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EARLY FILIPINO AND ASIAN RELATIONSHIP          Ancient Filipinos were expert seafarers and boat builders like their

Southeast Asian neighbors. They could travel far and wide to trade with nearby Southeast and East Asian neighbors. Scholars suggested they reached even as far as Champa (Vietnam) and India. Long before the coming of the Portuguese and Spaniards in the region, Philippines had outside trade contacts, and along with these, varied cultural exchanges took place. O.W. Wolters said such a trade may have been there as early as the 3rd century, based in the pearls and gold excavated in Funan. Filipino historians and archaeologists believe the Filipino-Chinese trade contacts began around the 9th century during the Tang Dynasty (618-906 A.D.). They cite as evidence Tang stonewares that were found in Babuyan Islands, coasts of Ilocos, Pangasinan, Mindoro, Batangas, Manila, Bohol, Cebu, Jolo, and Cagayan de Oro. If Chinese did not bring these items directly to the Philippines, Chinese goods probably found their way to the islands through Arab traders who had trade contacts with the Chinese. Arab Trade Routes in Southeast Asia o A group of people called Orang Dampuan from Southern Annam (Vietnam), established trading posts in Sulu. o A flourishing trade developed between Champa and the people of Sulu who were called Buranun. o This trade proved favorable to the Orang Dampuans whose prosperity drew the ire of the Buranuns. o In a fit of jealousy, the Buranuns massacred some Orang Dampuans causing the others to flee and return to Champa. o The famous pearl trade of Sulu also attracted another group of people known as the Banjar of nearby Borneo. o The Buranuns were suspicious to the Banjars because of the previous tragic experience with Orang Dampuans. o Instead of antagonizing the Buranuns, Banjarmassin brought their beautiful princess to Sulu and offered her as a bride to the Buranun prince, who eventually married her. o Sulu thus became a tribute-state of the empire of Sri-Vijaya, along with Banjarmassin and Brunei. o Sulu developed into an emporium to which trading ships of Java, Sumatra, Cambodia, Siam, and China would anchor to savor Sulu's prosperous trade and splendor. o Arab traders, who up to this point dominated this Southeast Asian trading, were later barred from the central Chinese coast. o They relocated to the Malay Peninsula where they sought an alternative route starting from Malacca and passing through Borneo and the Philippines to reach Taiwan. o They continued to carry Southeast Asian goods to the western world using this southern route. o They also carried Philippine goods on board Arab ships to the Chinese mainland through Canton. o This lasted up to the Javanese or Madjapahit period (1377-1478). o The Chinese trade in the Philippines greatly improved during the Ming Dynasty(1368-1650). o Emperor Yung-lo sent a fleet of vessels to the Philippines, under the command of Admiral Cheng Ho, to visit Lingayen, Manila Bay, Mindoro, and Sulu. o The Chinese emperor even tried to impose its suzerainty over Luzon by sending Ko Ch'a-lao as governor. Emperor Yung-lo's death, however, put an end to this ambitious plan.

8. HINDU INFLUENCES

pandita-priest. betel nuts. The copperplate contains an inscription in an old Philippine language. Java cloths. sponges. pear shell. tin. lacquered ware. which were derived from Sanskrit. and tint(Chinese silver money). the ancient language of India.D. stating the full payment of loan obtained by a woman trader from her contacts in the nearby Indonesia. abaca. gold coins (piloncitos) began to be used as medium of exchange. leather. 9. jade. China brought: iron bars. A figurine of the Hindu goddess padmapani was found in Butuan and was dated to 300 A. sutra-silk) Several deities in the myths of ancient Filipinos show traces of Indian influence: indra batara-lord of Universe. beeswax. mirror. gold. porcelain and pottery.    . lead sinkers for fishing nets. chintz.         The Malays who came to the Philippines were possibly Hinduized Malays(Malays who professed the Hindu religion of India) This Indian influence is clearly seen in some of the words in the different languages of the Philippines. pink and blue coral trees. lead.(Attest to the ancient contact between Philippines and India) The Philippine Catholic wedding ceremony has Indian infuences. scales. small bells. wine. baginda-emperor. Su-lu(Sulu). copper cauldrons. Examples: Sanskrit . silk. cloth of various patterns. black damask. resins. In exchange. coins. rattan. silver. idiyanale-god of agriculture. musk. hardwoods. tortoise shells. projectiles. tumbaga-copper. red tafetta. censers. A type of currency began to be used in the form of barter rings by the 8th century. and pepper. colored glass beads. mats.(agama-religion. gums. bronze gongs. By the 12th century.Tagalog ahi ahas swamin asawa Bhaga bahagi Vartta balita Kotta kuta Dala dala(fishing net) Ganda ganda Hari hari Lalarawa lalawa(spider) Tara tala Sanskrit words are also found in Visayan and Maguindanaoan languages. CHINESE INFLUENCES  Description of the lucrative trade between China and the Philippines can be found in Chao Jukua's Chu fanchi(1225) where the Chinese mentioned the following places: Ma-i(Mindoro or Bae in Laguna). iron needles. blue cloth. (Use of the cord and the veil) Laguna Copperplate discovered in the Pagsanjan. large conch shells. agni-god of fire. Ma-li-lu(Manila). sandalwood. including Tagalog. The Philippine trade goods included bulak. ivory. Min-tolang(Mindanao). and Pi-sho-ye(Visayas). Laguna river delta in 1986 is another evidence of this early contact with Southeast Asian neighbors particularly the Malays and Indonesians. The copperplate also shows shared knowledge in metallurgy and its use in trade and commerce to record transactions.

the status of Muslims in the communities was raised. 10.    Much of the Chinese influence on Filipino life is economic in nature. Islam spread outside of Arabia in two stages: 1st stage-Islam was brought to the rest of Middle east. By 1380. gunpowder. and Central Asia. The rulers of the Kingdom of Manila were found to be related by blood and marriage to the royal house of Muslim Brunei.D. Islam was introduced in the Philippines by Tuan Masha'ika(trader from Malaya) and his companion Tuan Maqbalu who came to Sulu in 1240s. Rajah Baginda arrived from Sumatra and further deepened Islamic consciousness among the Muslims in Sulu by building more madrasahs (school) in the area." . he strengthen Islam around the mosque he built in Tubig Indangan.cut up meat Hok-bu . Paramisuli) succeeded in establishing a government similar to the sultanate of Arabia. Karim ul' Makhdum arrived in Buansa (Sulu). Filipinos also borrowed the Chinese custom of having parents arrange the marriage of their children. Northern Africa. According to Sulu genealogy called tarsila. when missionary from Java. they found Manila and the nearby places with Muslim connections.1 FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM  Shahada -a declaration of faith in the oneness of god -Kalima is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: 'La 'ilea-ha 'IL-all-laa-hu mu-ham-ma-door Ra-soolul-laah "I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger.Chinese cabbage The Filipinos also learned from the Chinese the use of umbrellas.katay . Serif Kabungsuan arrived from Jahore (state of Malaysia) and converted many inhabitants to Islam.          10.Muslim missionaries traveled with Arab merchants to India. China. and to Southeast Asia.petsay .Tagalog .dried salted shrimps Ke-tai . Abu Bakr (married Rajah Baginda's daughter.ampaw . his wealth increased and with it.hukbo army Peh-chihai .English Am-pau .. Chinese . Spain. This is shown by the Chinese words that were adopted in Tagalog. metallurgy. THE COMING OF ISLAM IN THE PHILIPPINES  After Mohammad's death in 632 A.puffed rice He-bi hibi . The spread of Islam was so rapid that when the Spaniards arrived in 1570. Wearing white clothing instead of black for mourning the death of family and relatives is also from China. and mining methods. Tawi-tawi. gongs. porcelain. He became the 1st sultan of Maguindanao. 2nd stage. In Maguindanao (Cotabato and Lanao).

and widows. Sawm: Fasting -Three types of fasting (Siyam) are recognized by the Quran: Ritual fasting.  Fasting is observed during the Ramadan. Maghrib (evening). as directly communicated by the angel to the prophet Mohammad. Zakat -giving of alms Hadji -one-time pilgrimage to Mecca 10. allah. -Life in this world is only temporary and one's good and bad deeds are listed by an angel for final judgment on the last day of humanity. -The Koran forbids any human or animal representation in their art.  Among the teachings of the Koran are the ff. honesty. the names are according to the prayer times: Fajr (dawn). faithfulness. -Muslims are duty-bound to help the poor. gambling. drinking wine.    Salat: Prayer -prayer facing the east (Mecca) five time a day. -Every Muslims must observe the 5 pillars of Islam. fasting as compensation for repentance. THE COMING OF THE SPANIARDS 11. and courage. and Isha' (night). and ascetic fasting. which is held at the ninth month of Muslim calendar. No solids are taken from early dawn until sunsets. -Islam forbids loans and usury.  Written in Arabic. -Telling lies.2 MUSLIM TRADITIONS AND PRACTICES  The basic tenets of Islam are found in the Qur'an(Koran). adultery. They purify themselves by praying and practicing good deeds and self-restraint. the holy book of the Muslims. stealing.: -There is only one supreme being. -Consists of five daily prayers according to the Sunna. honor. REASONS FOR EUROPEAN INVASIONS OVER ASIA . Only geometric patterns are allowed. the orphans. Each one will be judged according to what one has done in his lifetime. -Every Muslim must have goodness expressed in faith in God and such virtues as patience. and other vices are forbidden in orthodox Islam. Dhuhr (noon). the creator of the universe and all of humankind. -Eating pork. Asr (afternoon). allah. and murder are all grave sins that deserve serious punishment. the Koran is considered the word of the supreme creator.

Prince Henry ('The Navigator') is one of the most famous Portuguese navigators. Later. the improvement in the science of navigation. the Portuguese navigator Bartholomew Diaz discovered the Cape of Good Hope and Calicut. Spain. EARLY VOYAGES TO ASIA            Portugal was the first to send expeditions to the east. 13. The stories led many Europeans to admire the wonders of the East. This commercial rivalry led to European expeditions to Asia. who went to the Holy Land to reclaim it from the Muslims. the advances in science. sent an expedition to what is now North America. (He thought that the large mass of land he had discovered was Asia) Amerigo Vespucci was sent by the Spanish king and queen to explore what Colombus had found. 12. Prince Henry himself led expeditions to Western Africa. Added to this was the desire of the Europeans to know more about the countries of the ''Orient'' because of the stories told by the Christian crusaders of Europe. which was a kind of ship. and the caravel. and the invention of machines and marine instruments. Portuguese and Spaniards. In 1513. The expedition discovered the islands of Madeira and Azores and developed it into Portuguese colonies. DIVISIONS OF THE WORLD  A sea rivalry resulted from the discoveries made by Spain and Portugal. upon learning of this successful voyage. using the instruments for navigation he developed like the astrolabe. He sent an expedition to the Azores near the coast of Africa in 1421. India. and other people of Europe began to trade with oriental countries. Vicente Pinzon discovered what is now Brazil. .      In the 16th century. Christopher Colombus discovered North America in 1492. Prince Henry's voyages inspired other explorers to sail to the east. windrose compass. As a result. Nunez de Balboa crossed what is now Panama and discovered the Pacific Ocean. (Geographers thought that Amerigo found a 'new world' so they named this land America) In 1500. In 1487. rivalry developed among the European countries. Europe was experiencing some changes because of the growth of industry and commerce.

and those on the west would belong to Spain. He befriended the rajah and his brother(Si Agu) and sealed their friendship with blood compact. Julian at the Southern tip of South America. and vice versa. for the purpose of trading with them. After two months. the expedition left port and sailed southward across the Atlantic. he reached Port St.         Pope Alexander VI issued a bull in 1493 to avoid a possible war between the two great nations. Portugal will take possession of the continent of Africa. the said lands should be turned over to Portugal. dividing the world into two. being a Spaniard. he sighted the mountains of what is now Samar and this event marked the coming of the first Spaniards in the Philippines. 1494. But some natives stole one of his boats so Magellan named the island 'Islas de Ladrones'(Islands of Thieves) On March 17. The expedition consisted of 5 ships: the flagship Trinidad. Magellan proceeded to the islet of Limasawa which was ruled by Rajah Kulambu. 1519. They rest there and gathered some foods. The King agreed to send an expedition to Moluccas. He continued his voyage to Rio de Janeiro and reached the Rio de la Plata in February 1590. nullified this provision of the second bull by allowing the Spain to own lands to be discovered in the East. they reached what is now Pernambuco in Brazil. Santiago(wrecked). The King of Portugal protested the decision of the Pope. He crossed a strait to the Pacific Ocean that is now called the Strait of Magellan. Lands to be discovered east of this line would belong to Portugal. San Antonio(abandoned). THE MAGELLAN EXPEDITION AND REDISCOVERY OF THE PHILIPPINES          Magellan was a Portuguese who approached the Spanish King Charles I.  No Portuguese ships shall be sent to lands belonging to Spain. Magellan ordered a mass to be celebrated on the islet by Father Pedro de Valderrama. All lands south and west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands were to belong to Spain. To avoid any conflict between two nations. with the help of his father-in-law(Don Juan de Aranda). 1521. (1st mass in Philippines)     .(1st blood compact between Filipinos and Spaniards) On March 31. because his plan to sail west was rejected by the King of Portugal. Lands to be discovered east of this imaginary line would belong to Portugal. 14. The Pope issued another bull to make this provision clear by which an imaginary line was drawn from north to south at 100 degrees west of Azores. and Victoria. Magellan explained to the King that he could reach Moluccas(spice islands) by sailing west. The Pope. The important provisions of this treaty were the ff. He only had three ships remaining but Magellan still crossed the Pacific Ocean and reached the Marianas.  If Spanish discovered lands east of the demarcation line. On September 20. In March.:  An imaginary line was drawn from north to south at a distance of 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands. they concluded the Treaty of Tordesillas on June 7. Concepcion. and lands discovered by Portuguese west of the line should be turned over to Spain. and those west would belong to Spain.

who refused to recognize the King of Spain as his sovereign. Felipinas in honor of Prince Philip of Spain. Lazarus. among them Rajah Humabon(Carlos in honor of King Charles) and his wife who was given the name Juana in honor of King Charles' mother. to command the expedition. Faced with starvation. With six ships. The natives of Mindanao refused to have any dealing with the Spaniards. Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and Victoria succeeded in reaching Spain commanded by Sebastian del Cano. Rajah Si Lapulapu. King Charles of Spain agreed that expeditions should be sent to Moluccas.000 gold ducats) Spain respected its provisions but from 1538-1541. There was no enough food in Limasawa so they sail for what is now Cebu. 1529. named the islands of Samar and Leyte.         Magellan took possession of the islands in the name of Prince Charles and called them the Archipelago of St. Villalobos send one of his men Bernardo de la Torre to Tandaya(Samar) to get some food. Rajah Sula asked Magellan's help to defeat his rival. Magellan was killed and the Spaniards fled to their ships and left. . Magellan gave Juana an image of the Infant Jesus which is now the patron of Cebu. To commemorate this event. Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Zaragoza(Portugal won possession of the Moluccas by paying Spain 350. Magellan accepted the invitation and sailed to Mactan early with around 60 of his men. 16. This voyage was the greatest single voyage ever known to man in early modern times. 1542. Magellan's voyage proved conclusively that the earth was round. and reached Mindanao in February 1543. (April 8. Si Lapulapu refused to listen to Magellan's demand and prepared to fight to the end. crossed the Pacific. Villalobos left Mexico on November 1. De la Torre met the chieftain Makandala who gave him enough food. The first baptism happened and some 800 natives became Christian that day. On April 22. The Viceroy of Mexico chose Ruy Lopez de Villalobos. 1521) Raja Humabon welcomed the Spaniards and soon a blood compact between him and Magellan. This expedition put an end to the Venetian monopoly of the Southern route. Mass was celebrated in Cebu and a cross was erected and Magellan persuaded the Cebuanos to become Christians. THE BATTLE OF MACTAN        A quarrel between two chieftains of the neighboring island of Mactan occured. Villalobos in his pleasure. 15. Victoria sailed to Europe by way of Africa while Trinidad sailed to Europe by way of the Pacific. THE VILLALOBOS EXPEDITION          Spain and Portugal quarrelled over the possession of the Moluccas.

2 PANAY SETTLEMENTS . A Filipino who committed crime should be turned over to Spanish authorities. 5. They were convinced and they created an agreement with the help of Tupas' brothers.1 CEBU SETTLEMENTS      Cebuanos were hostile to Legazpi probably because in the past. Father Urdaneta discovered a new route which the Manila galleons would follow in later years. Legazpi sailed from Mexico Port of Navidad on November 21. some white men maltreated them. Felipe de Salcedo. SPANISH SETTLEMENTS IN THE PHILIPPINES 18. did not believe him and they fled to the mountains after setting all the houses on fire in what is now Cebu city. The Filipino promised to help the Spaniards in any battle against an enemy. He sailed to Bohol and blood compact with Datu Si Katuna and Si Gala. Legazpi ordered the return of the ship San Pedro to Mexico which was piloted by Father Urdaneta and Legazpi's grandson. Goods to be sold should be moderately priced. 3. and in return. Tupas.  They leave the Philippines and sailed to Moluccas where they were captured by the Portuguese. The Cebuano chieftain. With four ships and about 380 men. Peace reigned in Cebu and Legazpi turned his attention in founding of Spanish settlement called San Miguel. and a Spaniard who committed a crime shall be turned over to the chieftain. Legazpi explained that the white men were not Spaniards but Portuguese. Legazpi applied a policy of attraction which invited the Cebuanos to come down from the mountains and promised not to harm any of them. A fort was constructed and called Fort San Pedro.   18. They were later set free but Villalobos died in Amboina in 1546. 1564. He concluded a blood compact with some of the chieftains (Bankaw-datu of Limasawa). 2. The expedition reached Cebu in February 1565 then he sailed to Cibabao(Leyte) then to Samar. THE LEGAZPI EXPEDITION         Another expedition was sent to the Philippines and King Philip II chose Father Andres de Urdaneta as pilot of the new mission. 4. The Filipinos promised to be loyal to the King of Spain and Spaniards. the Spaniards will protect the Filipino. Si Makayo and Si Katapatan. An armed Filipino is not allowed to enter in Spanish settlement. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi was appointed head of the expedition. Having settled in Cebu. 18. 17. 1.

On the banks of Panay River.      The Portuguese captain Gonzalo de Pereira. He won over the people of Panay by convincing them of his peaceful intentions. With the help of Cebuanos. harassed Legazpi by blockading Cebu in order to starve the Spaniards. Spanish missionaries (Augustinian Friars) converted some natives to Christianity. Legazpi founded the second Spanish settlement in the Philippines. Legazpi decided to move to Panay were there was plenty of food. . Legazpi succeeded in forcing Pereira to leave the Philippines.