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Planets in the solar system

Planets in the solar system

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summarized description of the planets in the solar system
summarized description of the planets in the solar system

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Categories:Book Excerpts
Published by: Catherine Anne Porter on Sep 22, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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• • • • • • •

Second planet from sun. named after the roman goddess of love and beuty. Venus is sometimes called the sister planet of the earth beacuse of its similar size,gravity and bulk composition. consist of 96% carbon dioxide. hottest planet in the Solar System. It has no carbon cycle to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features. Venus' surface is a dry desertscape interspersed with slab-like rocks and periodically refreshed by volcanism. Venus is always brighter than any star outside our solar system.


• • • • • •

Also known as our home planet. Earth formed approximately 4.54 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within its first billion years. largest of our 4 teresstrial planets. During one orbit around the Sun, the Earth rotates about its own axis 366.26 times, creating 365.26 solar days, or one sidereal year. Earth's atmosphere and oceans formed by volcanic activity and outgassing that included water vapor. About 71% of the surface is covered by salt water oceans, with the remainder consisting of continents and islands which together have many lakes and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere.


is Earth's only natural satellite.

Due to the moon and earth's tidal interaction. Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft.846 mi) at its equator. although helium only comprises about a tenth of the number of molecules. Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium.984 km (88. JUPITER • • Largest planet in the solar system with a diameter of 142. Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. nickel and rock (silicon and oxygen compounds). an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid . It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth of that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet. most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. diameter about one quarter of earth. The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot. the Moon recedes from Earth at the rate of approximately 38 mm a year. • • • • SATURN • • Saturn is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth. located 22° south of the equator. a persistent anticyclonic storm that is larger than Earth. surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen. Saturn's interior is probably composed of a core of iron.• • • • the Earth's Neighboor.

these jokes do not reflect the pronunciation preferred by astronomers. Neptune is the most dense. which is "you-ranus". along with traces of hydrocarbons. The rings extend from 6. but Saturn's bands are much fainter and are much wider near the equator. • Saturn has a prominent ring system that consists of nine continuous main rings and three discontinuous arcs. • • • URANUS • • Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune. Saturn's atmosphere exhibits a banded pattern similar to Jupiter's. contains more "ices" such as water. Uranus revolves around the Sun once every 84 Earth years.630 km to 120.700 km above Saturn's equator. ammonia. although similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium. However. so its axis of rotation is approximately parallel with the plane of the Solar System. which is 15 times the mass of Earth but not as dense. Uranus has an axial tilt of 97. 53 of which have formal names. Uranus's atmosphere. with stress on the first syllable. Saturn has at least 150 moons and moonlets.77 degrees. and methane. average approximately 20 meters in thickness and are composed of 93% water ice with traces of tholin impurities and 7% amorphous carbon.xD • • • NEPTUNE • Among the gaseous planets in the solar system. and both are of different chemical composition than the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn.helium and an outer gaseous layer. . Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus. Humor: Uranus is frequently a subject of crude humor due to the colloquial pronunciation of its name as "your-anus". composed mostly of ice particles with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust.

Mars is a terrestrial planet that consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen. and other elements that typically make up rock. Like Earth. which most likely gives them a reddish hue. deserts. . Neptune's atmosphere is 80% hydrogen and 19% helium. as can its reddish coloring. though one much less substantial than that of Saturn. metallic core region overlaid by less dense materials. metals. Neptune has a planetary ring system. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere.with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days. known as the Kuiper belt. Neptune's orbit has a profound impact on the region directly beyond it. valleys. this planet has undergone differentiation. The rings may consist of ice particles coated with silicates or carbon-based material. Neptune's more varied weather when compared to Uranus is believed to be due in part to its higher internal heating. • • • • MERCURY • Mercury is the smallest and closest to the Sun of the eight planets in the Solar System. • • MARS • • it is often described as the "Red Planet" because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye. The Kuiper belt is a ring of small icy worlds. and polar ice caps of Earth. having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes. except at the lowest elevations for short periods.• • At high altitudes. similar to the asteroid belt but far larger. resulting in a dense. extending from Neptune's orbit at 30 AU out to about 55 AU from the Sun. Liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure.

Viewing the Sun through light-concentrating optics such as binoculars may result in permanent damage to the retina without an appropriate filter that blocks UV and substantially dims the sunlight. it moves around its orbit in about 116 days. the Sun has been an object of veneration in many cultures throughout human history. 800 °F) during the day at some equatorial regions. Humanity's most fundamental understanding of the Sun is as the luminous disk in the sky. however. Like other natural phenomena. The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 20–25% of the solar radius. Sunlight is Earth's primary source of energy. ranging from 100 K (−173 °C. whose presence above the horizon creates day and whose absence causes night. These fissionable materials trapped • • . Mercury's surface experiences the greatest temperature variation of all the planets. Mercury makes three rotations about its axis for every two revolutions around its orbit. It is almost perfectly spherical and consists of hot plasma interwoven with magnetic fields. Mercury does not experience seasons in the same way as most other planets. doing so for brief periods is not hazardous for normal non-dilated eyes. as seen relative to the fixed stars. it appears to move around its orbit in about 116 days. The only other source of energy the Earth has are the fissionable materials generated by the cataclysmic death of another star. −280 °F) at night to 700 K (427 °C. such as the Earth. SUN • • • • Is the star in the center of our solar system.• • • • • Seen from the Earth. which is much faster than any other planet.which is more faster than other planets Because it has almost no atmosphere to retain heat. The brightness of the sun can cause pain from looking at it with the naked eye.

in the Earth's crust is what gives rise to geothermal energy. . which drives the volcanism on Earth while also making it possible for mankind to fuel nuclear reactors.

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