BRAZIL The Unknown Giant

Luiz Amaral

Geography
Territory: 8,514,215.3 km² (3,287 357 mi²) Coastline: 7,367 km (4,578 mi) Population: 185,752,945 (03.04.2006) Cities: 5,560 States: 26 + Distrito Federal Regions: 5 (North, North-East, Center-West, SouthEast, South)

Geography
Main cities with population in 2005:

• São Paulo – SP (10,927,985) • Rio de Janeiro – RJ (6,094,183) • Salvador – BA (2,673,560) • Belo Horizonte – MG (2,375,329) • Fortaleza – CE (2,374,944) • Brasília – DF (2,333,108) • Curitiba – PR (1,757,904) • Manaus – AM (1,644,690) • Recife – PE (1,501,008) • Porto Alegre – RG (1,428,696)

27% of the Brazilian territory. it is washed by the great rivers of the Amazon and Tocantins basins.North • 45. • It has the lowest demographic density of all the regions. palm tree. . • Enjoying an equatorial climate. iron and manganese).g. timber and chestnut). latex. diamonds. • 7 592 118 inhabitants.g. on mineral extraction (e. • The economy is based on vegetable extraction (e. cassiterite and tin) as well as largescale mineral exploration (e.g. gold.

• Oil exploration in Bahia state. • 45 924 812 inhabitants (28.26% of the Brazilian territory. • The economy of the region is based chiefly on the agro-industry (sugar and cocoa). . • São Francisco is the region's largest river and the only source of all-year round water for those who live on its banks. • Big tourist industry. • The majority of its territory consists of vast and ancient plateau that has been smoothed by erosion (semi-arid climate).9%).North-East • 18.

• 11 048 874 inhabitants (81. • The economy was initially based on gold and diamond prospecting which was gradually replaced by cattlebreeding.86% of the Brazilian territory. • This region has been undergoing significant changes in relation to its vegetation with the cerrado (scrubland) being gradually replaced by plantations or cattle-rearing.3% live in cities). . with frequent summer rain. • The climate of the region is semi-humid tropical.Center-West • 18. • Visitors from all over the world come to see the rich fauna and flora of Pantanal.

South • 6. and Azorean immigrants. except in the northern region of the state of Paraná where a tropical climate predominates. • It has a sub-tropical climate.1% live in cities). rice. • Initially based on cattle-rearing. beans and tobacco).75% of the Brazilian territory. soy. • The region was colonized by German. the economy of the South has developed a significant industrial base over recent decades. Italian. • 24 223 412 inhabitants (74. • Agricultural production makes use of modern cultivation techniques (wheat. . maize.

85% of the Brazilian territory. • Its typical landscape consists of rounded mountain formations. • Car manufacturers (Volkswagen. Chevrolet. • Biggest oil basin in Brazil (state of Rio de Janeiro). • Main international airports (Guarulhos – SP. .South-East • 10. • The region has the largest population: 69 174 339 inhabitants (88% live in cities). Galeão – RJ). Honda). Fiat. Mercedes. • Its economy is the most developed and industrialized in the country. Ford. Toyota. • It is the most visited region in Brazil. Citroen.

• It has the best research institutions in Latin America (USP and UNICAMP). http://www.latinbusinesschronicle. • Responsible for 35% of Brazilian GDP.São Paulo • Over 34 000 000 inhabitants.htm . • It is also the headquarters of the eighth largest stock market in the world and the second largest future market. • Its GDP is bigger than the GDP of any other country in Latin America except Mexico.com/ statistics/gdp/ranking. • Its GDP is twice the Argentinean GDP. • The state houses many of the largest Brazilian and international companies and foreign banks with head-offices in the country.

History • Brazilian History is divided into three periods:  Colony (1500 – 1822)  Empire (1822 – 1889)  Republic (1889 – present) • Brazilian Capitals  Salvador (1549 – 1773)  Rio de Janeiro (1773 – 1960)  Brasília (1960 – present) • Political Organization  Hereditary captaincies (colony)  States (previous provinces) with more local power  States as part of a federative republic .

Brazilian Territory .

Democracy and dictatorship in modern Brazilian History • 1889 – 1930: Constitutional Democracy. . • 1930 – 1945: Military coup places Getúlio Vargas in power. – 1937 – 1945: Estado Novo (New State). • 1945 – 1964: Democratic period. – 1930 – 1937: Vargas interim presidency. • 1985 – present: Modern Democracy. • 1964 – 1985: Military Dictatorship.

• Inflation and devaluation of the currency. • Influx of international investments.Juscelino Kubitschek (JK) (1956 – 1961) • Fifty years in five. . but at some cost. • Era of great hope. • Building of Brasília. • The economy boomed.

• Right-wing president who established relations with Cuba and Russia. • His resignation created a political crisis. • Polemic figure (prohibited bikinis in Copacabana). • Resigned in an attempt to gain political power. . 1961) • Elected with no congressional support.Jânio Quadros (Jan 31 – Aug 25.

• 1963 – 1964: Presidential system. • 1961 – 1963: Parliamentary system. .João Goulart (Jango) (1961 .1964) • Left-wing vice president. • Nationalist reforms to face social problems. • Nationalism vs Imperialism. • Nationalization of companies. • Increase of organized social groups.

1985) Emílio Médici (1969 – 1974) Ernesto Geisel (1974 .1979) .Brazilian Military Presidents Castelo Branco (1964 – 1967) Costa e Silva (1967 – 1969) João Baptista Figueiredo (1979 .

deficit. and social benefits were lost. . • Salaries were very low. • Growth was based on more debts and external dependency. the debt destroyed the Brazilian economy. • 1978 : Strikes in São Paulo. salaries. • 1973 – 1979: Economic Problems • Increase of internal and external debts. • 1969 – 1973: The Brazilian Miracle • GDP grew 11% a year. inflation.The Economy • 1964 – 1967: Economic Recuperation • Programa de Ação Econômica do Governo (PAEG) • Reduced budget. • IMF imposed a painful austerity program on Brazil. GDP grew again. • 1980’s: “The lost decade” • Inflation soared.

Geisel becomes president and promises democracy. Figueiredo becomes president and promises to finish Geisel’s work. • New political parties are allowed to exist.Redemocratization • 1974: Gen. • 1979: Gen. • 1982: General elections for governors and state representatives. . • 1979: General amnesty (including those who tortured civilians). • 1984 – Diretas Já! – Direct (vote) now! A civil movement for direct presidential elections.

• Prime Minister of Jango (1961).Tancredo Neves (1985) • Minister of Justice during Getúlio Varga’s government (1935). • Jan 15. • Tancredo was the hope for a new country. • Died in Mar 15. 1985. 1985: elected president by the congress. .

José Sarney (1985 . • His government faced several economic problems: huge foreign debt.1990) • Ex-member of the ARENA. • 1988: New constitution. and inflation. vice-president of Tancredo. • 1986: Elections for congress. • Plano Cruzado (economic plan) did not work. .

• He was a good looking candidate that promised to end corruption and to modernize the country. . • Involved in many scandals.Fernando Collor de Melo (1991-1992) • First president democratically elected since 1961. he was impeached in 1992. • Several rallies occurred throughout the country against him.

1994) • Vice-president of Collor. • Franco managed to unite several political parties and create a successful economic plan (Plano Real) in 1994 that reduced inflation to a single digit. • His minister of Economy was elected president in 1994. . • Inflation reached 6000% in 1993. formally took office in Dec 1992.Itamar Franco (1992 .

• FHC was reelected in 1998. • He privatized several companies (including CSN. • After some years of economic growth.Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1995 . and EMBRATEL).2002) • FHC consolidated the political and economic stability. . Brazil’s economy suffered the consequences of world economic crisis.

At age 12 he worked as a shoeshine boy and street vendor.Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003 . he and a group of academics. • LULA was elected president in 2002. . passing new retirement. • During the 1990’s PT shifted from a leftwing party to more center-left position. • Instead of deep social changes (as proposed in the past) his government chose a reformist line. • In 1978. union leaders and intellectuals founded the Labor Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores PT). and discussing a university reform. labor. he was elected president of the Steel Workers' Union of São Bernardo.present) • He had a very poor childhood. • In 1980. tributary. and judicial laws.

• The quality of public education is still questionable in some areas. This created the migration problem. • During the 20th century the South and South-East regions developed much faster. . • During the 19th century Brazil was poorer than Peru and growth was slow.Social Issues in Brazil • The Brazilian economy had a belated flourishing. • Before 1950 there were no good public hospitals. even for Latin American standards. • In the 20th century an educational system had to be built. and very few public health campaigns.

 Mulatos  Caboclos  Cafuzos • Brazil was the last country in the Americas to end slavery (1888). • Different developing rates among different geographic regions increased the problem. • The first affirmative action policies were introduced in the last ten years. etc) has been a slow process. and good health system. . • Social integration of African-Brazilians and other minorities (caboclos. cafuzos. • Racial minorities still have less access to good school.Racial Issues in Brazil • Brazil has a multi-racial society.

89.00 per month. It demands that the families send their children to school and keep their vaccines up to date. The government promotes public campaigns to educate the population.7% in USA.18% in Argentina. 13.1% in 1992 to 27. but 14% among African Americans). 97.5% in 2003 (15. “Fome Zero” (Zero Hunger) – A social program that distributes money to selected regions and cities whose inhabitants suffer severe difficulties.5% of homes have access to electricity. 99. 17.Improvements in Social Issues • • • • • • • Infant mortality rates dropped from 41.Brazil's guarantee of access to free antiretroviral (ARV) drugs since 1996.2% have internet access (although Brazil represents 32% of internet access in Latin America). . 5. Aids program .6% receive public clean water.3% of children (7 to 14) in school in 2003.5% have a computer at home. “Bolsa Família” (Family Aid) – the program consists primarily of financial aid to families with incomes of less than US$40.

India (among others). • Brazil exports to Europe. China. USA. . Japan.CURIOSITIES: Orange Pipeline (Sucoduto) • 30% of the orange produced in the world (USA – 18%). Russia.

• We vote using electronic voting machines. • Elections in Brazil are considered the most well organized in the continent.gov. • We enter the candidate’s number and see his/her picture and name on the screen.htm .CURIOSITIES: How do we vote? • 100% electronic voting. • Each candidate has one number.tse. • Official results in less than 24 hours.br/eleicoes/urna_eletronica/simulacao_votacao/UrnaApplet2. www.

CURIOSITIES: EMBRAER • Embraer has become one of the largest aircraft manufacturers in the world by focusing on specific market segments with high growth potential in commercial. defense. 85. 2003 and 2004. and executive aviation. It currently employs more than 16.500 people. .5% based in Brazil. • Embraer was Brazil’s largest exporter from 1999 to 2001 and the second largest in 2002.

• Bossa Nova was popularized in the US by Stan Getz. Frank Sinatra. and Vinicius de Moraes. João Gilberto. Tom Jobim. • The music derives from samba but is more complex harmonically and less percussive.CURIOSITIES: BOSSA NOVA (The new beat) • Bossa nova is a style of Brazilian music invented in the late 1950s by a group of middle-class students and musicians living in the Copacabana and Ipanema beachside districts of Rio de Janeiro. • Perhaps the best known bossa nova song is Antonio Carlos Jobim's “The Girl from Ipanema”. .

aegis.com.br/cdbrasil/itamaraty/web/ingles/index.html • http://en.org/wiki/Luiz_In%C3%A1cio_Lula_da_Silva • http://www.embraer.gov.wikipedia.gov.wikipedia.wikipedia.br/english/content/home/ • http://en.br/ (not everything is available in English) • http://ww2.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.Web resources • http://www.mre.ibge.html • http://www.htm • http://en.org/wiki/History_of_Brazil • http://www.com/news/ct/2003/CT030601.org/wiki/Bossa_nova .

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