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NEWS R E L E A S E
NATIONAL AERONAUTK=S AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION I S P O H STREET. NORTHWEST . WASHINGTON 2 s . 0 . C .
TELEPHONES:
DUDLEY
2-6S2S
EXECUTIVE
S-32.0

Cape Canaveral P r e s s Room:
J u l y 13, 1961

Sunset 3-7626

NOTE TO EDITORS:

Attached i s t h e p r e s s kit for t h e second manned Mercury s u b o r b i t a l launch, Kexury-Redstone 4, o r " L i b e r t y B e l l . :' The material i n t h e k i t i s f o r r e l e a s e Sunday, J u l y 16, 1961.
The k i t contains f o u r s e c t i o n s :
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MR-4 Design Changes

2.

Mission P r o f i l e
Launch Chronology GiGcove:-;, Forcen

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An a d d i t i o n a l s e t of background p i e c e s i s a v a i l a b l e a t t h e HASA Hews Center in t h e S t a r l i t e Motel, Cocoa Beach, Floricia, and a t YASA O P I i n idashin&tGn. They a r e :
1.
2.

The Ground Crew

Astronaut Training Program Summary I n s i d e the P i l o t ' s Cabin
"IF" - A Study of Contingency Planning f o r Mercury Mission

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5.

The Launch Vehicle

Telephone numbers a t t h e NASA News Center a t Cocoa Beach are: Sunset 3-7626, -79 -8, and -9 and Sunset 3-7620.

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NEWS R E L E A S E
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATtON
I 5 2 0 H STREET. NORTHWEST TELEPHONES: DUDLEY 2 - 6 3 2 5

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W A S H I N G T O N 2 5 . 0. C . EXECUTIVE 3-3260

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FOR RELEASE:

July 16, 1961 Sunday A.M,

R";:L,I~SE NO,

61-152
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DESIGN CHANGES

The United St.atzs w i 1 L attempt; a second manned space flight in the next few days.

Then why bo'chcr w i 5 i a second i n m m d suborbital flight? Didn't Astronaut Shepard and a carefully curried spacecraft called Freedom 7 prove out the Yercury-Redstone system?

Freedom 7 die that and. more. Most importantly, Shepard proved that nar, could. riot o ~ l y exist in space but perform useful tasks there as well. An item-by-item listing of all the things Mercury-Redstone 3 proved would fill a small library. That hard-won data, however, mus% stand the test of time and later flights. Each item becomes a dot on a scientific-engineering knowledge curve. Each flight adds significantly, if nct historically, to man:s understanding of the strange enviromenf, of space. The MR-4 spacecraft, nicknamed Liberty Bell, will b e qGite similar to - h e Freedom 7 craft. It too will weigh about two tons at liftoff; measure six feet across its blunt bottom and stand nine feet high. It too will be fitted out with a 16-foot escape tower; its titanium pressure cabin housed i : a "shingled" skin of a temperaturer resistant alloy.
Most of the ma;:or systems will be the same environmental control, escape, communications, heat shield, landing apparatus.

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B u t t h e r e also w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n "Liberty B e l l . I i These changes appear i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t n o t because of any f a i l i n g of t h e Freedom 7 c r a f t b u t as dramatic evidence of the conc:wi+eacy concept used throughout F r o j e c t &J.ercGrY.
T h i s concept finds ilexea?,ch developgent, design, engineering, manufactui-ing and. l'li.c_;htt e s t p:mceeding simultaneously i n a n e f f o r t to ac:ii.eve tlie p r o j e c t ' s g o a l s i n t h e s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e t i m e span. Improvements are introduced I n t h e production l i n e a t the e a r l i e s t f e a s i b l e t i m e but a t a p o i n t which w i l l n o t d e l a y t h e f l o w of prcjduc'cloi? v e h i c l e s .

Most of the deslgn changes in " L i b e r t y Bell" were p u t into production Inore than (? year ago many of them suggested by t h e Mercury a s t r o n a u t s s h o r t l y a f t e r they j o i n e d t h e Mercury team more t h a n two years ago.
A y e a r ago Freedom 7 was i n t h e advanced prod u c t i o n stage while Liberty Bell had n o t y e t s t a r t e d down t h e production l i n e of McDoia~ellA i r c r a f t Corp., NASA's prime c o n t r a c t o r Tor Mercury s p a c e c r a f t . Thus i t was p o s s i b l e t o make the following changes i n t h e L i b e r t y B e l l c r a f t , a copy of which i s d e s t i n e d t o c a r r y t h e first American i n t o orbit:
WINDOW -- A n enlarged I I p i l o t o5servation window" r e p l a c e s two six-inch c i r c u l a r p r t s used i n Freedom 7. The trapezoid-shaped window measures 19 inches high, 1 inches a c r o s s t h e base and 74 inches a c r o s s the t o p . 1 It i s l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y above t h e p i l o t . The window w i l l be used as a n a v i g a t i o n a l a i d , j u s t as the s p a c e c r a f t ' s periscope and i n f r a r e d sensing equipment are used. It will permit a d i r e c t view of t h e horizon, thereby allowing t h e a s t r o n a u t t o determine the s p a c e c r a f t ' s a t t i t u d e . With r e f e r e n c e l i n e s i n s c r i b e d on the four-pane window, t h e p i l o t should be able t o hold t h e capsule p r e c i s e l y a t t h e r e q u i r e d

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34-degree a t t i t u d e f o r f i r i n g of retFograde (braking) r o c k e t s a t t h e peak of h i s f l i g h t . Obviously the window should provide a b e t t e r view of t h e Earth, cloud cover and perhaps stars. A t peak t r a j e c t o r y , t h e p i l o t ' s Earth view, depending on cloud cover, may take i n v a r i o u s Caribbean i s l a n d s and much of t h e United S t a t e s ' E a s t Coast.

PILOT TASKS -- I f a l l goes w e l l , t h e M - p i l o t R4 won't have t o work as hard o r as f a s t as d i d Alan B. Shepard, Jr. While t h e MR-4 p i l o t i s programmed t o perform many of the same s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s , he should have more time t o l o o k around i n s i d e and o u t s i d e the capsule.
During Shepard's f i v e minutes of w e i g h t l e s s f l i g h t , he c a r r i e d out many more tasks than are u s u a l l y attempted i n a similar period i n a i r c r a f t f l i g h t t e s t work. For i n s t a n c e , Shepard used the manual c o n t r o l system one a x i s a t a time: F i r s t p i t c h , then yaw, t h e n r o l l . T h i s was done because a p i l o t had never c o n t r o l l e d a c r a f t i n space b e f o r e . It was desirable t o a s s e s s h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s i n p r e c i s e steps.

Since Shepard encountered no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e s e maneuvers, the MR-4 p i l o t w i l l simply f l i p a switch and p u l l a special ' I handle on h i s l e f t T' console, p l a c i n g a l l three axes of s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e a t h i s command. But a t t h i s p o i n t , the p i l o t probably w i l l c a l l f o r only one o r two a t t i t u d e s h i f t s .
RATE STABILIZATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM -- A f t e r r e t r o f i r e , the p i l o t w i l l switch t o a n o t h e r new system of manual c o n t r o l being f l i g h t - t e s t e d f o r t h e f i r s t time - Rate S t a b i l i z a t i o n and Control System

(RSCS).

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I n t h e s t r a i g h t manual system used i n Shepard's f l i g h t , the hand c o n t r o l l e r served d i r e c t l y t o open and c l o s e 6 gas j e t s a t the base and neck of t h e s p a c e c r a f t which t u r n t h e c r a f t about on i t s axes, T h i s type of con-tral., wh.ile h i g h l y r e l i a b l e , does not o f f e r very precise X;taiieu.ver c m t r o l
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I n L i b e r t y B e l l , the pilot w i l l have t h e use of a similar manual c o n t r o l system, He can a l s o e l e c t t o switch t o RSCS. W i t h t h e l a t t e r system, t9e pSloSFs hand motions a r e t r a n s l a t e d i n t o e l e c t r i c a l s i g m l s w i t h i n a "black box. ri These e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l s then open o r c l o s e solenoid valves c o n t r o l l i n g t h e g a s j e t s , The s p a c e c r a f t ' s response w i l l be similar to t h a t of a m3dern high speed a i r c r a f t and should provide much more p r e c i s e control,
The MR-4 mission a s t r o n a u t K L P ~ e x e r c i s e t h e Rate S t a b i l i z a t i o n and Control System f o r the f i r s t time following r e t r o f i r e a t about 5-1/2 minutes a f t e r Paunch. He w i l l stay on this c o n t r o l mode ford the remainder of the f l i g h t . The MR-3 capsuie was made t o s p i n slowly, a t 2 r e v o l u t i o n s per minute, ctwing reens;ry 1 c n i s . "roll rate" w i l l n o t be employed i n t h e MR-4 flight,
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HATCH Uglike t h e i ~ e c ~ a ~ ~ i c s l l y - ~ p esidee h a t c h rzt d on Freedom 7, t h e M - s p a c e c r a f t i s equipped w i t h a hatch H4 secured by explosive b o l t s , just as She pilot's canopy i s secured i n a high performance a l r c r t z f t , , T3e a s t r o n a u t can j e t t i s o n the hatch by pasking B pllxnger b u t t o n i n s i d e t h e spacecraf'$ o r 'by p u l l i n g a c a 9 l e . The h a t c h may also be removed by recovery tezms, The explosive charge has been added as an a d d i t i o n a l pilot safety device t o i n s u r e easy and rapid escape i n the event of an emergency. When j e t t i s o n e d , the hatch may t r a v e l '~.pt o 25 f e e t from t h e spacecraft.
INSTRWIENT PANEL -- Major deslgn changes have been made i n t h e MR-4 panel wizh i n s t m m e n t gr,ompfngs f u n c t i o n a l l y rearranged a t the suggextiofi of tfie a s t r o n a u t s f o r quicker and easier r e f e r e n c e , I l l u s t r a t i o n s of the MR-3 and MR-4 instrument p a n e l s a r e a v a i l a b l e t o i l l u s t r a t e changes. Notable among t h e changes i s t h e a d d i t i o n of an e n u n c i a t o r (audio warning) panel on the r i g h t ,
ASTRONAUT PERSONAL EQUIPMENT -- The a s t r o n a u t f l i g h t s u i t and b i o i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n are the same i n design and f u n c t i o n as equlpment t e s t e d dinring t h e Shepard f l i g h t , w i t h s e v e r a l minor exceptions:

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(1) Nylon-sealed b a l l bearir,g r i n g s have been f i t t e d a t the glove connections of t h e a s t r o n a u t ' s s u i t , p e r m i t t i n g 360 degrees of w r i s t a c t i o n when t h e s u i t i s i n f l a t e d . Addftion of the B. F. Goodrich Company-

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developed quick-removal wrist rings required no suit modifications.
(2) New voice tnlcroyhones by Electro-Voice, have

been included as an integral part of the pilot's plastic helmet. The new microphones are expected to insure greater reliability and higher quality performance by cancelling out the inverter noise which reduced the qmlity of voice transmissions on the Freedom 7 flight.

(3) Additional protective foam plastic will cushion the pilot's helmet in the astronaut's contour flight couch to reduce ncrZse and vibration during powered flight.
SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT -- A new lightweight, radarreflective life raft will be carried in the Liberty Bell. Made of Mylar ( f o r air r e t e a t i o n ) and Nylon (for strength), the three-pound, fwr-OT;UEce raft weighs 45 percent less than the earlier version. It features three water ballast buckets fcr flotation stability and a deflatable boarding end which may be reinflated by an o r a l inflation tube following boarding. Developed j o i r . t l y by the NASA's Langley Research Center and the Space Task Groug, management element for Mercury, the raft is made of the same material used in Echo satellite balloons, The raft is internatfonal orange, and the inside has been alwniinised, making it radar reflective.

R4 Other M - changes include:
(1) Aerodynamic streanllining of the spacecraft-toRedstone three-piece cl,mp ring fairing to reduce vibrations during transonic flight and "Max Q" (the point at which the This highest airloads are imposed on the Mercury-Redstone design was successfully flight-tested in the March 1 , 1961, Little Joe launch f r m Wallops Island, Virginia.

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( 2 ) A new launch angle resulting in a flight trajectory with approximately one m2le higher altitude and three miles shorter range than programmed for %he Shepard flight. The Freedom 7 spacecraft hit a peak altitude of 115 statute miles and landed 302 statute miles downrange. Winds and last minute program changes invariably alter slightly the final altitude and distance figures. General purpose of t h e Mercury-Redstone program is to advance the qualification of the spacecraft and train astronauts for later orbital flights.

Principal objectives of the M - mission are: R4
(1) To familiarize a p i l o t with a brief but complete space flight ex erience, including liftoff, powered flight, weightlessness ]iapproximately 5 minutes) , atmospheric reentry, landing, and

(2) To further evaluate a pilot's a b i l i t y to perform as a functional unit during space flight by (a) demonstrati wnual control of the craft during weightless periods, using the spacecraft observation window and periscope for attitude reference and recognition of ground check points, and (c) studying man's physiological reactions during space flight

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MR-4 Mission P r o f i l e

f o r MR-4, using a c t u a l f l i g h t hardware, have been going

CAPE CANAVERAL, FLA.

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Intensive p i l o t rehearosals

on for more t h a n a month.

A t t h e same time, the Redstone b o o s t e r has been undergoing exhaustive checkout. Several weeks ago, b o o s t e r and s p a c e c r a f t were mated on Pad 5.

Before any launch, scores of mission s i m u l a t i o n s a r e run using t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s a t P r o j e c t Mercury Headquarters, Langley F i e l d , V a . , azd Cape Canaveral. A t t h e Cape, a p i l o t can " f l y " a Mercury s p a c e c r a f t i n a s p e c i a l l y designed a l t i t u d e - p r e s s u r e chamber i n the Mercury hangar. I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r ckraxber ivxs t o space-equivalent a l t i t u d e , p i l o t s are subjected t o p r e f l i g h t p h y s i c a l s , equipped w i t h medical s e n s o r s and assisted i n t o t h e i r 20pound f u l l - p r e s s u r e s u i t s . About two weeks before launch, three days go i n t o simulated f l i g h t t e s t s using t h e mission s p a c e c r a f t a t t h e pad. The medical t r a n s f e r van c a r r i e d an a s t r o n a u t and aeromedical a t t e n d a n t from the Mercury hangar t o t h e pad. Wearing h i s f l i g h t gear, a Mercury p i l o t went up t h e g a n t r y and entered the s p a c e c r a f t . A r e a l i s t i c countdown and simulated Mercury f l i g h t followed w i t h ground f l i g h t c o n t r o l l e r s a t t h e i r s t a t i o n s . During t h e early simulations, t h e g a n t r y remains a g a i n s t t h e v e h i c l e and the side h a t c h of the s p a c e c r a f t i s n o t c l o s e d . However, a f i n a l mission "dry run" at T minus three days i n c l u d e s s e c u r i n g the s i d e hatch, purging t h e p i l o t ' s cabin w i t h oxygen and p u l l i n g away the gantry. During the week preceding f l i g h t , t h e mission w a s rehearsed repeatedly, b o t h i n t h e v e h i c l e and i n a Link-type s p a c e c r a f t s i m u l a t o r (Mercury Procedures T r a i n e r ) i n the Mercury Control Center a t t h e Cape. Three days b e f o r e f l i g h t , two p i l o t s go on a low-residue d i e t .
About 7 a.m. t h e day b e f o r e launch, the f l i g h t countdown w i l l begin. I t ' s approximately a 12-hour count which i s broken i n half t o avoid crew f a t i g u e . The i n i t i a l hours a r e l a r g e l y devoted t o s p a c e c r a f t checks. I n t h e booster, c e r t a i n electromechanical v e r i f i c a t i o n s are made. F i n a l l y t h e " b i r d " i s f u e l e d and work i s suspended i n t h e e a r l y afternoon.

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Weight Height

a l c o h o l and 25 p e r c e n t water; o x i d i z e r , l i q u i d oxygen (temperature of which i s -297 degrees F . ) . Rocket development and design by N A S A ' s Marshall Space F l i g h t Center, H u n t s v i l l e , Ala. , and launched by M F I s Launch SC Operations D i r e c t o r a t e . Major Redstone c o n t r a c t o r s -C h r y s l e r Corp. , North h e r i c a n Aviation, I n c . and Sperry Rand Corp.

Here i s t h e Mercury-Redstone rocket a t a glance: -- 33 t o n s a t l i f t o f f , i n c l u d i n g s p a c e c r a f t . -- 58 f e e t ; w i t h s p a c e c r a f t , 83 f e e t . Thrust -78,000 pounds. P r o p e l l a n t s -- Fuel, '75 p e r c e n t e t h y l

The count resumes about midnight i f the weather appears f a v o r a b l e . F i r s t b i g i t e m i n t h e l a s t half of t h e " s p l i t " count 1s l o x i n g -- loading l i q u i d oxygen i n t o the Redstone.

A t 1 a.m., t h e l i g h t s w i l l go on i n the crew q u a r t e r s on t h e s e c o n d floor of t h e Mercury hangar. After a shower and a shave, t h e p i l o t w i l l have breakfast. H will have a wide s e l e c t i o n of t h i n g s e t o eat, p o s s i b l y s t e a k , s t r a w b e r r i e s , cookies and skim milk.

F o r t y minutes a f t e r he i s wakened, he w i l l be given a p r e - f l i g h t p h y s i c a l . About 35 minutes w i l l be spent p l a c i n g medical s e n s o r s a g a i n s t t a t t o o e d r e f e r e n c e marks on h i s body. Then he c l i m b s i n t o h i s pressure s u i t .

T-170 minutes: The a s t r o n a u t l e a v e s t h e hangar i n a medical van, t o g e t h e r w i t h a procession of e s c o r t v e h i c l e s and begins t h e 15-minute t r i p t o the launching site.
The a s t r o n a u t ' s s u i t w i l l be purged w i t h oxygen during t h e t r a n s f e r period, and as t h e p i l o t relaxes i n a r e c l i n i n g couch, continuous medical data will be observed a t

t r a i l e r consoles.

T-155 minutes: The pilot's final briefing is conducted. The medScal van will have halted near the Mercury-Redstone.
Fifteen minutes are devoted then to donning his gloves and checking his 22essu-c.esuit for leaks. A n additional five minutes elapse as the pilot and his attendants go up the gantry.
T-120 minutes: The pilot enters the craft through the side hatch and adjusts himself in the contour couch. Communications m d biomedical leads are connected. Restraint harnesses are secured about his shoulders t o r s o , and knees. At T-99 minutes, the astronaut's helmet visor is closed and 'che suit is inflated to 5 pounds pe? square inch. Another suit leakage check is run. Then a button is depressed on the side of the pilot's helmet, exhausting suit pressure.

The suit wiil n o t be 5i?!:lzbted during the flight unless cabin pressure f a l l s , So the suit serves as a backup "pressure chamber" providing the proper gaseous environment to sustain l i f e in t h e e-rent cabin pressure fails. Installation of the spacecraft's side hatch begins about T-80minutes. T i operation takes 20 minutes. A le f l o w of cold oxygen is f o r c e d into tke cabin. Leakage checks are condu.c+,edto ixsure that the cabin is properly sealed!.

T-55 minutes: Spacecraft technicians leave a d the gantry is moved away from the launch vehicle. The count proceeds.
T-4 minutes: All spacecraft systems are checked.
T-2 m-lnutes: Onboard cameras and tape recorders are started. Are astronaut serving as capsule communicator in the blockhouse announces that all Further communications between the spacecraft and the ground will be.by radio. Freon flow (spacecraft cabln coolant) is stopped.

T-35 seconds to lift-off - in rapid sequence: The test conductor announces "Capsule umbilical dropped,I! Other controller voices announce:
Periscope OK Vent valves closed me1 tank pressurlzed LOX tank pressurized Vehicle Power

Boom d r o p I g n i t ion

Main stage
Lift-off

During boosted fLiglit, t h e p i l o t w i l l monitor c a r e f u l l y b o o s t e r and s p a c e c r a f t prfomnalzce and talk wit'n a r o t h e r a s t r o n a u t - t h e capsule comniunicator i n t h e Mercury Control Center.
I f t h e mission i s no-mal, t h e Reds5one engine w i l l be s h u t down about two and a h a l f ir,inutc?s artex, l i f t off when t h e v e h i c l e has achieved a meed of some 4900 m i l e s p e r h0u.r. It w i l l be climbing a t an a n g l e of 40 degrees. At engine c u t o f f , b o t h t h e escape rocket and tower j e t t i s o n rocket above the c a p s u l e w i l l be f i r e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o remove t h e tower.

Ten seconds af'te-., engine cutoff', a clamp r i n g s e c u r i n g b o o s t e r and spa@eci-a?.'t will be sepxrated. Three 350-pound-thmast so1.3-G pope!.lank r o c k e t s a t the base of the s p a c e c r a c t i r i l l 3c iYiwi t o scpmzte s p a c e c r z f t from Redstone. By now the sprceci-a-Ct i s 35 m i l e s h l g h .
The p i l o t ' s p e r i s c o p e extends. At t h e same time, t h e a u t o p i l o k swings the spaceci?a-Pt .+l:L-o:inC! s o t h e b l u n t end i s fommi-d ani"! i l t e d uptmrd 311 Cegrees i n s t e a d of t 14 degrees as i n t h e Freedom 7 f l i ~ h t .
A t peak altititde abotzt 115 milles - the a s t r o n a u t w i l l be c o n t r o l l i n g t h e a t t i t u d e of t h e c r a f t and w i l l manually hold the c r a f t a t (211: a t t i t u d e of 34 degrees. This w i l l be t h e desix-+?ed atti5uude f o p retyof'ire i n o r b i t a l f l i g h t s . Although r e t r o r o c k c t s are not needed for r e e n t r y i n s u b o p b i t a l f l i g h t s , t h e y w i l l be f i r e d t o t e s t t h e i r o p e r a t i o n i n space and t o p o v l d e p i l o t s w i t h f l i g h t experience i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e r e t r o f i r e maneuver. The a s t r o n a u t t h e n w i l l be a S l e t o maneuver t h e c r a f t f o r a few miautes b e f o r e he establishes the reentry attitsde.

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During r e e n t r y , the p i l o t w i l l 5ake about 11 g ' s , roughly twice t h e g-load he gets during the powered phase of Redstone-boosted f l i g h t .
A t 21,000 f e e t , a p r e s s u r e s e n s i t i v e switch deploys a drogue parachute and a u t o m . t i c a l l y s c a t t e r s radar r e f l e c t i v e " c h a f f . I' A t 10,000 f e e t , t h e antenna f a i r i n g a t t h e neck of t h e s p a c e c r a f t releases, deploying the main l a n d i n g parachute. Concurrent w i t h main c h u t e deployment, an underwater charge i s e j e c t e d t o a i d r e c o v e 3 f o r c e s , t h e U F recoveqr beacon i s tu-Ted on, remaining hydrogen H peroxide - f u e l for t h e spacecL-aft contTol system is jettisioned.
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t o v i s u a l l y check h i s p a r a c h u t e . Should t h e main chute f a i l , he can j e t t i s o n i t and deploy a r e s e r v e landing parachute. During descent, valves open to allow o u t s i d e a i r i n t o t h e cabin.

The pilot may use the periscope or t h e observation window

Upon landing, a n impact switch j e t t i s o n s t h e main parachute, r e l e a s e s f l u o r e s c e n t sea-marking dye, t u r n s o f f i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n r e c o r d e r s and t r a n s m i t t e r s . The p i l o t , however, s t i l l has a voice r a d i o l i n k t o Mercury recovery f o r c e s . The s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be picked up by t h e Mercury Recovery Forces. These include an a i r c r a f t c a r r i e r and two d e s t r o y e r s i n t h e prime landing a r e a . Search a i r c r a f t w i l l a l s o be deployed i n t h e prime landing a r e a . Other s h i p s w i l l be deployed along t h e intended p a t h of f l i g h t t o provide f o r recovery i n case of undershoot o r overshoot.
I f t h e f l i g h t and recovery are normal, a h e l i c o p t e r w i l l l i f t t h e c r a f t out of t h e water and p l a c e it on t h e c a r r i e r ' s f l i g h t deck. T h e p i l o t may e l e c t t o remain i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t u n t i l it i s on board t h e c a r r i e r o r climb out t h e s p a c e c r a f t s i d e hatch and b e picked up b y h e l i c o p t e r .

LAUNCH CHRONOLOGY

CAPE CANAVERAL, FLA. - Two types of Mercury s p a c e c r a f t have been used i n t h e f l i g h t t e s t program. First series of shots used f u l l - s c a l e b o i l e p p l a t e models of t h e capsule t o check out b o o s t e r - s p a c e c r a f t intcgr*a.l;ior^and t h e escape system. Second phase of t h e development f i r i n g program used Mercuky capsules b u i l t t o production s t a n d a r d s .
This i s t h e chronology of t e s t f i r i n g s :

September 9, 1959: Dig Joe. NASA-produced r e s e a r c h and development capsule, launched on an Atlas from Cape Canaveral -- t e s t v a l i d a t i o n of t h e Mexvury concept. Capsule survived high heat and a i r l o a d s and w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y recovered. October 4, 1959: L i t t l e Joe 1. F i r e d a t NASA's Wallops S t a t i o n , VirgZniz, t o check matchllng of b o o s t e r and s p a c e c r a f t . E i g h t s o l i d - p r o p e l l a n t r o c k e t s producing 250,000 l b . of t h r u s t drove the v e h i c l e . November 14, 1959: Lriktle Joe 2. Also f i r e d from Wallops S t a t i o n , was an e v a l u a t i o n of the l o w - a l t i t u d e a b o r t conditions. December Ll, 1959: L i t t l e Joe 3. F i r e d at Wallops St.ation t o check h i g h - a l t i t u d e pei3'oimance o f the escape system. Rhesus moiikey Sam v ~ a sused as test xu-bject. January 21, 1960: Little J o e 4. F i r e d at Wallops S t a t i o n t o e v a l u a t e t h e escape system under high a i r loads, u s i n g Rhesus monkey Miss Sam as a t e s t s u b j e c t .
May 9, 1960: Beach A b o r t T e s t . McDonncllrs f i r s t production capsule and i t s escape r o c k e t system were f i r e d i n an off-the-pad a b o r t escape r o c k e t system ( c a p s u l e 1 ) .

J u l y 29, 1960: Mercury-Atlas 1. T h i s was t h e first Atlas-boosted f l i g h t , and was aimed a t q u a l i f y i n g the capsule under m a x i m u m a i r l o a d s and a f t e r b o d g h e a t i n g r a t e during r e e n t r y c o n d i t i o n s . The capsule contained no escape systems and no t e s t s u b j e c t . Shot was unsuccessful because of b o o s t e r system malfunction (capsule 4 ) . November 8, 1960: L i t t l e J o e 5. T h i s was a n o t h e r i n the L i t t l e J o e s e r i e s from Wallops S t a t i o n . Purpose of the s h o t was t o check t h e production capsule i n an a b o r t s i m u l a t i n g the most s e v e r e L i t t l e J o e b o o s t e r and t h e s h o t was unsuccessful (capsule 3 ) .

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November 21, 1960: Mercury-Redstone 1. T h i s was t h e f i r s t unmanned Redstone-boosted f'ligl?~, but premature engine c u t o f f a c t i v a t e d t h e emergency escape system when t h e booster was only about one in,ch o f f the pad. The b o o s t e r s e t t l e d back on t h e pad and was damaged s l i g h t l y . The capsule was recovered for re-use ( c a p s u l e 2 ) . December 19, I96C: Mercupy-Xedstone 1 A . T h i s s h o t was a r e p e a t of t h e November 2 1 attempt and was completely s u c c e s s f u l . Capsule reached a peak a l t i t u d e of 135 s t a t u t e mLles, covered a h.orizonta1 dist,mce of 236 s t a t u t e miles and was recovered s u c c e s s f u l l y ( c a p s u l e 2 ) . January 31, 1961: Mercury-Redstone 2. T h i s was theMercury-Redstone s h o t which c a r r i e d Ham, t h e 37-lb. chimpanzee. The capsule reached 155 s t a t u t e miles a l t i t u d e , landed 420, s t a t u t e miles downrange, and was recovered. During the landing phase, t h e parachuting capsule was d r i f t i n g as i t s t r u c k t h e water. Impzct of t h e angled'bilow I?larmed the suspended h e a t shield. a g a i n s t E bu:idle of pokte?. TrJLws, which drove a b o l t through the p r e s s u r e b ~ l l ~ l ~ c a d , causing t h e capsule t o l e a k . Ham was rescued b e f o r e the capsule had taken on t o o much water ( c a p s u l e 5 ) .
February 21, ,1961: Mercury-A%las 2. T h i s Atlasb o o s t e d capsule s h o t was to check m a x i m h e a t i n g and i t s

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e f f e c t during t h e worx'c r e - e n t r y design c o n d i t i o n s . Peak a l t i t u d e was 108 s t a t u t e miles; r e - e n t r y angle was h i g h e r t h a n planned and t h e hea5ing vms comespondingly worse than t a n t i c i p a t e d . I landed 1425 s t a t u t e miles downrange. Maximum speed was izbout 13,000 mph. Shot was s u c c e s s f u l ( c a p s u l e 6 ) .
March 18, 1961: L i t t l e J o e 5 A . T h i s was a r e p e a t of t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l L i t 5 l e J o e 5; i t was f i r e d a t Wallops S t a t i o n and w a s only marginally s u c c e s s f u l ( c a p s u l e 1 4 ) .

A ril 25 -1961: PIercuiy-Atlas 3. T h i s was an Atlasbooste s o t attempting to orbit t;he capsule w i t h a "mech--%--Ea n i c a l astroiiau..t" aboard. But 4-0 sec. a f t e r , launching, t h e b o o s t e r was destroyed by r a d i o command given by t h e range safety o f f i c m 0 The capsule was recovered and w i l l be f i r e d again ( c a p s u l e 8 ) .
A p r i l 28, 1961: L i t b l e J o e 5B. This, was t h e t h i r d attempt t o check the escape systern under worst c o n d i t i o n s , u s i n g a L i t t l e Joe b o o s t e r f i r e d from Wallops S t a t i o n . Capsule reached 40,000 f t . , and t h i s t i m e t h e shot was a complete success ( c a p s u l e 1 4 ) .
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M y 5. 1961: Mercury-RedsSone 3. This Redstonea boosted s h o t c a r r i e d Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. on a b a l l i s t i c f l i g h t path reaching a peak a l t i t u d e of 115 s t a t u t e m i . and a downmnge d i s t a n c e of 302 s t a t u t e m i . F l i g h t was s u c c e s s f u i ( c a p s u l e 7 ) .

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MR-4 RECOVERY OPERATIONS
CAPE CANAVERAL, FLA. - Ships, planes, helicopters and ground vehicles W i l l be deployed in a rlmber cf areas to pick up the MR-4 spacecraft and pilot, 'I'hese m ? a s include Cape Canaveral, to cover the possibility of a.r, a * x x t while the vehicle is either on o r just off t h e pad; near Cape Canaveral, for an abort during the early stages of flight; and the entire flight path from Cape Canaveral to beyond the predicted landing point In case of a late abort. The Task Force assigned to recover the astronaut and spacecraft will be under the command of Rear Admiral 3 . L. Chew. The forces will be made up of units from the Destroyer Force, Naval Air Force, Fleet Marifie Force, Service Force, Mine Force, USAF A i r Rescue Service, and the A i r F G P CMissile Test Center. Many ~ of the units have taken part i n e a r l i e r r e ~ o v e r yexercises. Past experience and close coordination with NASA in the development of procedures and techniques for safe but expeditious recovery have been developed over the past two years. Admiral Chew, Commacder Destroye? Flotilla ZOVR and Commander Project Mercury Recovery Fcrce, will exercise command of the Recovery Force from the Recovery Corz'crol Room located in the National Aeronautics ar~dS p c e A?~-flizistrstionMercury Control Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida. The T a e k Force is comprised of several Task Groups, each under an individual commander.

A Task Group dispersed a l m g the t r e c k and in the predicted landing area will be under the comman9 cbf Rear Adrr.iral J. E. Clark, Commander Carrier Division 16 who will fly his flag in the aircraft carrier USS Randolph (CVS 15). The units of this group are:

15) commanded 5y Cape.
USS Kony
USS Conway USS Strom

USS Lowry

1-1. E. Cook, Jr. commanded by Cdr. J. I;. Rothermel by Cdr. F. C. Dunham, Jr. by Cdr.,R. N. Keller Cdr. W. D. Mlllar by Cdr, 9. P. Carpenter

Air support for this group will be pmvided by Patrol Squadron 5 P2V's commanded by Cdr. R. H. Casey, Z r . , USN, and supplemented with USAF Air Rescue Service Aircraft. Carrier and shore-based helicopters will be provided from the veteran recovery unit, Marine Air Group 26, commanded by Col. P. T. Johnson, USMC.

A group positioned off shore consists of two minecraft and a rescue salvage vessel under the command of LCDR J. G. Everett. Another group located at Cape Canaveral consisting of numerous land vehicles and small craft from the Air Force Missile Test Center will be under the command of Lt. Col. Harry E. Cannon, USAF, of the Air Force Missile Test Center.

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