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Syllogism

3

CHAPTER 1

Syllogism

The word ‘Syllogism’ is also referred to ‘Logic’. Syllogism is an important section of logical reasoning and hence, a working knowledge of its rules is required on the part of the candidate. Hence, it can be expressed as the ‘Science of thought as expressed in language’. The questions based on syllogism can be solved by using Venn diagrams and some rules devised with the help of analytical ability. With this unique characteristic, this test becomes an instrument of teaching the candidates to follow the rules and work as per the instructions without an error. Here, only the basic concept and rules, which have a bearing on reasoning faculty could alone help. There are some terminology which are used in syllogism.

Proposition
It is also referred to as ‘Premises’. It is a sentence which asserts that either a part of, or the whole of, one sets of objects-the set identified by the subject term in the sentence expressing that sentence either is included in, or is excluded from, another set-the set identified by the predicate term in that sentence.

Type s

of

Pro posit io n

Categorical Proposition There is relationship between the subject and the predicate without any condition. I. All beams are logs. II. No rod is stick. Hypothetical Proposition: There is relationship between subject and predicate which is asserted conditionally. I. If it rains he will not come. II. If he comes, I will accompany him. Disjunctive Proposition In a disjunctive proposition the assertion is of alteration. Example : I. Either he is brave or he is strong. II. Either he is happy or he cannot take revenge. Example : Example :

P art s

of

Pro posit io n

It consists of four parts. 1. Quantifier: In quantifier the words, ‘all’, ‘no’ and ‘some’ are used as they express quantity. ‘All’ and ‘no’ are universal quantifiers because they refer to every object in a certain set. And quantifier ‘some’ is a particular quantifier because it refers to at least one existing object in a certain set. 2. Subject: It is the word about which something is said.
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Syllogism

3. Predicate: It is the part of proposition which denotes which is affirmed or denied about the subject. 4. Copula: It is the part of proposition which denotes the relation between the subject and predicate. Example : All boys are brilliant ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Quantifier Subject Copula Predicate Hence, the standard form of proposition is Quantifier + Subject + Copula + Predicate Four-fold classification of categorical proposition: On the basis of quality and quantity of proposition we can classify them in four categories. To draw valid inferences it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the A, E, I, O relationship as given in the table.
Symbol A E I O Proposition All A are B No A is B Some A are B Some A are not B Quantity Universal Universal Particular Particular Quality Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative

Rules for Deriving the Conclusions from Two Given Premises 1. Universal affirmative or A-type proposition.
Dogs

Goats

Take an example : All goats are dogs This is A type proposition: We can see it by graphical representation of the above proposition we observe that goats are distributed in dogs. Hence. we can conclude that in A type proposition only subject is distributed. 2. Universal negative or E-type proposition.

Boy

Girl

Take an example : No girl is boy In this type of proposition both subject and predicate are denial of each other. This can also be seen in the diagram representing boy Girl and girl. They have nothing in common. Hence, both subject and predicate are distributed. 3. Particular affirmative or I-type proposition.

Mobile

Telephone

Take an example : Some mobiles are telephones. In this type of proposition subject and predicate have something in common. This implies that in I-type neither subject nor Mobiles Telephones predicate is distributed. We can see it graphically as given in figure.
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When premises are in specified form Here premise is in specified form. Types of Questions Asked in the Examination There are mainly two types of questions which may be asked under this 1. 2. for such case. particular to particular. Here pair of two propositions out of them follow as same as in specified form. Propositions may be particular to universal. Solution.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Some girls are students. In O-type propositions some of the category represented by boys subject is not students. which means that a section of boys is denied with the entire category of students. Here mainly two propositions are given. Since. conclusion does not contain any common term belong to both premises. On account of different logical approach required to be applied for drawing each type of inference. When premises are in jumbled/mixed form Here at least three or more than three proposition are given. II. a syllogism is a deductive argument in which conclusion has to be drawn from two propositions referred to as premises. Boys Students Take an example : Some boys are not students. Example 1 Statement: I.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 4. First two sentences I and II are called propositions and the sentence I is called conclusion.upscportal. II. Venn diagram Representation: All possible cases can be drawn by using Venn diagram. R ule s fo r Me dia te Infe renc e First introduced by Aristotle. Now consider an example. Particular negative or O-type proposition. All men are girls. Some girls are not students. Type 1 Pr emises in Specified Forms Case 1: The conclusion does not contain the middle term Middle term is the term common to both the premises and is denoted by M. Statement: I. It is. Conclusion I.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Girls Students Girls Men Students men © 2011 www. II. Conclusions I. This conclusion is drawn from above given two propositions. both the conclusions I and II contain the middle term ‘girls’ so neither of them can follow. therefore. All boys are honest. or. All girls are men. a clear understanding of this difference becomes more important. universal to universal. Vinay is a boy. universal to particular. deduced that in O-type proposition only predicate is distributed. Hence. Vinay is honest.

here no man is included but at the same time (b) shows some girls are students have some men are also students as all men are girls. II. conclusion I cannot follow. Solution. Since. Some tables are mangoes. All students are teenagers. These students may not be teenagers. All mangoes are chairs. Statement II is an A type proposition which distributes the subject ‘students’. neither of them can follow. the term teenagers is distributed in conclusion I without being distributed in the premises. If case 1 is compiled with by a pair of statement. Conclusion I is an A-type proposition which distributes the subject ‘teenagers’ only.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism By using both representation (a) and (b) it is clear all girls cannot be men as well as (a) shows some girls are students. Hence. Though it can be concluded from the above discussion that no valid inference can be drawn between mango and table. is valid. But from statement I it is clear that some students are not students. only subject is distributed. we cannot deduce conclusion II. the term chair is common to both the statement and hence.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 .Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Venn diagram representation: All possible cases can be drawn as or. So. But every mediate inference drawn cannot be valid. Therefore. Some boys are students. Case 2: No term can be distributed in the conclusion unless it is distributed in the premises. III. All mangoes are tables. Example 3 Statement: I. Statement I is an I-type proposition which distributes neither the subject nor the predicate. Some chairs are tables. hence. No mango is a table. Chairs Chairs Example 2 Statement: Tables Mangoes Mangoes Tables (i) All mangoes are table-this inference is definitely false neither (a) nor (b) shows this conclusion. In second conclusion. Conclusions I. is the middle term. Thus. Here. chair being the predicate in the statement (I) is not distributed in the second statement. II. where it is asked that some boys are teenagers. © 2011 www. this inference is uncertain or doubtful. case 2 is applied to check as to the conclusions drawn from a pair of statement in which middle term is distributed. Statement (I) is A type proposition and in A-type proposition. Venn diagram representation: All possible cases can be drawn as follows Boys Students ers nag Tee . it is confirmed that valid mediate inferences can be drawn from such pair of statement. Conclusions I. Some boys are teenagers. this inference is also uncertain or doubtful. Solution. none of the conclusions following statement is a valid inference. (ii) Some tables are mangoes.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. II. So. I. All teenagers are students. II. (iii) No mango is a table.upscportal.

its reverse cannot be possible. one premise is particular. II. the conclusions must be affirmative. II. Conclusions I.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism We have given that all students are teenagers so. All gardens are schools. Some Lilies are flowers. the conclusion must be particular. No Lily is flowers. All gardens are colleges. conclusion II follows. the middle term ‘Lotus’ forming the subject is distributed. All schools are colleges. Here. Some boys are dacoits. II. so the conclusion cannot be universal. Case 4 If the middle term is distributed twice. Since. As we are also given that some boys are students and all students are teenagers. Case 3: If one premises is particular. Some gardens are not colleges.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . All Lotus are flowers. II. Hence. All dacoits are boys. Solution. So. II. Case 5 If both the premises are affirmative. Venn-diagram representation: All possible cases can be drawn as follows Lily Flowers Lotus Lily Flowers Lotus Lotus Flowers It is clear from the given Venn-diagrams either conclusion I or II must be followed. the conclusion cannot be universal Take an example which explains such case. No Lily is a Lotus. Take an example which explains this case Example 4 I. Some boys are thieves. conclusion II cannot follow. conclusion is particular.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. II. Venn diagram representation: All possible cases can be drawn as follows Statement: Boys Thieves co Da its Here conclusion I follows but the conclusion II cannot follow. © 2011 www.The second premise is an E proposition and so. the first premise is an A proposition and so. All thieves are dacoits. Conclusions I. the middle term ‘Lotus’ forming the predicate is distributed. Conclusions I. conclusion I is false. some boys which are students must be teenagers. Since.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. So. Example 5 Statement: I. the middle term is distributed twice. Take an example which follows such case: Example 6 Statement: I.upscportal. Solution. Hence.

Some pubs are cows. No mango is cherry.upscportal. II. Conclusions I. so conclusion II cannot follow. (c) I f the major premise is particular and the minor premise is negative Major premise is the predicate of the conclusion and minor premise is the subject of the conclusion. (a) If both the premises are particular Example 7 Statement: I. (b) If both the premises are negative Example 8 Statement: I.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . © 2011 www. Since. neither conclusion follows. so no definite conclusion follows. Some cups are spoons. it is clear that all gardens are also colleges. No kitten are pubs. II. I. Solution. All cups are sauccers. Venn diagram representation: It is clear from both Venn-diagrams that neither conclusion follows. Venn diagram representation: All possible cases can be drawn as follows.Since both the premises are particular. both the premises are affirmative.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism Solution.com Example 9 Statement: Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. Case 6 No conclusion follows. Since. Gardens Schools Colleges Now. Conclusions I. No flower is mango. both the premises are negative hence. the conclusion must be affirmative. Some sauccers are cups. Venn diagram representation Sauccers Cups Spoons Cups Sacuccers Spoons It is clear from both given Venn-diagrams that no conclusion is followed. we cannot that derive second conclusion is true. only the first conclusion must be true. II. No flower is cherry. Some spoons are sauccers. taking conclusion I. Some cherries are mangoes. II.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Hence. II. But taking conclusion II. Solution. There are three types of such cases.

No radio is statue. no conclusion follows. the first premise containing the middle term ‘Kitten’ as the subject is the major premise and the second premise containing the middle term ‘Kitten’ as the predicate is the minor premise.upscportal. no valid mediate inference can be drawn but there still exists a possibility that a complementary pair of conclusions follows from the statement. II. As we have already discussed in case number 1 that in the statement where middle term is not distributed. Some statues are cameras. So. using both diagrammatical representation we can conclude either some radios are statues or ‘no radio’ is statue. Here. Some cows are kitten. Venn diagram representation: All possible cases are given Conclusions Kitten Puts Cows Pubs Cows Kitten Pubs Cows Kitten (a) (b) (c) It is clear from the Venn-diagram representation that conclusion I follows. Ex am ple 10 I.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Since. © 2011 www.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Either ‘some radios are statues’ or ‘No radio is statue’ follows. II. Conclusions I. Solution.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. No pubs are kitten. II.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism I. Venn diagram representation We can draw all possible cases as given below Statements Radios Cameras Radios Cameras Statues Statues Hence. Hence. students are required to be more attentive in selecting complementary pair of conclusion where neither of the conclusions is definitely true but a combination of both makes a complementary pair. Some cameras are radios. Solution. the major premise is particular and the minor premise is negative. as I and E-type proposition form a complementary pair. C om plem e n ta ry pa ir of c o nclusio ns In drawing mediate inferences from given statement. Some ratios are statues. at least one of the conclusions must be true.

We can represent minimum possibilities as given directly in the statement. II. conclusion I is particular affirmative and conclusion II is universal negative proposition. Here.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Some fruits are vegetables. Conclusion II but if we that follow Venn diagram (b) then we can say some fruits are vegetables (conclusion I). Some vegetables are junk food. Solution.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism Spe c ial C ase s Facts Combinations (Conclusion) A+E E+I I+O E+O Conclusion Either I or II follows Either I or II follows Either I or II follows Either I or II follows Ex am ple 11 I. Hence. Ex am ple 12 I. Solution. III. II. Minimal possibilities Statements Fruit Vegetables Junk foods Snacks © 2011 www. then either one of them is true. Minim al P ossibilitie s We can represent statements by keeping in mind our conclusions It’ we follow that our two conclusions belong to special case.upscportal. Some fruits are vegetables. Hence. conclusion I or conclusion II must be followed.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. Conclusions I. we don’t need to think about parameters. Some junk foods are fruits. II. Some greens are fruits. either Venn diagram (a) or Venn-diagram (b) is possible. Some junk foods are snacks. Conclusions I. Alternatives or Green Fruit Green Statements Vegetables Vegetables Fruit Conclusion: If we follow Venn-diagram (a) then we can say no fruit is vegetable. Some junk foods are vegetables.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. II. All vegetables are green. No fruit is vegetable. Here. either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.

Some curtains are frames. (c) Conclusions Statements (b) Only I follows (d) Only III follows Cars Tyres Halls Wheels I. II and III. All idols are curtains. II. Some tyres are wheels. you have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 .Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Some cars are tyres. facts. Nos. III. Some idols are frames. All wheels are cars. (a) None follows (c) Only I and II follow Solution.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism It is clear from the above diagrams that only conclusion I follows. Also. III. Some frames are idols. It can be seen from Venn-diagram. (a) Only I and II follow (c) Only I and III follow Solution. Directions (Q. some cars are tyres (as shown in Venn-diagram). II. (b) Statements (b) Only II and III follow (d) All follow © 2011 www. II. It is not clear from the Venn-diagram.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. III. Conclusions I. only I and II follow. Ex am ple 14 Some pictures are frames.upscportal. Some cars are wheels. Some wheels are halls. Some cars are wheels. Type 2 Mixed/jumbled Problems In such type of problem there is a constitution of mixed problems of universal and particular premises. Some curtains are pictures. 13 to 16) In each of the questions given below there are three statements followed by three conclusions numbered I. Ex am ple 13 All halls are tyres. Conclusions I. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known. Hence.

Hence. No gold is paint. © 2011 www. Also conclusion III is particular affirmative and conclusion IV is its universal negative. III.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Follows (clear from the Venn-diagram) III. either III or conclusion IV follows. IV. Some shoes are bells. All tables are shoes. IV. II.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. (d) Here conclusion I is particular affirmative and conclusion II is its universal negative.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism Conclusions Pictures frames idols Curtains I. No shoes are candles. (d) Candles Bells Statements (b) Only I and II follow (d) None of these Table Shoes Solution. (a) Only I and IV follow (c) Only III and IV follow Solution. either conclusion I or II follows and either conclusion III or conclusion IV follows. Conclusions I. All golds are rings. none of the conclusions follows. Ex am ple 15 Some ice are rings. Conclusions I. No table is bell. II. Follows (clear from the Venn-diagram) Hence. Some rings are paints. Finally. Some tables are bells. (a) Only I and III follow (b) Only I and II follow (c) Only III and IV follow (d) None follows Solution. No ice is gold. Some shoes are candles. either conclusion I or II follows. Does not follow. only II and III follow. Some rings are gold. (d) Hence.upscportal. No ring is paint. Gold Ice Rings Paint Statements Ex am ple 16 No candle is bell. Hence. II. III.

4. Conclusions I. Conclusions I. I. All cows are horses. disregarding commonly known facts. II. Statement: I. All birds are tall. Some hens are cows. Some smokers are drinkers. II. If only conclusion I follows If only conclusion II follows If neither I nor II follows If both I and II follow Statement: I. Some birds are hens. 9. Statement: 8. Conclusions I. Some guns are phones. Some cupboards are not ships. Statement: I. All jungles are tigers. All tigers are ships. Conclusions I. All birds are umbrellas. Some cycles are pencils. Some players are singers. No truck is a scooter. Some chocolates are toffees. You have to take the two given Statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the the given two Statement s. 7. Statement: I. II. All men are cats. Some pastries are toffees. II. Some cycles are books. Conclusions I. You have to take the given two Statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Statement: I. Some aeroplanes are birds.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. Some ships are tigers. II. II. Statement: I. Some umbrellas are aeroplanes. Conclusions I. Some scooters are trucks. All toffees are chocolates. II. All players are tall. All buses are cars. Some players are tall. disregarding commonly known facts. II. All dogs are cats. Some tall are hens. Conclusions I. Some horses are hens. Statement: I. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given two ‘ Statements. II. Some hens are horses. Conclusions I. II.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . All smokers are artists. Some tigers are jungles. Some hens are tall. All singers are tall. Nos. 13. All books are pencils. Statement: I. II. II. 1 to 13) In each question given below are two Statement s followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. 6. 12. II. II. 3. Statement: I. II. II. II. Conclusions I. All watches are guns. Some water are clean. II. II. Some cars are roads. 2.. II. Some scooters are trains. II. All trucks are trains. Some buses are roads. Some ships are cupboards. Directions (Q. I. All umbrellas are aeroplanes. II. All horses are jungles. II. 5. All artists are smokers. All cats are men. Some phones are watches. 14 to 24) In each question below are given two Statement s followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. II.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism EXERCISE Directions (Q. II. Conclusions I.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Give answer as (a) If only conclusion I follows (b) If only conclusion II follows (c) If neither I nor II follows (d) If both I and II follow 14. All men are dogs. II. Give answer as (a) (b) (c) (d) 1.upscportal. Statement: I. Conclusions I. Conclusions I. Some toffees are not pastries. Some drinkers are not smokers. II. All clear are water. Nos. Statement: I. Some water are stones. 10. All guns are watches. Statement: All stones are water. Some cars are buses. © 2011 www. II. Conclusions I. 11. Some pencils are cycles. Some tigers are horses. Statement: I. Conclusions I.

Some stones are trees. No book is mirror. II. No great is fool. II. Some caps are mats. All fans are pillows. 26. 31. II. I. Some towns are villages. II. II. II. Some bricks are trees. II. All pigs are pens. Statement: I. Some adults are not old. Nos. Statement: I.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 15. Some mirrors are books. Some cities are villages. Statement: I. All film stars are playback singers. Statement: I. No town is city. II. 27. II. II. II. II. Some fools are great. All pencils are bricks. All water is divine. II. conclusions numbered I and II. I. Conclusions I. All pencils are bottles . Some caps are hats. I. I. All stems are flowers. Some days are nights. I. All mansions are temples. II. 25 to 40) In each of the question below are given two Statement: s followed by two 33. Some tables are mirrors. Some papers are pens. II. I. Some visitors are Americans. II. Statement: Conclusions 23. Some intelligent are great. Conclusions I. II. Some temples are huts. 28. All days are either nights or dreams.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. All roads are houses. Some Indians are visitors. I. I. All pens are roads. Statement: Conclusions 19. Some chalks are pens. disregarding commonly known facts. Statement: Conclusions 17.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Some stones are bricks. All film directors are film stars. Some mats are caps. All chairs are chalks. II. Some visitors are Indians. Statement: Conclusions 24. II.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal.upscportal. II. All film directors are playback singers. Statement: Conclusions 20. Statement: Conclusions 22. II. Some books are tables. II. Some trees are bricks. I. Statement: I. Conclusions I. Some boys are not old. All pigs are cycles. Conclusions I. II. All water is temple. All Indians are visitors. Statement: Conclusions 18. II. All bricks are pencils. I. Some film stars are film directors. All fans are cats. II. Conclusions I. Statement: Conclusions 21. Some fools are intelligent. All roots are flowers. II. All pens are cycles. Some pencils are pens. You have to take the two given Statement: s to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts and decide which of the given conclusion (s) logically follow (s) from the two given Statement: s. Conclusions I. Some hats are caps. All cups are pillows. I. All houses are pens. I. Some adults are boys. Some nights are days. II. II. I. II. II. II. All bricks are bottles. All cycles are pens. Some pens are chairs. Statement: Conclusions I. Give your answer as (a) (b) (c) (d) 25. II. Statement: I. Directions (Q. II. 32. All pillows are fans. Statement: I. Some houses are pens. I. Some cities are towns. I. All temples are divine. All huts are mansions. II. All cars are fans. I. All temples are water I. All cars are cats. Statement: Conclusions 16. Some boys are old. © 2011 www. All pens are chalks. Some dreams are nights. Statement: I. Conclusions I. If only conclusion or I follows If only conclusion II follows If either I or II follows If both I and II follow Statement: I. Conclusions I. I. All flowers are stems. II. I. Some fans are cars. 30. II. All fans are cups. All stems are roots. Some temples are mansions. II. 29.

Some boys are students. II. No fish is a crocodile. Some pens are pencils. Some clothes are marbles. No pole is a house. Statement: Conclusions 48. II. Some pens are papers. Some aeroplanes are living beings. No window is wall. 41 to 50) In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. Some cups are plates. Statement: Conclusions 36. II. Some whites are black. All fish are tortoise. Statement: Conclusions 44. II. II. I. 40. I. II. III and IV. No gentleman is poor. I. II. Some girls are books. II. II. I. Some gems are pearls. I. No pencil is fruit. Some books are pencils. I. Most teachers are boys. I. II. Some pencils are pens. Directions (Q. I. Statement: Conclusions 37. All windows are doors. All door is window. No rich man is poor. Statement: I. II. No book is a girl. Some books are toys. II. II. II. II. II. No toy is red. I. Some pens are pencils. I. I. Some books are pens. No bat is wicket. Statement: Conclusions 50. Some whites are not green. I. I. II. Statement: Conclusions Directions (Q. Some aeroplanes are not ghosts. II. II. Some roads are houses. Some fools are rich.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism Conclusions 34. II.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. Some cups are jugs. Nos. Statement: Conclusions 45. II. disregarding known facts. Some teachers are students. No bat is ball. I. No tortoise is a crocodile. Some doctors are rich. II. II. II. 41. Some cups are stones.upscportal. Some living beings are ghosts. No pen is pencil. II. Some girls are flowers. 51 to 65) In each question below are given two Statements followed by four conclusions numbered I. I. Some pearls are gems. Statement: Conclusions 42. No book is pencil. Some rich are doctors. Statement: Conclusions 46. Statement: Conclusions 47. No poor man is rich. Statement: Conclusions 43. Conclusions I. I. II. No door is wall. Some stones are cups. Statement: Conclusions 49. Some cups are black. All gentlemen are rich. No black is green. Some toys are books. I. You have to take the two given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known © 2011 www. II. Some pearls are ornaments. I. Some bags are clothes. Give answer as (a) If only conclusion I follows (b) If only conclusion II follows (c) If either conclusion I or II follows (d) If neither I nor II follow I. I. Statement: Conclusions 35. Statement: Conclusions 39. I. No black is cup. Some houses are poles. I. II. I. I. II. I.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Some plates are jugs. Some marbles are bags. II. Some whites are green. Statement: I.You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Some pens are fruit. Some students are boys. Statement: Conclusions 38. Some jugs are plates. All tortoise is a fish.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . II. II. I. II. All wickets are bats. I. No ball is wicket. I. Nos. Some aeroplanes are ghosts. Some gems are ornaments. Conclusions I. All roads are poles. No cloth is bag. Some flowers are books. Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements. Some doctors are fools. II. II. I. II. Some books are red. I. I.

Some trees are stars. 57. Some chairs are sticks. III. II. All trees are plants. II. All shoes are chairs. All doors are bananas. II. II. 58. II. Conclusions I. IV. I. IV. IV. II. IV. IV. II. All sticks are shoes. IV. All crows are bats. All planets are trees. All mangoes are bananas. Some papers are balls. II and III follow (c) Only II. All buses are dogs. All bananas are mangoes. Some bats are not crows. III. Some horses are not dogs. II. Some birds are tigers. Some towns are maps. 56. Some buses are horses. III. II. All planets are stars. (a) All follow (b) Only I and IV follow (c) Only I and III follow (d) Only II and IV follow Statement: I. All bats are parrots. Some roads are town. Some dogs are horses. III. All stars are trees. 54. No ball is round. II. Some bats are parrots. No chair is stick. III. 59. (a) Only II and IV follow (b) Only I and II follow (c) None follows (d) All follow Statement: I. II. No window is sky. (a) Either I or II follows (b) Either I or III and II follows (c) Only I follows (d) Only IV follows Conclusions © 2011 www. 55. disregarding commonly known facts. Some rats are both birds and tigers. Conclusions I. Some shoes are sticks. Some balls are papers. No chair is window. Some horses are dogs. Conclusions I. II. 51. Some papers are not round. (a) Either III or IV follows (b) Only I. (a) Either I or III follows (b) Either II or IV follows (c) Only I and II follow (d) None follow Statement: I. Some roads are maps. 52. Some dogs are buses. III. Some rats are birds. (a) Only I and II follow (b) None follows (c) All follow (d) Only III and IV follow Statement: I.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism facts. Some bats are crows.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. No town is a map. Conclusions I.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . No window is chair.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Conclusions I. Some tigers are rats. Some rats are tigers. No parrot is crow. (a) Either I or II follows (b) Either II or IV follows (c) III follows (d) Only I and II follow Statement: I. II. IV. II. III and IV follow (d) Only I and II follow Statement: I. All towns are roads. Some chairs are skies. II. Some balls are round. Some mangoes are doors. All maps are roads. Some windows are skies. Conclusions I. Some birds are rats. II. III. Conclusions I. Some doors are bananas. All stars are planets. III. IV. II. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given two statements. (a) Only III follows (b) Only IV follows (c) Either III or IV follows (d) Either I or III and IV follows Statement: I. III. Some papers are round. Statement: I. II. Some chairs are shoes. (a) Either III or IV follows (b) Either II or III follows (c) Either II or IV follows (d) None follows Statement: I. Some doors are mangoes. Some chairs are windows. 53. IV. Conclusions I.upscportal.

All papers are bags. III. All buses are rivers. (a) Only III follows (b) Only III and IV follow (c) Only I and II follow (d) Only II and III follow 65. All trees are trains. Conclusions I. You have to consider every given statement as true. Some toys are pens. II. Statement: I. Conclusions I. (a) None of the above (b) Either II or IV (c) Either I or III and either II or IV (d) Either I or IV 67. Some rivers are roads.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Some trains are trees. All jugs are pens. III. No train is chair. Conclusions I. (a) Only I and II follow (b) Only III and IV follow (c) Only IV follows (d) None of these Statement: I. IV. No train is tree. All copies are green. Some bags are papers. Some yellow are green. III. No chair is tree. III. II. 64. Some bananas are not oranges. Some knives are pens. All buses are roads.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Conclusions I. All jugs are glasses. Statement: I. Some pens are black. II. All glasses are cups. IV. Conclusions I. No chair is train. All green are copies. Some horses are pens. III and IV follow (d) All follow Directions (Q. Some green are yellow. II. II. All roads are rivers. Some rivers are buses. Read the conclusions and then decide which of the conclusions can be logically derived. IV. IV.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 60. II. III. III. Some knives are horses. II. All apples are oranges. Some books are copies. III. All apples are bananas. II. (a) Only II and III follow (b) Only I and IV follow (c) Only IV follows (d) Only I follow Statement: I. Some toys are black. 66. Some papers are black. II. II.upscportal. II. Some oranges are bananas. IV. All trees are pens. II.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. II. Some horses are knives. Statement: I. Statement: I. III. All pencils are trees. I. (a) All follow (b) Only I and IV follow (c) Only I and III follow (d) Only I follows Statement: I. All pens are pencils. II. II. Some pens are knives. III and IV. Some trees are pens. (a) Either I or II follows (b) Only I and III follow (c) Only I and IV follow (d) None of these Statement: I. II. Nos. Some copies are yellow. III. IV. III. Conclusions I. Some roads are buses. All bananas are apples. followed by four conclusions numbered I. 63. © 2011 www. No bag is green. III. Some oranges are apples. Some pens are papers. 62. Statement: 61. IV. No paper is green. II. (a) Only II follows (b) Either III or IV only (c) Either II or IV only (d) All of these 68. Some papers are green. II. (a) None follows (b) Only I and II follow (c) Only II. All copies are yellow. No pen is black. Conclusions I. All pencils are pens. Some green are papers. even if it goes not conform to the well known facts. IV. Some pens are horses. Some trees are not pens. No toy is black. Conclusions I. 66 to 78) Every question below has a few statement.

IV. III. No eraser is a pencil. No fool is a crooks. All brinjals are ladyfingers. Some radios are televisions. 74. All apples are brinjals. Some Des are Ecs. Some cups are pens. Conclusions I. Some yys are Dcs. Conclusions I. IV. Conclusions 73.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. No plastic is black. All Ecs are yys. IV. Some apples are fresh. Some ladyfingers are oranges. Some butterflies are insects. III. All intelligent are simple. Some clips are pens. Some erasers are pencils. III. All insects are snakes. II. III. and either III or IV Statement: I. All pens are pencils. Conclusions I. Some watermelons are potatoes. II. Some papers are black. III. Conclusions I. II. Some books are papers. (a) Only I and II follow (b) III and either I or II follow (c) Only III follows (d) Either I or II. Conclusions I. II. Some oranges are brinjals. IV. I. Some papers are plastic III. Some simple are intelligent. No radio is a magazine. II. Some potatoes are apples. III. Some snakes are butterflies. Some glasses are pens. All brinjals are apples. II.upscportal. Some newspapers are televisions. III. II. 76. Some apples are watermelons. Some apples are oranges. Some papers are not black. Some simple are fools. II. III. Some birds are insects. II. IV. III. All watermelons are fresh. III. (a) None follows (b) Only III follows (c) Either II or III follows (d) Both I and II follow Statement: I. 72. Some fools are crooks. Some newspapers are radios. Some insects are birds. II. All intelligent are fools. III. IV. All birds are butterflies. All papers are not black. (a) None follows (b) Either I or II follows (c) III and IV follow (d) Either I or II and III follow Statement: I. Some books are black. All pens are jugs. II. All Des are Acs. No television is a magazine. (a) None follows (b) Either I or III follows (c) All follow (d) Only I and III follow Statement: I. Conclusions I. No Acs is Ecs. Some Acs are Ecs. Some watermelons are apples.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. III. Some potatoes are fresh. II. III. (a) None follows (b) All follow (c) Only IV follows (d) Either I or III follows Statement: I. No clip is a pen. III. II. All crooks are simple. Conclusions I. IV. Some snakes are birds. II.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 69. IV. (a) Only I follows (b) Only I and II follow (c) Only I and IV follow (d) Either II or III and I follow Statement: I. Conclusions I. All ladyfingers are apples. III. Some radios are magazines. 75. (a) None follows (b) Only II follows (c) II and III Only (d) III and IV only Statement: I.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . All Acs are Dcs. Some erasers are clips. II. II. II. 70. No newspaper is a magazine. (a) I and III only (b) Only II follows (c) I and II only (d) II and either I or III only Statement: I. (a) Only I follows (b) Either II or III follows (c) Only I and IV follow (d) Only I. 71. III and IV follow © 2011 www. Some pens are erasers. IV. All pens are cups. III.

13. (a) Only III follows (b) Either I or IV and III follow (c) Only II follows (d) Only IV follows 78. (d) 61. 54. (a) Only I and II follow (b) Only I and III follow (c) Either II or IV follows (d) None of these ANSWERS 1. 70. III. both conclusions are true. 17. © 2011 www. Some black are brown. 69. 66. (a) (d) (b) (a) (a) (b) (a) (b) 8. Hence. All doctors are teachers. (d) 71. (b) 12. (c) 49. 14. (d). only I follows. 6. 37. (d) 62. All doctors are engineers.upscportal. 75. 76. IV. Tigers Jungles Horses Hens Horses Cows Hence. All windows are black. Some windows are brown. IV. (d) (a) (c) (c) (c) (a) (a) (c) 5. All doors are black. 74. Some doors are black. 18. 40. No window is brown. (d) 2. (a) 21. 67. 23. 53. (d) 51. from both Venn-diagram conclusion II follows. 57. 77. (c) (b) (d) (b) (b) (d) (c) EXPLANATIONS 1. Statement: I. Tall 5. 55. (c) 59. 64. Some engineers are teachers. Toffees Chocolates Hence. 28. 35. 47. 24. Some doors are windows. 36. (b) 3. (a) (d) (d) (c) (c) (a) (d) (d) 6. 33. 58. Some typists are teachers. III. (b) 19. II. (d) 10. All teachers are doctors. 50. 4. 26. 73. Conclusions I. Cars Roads Birds Hens Buses Hence. (b) (a) (a) (d) (a) (a) (b) (a) 4. (c) 41. All doctors are typists. (a) 31.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. III. (a) 39. (a) (c) (c) (c) (b) (d) (a) (d) 9. (b) 72. 78. only I follows. 46. (d) 22. 45. (b) 42. 30. Smokers Aritist Drinkers Pastries Roads Hence.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 77. (d) (b) (c) (b) (d) (d) (c) (b) 7. 25. (c) 32. Hence. 38. 44. conclusion I follows. 63. 20. All engineers are typists. II. both I and II are true. II. (b) 52. Statement: I. 68. 15.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. (a) 11. II. 43. 27.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . III. 48. 3. (c) 29. 2. 65. Conclusions I. 16. 60. 34. 56.

Water Hence. Ships Tigers Cupboards Huts Hence. 16. only I follows.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. 13. only I follows. none follows. only I follows. Aeroplanes Pens Umbrellas Birds Hence. Temples Mansions Hence. Hence. Players 14. both I and II follow. Tall Singers Cats Dogs Men Hence. 8. none follows. only II follows. Divine Water Temples or. 9. Water Divine Temples Books Cycles Hence. only I follows. some players are tall. both follow. Houses Roads Hence. only II follows. Pencils 18. © 2011 www. Hence.upscportal. only I follows.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Trains Scooters Trucks 17. 12. both I and II follow. Playback Singers Filmstars Hence. 10. Stones Clean 15. Phones Guns Film Directors Watches Hence. 11. Hence.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 7.

Fans Pens Pigs Hence.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Fools Intelligent Great Fans Hence. Hence. Mats Hats Caps or. 23. Pens Charis 25. Hats Mats Caps Hence. only II follows. only I follows. both I and II follows. neither I nor II follows. 30. some trees are bicks (II follows). I and II follow. Adults Boys Old Hence. either conclusion I or conclusion II follows. Hence. 20. Cities Villages Towns Flowers It is a special case. 22. eithr I or II follows. © 2011 www. Stones Bricks Trees Hence. only I follows. either I or II follows. neither I nor II follows. Hence. only I follows. Bottles Visitors Bricks Indian or Visitors Indians Americans Pencils Hence.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . 26.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. 27. Roots Stems 28. 29. Hence.upscportal. Cycles Cars Fans Or. Cats Cats Cars 24. Hence. 21. none follows.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 19. Chalks Hence. Pillows Cups Hence.

either I or II follows. 39.upscportal. only I follows © 2011 www. Aeroplanes Living beings Hence. Hence. either conclusion I or conclusion II follows. Aliter It is special case.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. Hence. 35. Doors Windows Wall Hence. either I or II follows. Aliter Its conclusions belong to special case. 41. I follows. 43. 34. Hence. Mirrors Books Tables 37. II follows. either I or II follows. either I or II follow. 32. Books Girls Flowers Hence. either conclusion I or conclusion II follows. either can conclusion I or conclusion II follows. Aliter Its conclusions belong to special case. none follows. 36. 40. Jugs Doctors Fools or Doctors Fools Cups Plates Hence.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 31. both follow. 42. Pencisl Ghosts Papers Pens Hence. conclusion I or conclusion II follows. Poles Roads House Hence. Tortoise Fish Crocodile Hence. Days Dreams Nights Hence. Aliter It is a special case hence.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Hence. only II follows. only II follows. either I or II follows. Black Stones Cups Hence. Ornaments Pearls Gems Hence. Cloths Marbles Bags Hence. 38. 33. only II follows. Aliter It is a special case. Rich Hence.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal.

56. 53.upscportal. Aliter Its conclusions belong to a special case. 46. only II follows.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 44. II and IV follows. either I or II is true. 45. Hence. © 2011 www. Whites Whites Black Green or Green Black Hence. none follows. Parrot Bats Crow Hence. only II and IV follow. only III follows. only II follows. either I or II follows. Aliter Its conclusions belong to a special case. Bat Ball Wicket Stars 54.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . Book Pens Pencil Hence. Books Toys Red Chairs Shoes Hence. Aliter Its conclusions belong to special case. 49. Hence. either conclusion I or conclusion II follows. Aliter Its conclusions belong to a special case. Trees Planets Hence. Sticks Hence. Gentleman Rich Poor 52. only I follows. either I or II follows. either conclusion I or conclusion II follows. 57. either conclusion I or conclusion II follows. Birds Hence.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. both III and IV follow. either conclusions I or conclusion II follows. either I or II follows. Hence.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. 47. Horses Dogs Hence. only I. 48. 55. Doors Mangoes Tigers Rats s ana Ban Hence. 51. only I and IV follows. Pens Pencils Fruits Buses Hence. Teachers Boys Students Hence. Hence. 50. Chairs Windows Sky Hence. Hence. Hence. either I nor II follows.

Chair Trains Trees or. Bags 66. either I or III and II or IV follow. 68. 64. either conclusion I or conclusion III follows. only III follows.com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . 67. Pens Cups Glasses Jugs Hence. all follow. Towns Roads Pens Knives Hence. Hence.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 58. only I and IV follow. Horses Hence. Aliter Its conclusions belong to special case. Chair Trains Trees Maps Hence. Hence. either I or II and IV follows. Books Copies Green Yellow Hence. 62. either I or III and II follows. 59. Organes Hence. Hence. none follows. only II follows. Paper Ball Round 63. Hence. Aliter Its conclusions belong to special case.upscportal. © 2011 www. Aliter Its conclusions belong to special case. Toys Pens Papers Black Green Papers Here special case can be applied for conclusion I and III also for conclusion II and conclusion IV. Hence. only I and IV follow. 65. Hence. either conclusion I or conclusion IV follows.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. Rivers Roads Hence. 60. only III follows. either conclusion I or conclusion II follows. Cups Glasses Pens Jugs or. either I or III and IV follows. Cups Pens Glasses Jugs Apples Bananas or.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. Pencils Trees Pens Buses Hence. 61.

com/civilservices/online-course/study-kit-for-ias-pre-gs-paper-2-2012 . 71. Newspapers Radios Televisions Magazine Pens Hence. either I or II and either III or IV follows. all follows.com/civilservices/online-course/integrated-free-guidance-programme Syllogism 69. either I or conclusion II follow. 70. Lady fingers Orange Brinjals Hence. either I or IV and III follows. Hence. ACS ECS 74. Pencils Hence. Typists Engineers Doctors Apples Teachers None follows. Books Papers Plastic Black Conclusion I and II follow special case. only I. 72. either I or II and III follows. either II or III follows. 78.com Click Here to Buy This Study Kit http://upscportal. either II or III follows. Birds Butterflies Insects Snakes Hence. II and III follow.upscportal. Also from Venndiagram conclusion III follows. 73.Click Here For Integrated Guidance Programme http://upscportal. 77. Simple Intelligent Erasers Clips Fools Crooks Hence. Doors Black Windows Brown Hence. 76. 75. Hence. Apples Fresh Watermelon Potatoes DCS YYS Hence. I and IV follows. © 2011 www.