
0
t) n(t); 1
S
(:) = :, (:
2
+.
2
0
), the output can be obtained from
Eq. (3.63).
— For simplicity, we do not consider initial condition, i.e., ·
c
(0
3
) = lim
t<0
3 ·
c
(t) =
0.
\
c
(:) =
1
1 +:1C
×
:
:
2
+.
2
0
=
¹
1 +:1C
+
1: +1
:
2
+.
2
0
(3.70)
• The time domain response can be calculated by taking Inverse Laplace transform.
34
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
— The term ¹, (1 +:1C) stands for transient response, which can be trans
formed into exponentially decaying time function.
+ ¹ = ÷1
2
C,
¡
1 + (.
0
1C)
2
¢
.
— The term (1: +1), (:
2
+.
2
0
) represent the steady state response, which shall
yield the timedomain signal.
1: +1
:
2
+.
2
0
=
1:
:
2
+.
2
0
+
1
:
2
+.
2
0
=·
c
(t) = 1cos (.
0
t) +
1
.
0
sin (.
0
t)
= 1
0
cos (.
0
t ÷c) (3.71)
+ 1
0
=
r
1
2
+
³
1
.
0
´
2
.
+ c = tan
31
(
1
.
0
1
).
+ 1 = 1,
μ
1 +
³
.
0
1¸1C
´
2
¶
.
+ 1 =
1
C
³
.
0
1¸1C
´
2
,
μ
1 +
³
.
0
1¸1C
´
2
¶
.
— .
0
¿
1
1C
+ 1 ' 1, 1 ' 0. ·
c
(t) = 1cos (.
0
t) .
+ At low frequency, the capacitor is similar to an open circuit.
— .
0
À
1
1C
+ 1 ' 0, 1 '
1
C
. ·
c
(t) =
1
.
0
C
sin (.
0
t) =
1
.
0
C
cos
¡
.
0
t ÷
¬
2
¢
.
+ At high frequency, the capacitor is similar to a short circuit.
— The circuit acts as a lowpass ﬁlter.
Example 3.13 Consider the RLC circuit in Figure 3.12, the input is the current source
i
c
(t) and the output ·
c
(t) is the voltage across the RLC components. Find out the system
transfer function and the outputs w.r.t. digerent inputs.
S
i
o
v
R C L
Figure 3.12: The RLC circuit to be solved in time domain and Laplace domain.
Start in Time Domain
35
Sec 3.7. System Transfer Function in Time and Laplace Domains
) (t v
o
R C L
) (t i
R
) (t i
C
) (t i
L
) (t i
S
Figure 3.13: Time domain analysis.
• By writing the node equation with KCL in time domain, we obtain
i
S
(t) = i
1
(t) +i
C
(t) +i
1
(t). (3.72)
where
i
1
(t) =
·
c
(t)
1
i
C
(t) = C
d·
c
(t)
dt
(3.73)
i
1
(t) =
1
1
Z
t
3"
·
c
(t)dt =
1
1
Z
t
0
·
c
(t)dt +i
1
(0
3
)
• The system equation in time domain.
i
S
(t) =
·
c
(t)
1
+C
d·
c
(t)
dt
+
1
1
Z
t
0
·
c
(t)dt +i
1
(0
3
) (3.74)
• Apply the Laplace transform to both sides of Eq.(3.74).
1
S
(:) =
\
c
(:)
1
+C(:\
c
(:) ÷·
c
(0
3
)) +
1
:1
\
c
(:) +
1
:
i
1
(0
3
). (3.75)
where 1
S
(:) , L[i
S
(t)] and \
c
(:) = L[·
c
(t)].
• The system transfer function in Laplace domain.
— Assume no initial condition, i.e., ·
c
(0
3
) = lim
t<0
3 ·
c
(t) = 0 and i
1
(0
3
) =
lim
t<0
3 i
1
(t) = 0.
\
c
(:)
1
S
(:)
= 1,(
1
1
+:C +
1
:1
) (3.76)
Start in Laplace Domain
36
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
) (s I
S
) (s V
o
R
1
s C
s L
1
) 0 (
o
C v
) 0 (
1
L
i
s
Figure 3.14: Laplace domain analysis.
• Replace all the circuit elements by their KCL equivalent circuits in Laplace domain.
1 ÷÷
1
1
C ÷÷ :C\
c
(:) ÷C·
c
(0
3
) (3.77)
1 ÷÷
1
:1
\
c
(:) +
1
:
i
1
(0
3
)
1
S
(:) = 1
1
(:) +1
C
(:) +1
1
(:)
=
\
c
(:)
1
+
¡
:C\
c
(:) ÷C·
c
(0
3
)
¢
+
μ
1
:1
\
c
(:) +
1
:
i
1
(0
3
)
¶
(3.78)
• The system transfer function.
1
S
(:) = 1
1
(:) +1
C
(:) +1
1
(:)
·
r
(0
3
)=0
.
i
O
(0
3
)=0
=
\
c
(:)
1
+:C\
c
(:) +
1
:1
\
c
(:) (3.79)
=
\
c
(:)
1
S
(:)
=
1
(
1
1
+:C +
1
c1
)
Impulse Response
• Impulse response is the system output w.r.t an input signal of impulse function. It
is also the transfer function of the system which can be used to ﬁnd system poles
and zeros.
— i
S
(t) = o(t); o(t)
L
÷÷1.
— Assume no initial condition.
\
c
(:) =
1
(
1
1
+:C +
1
c1
)
1
S
(:)
=
1
(
1
1
+:C +
1
c1
)
· 1 (3.80)
=
:11
:
2
11C +:1 +1
37
Sec 3.7. System Transfer Function in Time and Laplace Domains
• System poles and zeros are the roots of denominator and numerator of the system
transfer function.
— Zeros , the roots of `(:).
— Poles , the roots of 1(:).
H(:) =
\
c
(:)
1
S
(:)
,
`(:)
1(:)
(3.81)
— The simplest way to obtain H(:) is by analyzing the system impulse response
in Laplace domain.
H(:) =
\
c
(:)
1
= \
c
(:)
=
:11
:
2
11C +:1 +1
(3.82)
=
`(:)
1(:)
• The timedomain expression of ·
c
(t) , L
31
[\
c
(:)] depends on the nature of the
system poles, which are the roots of denominator.
— Let the system characteristic equation be equal to 0.
:
2
11C +:1 +1 = 0 (3.83)
— Rewrite it as
c:
2
+/: +c = 0 with c = 11C, / = 1, c = 1 (3.84)
— The roots are
:
1
and :
0
1
=
÷/ ±
_
/
2
÷4cc
2c
= ÷
/
2c
±
r
(
/
2c
)
2
÷
4cc
4c
2
(3.85)
= ÷
/
2c
±
r
(
/
2c
)
2
÷
c
c
— The nature of the roots (:
1
, :
0
1
) shall depend on the value of the critical expression.
`
2
, (
/
2c
)
2
÷
c
c
= (
1
211C
)
2
÷(
1
11C
) (3.86)
= (
1
21C
)
2
÷
1
1C
38
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Underdamped
Criticall Damped
Overdamped
Impulse Response of RLC Circuit
t
v
o
(
t
)
Figure 3.15: Comparison of system impulse responses in digerent cases.
— Traditionally, we deﬁne two more parameters.
+ Neper frequency c.
c ,
/
2c
=
1
21C
(3.87)
+ Resonant frequency .
0
.
.
0
,
r
c
c
=
1
_
1C
(3.88)
— We can now rewrite the roots of the characteristics equation.
:
1
and :
0
1
= ÷c ±
q
c
2
÷.
2
0
(3.89)
• Three distinct cases are possible with respect to :
1
and :
0
1
depending on the values
of c and .
0
.
• Overdamped
— ` ,
p
c
2
÷.
2
0
is real, i.e., c
2
.
2
0
.
— :
1
and :
0
1
are two real, distinct and negative values.
— \
c
(:) can be factorized as follows.
+ ¹ = 11,(1 ÷
c
0
S
c
S
) and 1 = 11,(1 ÷
c
S
c
0
S
).
39
Sec 3.7. System Transfer Function in Time and Laplace Domains
+ Both ¹ and 1 are real numbers.
\
c
(:) =
:11
11C(: ÷:
1
)(: ÷:
0
1
)
=
¹
: ÷:
1
+
1
: ÷:
0
1
(3.90)
=
¹
: +:
1

+
1
: +:
0
1

— By taking the inverse Laplace transform, the response of ·
c
(t) (without initial
condition) can be formulized as follows:
·
c
(t) = ¹c
3c
S
t
+1c
3c
0
S
t
(3.91)
— Figure 3.15 depicts the ·
c
(t) in the overdamped case.
• Underdamped
— ` ,
p
c
2
÷.
2
0
is imaginary, i.e., c
2
< .
2
0
.
— :
1
and :
0
1
are two complex conjugate poles.
+ The damped resonant frequency .
J
,
p
.
2
0
÷c
2
is real.
:
1
and :
0
1
= ÷c ±,.
J
(3.92)
— \
c
(:) can be factorized as follows.
+ ¹ and 1 are complex conjugates.
\
c
(:) =
:11
11C (: ÷(÷c +,.
J
)) (: ÷(÷c ÷,.
J
))
(3.93)
=
¹
: ÷(÷c +,.
J
)
+
1
: ÷(÷c ÷,.
J
)
(3.94)
— Taking inverse Laplace transform, ·
0
(t) can be obtained.
+ Note that (¹ + 1) and ,(¹ ÷ 1) are real number since ¹ and 1 are
complex conjugates.
·
c
(t) = ¹c
(3c+).
g
)t
+1c
(3c3).
g
)t
= c
3ct
¡
¹c
).
g
t
+1c
3).
g
t
¢
= c
3ct
[¹(cos .
J
t +, sin.
J
t) +1(cos .
J
t ÷, sin .
J
t)] (3.95)
= c
3ct
[(¹+1) cos .
J
t +,(¹÷1) sin .
J
t]
— Figure 3.15 depicts the ·
c
(t) in the underdamped case.
• Critically damped
— ` ,
p
c
2
÷.
2
0
=0, i.e., c
2
= .
2
0
.
40
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
jZ
V
D
s
P
+jZ
jZ
s
P
'
0
Critically damped
Underdamped
Overdamped
Figure 3.16: Locations of poles and zeros.
— :
1
and :
0
1
= ÷c.
\
c
(:) =
:11
11C(: ÷(÷c))
2
=
¹
: +c
+
1
(: +c)
2
(3.96)
— Taking inverse Laplace Transform, ·
0
(t) can be obtained.
·
0
(t) = ¹c
3ct
+1tc
3ct
(3.97)
— Figure 3.15 depicts the ·
0
(t) in the case of critically damped.
• Summary
— The positions of poles determine the nature of System Response.
:
1
and :
0
1
= ÷c ±
_
c
2
÷.
2
with c =
1
21C
and .
0
=
!
_
1C
— Response is overdamped
+ if c
2
÷.
2
0
0 and :
1
, :
0
1
are two distinct real numbers.
— Response is underdamped
+ if c
2
÷.
2
0
< 0 and :
1
, :
0
1
are complex conjugate numbers.
— Response is critically damped
+ if c
2
= .
2
0
and :
1
, :
0
1
are real and the same.
— The positions of system poles move along the path (known as Root Locus)
shown in the following diagram.
Sinusoidal Response
• Sinusoidal response is the system output w.r.t an input signal of sinusoidal function.
— i
S
(t) = cos (.t) n(t) or 1
S
(:) = L[i
S
(t)] = :, (:
2
+.
2
) .
41
Sec 3.8. Bode Plots
— For simplicity, we do not consider initial condition.
\
c
(:) =
:
2
11
(:
2
+.
2
)(:
2
11C +:1 +1)
(3.98)
=
:
2
11
11C(: ÷:
1
)(: ÷:
0
1
)(:
2
+.
2
)
=
¹
(: ÷:
1
)
+
1
(: ÷:
0
1
)
+
1: +1
(:
2
+.
2
)
— Instead of solving for the coecients ¹. 1. 1. 1 analytically by hand (which is
a practically impossible task), we shall deduce the time and frequency domain
responses by reasoning.
— TimeDomain Response
+ The terms ¹,(:÷:
1
) and 1,(:÷:
0
1
) stand for transient response. Both can
be transformed into damped response in time with exponentially decaying
envelop.
c
3ct
where c =
1
21C
(3.99)
+ The term (1: +1) ,(:
2
+ .
2
) represent the steady state response, which
shall yield the timedomain signal 1
0
cos(.t ÷c).
· 1
0
=
_
1
2
+1
2
.
· c = tan
31
(
1
1
).
1: +1
(:
2
+.
2
)
=
1:
(:
2
+.
2
)
+
1
(:
2
+.
2
)
= 1cos(.t)+1 sin(.t)
= 1
0
cos(.t ÷c) (3.100)
3.8 Bode Plots
• A graph used to show the frequency response of an LTI system.
— To plot the magnitude in decibels (dB) and use a log scale for ..
+ The log scale helps to compress a wide range of data.
— Both the magnitude and the phase of the transfer function versus the angular
frequency ..
• System transfer function H(:) can be written as a product of factors of the following
items.
1. Constant factor 1.
2. Poles or zeros at the origin, :
±.
.
3. Real poles or zeros, (1: + 1)
±.
.
4. Complexconjugate poles or zeros, (1
2
:
2
+21¸:+1)
±.
, where ¸ is the damping
42
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
ratio and 0 < ¸ < 1.
H(:) =
`(:)
1(:)
(3.101)
• The magnitude of H(:) in dB allows us to plot the factors individually and sum the results
to obtain the complete plot.
H(:)
J1
= 20 log
10
H(:) (3.102)
— Given H(:) as follows,
H(:) = 1
(1 +1
:1
:)(1 +1
:2
:)
(1 +1
j1
:)(1 +1
j2
:)
(3.103)
— H(:)
J1
can be obtained by plotting each factor individually
H(:)
J1
= 20 log
10
H(:)
= 20 log
10
¯
¯
¯
¯
1
(1 +1
:1
:)(1 +1
:2
:)
(1 +1
j1
:)(1 +1
j2
:)
¯
¯
¯
¯
(3.104)
= 20 log
10
1 + 20 log
10
1 +1
:1
: + 20 log
10
1 +1
:2
:
÷20 log
10
1 +1
j1
: ÷20 log
10
1 +1
j2
:
• Bode plot for each of the factors.
1. Constant factor, 1.
— Magnitude
+ The magnitude 20 log
10
1 is a constant.
— Phase
+ The phase is a constant and equal to 0
(c
)0
= 1) or ±180
(c
±)¬
= ÷1)
depending on whether 1 is positive or negative, respectively.
2. Poles or zeros at the origin, :
±.
.
— Magnitude
+ The magnitude is a straight line that intersects the . axis (0dB) at
. = 1 and has a slope of ±20dB/decade.
— Phase
+ The phase is a constant and equal to ±`90
.
H(,.) = (,.)
±.
= (.c
)¬¸2
)
±.
(3.105)
H(,.)
J1
= 20 log
10
.
±.
= ±20` log
10
. (3.106)
43
Sec 3.8. Bode Plots
]H(,.) = ±`(,:,2) = ±`90
(3.107)
3. Real poles or zeros, (1: + 1)
±.
.
— Poles or zeros locate at ÷
1
T
.
H(,.) = (,.1 + 1)
±.
=
¡
:c
)0
¢
±.
(3.108)
H(,.)
J1
= :
J1
= 20 log
10
μ
q
1 + (.1)
2
¶±Q
(3.109)
= ±10` log
10
¡
1 + (.1)
2
¢
— Magnitude
+ Low frequency response (.1 ¿1; . ¿
1
T
): A horizontal line of 0dB.
H(,.)
J1
= ±10` log
10
(1) = 0 dB (3.110)
+ High frequency response (.1 À 1; . À
1
T
): A straight line of slope
±20`dB/decade that intersects 0dB when . =
1
T
.
H(,.)
J1
= ±10` log
10
(.1)
2
= ±20` log
10
μ
.
1,1
¶
(3.111)
= ±20`
μ
log
10
. ÷log
10
1
1
¶
+ Corner frequency response . =
1
T
.
H(,.)
J1
= ±10` log
10
2 = ±3`dB (3.112)
H(,.) = 10
±3.¸20
= 0.7079
.
(negative) or 1.4125
.
( positive )
(3.113)
— Phase
]H(,.) = ±`o = ±` tan
31
.1 (3.114)
+ Low frequency: ]H(,.)  0
.
+ Corner frequency: ]H(,.)  ±`45
.
+ High frequency: ]H(,.)  ±`90
.
4. Complex conjugate poles or zeros, (1
2
:
2
+ 2¸1: + 1)
±.
.
— For simplicity, we consider only the case of a single pair of complex conju
gate poles.
44
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
+ If the poles are repeated by ` times, all coordinates on the curves will
be multiplied by `.
+ If we have zeros instead of poles, curves are mirror images through the
. axis.
H(:) =
1
1
2
:
2
+ 2¸1: + 1
(3.115)
H(,.)
J1
= ÷20 log
10
³
¡
1 ÷1
2
.
2
¢
2
+ 4¸
2
1
2
.
2
´
1¸2
= ÷10 log
10
³
¡
1 ÷1
2
.
2
¢
2
+ 4¸
2
1
2
.
2
´
(3.116)
— Magnitude
+ Low frequency response (.1 ¿1; . ¿
1
T
): A horizontal line of 0dB.
+ High frequency response (.1 À 1; . À
1
T
): A straight line of slope
±40dB/decade that intersects 0dB when . =
1
T
.
H(,.)
J1
= ÷10 log
10
³
¡
1 ÷1
2
.
2
¢
2
+ 4¸
2
1
2
.
2
´
' ÷10 log
10
³
¡
1
2
.
2
¢
2
+ 4¸
2
1
2
.
2
´
' ÷40 log
10
(1.)
= ÷40
μ
log
10
. ÷log
10
1
1
¶
(3.117)
— Phase
+ 0 < . < 1,1.
]H(,.) = ÷tan
31
21¸.
1 ÷1
2
.
2
(3.118)
+ . 1,1.
]H(,.) = ÷180 + tan
31
21¸.
1
2
.
2
÷1
(3.119)
Example 3.14 Consider the transfer function \
c
(:) = 1,(1 + :1C) where 1 = 1 kl
and C = jF, express its frequency responses including both the magnitude and the phase
responses with Bode Plot.
• \
c
(:) can be ﬁrstly written as follows.
\
c
(:) = 1×
1
1 +:1C
(3.120)
• The factor 1.
— Magnitude is a constant and equal to 20 log
10
10
3
= 60dB.
— Phase is a constant and equal to 0
.
• The factor 1,(1 +:1C).
— . < 1,1C
45
Sec 3.8. Bode Plots
+ Magnitude is a constant and equal to 0dB.
+ Phase is around 0
.
— . _ 1,1C
+ Magnitude is a straight line of slope ÷20dB/decade.
+ Phase is around ÷45
when . = 1,1C.
+ Phase is around ÷90
when . À1,1C.
20
30
40
50
60
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
90
45
0
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/sec)
Figure 3.17: Bode plot for the transfer function \
c
(:) = 1,(1 +:1C).
Example 3.15 Consider the transfer function \
c
(:) = :1C,(1 +:1C) where 1 = 1 kl
and C = jF, express its frequency response including both the magnitude and the phase
responses with Bode Plot.
• \
c
(:) can be ﬁrstly written as follows.
\
c
(:) = 1C ×: ×
1
1 +:1C
(3.121)
• The factor 1C
— Magnitude is a constant and equal to 20 log
10
10
33
= ÷60dB.
— Phase is a constant and equal to 0
.
• The factor :
— Magnitude is a straight line of slope 20dB/decade and intersects the .axis at
. = 1.
— Phase is 90
.
46
Lecture 3. Electrical Circuits
• The factor 1,(1 +:1C).
— . < 1,1C
+ Magnitude is a constant and equal to 0dB.
+ Phase is around 0
.
— . _ 1,1C
+ Magnitude is a straight line of slope ÷20dB/decade.
+ Phase is around ÷45
when . = 1,1C.
+ Phase is around ÷90
when . À1,1C.
40
30
20
10
0
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
0
30
60
90
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/sec)
Figure 3.18: Bode plot for the system transfer function \
c
(:) = :1C,(1 +:1C).
Example 3.16 Consider the transfer function \
c
(:) = :11, (:
2
11C +:1 +1) where
1 = 1 kl, C = 1 jF and 1 = 1H, express its frequency response including both the
magnitude and the phase responses with Bode Plot.
• \
c
(:) can be ﬁrstly written as follows.
\
c
(:) = 11 ×: ×
1
(:
2
11C +:1 +1)
= 1 ×: ×
1
¡
:
2
1C +:
1
1
+ 1
¢ (3.122)
• The factor 1
— Magnitude is a constant and equal to 20 log
10
1 = 0dB.
— Phase is a constant and equal to 0
.
• The factor :
— Magnitude is a straight line that intersects the . axis (0dB) at . = 1 and has
a slope of 20dB/decade.
47
Sec 3.8. Bode Plots
— Phase is a constant and equal to 90
.
• The factor 1,(:
2
1C +:
1
1
+ 1)
— . ¿
1
T
=
1
I
1C
+ Magnitude is a horizontal line of 0dB.
+ Phase is ÷tan
31 2T¸.
13T
2
.
2
.
— . À
1
T
=
1
I
1C
+ Magnitude is a straight line of slope ÷40dB/decade that intersects 0dB
when . =
1
T
.
+ Phase is ÷180 + tan
31 2T¸.
T
2
.
2
31
.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
(
d
B
)
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
90
45
0
45
90
P
h
a
s
e
(
d
e
g
)
Bode Diagram
Frequency (rad/sec)
Figure 3.19: Bode plot for the system transfer function \
c
(:) =
:11, (:
2
11C +:1 +1) .
48
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