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Motor Control
WORKBOOK
LInECArD
3
Table of ConTenT
1. abstract 4
2. System level Problem 8
2.1 Motor Topologies and Drives 9
2.1.1 PMDC – Permanent Magnet DC Motor 10
2.1.2 DC Motor Driver 12
2.1.3 Asynchronous Motor 12
2.1.4 Synchronous Motor 13
2.1.5 BLDC – Brushless DC 14
2.1.6 SRM – Switched Reluctance Motor 15
2.1.7 Bi-Polar Stepper Motor 15
2.1.8 AC Motor Driver 18
2.2 Motor Selection Criteria 19
2.3 Applications Summary and Overview 20
3. Solutions 21
3.1 Analog Devices 21
3.2 Freescale Semiconductor 23
3.3 International Rectifier 48
3.4 Infineon Technologies 70
3.5 Maxim 80
3.6 Microchip Technology 84
3.7 ON Semiconductor 98
3.8 Renesas Technology 100
3.9 STMicroelectronics 110
3.10 Texas Instruments 118
4. Glossary 144
5 4
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 5 4
The Engineers of Distribution.
1. abstract
Going back in time over 30 or 40 years, brush
motors were the typical motor use. Most of the
control electronics were analog components, SCR
rectifiers for the power stage, control amplifiers
were often built with discrete components and
transistor amplifiers. Then, variable speed drives
were built with standard electronic system blocks
combined with computer drives. As an example
linear amplifiers were often used rather than
switching amplifiers. Typical applications were
in areas where drives could be afforded, such as
industrial servo drives, machine tools and computer
disk drives; there were also a number of very high
power drive systems.
Then there were a number of improvements
that brought about the different power switches.
Bipolar transistors became available for power
switching and motors started to be available beyond
the standard brush DC motor. Permanent magnet
synchronous motors and AC induction motors
became available and on the power electronics
side IGBTs, high performance micro processors
and integrated amplifiers; the result was more
sophisticated control.
Nowadays there is a whole selection of motors as
well as a lot more control technology such as DSPs
and micros, ASICs, etc. A lot of the mathematical
models that were developed to simulate AC
machines 40-50 years ago all of a sudden become
relevant: the field oriented control is based on
theory that was developed long before anyone knew
how to build a control around it. Consequently,
electrical drives are currently used in a variety of
applications, as it had been pointed out in the 2005
IMS report The WW Market for AC & DC Motor
Drives
1)
:
Obviously, the biggest portion of the business (42%)
can be assigned to HVAC
2)
, Pumps & Pumping
as well as the Food & Beverages Industries, so
traditional industrial applications.
On the other hand, with the increase of potential
application fields and a general increase of energy
consumption world wide, the efficiency of electric
appliances such as motors become more and
more an issue. In 2007 the International Energy
Agency (IEA) issued an Energy Efficient Electrical
End-Use Equipment
3)
report where the general
electricity consumption worldwide was outlined in
the following way:
1)
http://www.aceee.org/conf/mt05/i4_offi.pdf
2)
HVAC - Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
3)
http://www.iea.org/Textbase/work/2007/ia/Motors.pdf
3%
3%
1 – Cranes & Hoists
2 – Textiles
3 – Pulp and Paper
4 – Rubber & Plastics
5 – Metals & Mining
6 – Packaging
7 – Utilities
8 – Petro-chem
9 – Food & Beverage
10 – Pumps & Pumping
11 – Other
12 – HVAC
Estimated 2004 Motor Units/Industry
3%
3%
4%
7%
8%
9%
10%
11%
18%
21%
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10
11
12
5 4
The Engineers of Distribution.
5 4
The Engineers of Distribution.
Unit Value
Electricity production global (2006) PWh/a 18.6
Electricity production from fossil energy PWh/a (%) 12.4 (67%)
Electricity for industrial motors (not included household appliances, consumer electronics, office equipment,
vehicles)
PWh/a (%) 7.4 (40%)
Capacity for electric motors (peak) TWe 1.6...2.3
Motor electricity, greenhouse gas emissions G t CO2/a 4.3
Motor system energy efficiency improvement potential (average within life cycle 10...20 years) min
max
20%
30%
Electricity savings potential (industry and buildings)
Greenhouse gas emission reductions potential
Average electricity price (industrial end-users)
PWh/a
min
max
G t CO2/a
min
max
Euro/kWh
1.5
2.2
0.9
1.4
0.05
Electricity cost saveings potential (industry end-users) Billion Euro/a
min
max
75
110
As above breakdown points out, the energy
improvement potential in 2007 for electric drives
was being considered to be between 20...30%
(or in absolute values 1.5 – 2.2 PWh/a)
4)
. One of the
reasons that forced the change up in mind in the
way to deal with available energy was probably the
significant increase of energy prices, especially
during the last couple of months.
Broken down into geographical regions, the
same report points out the following distribution
characteristic:
Population GDP Electricity
Mio % cumul Mio US $ % cumul TWh/a % cumul
1 China 1’322 20.0% 2229 5.0% 2475 13.6% MEPS
2 India 1’130 37.1% 785 6.8% 679 17.3%
3 United States of America 301 41.7% 12455 34.9% 4239 40.7% MEPS
4 Indonesia 235 45.3% 287 35.5% 123 41.3%
5 Brazil 190 48.1% 794 37.3% 405 43.6% MEPS
6 Pakistan 165 50.6% 111 37.5% 96 44.1%
7 Bangladesh 150 52.9% 60 37.7% 23 44.2%
8 Russia 141 55.0% 581 39.0% 952 49.5%
9 Japan 127 57.0% 4506 49.1% 1134 55.7%
10 Mexico 109 58.6% 768 50.9% 233 57.0% MEPS
11 Germany 82 59.9% 2782 57.1% 619 60.4%
12 Thailand 65 60.9% 176 57.5% 575 63.5%
13 France 64 61.8% 2193 62.5% 399 65.7%
14 United Kingdom 61 62.7% 2193 67.4% 399 67.9%
15 Italy 58 63.6% 1723 71.3% 301 69.6%
16 Korea, South 49 64.4% 788 73.1% 395 71.8% MEPS
17 South Africa 44 65.0% 240 73.6% 245 73.1%
18 Spain 40 65.6% 1124 76.1% 292 74.7%
19 Australia 20 66.0% 701 77.7% 243 76.0% MEPS
20 Canada 33 66.5% 1115 80.2% 594 79.3% MEPS
Total 4’388 35’610 14’422
4)
1 PWh/a = 105 Wh/a
7 6
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 7 6
The Engineers of Distribution.
Above table shows that countries like the US with
a population of 301 Million people (5% of the ww
population) but a total energy consumption of
4.239 PWh/a represent almost 23% of the total
energy consumption worldwide, while on the other
hand a country like China with 1300 Million citizens
(representing 21% of the total global population)
consumes a bit more then half the amount of the
energy the US are currently needing (13.3%). If
China’s productivity was to be the same like the
US’ (annual energy consumption per population →
18.67 PWh/a !!!) one can see that a 20 – 30% world
wide electrical efficiency improvement (hence 1.5 –
2.2 PWh/a in absolute values) are probably just an
initial step to the right direction with much bigger
problems to be expected in the future.
Although China’s productivity may be far away from
above mentioned scenario a 20 – 30% world wide
efficiency improvement may sound pointless if we
take into consideration the consumption growth
rate of some countries over time. As an example
we can take an official report issued in 2002 by
U.S. Department of Energy
5)
where the expected
Midrange Savings where lined out to be 14.8%
(as compared to 20 – 30% setup in 2006); yet the
total power consumption for 2002 only represented
1.085 PWh/a, hence 31.39% of the consumption of
2007, meaning that the US national energy demand
almost tripled within a period of time of 5 years.
Measure Potential energy Savings GWh/Year Midrange Savings as Percent of
low** Midrange** High** Total Motor System GWh System-Specific GWh
Motor efficiency Upgrade*
Upgrade all integral AC motors to EPAct Levels*** 13,043 2.3%
Upgrade all integral AC motors to CEE Levels*** 6,756 1.2%
Improve Rewind Practices 4,778 0.8%
Total Motor efficiency Upgrade 24,577 4.3%
System level efficiency Measures
Correct motor oversizing 6,786 6,786 6,786 1.2%
Pump Systems: System Efficiency Improvements 8,975 13,698 19,106 2.4% 9.6%
Pump Systems: Speed Controls 6,421 14,982 19,263 2.6% 10.5%
Pump Systems: Total 15,396 28,681 38,369 5.0% 20.1%
Fan Systems: System Efficiency Improvements 1,378 2,755 3,897 0.5% 3.5%
Fan Systems: Speed Controls 787 1,575 2,362 0.3% 2.0%
Fan Systems: Total 2,165 4,330 6,259 0.8% 5.5%
Compressed Air Systems: System Eff. Improvements 8,559 13,248 16,343 2.3% 14.6%
Compressed Air Systems: Speed Controls 1,366 2,276 3,642 0.4% 2.5%
Compressed Air Systems: Total 9,924 15,524 19,985 2.7% 17.1%
Specialised Systems: Total 2,630 5,259 7,889 0.9% 2.0%
Total System Improvements 36,901 60,579 79,288 10.5%
Total Potential Savings 61,478 85,157 103,865 14.8%
* Potential savings for Motor Efficiency Upgrades calculated directly by applying engineering formulas to Inventory data.
** High, Medium and Low savings estimates for system efficiency impriovements reflect the range of expert opinion on potential savings.
*** Includes savings from upgrades of motors over 200 HP not covered EPAct standards.
5)
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/mtrmkt.pdf
7 6
The Engineers of Distribution.
7 6
The Engineers of Distribution.
Therefore, some of the market trends predicted
for the next couple of years become obvious by
now: the demand for higher Reliability as well as
Power Density are continuously increasing as a
result of price vs. demand shift, hence cost/unit as
well as cost/kW are steadily decreasing. A variety
of standards like the European CE or the National
Electric Code are addressing specific issues like
EMC filtering or thermal protection solutions.
Consequently, there is a great many of other costs
on top of the typical initial costs (purchase, parts,
etc.) which need to be taken into account when it
comes to the selection of a specific motor type.
As an example we can take a standard pumping
application, with the following cost breakdown
6)
:
LCC = C
IC
+ C
IN
+ C
E
+ C
O
+ C
M
+ C
S
+ C
ENV
+ C
D
C = cost element
IC = initial cost, purchase price (pump, system,
pipes, auxiliaries)
IN = installation and comissioning
E = energy costs
O = operating cost (labor cost of normal
system supervision)
M = maintenance cost (parts, man-hours)
S = downtime, loss of production
ENV = environmental costs
D = Decommissioning
In above equation LCC stays for the total Life Cycle
Cost; on percentage level, the relationship between
all above mentioned parameters can be weighted
through the following high-level diagram:

Maintenance and Energy Costs (→ electrical
efficiency) seem to be - besides performance
specific requirements - the driving factors with
respect to technology improvements and finally
when it comes to the selection of a motor.
The objective of this workbook will therefore be to
point out the main selection criteria for the most
usual motor types, point out the principles of
operation, provide an overview about the typical
applications where a given motor is traditionally
seen nowadays and finalize it with a set of selected
best fitting SILICA system solutions.
Axel Kleinitz, PhD
Poing, 20-Apr-09
Maintenance
costs
Initial costs
Energy costs
Other costs
6)
http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/pdfs/variable_speed_pumping.pdf
9 8
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 9 8
The Engineers of Distribution.
2. System level Problem
7)

In general terms, electric drives an motors
are appliances used to convert electrical into
mechanical (kinetic) energy. The power ranges
start at a couple of mW and can go up to a several
hundreds of MW per unit, meaning therefore a
variety of potential applications. However, although
the power ranges may significantly change from
motor to motor the principles of operation seem to
be always the same.
Within the context the typical block diagram of such
an energy conversion system (electric → mechanic/
kinetic) could be drawn in the following way:

Although the complexity of above system block
may vary with the application, a motor drive system
will always require some sort of power conversion
stage (which will be depending upon the available
power source), combined with an open – and in
case of more complex systems – a closed loop
control unit.
Since neither the motor itself nor the energy
buffer system are intended to be a main matter of
discussion of the workbook, the focus will therefore
primarily be the Power Conversion stage and –
up to a certain extent – the Closed Loop Control
circuitry in the context of a given motor topology.
(Closed Loop)
Control
Control Quantity
&
Signals
Measurement Parameters
Energy
Buffer
(Elect.)
Power Source
Converter Motor
Processing
Machine
7)
FAE Training – Elektrische Maschinen, Labor für Leistungselektronik, Maschinen und Antriebe, Dr.-Ing. Johannes Teigelkötter
9 8
The Engineers of Distribution.
9 8
The Engineers of Distribution.
2.1 Motor Topologies and Drives
Depending upon the principles of operations, following types of motors can be classified
8)
:
Of course, each motor type can be combined with
another one mentioned in above table, significantly
blowing up this overview; however, the most
common once used nowadays would probably be
those highlighted in red. Out of those the most
commonly used DC motor is the mechanically
commutated permanent magnet “PMDC”
9)
,
predominantly due to the relative low initial costs.
Yet, electrical efficiency as well as maintenance
costs seem to be relatively high as compared
to AC synchronous and asynchronous motors.
These two last once are rather cheap as far as the
The Complete Family of Electric Motors
AC
Asynchronous
Induction BLDC Sine Hysterisis Step Reluctance PMDC
Wound
Field
Shunt
Compound
SRM
Synchronous
Reluctance
PSM
Single
Phase
Capacitor
Start
Cast Rotor
Capacitor
Run
Shaded
Pole
Inserted
Rotor
Wound
Rotor
Poly
Phase
Wound
Field
Series
Permanent
Magnet
Hybrid
Variable
Reluctance
Universal
Synchronous Commutator Homopolar
DC
initial costs are concerned, however with a much
better performance (efficiency) and almost no
maintenance costs. However, the complexity of the
electrical control is significantly higher then in case
of a DC motor.
In the following comparison some of the key
selection parameters for those red highlighted
motors have been put together providing an
overview of the most typical applications where
they can be seen today.
8)
Motor, Drive and Control Basics, International Rectifier Corp. by Eric Persson & Michael Mankel
9)
PMDC - Permanent Magnet DC Motor
11 10
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 11 10
The Engineers of Distribution.
2.1.1 PMDC – Permanent
Magnet DC Motor
10)

The DC motor is a rotating electric
machine designed to operate from source of direct
voltage. The basic type is a permanent magnet DC
motor. The stator of a permanent magnet DC motor
is composed of two or more permanent magnet
pole pieces. The rotor is composed of windings
that are connected to a mechanical commutator.
The opposite polarities of the energized winding
and the stator magnet attract and the rotor will
rotate until it is aligned with the stator. Just as the
rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move across
the commutator contacts and energize the next
winding.
In order to understand the principles of operation,
we will start with a permanent magnet, mechanically
commutated DC motor and use the terminology
used in following block diagram
11)
:
The main windings rotate (rotor) while the
magnetic field is fixed, usually through a
permanent magnet. DC voltages and currents
are provided though brushes. With N wires per
coil and multiple commutator bars, following
mathematical relationships are know to be valid:
T = 2NBrlI
0
= K
T
· I
0
(1)
and
e = 2NBrlω = K
e
· ω (2)
Communication of a Single-loop DC Machine
www.silica.com
10)
http://www.freescale.com/webapp/sps/site/homepage.jsp?nodeId=02nQXG
11)
Motor, Drive and Control Basics, International Rectifier Corp. by Eric Persson & Michael Mankel
11 10
The Engineers of Distribution.
11 10
The Engineers of Distribution.
with
K
T
: Torque Constant
T: Magnetic Torque
K
e
: emf Constant
e: “emf” Induced Voltage (“electromotive force”)
B: Constant Magnetic Field, generated by the
permanent magnet
The relationship between Torque and rpm “n” leads
to following mathematical expression
12)
:
n = n
0
- M (3)
k
M
= cϕ (4)
M = T - M
R
(5)
with
M: Torque
n
0
: Idle Speed
R: Total Resistance (rotor and brushes)
c: Engine’s Constant
ϕ: Magnetic Flux, constant in case B is constant
(permanent magnet!)
M
R
: Friction Losses
R
2π · k
M
2
Two other types of DC motors are series wound
and shunt wound DC motors. These motors also
use a similar rotor with brushes and a commutator.
However, the stator uses windings instead of
permanent magnets. The basic principle is still
the same. A series wound DC motor has the stator
windings in series with the rotor. A shunt wound DC
motor has the stator windings in parallel with the
rotor winding. A series wound motor is also called
a universal motor. It is universal in the sense that
it will run equally well using either an AC or a DC
voltage source.
12)
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13 12
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For obvious reasons, the H-bridge driver requires 4
switches, hence 2 less then the traditional 3-pahes
driver. The current flow – and therefore the torque,
see equation (1) – can be driven in either direction.
The control strategy can be designed for 4-quadrant
operation modes: 1 forward and 2 reverse motoring
as well as 3 forward and 4 reverse braking using
the “emf” induced voltage as a breaking effect.
These last two once may require shunt regulator for
braking (regeneration). With respect to modulation
there are a variety of strategies available, with PWM
as the most usual one.
2.1.3. asynchronous
Motor
14)

In an induction motor (asynchronous)
the stator (3 phase) windings are fixed while the
magnetic field rotates. AC voltages and currents
are provided to the stator while the AC currents
on rotor experience a slip at frequency; the
speed is always a little less than the synchronous
speed and speed drops with increasing load
(~5% max.).
The AC induction motor is a rotating electric
machine designed to operate from a three-phase
source of alternating voltage. The stator is a classic
three phase stator with the winding displaced by
120°. The most common type of induction motor
has a squirrel cage rotor in which aluminum
2.1.2. DC Motor Driver
The traditional way to control the sense of rotation
would be by changing the polarity of the DC
commutator voltage; the speed itself through a
PWM duty cycle, using a classic H-bridge circuit.
With this approach 4 different operational modes
can be defined
13)
:
H-bridge Motor Drive (be-directional)
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13)
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14)
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conductors or bars are shorted together at both
ends of the rotor by cast aluminum end rings. When
three currents flow through the three symmetrically
placed windings, a sinusoidally distributed air gap
flux generating the rotor current is produced. The
interaction of the sinusoidally distributed air gap
flux and induced rotor currents produces a torque
on the rotor. The mechanical angular velocity of the
rotor is lower then the angular velocity of the flux
wave by so called slip velocity.
The valid block diagram looks as follows
15)
:
The slip, hence the difference between the rotor-
speed and the rotational-speed of the rotating-
field is been expressed through the following
relationship:
s = (6)
and
n
S
= (7)
representing the synchronous speed as a
relationship between ƒ
1
, the stator current and p,
the number of pole-pairs. Therefore the relationship
between Torque, synchronous speed and rotor
speed is been expressed through the following
equation:
M = = (8)
with
P: Output Power
P
δ
: Rotor Loss
In adjustable speed applications, AC motors are
powered by inverters. The inverter converts DC
power to AC power at the required frequency and
amplitude. The inverter consists of three half-
bridge units where the upper and lower switches are
controlled complimentarily. As the power device’s
turn-off time is longer than its turn-on time, some
dead-time must be inserted between the turn-off
of one transistor of the half-bridge and turn-on of
its complementary device. The output voltage is
mostly created by a pulse width modulation (PWM)
technique. The 3-phase voltage waves are shifted
120° to each other and thus a 3-phase motor can
be supplied.
2.1.4. Synchronous
Motor
16)

In a synchronous motor the speed
is synchronised to the stator voltage frequency;
speed is therefore directly proportional to stator
frequency. Since ns = n, s = 0.
Starconnection Deltaconnection
n
S
- n
n
S
P
2πn
P
δ
2πn
S
ƒ
1
p
15)
Handbuch Elektrische Antriebe, Hans-Dieter Stölting & Eberhard Kallenbach
16)
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The PM Synchronous motor is a rotating electric
machine where the stator is a classic three phase
stator like that of an induction motor and the rotor
has surface-mounted permanent magnets. In this
respect, the PM Synchronous motor is equivalent
to an induction motor where the air gap magnetic
field is produced by a permanent magnet. The use
of a permanent magnet to generate a substantial
air gap magnetic flux makes it possible to design
highly efficient PM motors. A PM Synchronous
motor is driven by sine wave voltage coupled with
the given rotor position. The generated stator flux
together with the rotor flux, which is generated by
a rotor magnet, defines the torque, and thus, speed
of the motor. The sine wave voltage output have to
be applied to the 3-phase winding system in a way
that angle between the stator flux and the rotor flux
is kept close to 90° to get the maximum generated
torque. To meet this criterion, the motor requires
electronic control for proper operation.
The relationship between Torque and Rotor Speed
can be expressed through following term:
M - M
L
= J (9)
ω = p · Ω (10)
with
M
L
: Load torque
J: Total Moment of Inertia
Ω: Mechanical Radial Frequency
For a common 3-phase PM Synchronous motor,
a standard 3-phase power stage is used. The
same power stage is used for AC induction and
BLDC motors. The power stage utilizes six power
transistors with independent switching. The power
transistors are switched in the complementary
mode. The sine wave output is generated using a
PWM technique.
2.1.5. blDC –
brushless DC
17)
A brushless DC (BLDC)
motor is a rotating electric
machine where the stator is a classic three-phase
stator like that of an induction motor and the rotor
has surface-mounted permanent magnets. In this
respect, the BLDC motor is equivalent to a reversed
DC commutator motor, in which the magnet rotates
while the conductors remain stationary. In the DC
commutator motor, the current polarity is altered
by the commutator and brushes. On the contrary,
in the brushless DC motor, the polarity reversal
is performed by power transistors switching in
synchronization with the rotor position. Therefore,
BLDC motors often incorporate either internal or
external position sensors to sense the actual rotor
position or the position can be detected without
sensors.
The BLDC motor is driven by rectangular voltage
strokes coupled with the given rotor position. The
generated stator flux interacts with the rotor fluxes,
which is generated by a rotor magnet, defines the
torque and thus speed of the motor. The voltage
strokes must be properly applied to the two phases
of the three-phase winding system so that the angle
between the stator flux and the rotor flux is kept
1 δω
p δt
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15 14
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15 14
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close to 90° to get the maximum generated torque.
Due to this fact, the motor requires electronic
control for proper operation.
2.1.6. SRM –
Switched Reluctance
Motor
18)

A Switched Reluctance Motor is a rotating electric
machine where both stator and rotor have salient
poles. The stator winding is comprised of a set
of coils, each of which is wound on one pole. SR
motors differ in the number of phases wound on
the stator. Each of them has a certain number of
suitable combinations of stator and rotor poles.
The motor is excited by a sequence of current
pulses applied at each phase. The individual
phases are consequently excited, forcing the motor
to rotate. The current pulses need to be applied
to the respective phase at the exact rotor position
relative to the excited phase. The inductance profile
of SR motors is triangular shaped, with maximum
inductance when it is in an aligned position and
minimum inductance when unaligned. When the
voltage is applied to the stator phase, the motor
creates torque in the direction of increasing
inductance. When the phase is energized in its
minimum inductance position the rotor moves to
the forth coming position of maximal inductance.
The profile of the phase current together with
the magnetization characteristics defines the
generated torque and thus the speed of the motor.
The SR motor requires control electronic for its
operation. Several power stage topologies are
being implemented, according to the number of
motor phases and the desired control algorithm. A
power stage with two independent power switches
per motor phase is the most used topology. This
particular topology of SR power stage is fault
tolerant - in contrast to power stages of AC induction
motors - because it eliminates the possibility of
a rail-to-rail short circuit. The SR motor requires
position feedback for motor phase commutation. In
many cases, this requirement is addressed by using
position sensors, like encoders, Hall sensors, etc.
The result is that the implementation of mechanical
sensors increases costs and decreases system
reliability. Traditionally, developers of motion
control products have attempted to lower system
costs by reducing the number of sensors. A variety
of algorithms for sensorless control have been
developed, most of which involve evaluation of the
variation of magnetic circuit parameters that are
dependent on the rotor position.
2.1.7. bi-Polar Stepper Motor
In a bi-polar stepper motor, the stator poles change
polarity by varying current through each of the two
coils. The rotor’s magnetic poles, however, fixed
relative to the rotor itself. By definition, the bi-
polar stepper motor has one phase per stator pole
which requires advanced circuitry such as a driver
and H-bridge circuit to cause rotation and torque
by switching the poles by alternately changing the
current direction in each phase. The resolution of
a stepper motor is determined by arrangement of
the “teeth”.
18)
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Step 1 – Phase 1 energized with positive current
Phase 2 not energized
Step 2 – Phase 1 is de-energized while
Phase 2 is energized with positive current
Rotor rotates 90 degrees to align with
north
Step 3 – Phase 1 energized with negative current
Phase 2 not energized
Rotor rotates 90 degrees to align with
north
Step 4 – Phase 1 is de-energized while
Phase 2 is energized with negative current
Rotor rotates 90 degrees to align with
north
n
S
S
n
Rotor
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 2 Stator – Phase 2
n S
S n
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 2 Stator – Phase 2
n S
S n
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 2 Stator – Phase 2
n
S
S
n
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 2 Stator – Phase 2
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As a simplified example of how a stepper motor
operates, one can imagine a stepper motor with only
four teeth or two phases each controlling two poles
(Figure 1). When such a stepper motor is in full-step
mode, the rotor rotates 90-degrees by sequentially
changing the current in each phase. For example,
in Step 1 of Figure 1, Phase 1 is energised with a
‘positive’ current which causes the permanent
south pole of the roor to align with the north pole
of the phase 1 stator pole. If phase 1 is then de-
energised and a ‘positive’ current is then applied
to phase 2, the position of the north pole changes
causing the rotor to align its south pole, therefore
rotating 90-degrees clockwise in this example
(Step 2 of Figure 1). In order to get the rotor to
continue in a clockwise motion, phase 1 is then
energised with a ‘negative current’ which switches
the north and south poles from Step 1 causing the
rotor to align itself and turn 90-degrees clockwise
(Step 3, Figure 1). Phase 1 is then de-energised
and phase 2 is energised with a ‘negative’ current,
once again rotating the rotor one quarter turn. The
cycle then starts over by de-energising phase 2 and
energising phase 1 with a positive current, which
puts the motor back to Step 1. This simple example
represents a stepper motor with 90-degree re-
solution, which for practical purposes is not typical.
The resolution of a stepper motor is determined
by the number of teeth and alignment and a
1.8-degree step provides motion with much less
vibration caused by the overshoot than our fictional
90-degree motor example above. However, the
vibration experienced in a stepper motor with only
1.8-degree incremental steps, or full-steps, can
be even further reduced by utilising stepper motor
drivers capable of micro-stepping.
Step 1 – Both phases 1 and 2 energised with
positive current resulting in the rotor
aligning between full-steps
Very simply, micro-stepping is accomplished by
partially energising both phases allowing the rotor
to stop between steps as shown in Figure 2. By
energizing both phases using the same current
magnitude, the rotor is equally attracted to both
north poles which causes it to stop in-between the
two and resulting in a half-step, or as referred to in
most literature, a one-half microstep. By applying
currents to both phases in different ratios, advanced
stepper motor drivers can further reduce micro-
stepping increments to ¼, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32 and even
1/64 microsteps. For the designer, this means that a
stepper motor specified to be capable of 1.8-degree
steps, or 200 steps per rotation, is now capable of
stepping in increments of 0.028-degrees or 12,800
steps per rotation. Not only does this allow finer
resolution in stepping, it also drastically reduces
vibration. Although the increased resolution
n S
S
n
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 1
Stator – Phase 2 Stator – Phase 2
n
S
R
o
t
o
r
19 18
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The Engineers of Distribution.
typically comes at a cost of 10% to 20% of torque,
the increase resolution has many applications
when the trade-offs are considered.
2.1.8 aC Motor Driver
Since AC motors require three AC phases to be
independently driven, the solution would be to
control – both, synchronous and asynchronous
motors – through a 3-Phase-Bridge-Driver like the
one represented in the following illustration
19)
:
Depending upon the application, above 3-Phase-
Bridge can be realized with IGBTs like in above
example or with power MOSFETs. Performance
criteria mainly like power and heat dissipation
will determine which solution to go for. Yet, due
to the system, topology and circuitry architecture
peculiarities a further detailed discussion will be
performed in the context of specific solutions.
AC-DC
AC
in
AC
out
Motor
DC link DC-AC
www.silica.com
19)
Motor Control Basics, International Rectifier Corp. by Aengus Murray
19 18
The Engineers of Distribution.
19 18
The Engineers of Distribution.
2.2. Motor Selection Criteria
When it comes to the selection of a specific motor
for a given application, the criteria based upon the
decision will have to be founded on, may significantly
complicate the decision process.
At a first stage the designer has to understand the
load requirements, meaning those parameters like
speed range, continuous and peak torque as well
as starting requirements, which will provide a first
decision base to deal with.
Besides that it is fundamental to understand those
performance requirements like efficiency, dynamic
performance, speed accuracy, torque and speed
ripple, acoustic noise, hence those parameters
that will have a direct impact on the application’s
performance quality.
At a next step these needs will have to be put in line
with important Supply Considerations (AC or DC,
Voltage and current, connections, EMI/RFI) which
in many cases narrow down the applicability of a
potential candidate.
Once above criteria had been carefully taken into
consideration, the designer will have to determine
Mechanical and Environmental Issues like size
& weight, temperature, reliability, explosion
proof, integration of drive and control and safety
issues, hence those kind of parameters that may
significantly limit the usage of a selected solution
depending upon their importance in a given
application.
Finally, logistics and costs will be an issue that will
require a dedicated focus, especially if we remember
the analysis in the introduction. In specific those
criteria like annual usage and unit cost target will
have to be carefully considered. Within this context
the question about making or buying the complete
system (or part of it) will be depending on risk
factors like availability of suppliers, time to market,
development cost and technology risk.
Due to the complexity of this approach, the selection
of a specific motor for a given application may
become more sophisticated then initially expected;
taking into consideration all above mentioned
parameters, the overview presented on page 10
reflects a selection of those motor commonly used
for specific applications at the moment. Although
meant to be used as a guidance, it will still require
individual adaption to a given problem.
21 20
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 21 20
The Engineers of Distribution.
2.3 applications Summary and overview – electric Motor Topologies
T
y
p
e
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www.silica.com
21 20
The Engineers of Distribution.
21 20
The Engineers of Distribution.
3. Solutions
3.1 analog Devices
The aDM3251e in Motion Control applications
Introduction
For many years, communications in Motion Control
Systems has typically been implemented via an
RS-232 interface. The RS-232 bus standard has
proven itself to be a robust communication protocol,
particularly suited to noisy environments. Recent
enhancements in serial communication design
include the isolation of the RS-232 port from the
motion controller itself. The ADM3251E offers the
latest level of innovation, by combining both power
and data isolation in a single package.
A basic architecture of a motion control system is
depicted in Figure 1. To improve system reliability
within a noisy environment and protect against
voltage spikes and ground loops, isolation is
required between the RS-232 cable network and
the systems connected to it. Analog Devices Inc.
have developed the ADM3251E integrated isolated
RS-232 transceiver to solve these problems. Until
recently, transferring power across an isolation
barrier required either a separate dc-to-dc
converter, which is relatively large, expensive, and
has insufficient isolation, or a custom discrete
approach, which is not only bulky but also difficult
to design.
The ADM3251E combines iCoupler technology
with isoPower, which results in a complete
isolation solution within a single package. Not only
does the ADM3251E offer state of the art digital
signal isolation, having substantial advantage
over optocouplers in terms of power, size and
performance, but it also eliminates the need for
a separate isolated power supply. The ADM3251E
provides functional integration that can dramatically
reduce the complexity, size and total cost of an
isolated system.
RS-232 Port
Motion
Controller
AMP/
Drive
MOTOR MECHANICAL
Feedback
Device
Figure 1. Block Diagram of a Typical Motion Control Application
23 22
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 23 22
The Engineers of Distribution.
ADM3251E Features
The ADM3251E is a high speed, 2.5 kV fully isolated,
singlechannel RS-232 transceiver device that
operates from a single 5V power supply. Due to the
high ESD protection on the R
IN
and T
OUT
pins the
device is ideally suited for operation in electrically
harsh environments or where RS-232 cables are
frequently being plugged and unplugged.
Complete isolation of both signal and power is
achieved using iCoupler technology. iCoupler
technology is based on chipscale transformers
0
7
3
8
8
-
0
0
1
DECODE
RECT REG
V–
C4
0.1µF
16V
VOLTAGE
DOUBLER
C1+ C1– V+ V
ISO C2+ C2–
R
T
VOLTAGE
INVERTER
V
CC
R
OUT
T
IN
GND GND
ISO
R
IN
*
T
OUT
ADM3251E
OSC
ENCODE
ENCODE
DECODE
*5kΩ PULL-DOWN RESISTOR ON THE RS-232 INPUT.
0.1µF
C3
0.1µF
10V
C2
0.1µF
16V 0.1µF
C1
0.1µF
16V
Figure 3. ADM3251E Functional Block Diagram
rather than the LEDs and photodiodes used in
optocouplers. By fabricating the transformers
directly on chip using wafer level processing
iCoupler channels can be integrated with other
semiconductor functions as low cost. Transfer
of the digital signal is realised through the
transmission of short pulses approximately routed
to the primary side of a given transformer. These
pulses couple from one transformer coil to another
and are detected by the circuitry on the secondary
side of the transformer. The circuitry then recreates
the input digital signal.
Another novel feature of iCoupler technology is
that the transformer coils that are used to isolate
data signals may also be used as the transformers
in an isolated DC-DC converter, this extension of
iCoupler technology is termed isoPower. The result
is a total isolation solution.
For further information, please visit:
www.analog.com/ADM3251E
Figure 2.
23 22
The Engineers of Distribution.
23 22
The Engineers of Distribution.
3.2 freescale Semiconductor
freescale Solutions for Motor Control
Technologies
Comprehensive 8-, 16- and 32-bit systems with
advanced sensor and analog/mixed signal devices
Freescale offers complete solutions for every motor
control application. Our superior portfolio and
breadth of devices includes:
• 8-bit microcontrollers (MCUs)
• 16-bit digital signal controllers (DSCs)
• 32-bit embedded controllers
• Acceleration and pressure sensors
• Analog and mixed signal devices
Freescale delivers solutions that have wide ranging
banks of flash and RAM memories, configurable
timer options, pulse width modulators (PWMs),
and some even offer an enhanced Time Processing
Unit (eTPU). Freescale supports these devices with
motor control-related application notes, hardware/
software tools, drivers, algorithms and helpful
Web links including our motor control Web site at
www.freescale.com/motorcontrol.
Freescale Motor Control Solutions
A full range of products, technology, services and tools
25 24
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 25 24
The Engineers of Distribution.
Expertise Application Notes Analog and Sensors
Demos Development Tools
Software and Drivers
Online Training
Technical Support Website
Reference Designs
MCUs, MPUs and DSCs
Freescale's
Complete Motor
Control Solution
We are dedicated to providing comprehensive
system solutions that not only improve motor
efficiency but also minimise system updates,
development time and maintenance costs.
Freescale provides microcontrollers and develop-
ment tool solutions for all of your motor control
needs.
25 24
The Engineers of Distribution.
25 24
The Engineers of Distribution.
control for an incredible variety of applications.
The product roadmaps demonstrate that new
feature integration and software compatibility will
continue to drive future generations of embedded
motor control solutions. Freescale provides
microcontrollers and development tool solutions
for all of your motor control needs.
a Roadmap for Your future Design needs
Intelligent solutions driving new generations of
motor control applications
Freescale MCUs, MPUs and DSCs, when coupled
with analog/mixed-signal and power integrated
circuits, are designed to provide system solutions
for motor control, motion control and static load
32-bit MCU/MPU
-0ual-Axis Vector 0ontrol
-Torque 0ontrol
-Vector 0ontrol and
sensorless Vector 0ontrol
16-bit DSC
-Vector 0ontrol and
sensorless Vector 0ontrol
16-bit MCU
-0pen and 0lose Loop
V/HZ and 3-Ph.
5ensorless
A0ÌM/BL00/5R
8-bit MCU
-PWM Phase-Angle
0ontrol
Available Now 200º
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s
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n
MP05óxx
M05óF8xxx
M05óF8xxx
M0º512XE
M0º508A0 M0º5080E
M0º5080Z
M0º5085H
M0º50800
M0ºR508KA
M0º50800
M0º5080B
M03PHA0
M0º08MR
05P5óF80x
05P5óF82x M05óF81xx
M05óF83xx
05P5ó85x
M05óF803x
M05óF802x
M0F51A0
M0F521xx
M0F5221x
MP0553x
MP0555ó
MP055óx
MP05ó0x
M0F521x
M0F5222x
M0F5223x
MP05553
M0F523x
MP05óx
M0F528x
M05óF801x
M0º508xx
27 26
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 27 26
The Engineers of Distribution.
Recommended Devices
8-bit MCU: 908JK/JL, 908MR, 908QT/QY,
908QB, 908QC, 908GP, 908GR,
9S08AW, 9S08GB, 9S08GT, 9S08QG,
9S08QD
16-bit DSC: MC56F80x, MC56F80xx, MC56F83xx
32-bit MCU: MCF51AC, MCF521x, MCF523x,
MPC56x, MPC55xx
Analog/Mixed-Signal Power ICs
Power Supply: MC34702, MC34717, MC33730
Motor Driver: MC33932, MC34920, MC34921,
MC34923, MPC17533, MC33887,
MC33899, MC33926, MC33931,
MPC17529, MPC17531, MM908E626
Stepper Motors
General purpose stepper motor control
Advantages
• Precise position control
Applications
• Industrial machines
• Health care scanners
• Computers
• Office equipment
• Toys
MCU/DSC
P
W
M
PWM1A
PWM2A
PWM1B
PWM2B
Coil A
Coil B
V+
V+
l
a
l
b
Application Notes
32-bit AN2353 The Essentials of the
Enhanced Time Processing
Unit
AN2848 Programming the eTPU
AN2869 Using the Stepper Motor (SM)
eTPU Function
27 26
The Engineers of Distribution.
27 26
The Engineers of Distribution.
Application Notes
32-bit AN2955 DC Motor with Speed and Current
Closed Loops, Driven by eTPU on
MCF523x AN2955SW
AN2958 Using the DC Motor Control eTPU
Function Set (Set 3)
AN3008 DC Motor with Speed and Current
Closed Loops, Driven by eTPU on
MPC5554 AN3008SW
brushed DC Motor
Dual feedback loop control
Advantages
• Cost-effective control topology
• High-precision speed, torque control and
position loop can be added
Recommended Devices
8-bit MCU: 908MR, 9S08GB, 9S08AC
16-bit DSC: MC56F80x, MC56F80xx,
MC56F83xx
16-bit MCU: S12XE
32-bit MCU: MCF51AC, MCF521x, MCF523x,
MPC56x, MPC55xx
Analog/Mixed-Signal Power ICs
Power Supply: MC34702, MC34717, MC33730,
MC34923
Motor Driver: MPC17510, MPC17529,
MPC17531, MPC17533, MC34920,
MC34921, MC33926, MC33887,
MC33899, MC33931, MC33932
Applications
• Robots
• Traction control
• Servo systems
• Automotive
• Office equipment
• Toys
• Industrial machines
V
CC
V
CORE
V
REG
2
V
REG
1
Interface
HB
Driver
Current
Sensing
Encoder
DC
Motor
Analog Power ASIC
Speed
Command Speed
Controller
Current
Controller
PWM ADC
Quadrature
Decoder
MCU or DSC
29 28
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 29 28
The Engineers of Distribution.
Applications
• Robots
• Traction control
• Servo systems
• Office equipment
• Sewing machines
• Fitness machines/treadmills
• Toys
• Industrial machines
brushless DC Motor (blDC)
Encoder
Advantages
• Enables bi-directional operation with fast torque
response, low noise and high efficiency
• High precision speed
• Torque control
• Position loop can be added
Power Stage Driver
+
+
Motor
-
Encoder
Speed
Controller
MCU/DSC
Current
Controller
Speed
Reference
Actual Speed
+
+
-
-
GPIO and Serial Interface
PWM ADC ADC
Quadrature Decoder
Zero Crossing
Period and
Position Recognition
Communtation
Control
Speed
Calculation
PWM
Duty Cycle
Phase
Communication
1Φ or 3Φ
Over Current
Recommended Devices
8-bit MCU: 908MR, 9S08AC, 9S08GB
16-bit DSC: MC56F80x, MC56F80xx, MC56F83xx
16-bit MCU: S12XE
32-bit MCU: MCF51AC, MCF521x, MCF523x,
MPC56x, MPC55xx
Analog/Mixed-Signal Power ICs
Power Supply: MC34702, MC34717, MC33730
Motor Driver: MPC17533, MC34923, MC33937,
MC33927
Application Notes
8-bit AN2356 Sensorless BLDC Motor Control on
MC68HC908MR32 Software Porting
to Customer Motor
AN2355 Sensorless BLDC Motor Control on
MC68HC908MR32 Software
AN1858 Sensorless Brushless DC Motor
Using the MC68HC908MR32
Embedded Motion Control
AN1853 Embedding Microcontrollers in
Domestic Refrigeration Appliances
AN2396 Servo Motor Control Application on
a Local Area Interconnect Network
(LIN)
29 28
The Engineers of Distribution.
29 28
The Engineers of Distribution.
DRM086 Sensorless BLDC Motor Control
Using MC9S08AW60
Development System 16-bit
AN1913 3-Phase BLDC Motor Control
with Sensorless Back-EMF ADC
Zero Crossing Detection Using
DSP56F80x
AN1914 3-Phase BLDC Motor Control
with Sensorless Back EMF
Zero Crossing Detection Using
DSP56F80x
AN1961 3-Phase BLDC Motor Control
with Quadrature Encoder Using
56F800/E
DRM078 3-Phase BLDC Drive Using Variable
DC Link Six-Step Inverter
DRM070 3-Phase BLDC Motor Sensorless
Control Using MC56F8013/23
32-bit MCU
AN2892 3-Phase BLDC Motor with Speed
Closed Loop, Driven by eTPU on
MCF523x AN2892SW
AN2948 Three 3-Phase BLDC Motors with
Speed Closed Loop, Driven by eTPU
on MCF523x AN2948SW
AN2954 BLDC Motor with Speed Closed
Loop and DC-Bus Break Controller,
Driven by eTPU on MCF523x
AN2954SW
AN2957 BLDC Motor with Quadrature
Encoder and Speed Closed Loop,
Driven by eTPU on MCF523x
AN2957SW
AN3005 BLDC Motor with Quadrature
Encoder and Speed Closed Loop,
Driven by eTPU on MPC5554
AN3005SW
AN3006 BLDC Motor with Hall Sensors and
Speed Closed Loop, Driven by eTPU
on MPC5554 AN3006SW
AN3007 BLDC Motor with Speed Closed
Loop and DC-Bus Break Controller,
Driven by eTPU on MPC5554
AN3007SW
Reference Designs
RDDSP56F8BLDCE 3-Phase BLDC Motor Control
with Encoder Using 56F80X
or 56F8300 Digital Signal
Controllers
31 30
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 31 30
The Engineers of Distribution.
Applications
• Large appliances
• HVAC
• Blowers, fans
• Pumps
• Lifts, cranes, elevators
• Conveyors
• Frequency inverters
• Industrial controls
• Treadmills
• Industrial compressors
• Universal inverters
aC Induction Motors (aCIM)
3-phase ACIM with V/Hz open-loop control
with PFC
Advantages
• Enables bi-directional operation with fast torque
response
• Simple cost-effective control topology
• Controls both motor and PFC by single MCU
• Targeted for modest applications accepting
low-precision speed control
• High efficiency
• Precise speed control
• Enables indirect torque control
• Tolerant of motor parameters fluctuation
Motor
Over Current
Power Stage Driver
PWM
3-Phase
Sine PWM
Generation
MCU or DSC
DC-Bus Voltage
Compensation
Slip Speed Calculation
V/HZ
Voltage
Boost
Speed
Reference
GPIO and Serial Interface ADC ADC
Sine
Frequency
Amplitude
1
or
3
31 30
The Engineers of Distribution.
31 30
The Engineers of Distribution.
Recommended Devices
8-bit MCU: 908MR, 9S08AC, 9S08GB
16-bit DSC: MC56F80x, MC56F80xx, MC56F83xx
16-bit MCU: S12XE
32-bit MCU: MCF51AC, MCF521x, MCF523x,
MPC56x, MPC55xx
Analog/Mixed-Signal Power ICs
Power Supply: MC34702, MC34717, MC33730
Motor Driver: MPC17533, MC34923, MC33937,
MC33927
Application Notes
8-bit AN2154 Cost-Effective, 3-Phase, AC Motor
Control System with Power Factor
Correction
Based on MC68HC908MR32
AN1857 3-Phase, AC Motor Control System
with Power Factor Correction
Based on MC68HC908MR32
AN1664 Cost-Effective 3-Phase AC
Motor Control System Based on
MC68HC908MR32
AN1590 High-Voltage Medium Power Board
for 3-Phase Motors
AN2149 Compressor Induction Motor Stall
and Rotation Detection Using
Microcontrollers
AN1853 Embedding Microcontrollers in
Domestic Refrigeration Appliances
16-bit AN1918 Indirect Power Factor Correction
for 3-Phase AC Motor Control with
V/Hz Speed
Open Loop Application
AN1930 3-Phase AC Induction Motor Vector
Control
AN1958 3-Phase AC Motor Control with V/
Hz Speed Closed Loop Using the
56F800/E
AN1942 DSP56F80x Resolver Driver and
Hardware Interface
DRM092 3-Phase AC Induction Vector
Control Drive with Single-Shunt
Current Sensing
AN3234 Washing Machine Three-Phase AC
Induction Motor Drive
33 32
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 33 32
The Engineers of Distribution.
aC Induction Motors (aCIM)
3-phase ACIM with sensorless field oriented
control
Advantages
• High-precision speed/torque control
• Suitable for drives with high dynamic
requirements
• Removal of speed sensor
Power Stage Driver
SVM/PWM
DC-Bus Ripple
Compensation
Over Current
ADC PWM ADC ADC
Flux
Controller
Driver
GPIO and Serial Interface
Speed
Reference
Speed
Controller
Torque
Controller
GPIO
Break Control
Mult
rs
Flux and
Speed
Estimator
Slip
Frequency
Estimator
DSC/MCU
2
3
d
dt
i
ts
i
tm
i
a
i
b
i
sq
u
ts
u
ms
e
-jq
e
jq
y r
Te
w
y
w
s
w
r
q
y
1
or
3
u
a
u
b
Applications
• Large appliances
• Industrial compressors
• Water pumps
• Construction machinery
• Universal inverters
• HVAC
Recommended Devices
16-bit DSC: MC56F80x, MC56F80xx, MC56F83xx
32-bit MCU: MCF521x, MCF523x, MPC56x,
MPC55xx
Application Note
8-bit AN2154 Cost-Effective, 3-Phase, AC
Motor Control System with Power
Factor Correction Based on
MC68HC908MR32
AN1857 3-Phase, AC Motor Control System
with Power Factor Correction
Based on MC68HC908MR32
33 32
The Engineers of Distribution.
33 32
The Engineers of Distribution.
AN1664 Cost-Effective 3-Phase AC
Motor Control System Based on
MC68HC908MR32
AN1590 High-Voltage Medium Power Board
for 3-Phase Motors
AN2149 Compressor Induction Motor Stall
and Rotation Detection Using
Microcontrollers
AN1853 Embedding Microcontrollers in
Domestic Refrigeration Appliances
16-bit AN1918 Indirect Power Factor Correction
for 3-Phase AC Motor Control with
V/Hz Speed Open Loop Application
AN1930 3-Phase AC Induction Motor Vector
Control
AN1958 3-Phase AC Motor Control with V/
Hz Speed Closed Loop Using the
56F800/E
AN1942 DSP56F80x Resolver Driver and
Hardware Interface
DRM092 3-Phase AC Induction Vector
Control Drive with Single-Shunt
Current Sensing
AN3234 Washing Machine Three-Phase AC
Induction Motor Drive
Reference Designs
RD56F801XACIM Design of an ACIM Vector
Control Drive Using the
56F801X
35 34
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 35 34
The Engineers of Distribution.
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM)
Sensored field oriented control
Advantages
• Exceptionally low noise operation
• Outstanding drive efficiency
• Precise speed/torque control
U_DC bus
Break
Control
L
i
n
e

A
C
AC
DC
PMSM
Load
Quadrature
Encoder
Isa Isb Isc
Temperature
PWM
Quad Timer ADC PWM
Sector
DC-Bus
Torque
Current
Controller
Torque
Current
Controller
Is_a
Is_b
Is_c
GPIO
U_dcb
PWM
Fault Protection
Faults
GPIO and Serial Interface
Speed
Reference
Actual
Speed
MCU/DSC
DC-Bus
Ripple
Compensation
U
a
U
b
U
sa
U
sb
q
e
jq
i
sa
i
sb
Is_a_comp
Is_b_comp
Is_c_comp
Torque
Current
Controller
Flux
Current
Controller
Us_q

Us_d
e
-jq
w
r
Speed
Controller
Is_d*

w
D
e
c
o
u
p
l
i
n
g
(
B
a
c
k
-
E
M
F

F
e
e
d
f
o
r
w
a
r
d
)
Applications
• Robotics
• Elevators
• Servo drivers
• Traction systems
• Industrial motion control
• Automotive
Recommended Devices
16-bit DSC: MC56F80x, MC56F80xx, MC56F83xx
32-bit MCU: MCF521x, MCF523x, MPC56x,
MPC55xx
Application Notes
8-bit AN2357 Sine Voltage Powered 3-Phase
Permanent Magnet Motor with Hall
Sensor
AN2149 Compressor Induction Motor Stall
and Rotation Detection Using
Microcontrollers
AN1853 Embedding Microcontrollers in
35 34
The Engineers of Distribution.
35 34
The Engineers of Distribution.
Domestic Refrigeration Appliances
AN2396 Servo Motor Control Application on
a Local Area Interconnect Network
(LIN)
DRM036 Sine Voltage Powered 3-Phase
Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Motor with Hall Sensors
16-bit AN1931 3-Phase PM Synchronous Motor
Vector Control
AN1942 DSP56F80x Resolver Driver and
Hardware Interface
DRM102 PMSM Vector Control with Single-
Shunt Current-Sensing Using
MC56F8013/23
DRM099 Sensorless PMSM Vector Control
with a Sliding Mode Observer for
Compressors Using MC56F8013
Reference Designs
RD56F8300EMB Electro-Mechanical Braking
Using 56F8300 Digital Signal
Contollers
RD56F8300EPAS Electronic Power Assisted
Steering (EPAS) with 56F8300
Digital Signal Controllers
RD56F8300FRBBW FlexRay Brake-By-Wire
Using 56F8300 Digital Signal
Controllers
RDDSP56F8PMSDE 3-Phase PM Synchronous
Motor Control with Quadrature
Encoder Using 56F80X Digital
Signal Controllers
RDDSP56F8SMTVC 3-Phase PM Synchronous
Motor Torque Vector Control
Using 56F80X or 56F8300
Digital Signal Controllers
37 36
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 37 36
The Engineers of Distribution.
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM)
Sensorless sinusoidal field oriented control
with zero speed torque capability
Advantages
• Low-noise operation
• High drive efficiency
• Suitable for drives with high dynamic
requirements
Speed
Reference
Torque
Controller
PI PI
estim
i
dq
*
i
dq_estim_filt
BSF
estim
u
dqcomp
estim
u
d_hf
u
hf
(t)=U
m
*sin(
hf
t)
dq

ABC
dq

ABC
dq

ABC
PI PI
Torque
Controller
BSF
estim Position estimation
Speed estimation
estim
IPMSM
Sensorless
Algorithms
Current
Reconstruction
Algorithm
PWM
Generation
AC Mains
IPMSM
ADC
i
ABC
Software
Portion
Hardware
Portion
3-ph Converter
• High-precison speed/torque control
• Removal of speed sensor
Applications
• Appliances
• HVAC
• Compressors
• Blowers
• Industrial motion controls
Recommended Devices
16-bit DSC: MC56F80x, MC56F80xx, MC56F83xx
32-bit MCU: MCF521x, MCF523x, MPC56x,
MPC55xx
Analog/Mixed Signal Power ICs
Motor Driver: MC33927, MC33937
Application Notes
8-bit AN2357 Sine Voltage Powered 3-Phase
Permanent Magnet Motor with Hall
Sensor
AN2149 Compressor Induction Motor Stall
and Rotation Detection Using
Microcontrollers
AN1853 Embedding Microcontrollers in
Domestic Refrigeration Appliances
AN2396 Servo Motor Control Application on
a Local Area Interconnect Network
(LIN)
DRM036 Sine Voltage Powered 3-Phase
Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Motor with Hall Sensors
16-bit AN1931 3-Phase PM Synchronous Motor
Vector Control
AN1942 DSP56F80x Resolver Driver and
Hardware Interface
DRM102 PMSM Vector Control with Single-
Shunt Current-Sensing Using
MC56F8013/23
DRM099 Sensorless PMSM Vector Control
with a Sliding Mode Observer for
Compressors Using MC56F8013
37 36
The Engineers of Distribution.
37 36
The Engineers of Distribution.
Switch Reluctance Motor Drive
Sensorless
Advantages
• Reliable electronics
• High starting torque
• Removal of position sensor
3-Phase SR Power Stage
SRM
PWM
Load
DC-Bus Voltage
Phase Current
Temperature
AC
DC
1
or
3
Commutation
Comparator
Fault
Protection PWM
Generation
Current
Controller
Speed
Controller
Speed
Ramp
Req.
Speed
Desired
Speed
Speed
Error
DC-Bus
Voltage
Actual
Speed
MCU/DSC
Speed
Calculation
MUX
Commutation
Commutation
Angle
Actual
Current
DC-Bus
Voltage
Commutation
Angle
Commutation
Angle
Calculation
Estim.
Flux
Refer.
Flux
Reference
Flux Linkage
Calculation
Flux Linkage
and
Resistance
Estimation
Desired
Current
Current
Error
Duty
Cycle
Start
Stop
Down
Up
Free Master
SCI
Applications
• Industrial machines
• Medical scanners
• Computers, office equipment
• Toys
• Food processors
• Vacuum cleaners
• Machine tools
• Large appliances
Recommended Devices
16-bit DSC: MC56F80x, MC56F80xx, MC56F83xx
16-bit MCU: S12XE
Analog/Mixed Signal Power ICs
Motor Driver: MC33927, MC33937
Application Notes
16-bit AN1912 3-Phase Switched Reluctance (SR)
Motor Control with Hall Sensors
AN1932 3-Phase Switched Reluctance (SR)
Sensorless Motor Control
DRM100 Sensorless High-Speed SR Motor
Drive for Vacuum Cleaners Using
an MC56F8013
Reference Designs
RDDSP56F8SRDE 3-Phase Switched Reluctance
Motor Control with Encoder
Using 56F80X Digital Signal
Controllers
RDDSP56F8SRDHS 3-Phase Switched Reluctance
Motor Control with Hall
Sensor Reference Design for
56F80X or 56F8300 Digital
Signal Controllers
RDDSP56F8SRDS 3-Phase Switched Reluctance
Motor Sensorless Control
Reference Design Using
56F80X or 56F8300 Digital
Signal Controllers
39 38
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 39 38
The Engineers of Distribution.
Power ICs for Motor Control Products
Analog/mixed-signal integrated circuits as part of
robust, highly integrated system solutions
Freescale offers the following analog evaluation
boards and modules:
Device P/N Evaluation Boards and Modules
MC33399 KIT33399DEVB
MC33661 KIT33661DEVB
MC33689 KIT33689DWBEVB
MC33742 KIT33742DWEVB
MC33800 KIT33800EKEVME
MC33810 KIE33810EKEVME
MC33880 KIT33880DWBEVB
MC33887 KIT33887DWBEVB/KIT33887PNBEVB
MC33889 KIT33889DWEVB
MC33926 KIT33926PNBEVBE
MC33927 KIT33927EKEVBE
MC33972 KIT33972AEWEVBE
Power Supply
Management
Inter-Module
Communication
System Input
Conditioning
Feedback
Conditioning
Rotor Position
(optional)
SPI or Parallel
Control
Power
Actuation
Motor
Mech
Assy
MCU
DSP
ASSP
Controller
Inter-Module
Communication
Products
MC33390
MC33399
MC33661
MC33790
MC33897
MC33990
MC33910
MC33911
MC33912
Conditioning
Products
MC33287
MC33811
MC33884
MC33972
MC33975
MC33993
Management Products
MC33689
MC33742
MC33889
MC33/34910
MC33/34911
MC33/34912
MC33989
MC34701
MC34702
MC34712
MC34713
MC34716
MC34717
MC34921
MC33910
MC33911
MC33912
Power Products
MC33580
MC33800
MC33810
MC33874
MC33879
MC33880
MC33882
MC33886
MC33887
MC33899
MC33976
MC33977
MC33926
MC33927
MC33981
MC33982
MC33984
MC33991
MC33996
MC33999
MC33920
MC33923
MC17510
MC17511
MC17529
MC17533
MC908E624
MC908E625
MC908E626
Device P/N Evaluation Boards and Modules
MC33975 KIT33975AEWEVBE
MC33984 KIT33984PNAEVB
MC33989 KIT33989DWEVB
MC33996 KIT33996EKEVB
MC33999 KIT33999EKEVB
MC34701 KIT33701DWBEVB
MC34702 KIT33702DWBEVB
MC34712 KIT34712EPEVBE
MC34713 KIT34713EPEVBE
MC34716 KIT34716EPEVBE
MC34717 KIT34717EPEVBE
MPC17C724 KIT17C724EPEVBE
Please visit www.freescale.com/analog for more
details.
39 38
The Engineers of Distribution.
39 38
The Engineers of Distribution.
8-bit Microcontroller Motor Control Products
Feature-rich portfolio that meets all of your 8-bit
needs
Freescale’s 8-bit portfolio includes several low-
end devices that provide cost-effective solutions
for motor control applications. From flash to ROM,
8-bit Product Summary
Device Flash RAM
ADC Timers
5V IO
Analog
Comparator
Communications Packages
Channels Bits GPT ESCI SPI I
2
C ACMP
MC3PHAC — — 4 10 — — 6 Output N/A — Y — UART 1, 13, 22
MC9S08AC 128 KB 2 KB 16 10
2 x 2-ch. x 16-bit/
6-ch. x 16-bit
— See GPT N — Y — UART, SPI, I
2
C 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
MC9S08DZ 128 KB 8 KB 24 12
2-ch. x 16-bit/
8-ch. x 16-bit
— See GPT N — Y 2 UART, CAN, SPI, I
2
C 1, 4, 18, 19
MC9S08GB 60 KB 4 KB 8 10
3-ch. x 16-bit/
5-ch. x 16-bit
— See GPT N — — — UART, SPI, I
2
C 4, 5
MC9RS08KA 8 KB 0.25 KB 12 10 2 x 8-bit/2-ch. x 8-bit — See GPT N — Y 1 I
2
C 6, 7, 8, 9
MC908MR 32 KB 0.75 KB 10 10
4-ch. x 16-bit/
2-ch. x 16-bit

6-ch. x
12-bit
Y — Y — UART, SPI 5, 23
MC9S08QD 4 KB 0.25 KB 4 10
2-ch. x 16-bit/
1-ch. x 16-bit
— See GPT N — Y — — 16, 17
MC9S08QG 8 KB 0.5 KB 8 10
2-ch. x 16-bit/
1 x 8-bit
— See GPT N — — 1 UART, SPI, I
2
C 15, 6, 11, 20, 21
MC9S08SH 32 KB 1 KB 16 10
2 x 2-ch. x 16-bit/
1 x 8-bit
— See GPT N — Y 1 UART, SPI, I
2
C
11, 12, 13,
14, 15, 16

** HDI = Hardware Deadtime Insertion
8 Bit Development Tool Summary—HCS08/RS08
Family Part Numbers
Starter Kit Advanced Development
Demo Board Software Evaluation Board Kit Software
AC
MC9S08AC128/96 DEMOACKIT
CWX-HXX-SE*
Compiles up
to 32k of
object code
DEMOACKIT +
DEMOACEX
Options starting
at $395. More options
and information at
www.freescale.com/
codewarrior
MC9S08AC60/48/32
DEMO9S08AC60E
DEMO9S08AC60KIT
MC9S08AC16/8
DEMO9S08AC60E
DEMO9S08AC16KIT
DZ
MC9S08DZ128/
96/60/32/16
DEMO9S08DZ60 EVB9S08DZ60
GB MC9S08GB60/32 M68DEMO908GB60E M68EVB908GB60E
KA
MC9RS08KA2/1
DEMO9RS08KA2
USBSPYDER08
EVB9S08DZ60
MC9RS08KA8/4
DEMO9RS08KA8
USBSPYDER08
MR MC908MR32/16/8 USBSPYDER08
QD MC9S08QD4/2
DEMO9S08QD4
USBSPYDER08
QG MC9S08QG8/4 DEMO9S08QG8
SH
MC9S08SH8/4 DEMO9S08SH8

MC9S08SH32/16 DEMO9S08SH32
* Codewarrior Development Studio for HC(S)08 Special Edition is complimentary and is supplied with all Freescale development tools.
Upgrade available to support expanded memory sizes with part number CWP-PRO-NL/FL.
Package Information
Number Type Size (mm) Pitch (mm)
1 32 LQFP 7 x 7 0.8
2 44 LQFP 10 x 10 0.8
3 48 QFN 7 x 7 0.5
4 64 LQFP 10 x 10 0.5
5 64 QFP 14 x 14 0.8
6 16 LD PDIP 19 x 6.5 2.54
7 16 LD SOIC 10.3 x 7.5 1.27
8 20 PDIP 24.5 x 7.25 2.54
9 20 LD SOIC 12.8 x 7.5 1.27
10 80 LQFP 14 x 14 0.65
11 16 TSSOP 5 x 4.4 0.65
12 20 TSSOP 6.5 x 4.4 0.65
13 28 SOIC 18 x 7.5 1.27
14 28 TSSOP 9.7 x 4.4 0.65
15 24 QFN 4 x 4 0.50
16 8 NB SOIC 5 x 4 1.27
17 8 PDIP 10 x 6.35 2.54
18 48 LQFP 7 x 7 0.50
19 100 LQFP 14 x 14 0.50
20 16 QFN 5 x 5 0.80
21 8 DFN 4 x 4 0.80
22 28 DIP 37 x 14 2.54
23 56 SDIP 52 x 14 1.77
from 1 KB to 60 KB of memory and from tiny 8-pin
QFN to 64-pin quad flat packages, the HCS08 and
RS08 families are designed to meet all of your 8-bit
needs. They feature peripherals, such as 10-bit A/D
convertors and multi-channel timers, which make
them ideal candidates for low-end motor control
applications.
41 40
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 41 40
The Engineers of Distribution.
16-bit MCU and Digital Signal Controller Motor
Control Products
Specialising in automotive and DSP processing
applications, the S12X and DSCs offer superior
functionality in a 16-bit package
16-bit digital signal controller (DSC) products – The
56800 core-based family of DSCs combines the
16-bit Product Summary
Device Flash RAM
ADC Timers
5V IO
Analog
Comparator
Communications Packages
Channels Bits GPT PIT PWM HDI** TPU
MC56F801x 16 KB 4 KB 2 x 4-ch. 12 4 x 16-bit See GPT
6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y — UART, SPI, I
2
C 5
MC56F802x 32 KB 4 KB 2 x 8-ch. 12
2 x 4-ch. x
16-bit
3 x 16-bit
6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y 2 UART, SPI, CAN, I
2
C 6
MC56F803x 64 KB 8 KB 2 x 8-ch. 12
2 x 4-ch. x
16-bit
3 x 16-bit
6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y 2 UART, SPI, CAN, I
2
C 6
MC56F8123/8122 32 KB 8 KB 2 x 4-ch. 12
2 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y — UART, SPI 6
MC56F8135 64 KB 8 KB 4 x 4-ch. 12
2 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, CAN,
Quad Decoder
7
MC56F8147/8146/8145 128 KB 8 KB 4 x 4-ch. 12
2 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, Quad
Decoder
8
MC56F8157/8156/8155 256 KB 16 KB 4 x 4-ch. 12
2 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, Quad
Decoder
8
MC56F8167/8166/8165 512 KB 32 KB 4 x 4-ch. 12
2 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, Quad
Decoder
8
MC56F8323/8322 32 KB 8 KB 2 x 4-ch. 12
2 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, CAN,
Quad Decoder
6
MC56F8335 64 KB 8 KB 4 x 4-ch. 12
4 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

2 x 6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, CAN,
Quad Decoder
7
MC56F8347/8346/8345 128 KB 8 KB 4 x 4-ch. 12
4 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

2 x 6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, CAN,
Quad Decoder
8, 9
MC56F8357/8356/8355 256 KB 16 KB 4 x 4-ch. 12
4 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

2 x 6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, CAN,
Quad Decoder
8, 9
MC56F8367/8366/8365 512 KB 32 KB 4 x 4-ch. 12
4 x 4-ch. x
16-bit

2 x 6-ch. x
15-bit
Y — Y —
UART, SPI, CAN,
Quad Decoder
8, 9
MC9S12XE 1024 KB 64 KB 2 x 16-ch. 12 8-ch. x 16-bit
8-ch. x
16-bit
8/4-ch. x
8/16-bit
Xgate — Y — UART, CAN, SPI, I
2
C 1, 2, 3, 4
** HDI = Hardware Deadtime Insertion
DSC Development Tool Summary
Family Part Numbers
Starter Kit Advanced Development
Demo Board Software Evaluation Board Kit Software
56F8000
MC56F8011 DEMO56F8014-EE
CWX-568-SE*
Compiles up
to 32k of
object code

Options starting
at $395. More options
and information at
www.freescale.com/
codewarrior
MC56F8013 DEMO56F8013-EE
MC56F8014 DEMO56F8014-EE
MC56F802x/3x — 56F8037EVM
56F8100
MC56F8123/8122

MC56F8367EVME
MC56F8135
MC56F8367EVME
MC56F8147/8146/8145
MC56F8157/8156/8155
MC56F8167/8166/8165
56F8300
MC56F8323/8322 MC56F8323EVME
MC56F8335
MC56F8367EVME
MC56F8347/8346/8345
MC56F8357/8356/8355
MC56F8367/8366/8365
S12X Development Tool Summary
Family Part Numbers
Starter Kit Advanced Development
Demo Board Software Evaluation Board Kit Software
XE
MC9S12XEP768/100
DEMO9S12XEP100
CWX-HXX-SE*
Compiles
up to 32k of
object code
EVB9S12XEP100
Options starting
at $395. More options
and information at
www.freescale.com/
codewarrior
MC9S12XEQ512/384
MC9S12XET256
MC9S12XEG128
* CodeWarrior Development Studio for S12X Special Edition is complimentary and is supplied with all Freescale
S12X development tools. Upgrade available to support expanded memory sizes with part number CWP-PRO-NL/FL.
Package Information
Number Type Size (mm) Pitch (mm)
1 80 LQFP 14 x 14 0.65
2 112 LQFP 20 x 20 0.65
3 144 LQFP 20 x 20 0.5
4 208 MAPBGA 17 x 17 1.0
5 32 LQFP 7 x 7 0.8
6 64 LQFP 12 x 12 0.5
7 128 LQFP 20 x 14 0.5
8 160 LQFP 24 x 24 0.5
9 160 MAPBGA 15 x 15 1.0
* CodeWarrior Development Studio for 56800
Special Edition is complimentary and is supplied
with all Freescale 56800 development tools. Upgrade
available to support expanded memory sizes with part
number CWP-PRO-NL/FL.
processing power of a DSP and the functionality of
a microcontroller, with a flexible set of peripherals
on a single chip. This creates an extremely cost-
effective motor control solution. MC9S12XE
family will deliver 32-bit performance with all the
advantages and efficiencies of a 16-bit MCU.
41 40
The Engineers of Distribution.
41 40
The Engineers of Distribution.
32-bit Microcontroller Motor Control Products
High performance for complex, real-time motor
control applications
These 32-bit embedded microcontrollers combine
higher performance with increased on-chip
functionality to address complex real-time control
applications that require more system throughput.
Both the ColdFire
®
family and MPC500 and MPC5500
families built on Power Architecture
®
technology
are capable of fulfilling the most demanding motor
control requirements in a wide range of operating
environments.
32-bit Product Summary
Device Flash RAM
ADC Timers
5V IO
Analog
Comparator
Communications Packages
Channels Bits GPT PIT PWM HDI** TPU
MCF51AC 256 KB 32 KB 24 12 6 — 2 Y — Y 2 I
2
C, SPI, CAN 1, 8
MCF521x 256 KB 32 KB 8 12 4-ch. x 32-bit 2 x 16-bit
8/4-ch. x
8/16-bit
N — — — UART, I
2
C, SPI, CAN 1, 2, 3, 4
MCF521xx 128 KB 16 KB 8 12 4-ch. x 32-bit 2 x16-bit
8/4-ch. x
8/16-bit
N — — — UART, I
2
C, SPI, CAN 1, 2, 3, 4
MCF5221x 128 KB 16 KB 8 12 4-ch. x 32-bit 2 x16-bit
8/4-ch. x
8/16-bit
N — — —
UART, I
2
C, SPI, CAN,
USB
1, 2, 3, 4
MCF5222x 256 KB 32 KB 8 12 4-ch. x 32-bit 2 x16-bit
8/4-ch. x
8/16-bit
N — — —
UART, I
2
C, SPI, CAN,
USB
1, 2, 3, 4
MCF5223x 256 KB 32 KB 8 12 4-ch. x 32-bit 2 x16-bit
8/4-ch. x
8/16-bit
N — — —
UART, I
2
C, SPI, CAN,
Ethernet
8, 9, 10
MCF523x — 64 KB — — 4-ch. x 32-bit 4 x 16-bit See TPU eTPU 32-ch. eTPU — —
UART, CAN, I
2
C, SPI,
Ethernet
5, 6, 7
MCF5282 512 KB 64 KB 8 10 4-ch. x 16-bit 4 x 16-bit 1 x 16-bit N — Y —
UART, CAN, I
2
C, SPI,
Ethernet, USB
7
MPC561/2 — 32 KB 32 10 6 x 16-bit 1 x 16-bit 6 x 16-bit TPU 2 x 16-ch. Y — UART, CAN, SPI 11
MPC563/4 512 KB 32 KB 32 10 6 x 16-bit 1 x 16-bit 6 x 16-bit TPU 2 x 16-ch. Y — UART, CAN, SPI 11
MPC565/6 1024 KB 36 KB 40 10 6 x 16-bit 1 x 16-bit 6 x 16-bit TPU 3 x 16-ch. Y — UART, CAN, SPI 11
MPC5534 1024 KB 64 KB 2 x 40 12 24-ch. x 24-bit Part of GPT —
eMIOS/
eTPU
32-ch. eTPU Y — UART, CAN, SPI 12, 13
MPC5553 1536 KB 64 KB 2 x 40 12 24-ch. x 24-bit Part of GPT —
eMIOS/
eTPU
32-ch. eTPU Y — UART, CAN, SPI 12, 13, 14
MPC5554 2048 KB 64 KB 2 x 40 12 24-ch. x 24-bit Part of GPT —
eMIOS/
eTPU
2 x 32-ch.
eTPU
Y —
UART, CAN, SPI,
Ethernet
12, 13, 14
MPC5565 2048 KB 80 KB 2 x 40 12 24-ch. x 24-bit Part of GPT —
eMIOS/
eTPU
32-ch. eTPU Y — UART, CAN, SPI 13
MPC5566 3072 KB 128 KB 2 x 40 12 24-ch. x 24-bit Part of GPT —
eMIOS/
eTPU
2 x 32-ch.
eTPU
Y —
UART, CAN, SPI,
Ethernet
14

* listed are for the superset device in each family. Memory sizes, peripherals
and communication options vary by device. Please see appropriate data sheet for further information.
** HDI = Hardware Deadtime Insertion
ColdFire Development Tool Summary
Family Part Numbers
Starter Kit Advanced Development
Demo Board Software Evaluation Board Kit Software
MCF51ACxxx MCF51AC256/128 DEMOACKIT CWX-HXX-SE* DEMOACKIT/DEMOACEX
Options starting
at $395. More options
and information at
www.freescale.com/
codewarrior
MCF521x
MCF5213/2/1 M5211DEMO
CWX-MCF-SE*
M5213EVBE
MCF5216/4 M5282LITEKIT M5282EVBE
MCF521xx MCF52110/52100 M52210DEMO M52211EVB
MCF522xx
MCF52211/52210 M52210DEMO M52211EVB
MCF52223/1 — M52223EVB
MCF5223x MCF52235/4/3/1/0 M52233DEMO M52235EVB
MCF523x MCF5235/4/3/2 M5235BCCKIT M523XEVBE
MCF528x MCF5282/1/0 M5282LITEKIT M5282EVBE
MPC Development Tool Summary
Family Part Numbers
Starter Kit Advanced Development
Demo Board Software Evaluation Board Kit Software
MPC55xx
MPC5553

CWS-MPC-
5500-SE*
Compiles up
to 128 k of
object code
MPC5553EVBE
Options starting
at $395. More options
and information at
www.freescale.com/
codewarrior
MPC5554 MPC5554EVBE
CodeWarrior Development Studio Special Edition for all MPC devices is complimentary, and is supplied with all MPC55xx evaluation
Boards. This version of CodeWarrior supports object code sizes up to 128 KB. Upgrade available to support expanded memory sizes.
For information on these upgrade options, visit www.freescale.com/codewarrior .
Package Information
Number Type Size (mm) Pitch (mm)
1 64 LQFP 10 x 10 0.5
2 64 QFN 9 x 9 0.5
3 81 MAPBGA 10 x 10 1.0
4 100 LQFP 14 x 14 0.5
5 160 QFP 28 x 28 0.65
6 196 MAPBGA 15 x 15 1.0
7 256 MAPBGA 17 x 17 1.0
8 80 LQFP 12 x 12 0.5
9 112 LQFP 20 x 20 0.65
10 121 MAPBGA 12 x 12 1.0
11 388 MAPBGA 27 x 27 1.0
12 208 MAPBGA 17 x 17 1.0
13 324 PBGA 23 x 23 1.0
14 416 PGBA 27 x 27 1.0
43 42
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 43 42
The Engineers of Distribution.
32-bit Microcontroller Motor Control Products
Enhanced time processing unit (eTPU) on the
MCF523x and MPC55xx families
The eTPU is a programmable I/O and control module
with its own core and memory system dedicated
to performing complex timing, control and I/O
management functions independently of the main
The eTPU is software programmable and can be congured to control a series of motors simultaneously.
Freescale provides an entire set of pre-written eTPU functions strictly dedicated to DC and AC motor control.
The following page has the full list of motor control functions/drivers for the eTPU.
eTPU Functions Library
General
Timing and
Measurement
General
Input-
Output
(GPIO)
Pulse Width
Modulation
Input
Capture
Output
Compare
Frequency
and Period
Measurement
Queued
Output
Match
Synchronized
Pulse Width
Modulation
Communications
Serial Periperal
Interface (SPI)
UART
UART with
Flow Control
DC Motors Motor Speed
DC Bus Break
Control
Quadrature
Decode
Hall Sensor
Decode
Analog Sensing
Motor Control
PWM
Current Control
Quadrature
Decoder
Hall Sensor
Decoder
AC Motors Motor Speed
DC Bus Break
Control
Quadrature
Decode
Hall Sensor
Decode
Analolg Sensing
Motor Control
PWM
ACIM Vector
ACIM V/Hz
Control
PMSM Vector
Control
Electronic
Motors and
Controls
Supported
CD Open
Loop
DC Speed
Loop with QD
DC Speed
Loop with HD
DC Speed
Loop and
Current Loop
BLDC with HD
Open Loop
BLDC with
HD Speed
Loop
BLDC with HD
Speed and
Current Loop
BLDC with
QD Open
Loop
BLDC with
QD Speed
Loop
BLDC
with QD
Speed and
Current
Loop
ACIM V/Hz
Open Loop
with Sine
ACIM V/Hz
Open Loop
with SVM
ACIM V/Hz
Speed Loop
with Sine
Wave Drive
ACIM V/Hz
Speed Loop
with SVM
ACIM Torque
Vector Control
ACIM Vector
Control with
Speed Loop
PMSM Torque
Vector Control
PMSM
Vector
Control with
Speed Loop
Freescale provides a free library of eTPU function including C source code, Host C API and detailed application notes.
See it all at www.freescale.com/eTPU.
Users may customise library functions and/or develop custom functions using the Byte Craft C Compiler and ASH WARE Simulator.
processor. The eTPU is essentially a microcontroller
itself, used in a variety of applications, including
general timing functions, serial communications,
motor control, custom logic replacement and
engine control. With some applications requiring
more than 70 percent of the CPU bandwidth, the
eTPU on the MCF523x and MPC55xx is an ideal
solution.
43 42
The Engineers of Distribution.
43 42
The Engineers of Distribution.
Motor Control Products
Algorithms and drivers provided by Processor Expert™
Microcontroller Drivers and Algorithms—Available in Processor Expert
Motor Type Available Drivers and Algorithms
Standard Drivers
Timer PWM I/O ports
Flash SCI CAN (DSP only)
ADC SPI Position Sensing Encoder (DSP only)
AC Induction
Power factor Brake control Board identication
3-phase waveform generation V/Hz and PFC SCI communication routine
Space vector modulation PI/PID controllers Lookup table
Ramp Velocity calculation and estimation
Switch/push button Position calculation and estimation
Brushless DC
BLDC commutation handler with sensor BLDC with sensors Switch control
BLDC commutation handler, sensorless Ramp board identication SCI communication routine
PI/PID controllers Switch/push button
Position calculation and estimation Velocity calculation and estimation
BLDC with zero crossing Brake control
Switched Reluctance
SR commutation handler Switch/push button Brake control
SR commutation angle calculation PI/PID controllers Switch control
SR with sensors Velocity calculation and estimation Board identication
SCI communication routine Position calculation and estimation
Ramp Look-up table
16-bit Digital Signal Controller Drivers and Algorithms—Available in Processor Expert
Standard Drivers
ADC DAC Quadrature Decoder
MSCAN Analog Comparator PIT
Flash GPIO Interrupt Controller
PLL PWM Quad Timer
Serial/SCI (also with LIN) SPI Posix Timer
SIM SSI TOD
FlexCAN
Drivers for o-Chip
Peripherals
I
2
C Terminal Button
BLDC LED Brake
Codec EEPROM/Flash (SPI Bus Serial) Switch
Tools
PC Master File I/O JTAG Flash Loader
FreeMaster RTOS Support MicroC/OS-II
Miscelaneous
Serial Boot Loader Data Structures (FIFO) Cycle Count
Stack Check Test
Motor Control Algorithms
3-Phase Sine Wave Generation Clarke/Park Transformation Space Vector Modulation
Ramp D-Q System (2-Phase) FOC Decoupling
BLDC Commutation Handler w/Sensors BLDC Commutation Handler Sensorless-Zero Cross SR Commutation Handler
PI/PID Controllers Velocity Calculation and Estimation Look-up Table
Brake Control Switch Control Flux Model
Brushless DC w/Encoder AC Induction Motors V/Hz Closed Loop Digital Power Factor Correction
Wave Generate Phase Flux Estimation
Brushless DC Motors w/Hall Sensor
45 44
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 45 44
The Engineers of Distribution.
additional Motor Control application notes
and Reference Designs
Application Notes
AN1976 Migrating from SDK to Processor Expert
AN1920 DSP56800 Hardware Interface Techniques
AN1926 Production Flash Programming 56F80x, 56F826 and 56F827
AN1933 Synchronization of On-Chip Analog to Digital Converter
AN1935 Programming On-Chip Flash Memories of DSP56F80x DSPs Using the
JTAG/OnCE Interface
AN1947 DSP56800 ADC
AN1948 Real-Time Development of MC Applications PC Master Software Visualization Tool
AN1952 Using Program Memory as Data Memory
AN1965 Design of Indirect Power Factor Correction
AN1973 Production Flash Programming
AN1974 56F8300 and 56F8100 ADC
AN1975 Multiple Target Features Using Processor Expert and CodeWarrior
AN3118 Production Flash Programming for the 56F8000 Family
AN3103 56F8000 Clock Generation Guidelines to Ensure Correct Functionality
AN3102 Unique Features of the 56F801x Family of Devices
AN2395 PC Master Software Usage
AN2263 PC Master Software: Creation of Advanced Control Pages
AN2095 Porting and Optimizing DSP56800 Applications to DSP56800E
AN1999 56F8300 Hybrid Controller Used in Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake
AN1994 Start-Up Considerations for 56F8300 and 56F8100 Family Devices
AN1991 Controlling Power Consumption in 56F8300 and 56F8100 Family Devices
AN1983 Software Compatibility Considerations for HCS12, HC16 and 56800/E Devices
AN1980 Using the 56F83xx Temperature Sensor
AN1734 Pulse Width Modulation Using the 16-bit Timer
Reference Designs
RDHC08ACIM PWM Control of the Single-Phase AC Induction Motor Using the
MC68HC908QT4 MCU
RDDSC56F8xxxPFC Direct PFC Using the MC56F8013
RD68HC908ACIMDTC 3-Phase AC Induction Motor Drive with Dead Time Distortion
Correction Using the MC68HC908MR32
RD68HC908ACIMVHD 3-Phase AC Induction Motor Drive with Tachogenerator Using
MC68HC908MR32
RDDSP56F8ACIMVHD 3-Phase ACIM Volt Per Hertz Motor Control Using 56F80X
or 56F8300 Digital Signal Controllers
RDMC3PHAC General-Purpose 3-Phase AC Industrial Motor Controller Reference
Design
RD68HC908SVPMD Sine Voltage Powered 3-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
with Hall Sensors
45 44
The Engineers of Distribution.
45 44
The Engineers of Distribution.
Software library Set for MC56f80XX and
MCf51aC families
Software libraries GFLIB, MCLIB, GDFLIB
used to build digital control systems
The software libraries for MC56F80XX and
MCF51AC families are designed to construct digital
control systems for different motor types. The
libraries contain software modules implemented
in optimised assembly form and having C-callable
function interface.
General Function Library (GFLIB) contains math,
trigonometric, look-up table and control functions.
These software modules are basic building blocks.
Motor Control Library (MCLIB) contains vector
modulation, transformation and specific motor
related functions to build digitally controlled motor
drives.
User Application SW
D
o
c
u
m
e
n
t
a
t
i
o
n
FMaster*
Support
External Appl.*
Support
*optional External
Connections
System Infrastructure
On-Chip Drivers
efficient reflecting the chip features
Freescale Library Set
GFLIB
General
Functions
GDFLIB
Digital
Filtering
A
C
L
I
B
A
d
v
a
n
c
e
d

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
M
C
L
I
B
M
o
t
o
r

C
o
n
t
r
o
l
Application
M
C
U
External Hardware
On-Chip
Peripherals
On-Chip
Driver
Libraries
Application SW
47 46
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 47 46
The Engineers of Distribution.
General Digital Filter Library (GDFLIB) contains
filter functions for signal conditioning. Upcoming
Advanced Control Library (ACLIB) will contain
functions to enable building the variable speed
AC motor drive systems with field oriented control
techniques without a position or speed transducer.
Individual libraries are delivered in library modules
and are intended for use in small data memory
model projects. The interfaces to the algorithms
included in these libraries have been combined into
a single public interface file. This is done to simplify
the number of files required for inclusion by
application programs. Refer to the specific algorithm
sections of user document for details on the
software Application Programming Interface (API).
Motor Control Libraries
General Function Library
(GFLIB)
Motor Control Library
(MCLIB)
Digital Filter Library
GDFLIB
t Sine, cosine, tangent
t Inverse sine, cosine, tangent*
t Two-argument inverse tangent*
t Signum*
t 1D look-up table*
t Hysteresis*
t Square root
t Ramp, dynamic ramp
t Limitationoninputsignal
t Proportional-integral (PI)
controller of parallel form*
t Proportional-integral (PI)
controller of recurrent form
t Clark, inverse clark
t Park, inverse park
t Vector limitation
t DC bus voltage ripple elimination
t Space vector modulation
techniques
t PM motor decoupling
t ACIM model
t Angletracking observer
t Back EMFobserver for PMmotor
t Saliency tracking observer
t 1st order IIR
t 2nd order IIR
t Moving
t Simplied
average
MA
* Indicates library is available only for MC56F80xx devices.
For more information on these libraries, please contact your Freescale sales represenative.
47 46
The Engineers of Distribution.
47 46
The Engineers of Distribution.
Design Resources – Quick Start
Freescale offers easily accessible products, tools
and services to help you speed your product to
market
Freescale Fast Track
The companies that win the race to market with
new product designs often become market leaders
in their industries. Freescale Fast Track helps you
win that race, accelerating the development cycle
by providing immediate services at every step of
the design process. Fast Track opens the door to
assistance programs that not only will help you be
the first to market but also be the best in market.
Below are just a few of our Fast Track services.
Embedded Learning Center provides a wealth of
online technical training courses and Webcasts
– 24 hours a day, 7 days a week – that can bring
you up to speed on our latest products, tools and
technologies. DevToolDirect is an easy way to order
Freescale development tools, software and third-
party design tools directly online for shipment
anywhere in the world. Online Samples Program is
simple and straightforward, starting with an ‘Order
Sample’ button next to a selected product that
begins an easy three-step request process.
Technical Support is available online by our
worldwide team of specialists. Your personal
data is protected by an e-mail-ID/password
combination, and each service request is assigned
a number to enable easy follow-up communication.
To access Freescale’s Fast Track services, visit
www.freescale.com/fasttrack.
Web Links
Freescale Motor Control Solutions
www.freescale.com/motorcontrol
Freescale 8-bit Microcontrollers
www.freescale.com/8bit
Freescale 16-bit DSC
www.freescale.com/dsc
Freescale 16-bit Microcontrollers
www.freescale.com/16bit
Freescale 32-bit ColdFire Microcontrollers
www.freescale.com/coldfire
Freescale Power Architecture Homepage
www.freescale.com/powerarchitecture
Freescale eTPU
www.freescale.com/etpu
Freescale Analog Products
www.freescale.com/analog
Freescale Sensor Products
www.freescale.com/sensors
Freescale Design Tools Search
www.freescale.com/tools
Freescale CodeWarrior Software Development Tools
www.freescale.com/codewarrior
49 48
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 49 48
The Engineers of Distribution.
3.3 International Rectifier
IRS233(0,2)(D)(S&J)
High-Voltage 3-Phase Bridge Driver ICt
Summary
Topology 3-Phase
VOFFSET 600 V max.
V
OUT
10...20 V [233(0,2)(D)]
I

(typ) 200/420 mA
tON/OFF (typ) 500ns
Deadtime (typ) 2.5 μs [IRS2330(D)]
0.8 μs [IRS2332(D)]
Package 28-lead SOIC; 44-lead
PLCC w/o 12 leads
Features
• Floating channel designed for bootstrap operation
• Fully operational to +600 V
• Tolerant to negative transient voltage –
dV/dt immune
• Gate drive supply range from 10V to 20V
• Under-voltage lockout for all channels
• Over-current shutdown turns off all six drivers
• Independent half-bridge drivers
• Matched propagation delay for all channels
• 3.3 V logic compatible
• Outputs out of phase with inputs
• Cross-conduction prevention logic
• Integrated bootstrap diode function
• Ground referenced operational amplifier
Typical Applications
• Motor control
• Air conditioners/washing machines
• General purpose inverters
• Micro/mini inverter drives
Typical Connection Diagram
Higher Efficiency
Modern washers, fans, air conditioners and
pump manufacturers require state-of-the- art
electronic components to deliver more and more
features to the end user. The aim is to create an
energy-efficient appliance, in less time – without
increasing the overall system cost. The IRS233(0,2)
(D) from International Rectifier is a high-voltage,
high speed power MOSFET and IGBT driver with
three independent high- and low-side referenced
output channels for three-phase applications. The
bootstrap diode functionality has been integrated
into this device to reduce the component count and
PCB size. A current trip function which terminates
all six outputs can be derived from an external
current sense resistor. A ground-referenced
operational amplifier is available to provide analog
feedback of the bridge current via an external
current sense resistor.
V
CC
HIN 1,2,3
LIN 1,2,3
FAULT
GND
V
CC
HIN 1,2,3
I
TRIP
CAO CAO
CA-
V
SS
V
SO
LO 1,2,3
V
S1,2,3
V
B1,2,3
Up to 600 V
To
Load
HO1,2,3 LIN 1,2,3
FAULT
49 48
The Engineers of Distribution.
49 48
The Engineers of Distribution.
Increased Reliability
The IRS233(0,2)(D) from International Rectifier is
part of the latest family of gate drivers designed to
be the most rugged in the market for hard switching
environments such as motion control circuits. The
typical problem in voltage source inverters with
inductive loads (as in the motion control domain) is
that the hard switching generates negative voltage
spikes whose amplitude and duration depend on the
switches and on the layout of the application PCB.
Each of these spikes occurs at PWM frequency, so
in some operating conditions, they can occur 16000
times per second. In the IRS233(0,2)(D) datasheet,
the Safe Operating Area for these HVICs under
these conditions is specified.
Overall Benefits
• Reduced component count because the
highvoltage clamping diodes used in other
solutions are no longer necessary
• Fewer field returns because the robust IR HVIC
does not fail in an unpredictable manner unlike
other solutions
Input filters have been re-designed to prevent
small pulse commands reaching the gates of
the switches in the inverter. This is one of the
sources of problems in the field and usually it is
difficult to find. The typical effect is that sometime
inverters return from the field damaged with one
destroyed leg without an apparent root cause.
The IRS233(0,2) (D) embeds filters that solve this
issue. In addition to improved filtering techniques,
the IR233(0,2)(D) also guarantees outstanding
matching in propagation time on all channels as
well as dead-time automatically inserted when
external dead-time is lower than a minimum safe
limit.
Cost-effectiveness
While including all features in the design of
the new rugged family of motion gate drivers,
International Rectifier considered the overall
system cost requirements of its customers, so the
IRS233(0,2)(D) includes many features that are
required in the latest generation applications while
keeping external component count to a minimum.
An example is the ground referenced operational
amplifier. With fewer components and field returns,
the overall system cost is kept low compared to
other solutions.
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
Time (ns)
V
I

(
V
)
Tested safe operating area
IRS233x
IRS233xD Safe Operating Area under repetitive negative spikes
HO
LO
COM
Load Return
Control IC
To Load
t
V
S
Undershoot
V
S
-COM
LS2
LS1
Q1
Q2
LD1
LD2
V
S
-V
S
+V
BUS
V
BUS
Tolerant to Negative Transient Voltage
51 50
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 51 50
The Engineers of Distribution.
Latch
UV
Detector
Latch
UV
Detector
Latch
UV
Detector
Pulse
Generator
Level Shifter
Set
Set
Set
Reset
Reset
Reset
Input Signal
Generator
Input Signal
Generator
Input Signal
Generator
Fault
Logic
Clear
Logic
HIN1
H1
L1
H2
L2
H3
L3
HIN2
HIN3
LIN1
LIN2
LIN3
FAULT
V
CC
V
SS
V
SO
ITRIP
CAO
LO3
LO2
LO1
V
S3
V
B3
V
S2
V
B2
V
S1
V
B1
LO3
LO2
LO1
CA-
Under Voltage
Detector
Current
Comparator
Current
Amp
0.5 V
+ –
Pulse
Generator
Level Shifter
Pulse
Generator
Level Shifter
Integrated
BS Diode
Integrated
BS Diode
Integrated
BS Diode
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver
Driver

Advanced Input Filtering in IRS233(0,2)(D)
IRS233(0,2)(D) Additional Feature
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

1
IN
OUT
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

2
IN
OUT
t
FIL,IN
t
FIL,IN
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
t
FIL,IN
t
FIL,IN
Small pulses to the gate of the
switches may cause inverter damage
COMPETITOR’S HVIC IRS233(0,2)(D) HVIC
Symbol Definition Max. Test Conditions
MDT
DT matching – IRS2330(D) 400 ns
V
IN
= 0 V & 5 V without external deadtime
DT matching – IRS2332(D) 140 ns
MT Delay matching time (t
ON
, t
OFF
) 50 ns V
IN
= 0 V & 5 V with external deadtime larger than deadtime
PM Pulse width distortion 75 ns PW input = 10 μs
Outstanding deadtime and delay matching in IRS233(0,2)(D) along with low pulse width distortion
51 50
The Engineers of Distribution.
51 50
The Engineers of Distribution.
To High-Side
Power Switches (x3)
Low-Side
Output (x3)
COM
High-Side
Output (x3)
BootFET
V
B
: High-Side
Power Supply (x3)
High-Side Input (x3)
Low-Side Input (x3)
FAULT
V
CC
V
SS
I
TRIP
V
S
: High-Side
Return (x3)
To Low-Side
Power Switches (x3)
Delay
Logic
HV Level
Shifters
Bootstrap
Logic
HV Drive Stage
HV Well
600 V 3-Phase Gate Drive IC
with UVLO Protection
Integrated Bootstrap
Functionality
Schmitt-Trigger Inputs, Noise Filter
& Shoot-through Protection
LV Drive Stage
General Purpose
Comparator
Input and Filter
Operational
Amplifier
IC detects overcurrent
and performs shutdown
+

Input
Voltage
To
Load
Control Inputs and FAULT
V
CC
DC
BUS
< 600 V
IRS233(0,2)(D)(S&J)PbF
IRS233(0,2)(D) Typical Application Connection
IRS233(0,2)(D) Functional Block Diagram
53 52
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 53 52
The Engineers of Distribution.
IRS2336(4)(D)
High-Voltage 3-Phase Gate Driver IC
Summary
Topology 3-Phase
VOFFSET ≤600 V
V
OUT
10...20 V (IRS2336D)
11.5V - 20V (IRS23364D)
I

(typ) 180 mA & 330 mA
t
ON/OFF
(typ) 530 ns & 530 ns
Deadtime (typ) 300 ns
Package 28-lead SOIC; 28-lead
PDIP; 34-lead MLPQ;
44-lead PLCC w/o 12 leads
Features
• Drives up to six IGBT/MOSFET power devices
• Gate drive supplies up to 20 V per channel
• Integrated bootstrap functionality
• Over-current protection
• Over-temperature shutdown input
• Advanced input fi lter
• Integrated deadtime protection
• Shoot-through (cross-conduction) protection
• Under-voltage lockout for VCC and VBS
• Enable/disable input and fault reporting
• Adjustable fault clear timing
• Separate logic and power grounds
• 3.3 V input logic compatible
• Tolerant to negative transient voltage
• Designed for use with bootstrap power supplies
• Matched propagation delays for all channels
• -40...125 °C operating range
• RoHS compliant
Typical Applications
• Appliance motor drives
• Servo drives
• Micro inverter drives
• General purpose three phase inverters
Typical Connection Diagram
Higher Efficiency
Modern washers, fans, air conditioners and pump
manufacturers require state-of-the-art electronic
components to deliver more and more features
to the end user. The aim is to create an energy-
efficient appliance, in less time – without increasing
the overall system cost.
The IRS2336(4)(D) from International Rectifier is
a high-voltage, high speed power MOSFET and
IGBT driver with three independent high- and low-
side referenced output channels for three-phase
applications. The bootstrap diode functionality
has been integrated into this device to reduce the
component count and PCB size. A current trip
function which terminates all six outputs can be
derived from an external current sense resistor.
DC + BUS
I
R
S
2
3
3
6
x
D
To
Load
DC – BUS
V
S3
V
S2 V
S1
VSS
VCC
RCIN
ITRIP
HIN or
HIN (x3)
VB (x3)
VS (x3)
HO (x3)
LO (x3)
COM
LIN or
LIN (x3)
EN
FAULT
53 52
The Engineers of Distribution.
53 52
The Engineers of Distribution.
Increased Reliability
The IRS2336(4)(D) from International Rectifier is
part of the latest family of gate drivers designed to
be the most rugged in the market for hard switching
environments such as motion control circuits. The
typical problem in voltage source inverters with
inductive loads (as in the motor control domain) is
that the hard switching generates negative voltage
spikes whose amplitude and duration depend on the
switches and on the layout of the application PCB.
Each of these spikes occurs at PWM frequency, so
in some operating conditions, they can occur 16000
times per second. In the IRS2336(4)(D) datasheet,
the Safe Operating Area for these HVICs under
these conditions are specified.
Overall Benefits
• Reduced component count because the
highvoltage clamping diodes used in other
solutions are no longer necessary
• Fewer field returns because the robust IR HVIC
does not fail in an unpredictable manner unlike
other solutions
Input filters have been re-designed to prevent
small pulse commands reaching the gates of the
switches in the inverter. This is one of the sources
of problems in the field and usually it is difficult
to find. The typical effect is that sometimes
inverters return from the field damaged with one
destroyed leg without an apparent root cause.
The IRS2336(4) (D) embeds filters that solve this
issue. In addition to improved filtering techniques,
the IRS2336(4) (D) also guarantees outstanding
matching in propagation time on all channels as
well as deadtime automatically inserted when
external deadtime is lower than a minimum safe
limit.
Cost-effectiveness
While including all features in the design of
their new rugged family of motion gate drivers,
International Rectifier considered the overall
system cost requirements of its customers, so
the IRS2336(4) (D) includes many features that are
required in the latest generation applications while
keeping external component count to a minimum.
With fewer components and field returns, the
overall system cost is kept low compared to other
solutions.
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
Time (ns)
V
I

(
V
)
Tested safe operating area
IRS2336(4)(D)
IRS2336(4)(D)
Safe Operating Area under repetitive negative spikes
HO
LO
COM
Load Return
Control IC
To Load
t
V
S
Undershoot
V
S
-COM
LS2
LS1
Q1
Q2
LD1
LD2
V
S
-V
S
+V
BUS
V
BUS
Tolerant to Negative Transient Voltage
55 54
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 55 54
The Engineers of Distribution.
+

Input
Voltage
To
Load
Control Inputs, EN and FAULT
V
CC
DC
BUS
< 600 V
IRS2336(4)(D)
Advanced Input Filtering in IRS2336(4)(D)
IRS2336(4)(D) Typical Application Connection
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

1
IN
OUT
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

2
IN
OUT
t
FIL,IN
t
FIL,IN
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
t
FIL,IN
t
FIL,IN
Small pulses to the gate of the
switches may cause inverter damage
C I V H ) D ( ) 4 ( 6 3 3 2 S R I C I V H S ’ R O T I T E P M O C
Symbol Definition Max. Test Conditions
MDT DT matching 60 ns V
IN
= 0 V & 5 V without external deadtime
MT Delay matching time (t
ON
, t
OFF
) 50 ns V
IN
= 0 V & 5 V with external deadtime larger than DT
PM Pulse width distortion 75 ns PW input = 10 μs
Outstanding deadtime and delay matching in IRS2336(4)(D) along with low pulse width distortion
55 54
The Engineers of Distribution.
55 54
The Engineers of Distribution.
IRS2336(4)(D) Functional Block Diagram
To High-Side
Power Switches (x3)
Low-Side
Output (x3)
COM
High-Side
Output (x3)
BootFET
V
B
: High-Side
Power Supply (x3)
High-Side Input (x3)
Low-Side Input (x3)
EN
FAULT
V
CC
RC
IN
V
SS
I
TRIP
V
S
: High-Side
Return (x3)
To Low-Side
Power Switches (x3)
Delay
Logic
HV Level
Shifters
Bootstrap
Logic
HV Drive Stage
HV Well
600 V 3-Phase Gate Drive IC
with UVLO Protection
Integrated Bootstrap
Functionality
Schmitt-Trigger Inputs, Noise Filter
& Shoot-through Protection
LV Drive Stage
General Purpose
Comparator Input & Filter
IC detects overcurrent
IRS2336(4)(D) Functional Block Diagram
57 56
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 57 56
The Engineers of Distribution.
IRS26302DJPbf
Fully Protected Three-Phase Gate Driver IC
Featuring Extra Channel
Summary
Topology 3-Phase + 1 Low-side
V
OFFSET
≤600 V
V
OUT
10...20 V
I
O+
& I
O-
(typ) 3-Phase 200 mA & 350 mA
1 Low-side 250 mA & 430 mA
Deadtime (typ) 290 ns
Package 44-lead PLCC w/out 12 leads
Features
• Floating channel designed for bootstrap
operation, fully operational to +600 V
• Tolerant to negative transient voltage – dV/dt
immune
• Full 3-phase gate driver plus one low-side driver
• Under-voltage lockout for all channels
• Cross-conduction prevention logic
• Power-on reset
• Integrated bootstrap diode for fl oating channel
supply
• Over-current protection on: DC- (Itrip), DC+
(Ground fault ) and PFCtrip/BRtrip (PFC/Brake
protection).
• Single pin fault diagnostic function
• Diagnostic protocol to address fault register
• Self biasing for ground fault detection high-
voltage circuit
• 3.3 V logic compatible
• Lower di/dt gate drive for better noise immunity
• Externally programmable delay for automatic
fault clear
• RoHS compliant
Typical Applications
• Air conditioner inverters
• Micro/mini inverter drives
• General purpose inverters
• Motor control
Target Application: Air Conditioners
The need to deliver energy-efficient products
with more and more functions amidst tightening
safety norms around the world has driven modern
appliance manufacturers to employ state-of-the-
art electronics. Concerns of escalating system
complexity and reliability are being addressed
by pursuing a strategy of high-level integration
and component count reduction. The IRS26302DJ
high-voltage IC (HVIC) offering from International
Rectifier is well suited to today’s needs as it
integrates all system gate drive requirements in
a single package, while boosting system safety
through a host of protection features and system
intelligence through enhanced communication with
the microcontroller.
Simplified Solution
The IRS26302DJ is a high-voltage, high speed
power MOSFET and IGBT gate driver with three
independent high- and low-side referenced output
channels for threephase applications and an
additional low-side channel that can be employed
for either PFC or brake IGBT driving operation.
Reduction in system component count and
complexity as a result of the additional low-side
gate driver and integrated bootstrap functionality
translates into improved reliability, reduced returns
from the field and ultimately lower overall system
cost for the appliance manufacturer.
57 56
The Engineers of Distribution.
57 56
The Engineers of Distribution.
With the IRS26302DJ, International Rectifier has set
a new benchmark in system over-current protection
standards by way of three independent current
monitors that detect excess current in three shunt
resistors – one each on DC+ bus, DC- bus and either
PFC or brake circuitry to provide a comprehensive
current protection scheme for appliance inverter
applications. Advanced input filters on all current
monitors effectively prevent nuisance trips due to
noise in the system’s environment.
DC+ current Monitor Circuitry
• Unique DC+ current monitor offers the only
means to detect phase-earth shorts inside the
motor (insulation break-down etc)
• DC+ current monitor circuit is completely
self-biasing, requiring no external supply
An enable function is available to terminate all
outputs simultaneously and is provided through a
bidirectional pin combined with an open-drain FAULT
pin. Fault signal is provided to indicate that an over-
current or V
CC
UVLO under-voltage shutdown has
occurred. Over-current fault conditions are cleared
automatically after an externally programmed delay
via an RC network connected to the RCIN input.
The IRS26302DJ also features enhanced input
filters that avoid small pulse commands which can
potentially reach the gates of the switches in the
inverter. This is one of the sources of problems in
the field and usually it is difficult to find. The typical
effect is that sometimes inverters return from the
field damaged with one destroyed leg without an
apparent root cause. In addition to improved filtering
techniques, the IRS26302DJ also guarantees
outstanding matching in propagation time on
all channels as well as dead-time automatically
inserted when external deadtime is lower than a
minimum safe limit.
DC+ BUS
DC- BUS
VCC
V
DC VS
DC
GF
HIN (x3)
LIN (x3)
FLT / EN
PFC
IN
/BR
IN
RC
IN
I
TRIP
V
SS
V
B
(x3)
V
S
(x3) V
S1
V
S2
V
S3
To
Load
HO (x3)
LO (x3)
COM
PFC
OUT
/BR
OUT
PFC
TRIP
/BR
TRIP
I
R
S
6
3
0
2
D
DC+ shunt current monitor
DC- shunt current monitor
3
rd
shunt
current monitor
Comprehensive over-current protection offered through three
different current monitors in the IRS26302D
Symbol Definition Max. Test Conditions
MDT DT matching 50 ns V
IN
= 0 V and 5 V without external deadtime
MT Delay matching time (t
ON
, t
OFF
) 60 ns V
IN
= 0 V and 5 V with external deadtime larger than DT
PM Pulse width distortion 75 ns PW input - 10 μs
Outstanding deadtime and delay matching in IRS233(0,2)(D) along with low pulse width distortion
59 58
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 59 58
The Engineers of Distribution.
Enhanced System Intelligence
Enhanced communication with the microcontroller
after occurrence of a fault condition is realised
by a fault diagnostic reporting protocol in the
IRS26302DJ. After each fault event, a diagnostic
feature, when enabled, can communicate to the
controller which fault happened in the system
(UV
CC
, ITRIP, GF, PCFtrip). If diagnostic is enabled
by forcing all HIN = High and LIN = High, the
HVIC enters into a handshake mode during which
all outputs remain off, the automatic fault clear
function is disabled and FLT/EN is in HZ (refer to
DC+
DC- I
TRIP
Shunt
GF Shunt
GF
HIN 1,2,3
HIN 1,2,3
LIN 1,2,3
LO 1,2,3
FLT / EN
COM
VDC VCC VSDC
VB1,2,3
VS1,2,3
VSS
RCIN
PFCIN/BRIN
PFCOUT/BROUT
PFCTRIP/BRTRIP
ITRIP
Typical Connection Diagram
Hand Shake Mode
Set LIN1 = L, LIN2,3 = H; HINx = H
Wait tDIAGIN
Set LIN2 = L, LIN1,3 = H; HINx = H
Wait tDIAGIN
Set LIN3 = L, LIN1,2 = H; HINx = H
Wait tDIAGIN
Set LIN3 = L, LIN1,2 = H; HINx = H
Wait tDIAGIN
Fault Query Start
FLT / EN = 0
FLT / EN = 0
FLT / EN = 0
FLT / EN = 0
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
Exit Fault Query
I
TRIP
Fault
PFC
TRIP
Fault
UV
CC
Fault
GF Fault
Fault reporting
protocol in
IRS26302DJ
UV_V
CC
HO = LO= 0
PFC
OUT
/BR
OUT
= 0
FLT / EN = 0
PFC
FLT
/BR
FLT
= 0
RC
IN
= HZ
GFI
TRIP
I
TRIP
PFC
TRIP
/BR
TRIP
Start Up
HO = LO= 0
PFC
OUT
/BR
OUT
= 0
Normal Operations
PFC
IN HIN/LIN
HIN# = LIN# =1
HIN# = LIN# =1
HIN# = H
LIN# = X
HIN# = 0
LIN# = 1
PFC/BR = 0
PFC/BR = 1 HO/LO = 1
HO/LO = 0
Over-Curent
HO = LO= 0
PFC
OUT
/BR
OUT
= 0
FLT / EN = 0
RC
IN
= 0
Hand Shake
HO = LO= 0
PFC
OUT
/BR
OUT
= 0
RC
IN
= 0
FLT = Hz
Dial State
HO = LO= 0
PFC
OUT
/BR
OUT
= 0
RC
IN
= 0
FLT = DIAG
UV–V
BS
HO = 0 LO = LIN
FLT = HZ
RC
IN
= HZ
V
BS
V
BS
V
CC
V
CC
V
CC
RC
IN
HZ = High Impedance Enhanced System intelligence through
comprehensive fault diagnostic reporting
Figure). The HVIC fault register is now ready for
queries from the microcontroller for true fault
reporting. This feature offers superior intelligence
to the system that is especially useful for safety
considerations during re-start.
59 58
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59 58
The Engineers of Distribution.
Benchmark safety standard established through total system over-current protection and
enhanced input fi ltering
To High-Side
Power Switches
(x3)
Low-Side
Output (x4)
COM
High-Side
Output (x3)
BootFET
V
B
: High-Side
Power Supply (x3)
High-Side Input (x3)
APD diode
Logic
Low-Side Input (x4)
FAULT/EN
V
CC
PFC
TRIP
V
DC
VS
DC GF
RC
IN
V
SS
I
TRIP
V
S
: High-Side
Return (x3)
To Low-Side
Power Switches
(x4)
Delay
Logic
HV Level
Shifters
Bootstrap
Logic
HV Drive Stage
HV Well
600 V 3-Phase Gate Drive IC
with UVLO Protection
Integrated Bootstrap
Functionality
PFC Comparator
Input and Filter
Schmitt-Trigger Inputs,
Noise Filter and
Shoot-through Protection
LV Drive Stage
General Purpose
Comparator Input & Filter
IC detects overcurrent
and performs shutdown
Logic
Inverter DC+bus
1 Gate Driver IC
= 7 Channels
Ground Fault Comparator
Input and Filter
61 60
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 61 60
The Engineers of Distribution.
IRS26310DJPbf
High-Voltage 3-Phase Gate Driver IC with DC Bus
Over-Voltage Protection
Summary
Topology 3-Phase
V
OFFSET
≤600 V
V
OUT
12...20 V
I
O+
& I
O-
(typical) 200 mA & 350 mA
t
ON
& t
OFF
(typical) 530 ns & 530 ns
Deadtime (typical) 290 ns
Package 44-lead PLCC
Features
• Drives up to six IGBT/MOSFET power devices
• Gate drive supplies up to 20 V per channel
• Integrated bootstrap functionality
• DC bus sensing with over-voltage protection
• Over-current protection
• Over-temperature shutdown input
• Advanced input fi lter
• Integrated deadtime protection
• Shoot-through (cross-conduction) protection
• Under-voltage lockout for VCC and VBS
• Enable/disable input and fault reporting
• Adjustable fault clear timing
• Separate logic and power grounds
• 3.3 V input logic compatible
• Tolerant to negative transient voltage
• Designed for use with bootstrap power supplies
• Matched propagation delays for all channels
• -40...+125 °C operating range
• RoHS compliant
Typical Applications
• Permanent magnet motor drives for appliances
• Industrial drives
• Micro inverter drives
Typical Connection Diagram
Higher Efficiency
Modern washer manufacturers require state-of-
the-art electronic components to deliver more
sophisticated features to the end user. The aim is to
create a machine that can wash almost all types of
fabric with minimum energy, in less time and using
less detergent than previous models – without
increasing the overall system cost. Furthermore,
government regulations are becoming more and
more stringent in terms of efficiency and safety.
In the near future, a new energy labeling scheme
may be introduced in Europe – and the only way
to achieve the highest class label will be to equip
the washer with a three-phase permanent magnet
(PM) motor. The IRS26310DJPbF from International
Rectifier is a high-voltage, high speed power
MOSFET and IGBT driver with three independent
high- and low-side referenced output channels
for three-phase applications. The bootstrap diode
functionality has been integrated into this device to
reduce the component count and PCB size. The new
IRS26310DJPbF
V
CC
HIN1, 2, 3
LIN1, 2, 3
FAULT/EN
GND
up to 600 V
to
Load
V
CC
HIN1, 2, 3
LIN1, 2, 3
FAULT/EN
RC
IN
I
TRIP
V
SS
V
B1, 2, 3
1, 2, 3
V
S1, 2, 3
DCBus Sense
V
SS
61 60
The Engineers of Distribution.
61 60
The Engineers of Distribution.
device has been designed for three-phase inverters
and is well suited to the requirements of PM motors
in washers as it enables high torque at low speed
(during washing) and reaches high speed with
low torque demand (during spinning). This highly
accurate torque and speed control delivers an effi
cient washing cycle while reducing the motor flux
to enable a high spinning speed that helps deliver
a more efficient drying function in compliance with
safety regulations.
Greater Safety
Safety regulations enforced by law require that
every appliance must meet precise international
Low Voltage
Two extreme point control
Drum Torque
Spin: Low torque high speed
Field weakening operation
(Reduce flux to keep from saturation)
W
a
s
h

c
y
c
l
e
:

H
i
g
h

t
o
r
q
u
e

l
o
w

s
p
e
e
d
Front Panel
Control
Motor Control
&
I/O Control
PM
Speed 1800 rpm
30 Nm
5 Nm
rules. Every appliance must include safety
protection circuits either in hardware or in software
that avoid hazards to the end user in case of failure
of any of the components in the machine. By law,
every circuit that implements a protective function
must be certifi ed by an internationally recognized
institute. Washers equipped with PM motors
present a new challenge to washer manufacturers
because, while in spinning mode, the motor itself
can become dangerous in the event that control
is lost. To reach the necessary high speed during
spinning, the motor must be de-fluxed in real-time
fashion. This artificial de-fluxing prevents the motor
from generating a significant voltage.
Problems arise if, in the event of controller failure,
the motor is left rotating without controlling the
applied voltage to it. The motor will then act as a
dynamo, generating a high voltage (above 1000 V)
that can create a fire hazard in the electronics.
The IRS26310DJPbF from International Rectifier
has been designed with a specific hardware safety
function that can override the controller commands
and brake the PM motor (by shorting its terminals)
until a safe low speed is reached, thus avoiding
OFF
ON ON ON
OFF OFF
V
BUS
> V
TH, BUS
DC + BUS
DC – BUS
R
SHUNT
V
S3
V
S2
V
S1
V
S
V
SS
V
CC
DCBUS
Sense
RG, LO
RG, HO
CBS
I
TRIP
V
B
HO
LO
COM
(x3)
(x3)
(x3)
(x3)
DC Bus over-voltage protection scheme in IRS2631DJ
63 62
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www.silica.com 63 62
The Engineers of Distribution.
high voltage generation. The IRS26310DJPbF
continuously senses the DC Bus through an
external resistor divider and, if a critical voltage is
reached, the IRS26310DJPbF successfully brakes
the motor by shorting the terminal through low-
side switches.
A generic HVIC three-phase gate driver would
require an added external cicuit to perform the
same function as IRS26310DJPbF. This function
is mandatory because it is required for safety
purposes. The IRS26310DJPbF also embeds
all other important protection that are used for
safety reasons: anti-shoot through, over-current
protection, under-voltage lockout and thermal
shutdown input.
Increased Reliability
The IRS26310DJPbF from International Rectifier is
part of the company’s latest family of gate drivers
designed to be the most rugged in the market
for hard switching environments such as motor
control circuits. A typical problem in voltage source
inverters with inductive loads (as in the motor
control domain) is that the hard switching generates
negative voltage spikes whose amplitude and
duration depend on the switches and on the layout
of the application PCB. Each of these spikes occurs
at PWM frequency, so in some operating conditions,
they can occur 16000 times per second. In the
IRS26310DJPbF datasheet the Safe Operating Area
for this HVIC under these conditions is specified.
Control is lost: DCBUS
voltage rises quickly due
to voltage regeneration.
Phase Current
IRS26310DJPbF brakes the motor by shorting the
motor terminal and avoiding excessive over-voltage
HO
LO
COM
Load Return
Control IC
To Load
t
V
S
Undershoot
V
S
-COM
LS2
LS1
Q1
Q2
LD1
LD2
V
S
-V
S
+V
BUS
V
BUS
Tolerant to negative transient voltage
Overall Benefits
• Reduced component count because the high-
voltage clamping diodes used in other solutions
are no longer necessary
• Fewer field returns because the robust IR HVIC
does not fail in an unpredictable manner unlike
other solutions
Input filters have been re-designed to avoid
small pulse commands reaching the gates of the
switches in the inverter. This is one of the sources
of problems in the field and usually it is difficult
63 62
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63 62
The Engineers of Distribution.
MT t
ON
, t
OFF
matching time (on all six channels) 50 ns max.
MDT DT matching (HIN ->LO & LO->HIN on all channels) 60 ns max.
PM Pulse width distortion 75 ns max.
Outstanding deadtime and delay matching in IRS2631DJ along with low pulse width distortion
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
Time (ns)
V
I

(
V
)
Tested, guaranteed safe operating area
IRS26310DJPbF
IRS26310DJPbF Safe Operating Area under repetitive
negative spikes
to detect. The typical effect is that sometimes
inverters return from the field damaged with one
destroyed leg without an apparent root cause.
The IRS26310DJPbF embeds filters that solve this
issue. In addition to improved filtering techniques,
the IRS26310DJPbF also guarantees outstanding
matching in propagation time on all channels as
well as dead-time automatically inserted when
external dead-time is lower than a minimum safe
limit.
Cost-effectiveness
While including all features in the design of the new
rugged family of motion gate drivers, International
Rectifi er considered the overall system cost
requirements of its customers. Therefore, the
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

1
IN
OUT
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

2
IN
OUT
t
FIL,IN
t
FIL,IN
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
t
FIL,IN
t
FIL,IN
Small pulses to the gate of the
switches may cause inverter damage
Competitor's HVIC IRS26310DJPbF HVIC
IRS26310DJPbF includes many features that are
required in modern applications while keeping
external component count at minimum. With fewer
components and fi eld returns, the overall system
cost is lower.
Advanced Input Filtering in IRS26321DJ
65 64
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 65 64
The Engineers of Distribution.
IRS26310D Functional Block Diagram
IRS26310D typical application connection
To High-Side
Power Switches (x3)
Low-Side
Output (x3)
COM
High-Side
Output (x3)
V
S
: High-Side
Power Supply (x3)
High-Side Input (x3)
DCbusSense
DC+ bus
Low-Side Input (x3)
FAULT/EN
V
CC
V
SS
RC
IN
V
SS
I
TRIP
V
S
: High-Side
Return (x3)
To Low-Side
Power Switches (x3)
Delay
Logic
Logic
HV Level
Shifters
HV Drive Stage
HV Well
600 V 3-Phase Gate Drive IC
with UVLO Protection
DC Bus Sense
Comparator Input and Filter
Schmitt-Trigger Inputs,
Noise Filter and
Shoot-through Protection
LV Drive Stage
General Purpose
Comparator Input & Filter
IC detects overcurrent
and performs shutdown
+

Input
Voltage
To
Load
Control Inputs, EN
DC
BUS
Sense
V
CC
DC
BUS
DC
BUS
Sense
IRS26310DJPbF
65 64
The Engineers of Distribution.
65 64
The Engineers of Distribution.
IR’s Rugged HVICs
Improved Performance and Application-Specific
Features Simplify Motor Control Design
Leveraging years of experience as a leading
supplier of high-voltage ICs (HVICs) in a wide
spectrum of high-voltage switching applications,
IR has introduced two families of high-voltage gate
drivers for motor control applications using either
IGBTs or power MOSFETs.
The newly developed IR gate driver families for
motor control feature
• Ruggedness – capable of operating with large
negative transient, without failing even under
extreme stresses such as hard short circuit of
the inverter outputs
• Micro power consumption on high-side floating
driver
• Enhanced integrated bootstrap diode to
significantly ease power supply design
• Fully controlled timings – propagation delays
and channel-to-channel matching so tight that
pulse width compensation is not required
From the simplest half bridge gate drivers
(IRS260xD family) to application-specific devices
(IRS263xD), motor control designers can now select
from a wide range of IR’s HVICs to best suit their
design needs.
Rugged Gate Drivers by Design
In a typical motor control application design,
problems arise when undertaking prototype
validation tests. When checking for waveforms
and voltages, unexpected large negative voltage
transients can typically appear. This situation is
HO
LO
COM
Load Return
Control IC
To Load
t
V
S
Undershoot
V
S
-COM
LS2
LS1
Q1
Q2
LD1
LD2
V
S
-V
S
+V
BUS
V
BUS
Tolerant to Negative Transient Voltage
even worse when trying short circuits tests that
often result in an inverter catastrophic failure. The
key challenge is to design the HVIC in a way that
these negative transients are managed properly
and that the driver can cope with them safely.
International Rectifier has introduced:
• A solid method to characterise and specify
the HVIC
• A reliable and methodical solution to design
negative V
S
rugged gate drivers
67 66
The Engineers of Distribution.
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The Engineers of Distribution.
Negative V
S
Ruggedness Specifications in IR HVIC Product Datasheets
For proper operation, the device should be used within the recommended conditions. All voltage parameters are absolute voltage
referenced to VSO. The offset rating is tested with all suplies biased at 15 V differential.
Symbol Definiton Min. Max. Units
VB1,2,3 High-side floating supply voltage V
S 1,2,3
+ 10 V
S 1,2,3
+ 20 V
VS1,2,3 Static high-side floating offset voltage V
SO
-8 (Note1) 600
VSt1,2,3 Transient high-side floating offset voltage -50 (Note2) 600
VHO1,2,3 High-side floating outpt voltage V
S 1,2,3
V
B 1,2,3
V
CC
Low-side and logic fixed supply voltage 10 20
V
SS
Logic ground -5 5
V
LO1,2,3
Low-side output voltage 0 V
CC
V
IN
Logic input voltage (HIN 1,2,3; LIN 1,2,3 and ITRIP) V
SS
V
SS
+5
V
FLT
Fault output voltage V
SS
V
CC
V
CAO
Operational amplifier output voltage V
SS
V
SS
+5
V
CA-
Operational amplifier inverting input voltage V
SS
V
SS
+5
T
A
Ambient temperature -40 125 °C
Note 1: Logic operational for VS of (VSO -8 V) to (VSO +600 V). Logic state held for VS of (VSO -8 V) to (VSO – VBS)
Note 2: Operational for transient negative VS of VSS - 50 V with a 50 ns pulse width.
Note 3: CAO input pin is internally clamped with a 5.2 V zener diode.
• In the DC operating condition (Table 1, Note 1) when the negative voltage is excessive and a transmission failure occurs, the IR gate driver
is designed such that the last information to be transmitted will be a reset (reset dominance). This guarantees the high-side will hold the
off state, thereby protecting the system against catastrophic failures.
• IR gate drivers are 100% tested at wafer and final test level for the minimum Vs DC biasing condition as well as reset dominance
functionality.
• In transient operating conditions (Table 1, Note 2), in either normal or hard switching conditions, the capability for the driver to sustain
the large negative spikes occurring at each switching event is specified.
Negative Transient Safe Operating Area
IR has introduced a comprehensive and unique
method for characterising and specifying gate driver
capability to manage negative transient by using
the concept of Negative Transient Safe Operating
Area (NTSOA). The NTSOA is a region defined by a
locus of points for the negative pulse’s pulse-width
and amplitude that can be safely managed by the
driver.
Negative V
S
Transient SOA for IR gate drivers
(@ VBS = 15 V)
IR’s gate drivers are characterised to withstand
the NTSOA limits by means of dedicated test
equipment. The gate driver works properly for any
negative pulse whose amplitude and pulse-width
falls within the white area indicated in Figure 2.
Pulses whose amplitude are large enough to fall
in the gray area might result in the gate driver not
working properly.
Boosting Short Circuit Immunity
In addition to NTSOA, each new part is tested in an
inverter assembly and stressed under inverter short
circuit operation. The inverter PCB is designed
to replicate the worst case parasitic conditions of
a real inverter assembly and the driver is tested
for inverter output to ground short circuit using
67 66
The Engineers of Distribution.
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The Engineers of Distribution.
a wide range of IGBT types and rated current.
This represents the worst case configuration to
generate severe negative transients on V
S
nodes.
The new IR gate drivers are found to be highly
robust against short circuits even when a negative
transient extends well below the limits defined by
NTSOA. Passing both NTSOA and short circuit tests
is a requirement for IR’s new motor control gate
drivers.
More Rugged, More Reliable
In competitor comparison tests, IR’s gate drivers
were found to be the most rugged and reliable
and the only gate driver capable of withstanding
the inverter’s hard short circuit test. Figure 4 plots
the negative V
S
voltage at which the gate driver
IC destructively fails when subjected to negative
V
S
events of varying duration. During a 300 nsec
duration negative V
S
event, while competing gate
driver ICs will fail at a voltage of -21 V (Competitor
A) and -26 V (competitor B), IRS2607D will fail
only at -50 V, thus exhibiting nearly 2x or higher
negative V
S
capability. Competing parts typically
require additional protection components (such
as clamping diode) to be added to limit the extent
of negative transient on V
S
pins resulting in higher
cost, increased complexity and possibly impacting
the switching performance of the inverter itself.
Enhanced Integrated Bootstrap Functionality
Along with under-voltage lockout functionality
provided by almost all IR gate drivers, the new
motor control-specific HVIC families feature a
very low quiescent current which enables using
a bootstrap power supply for even the most
demanding applications such as trapezoidal or six-
step as well as other PWM modulation techniques
requiring one inverter leg to keep a high level for
long periods. In addition, to reduce the component
count and make the design easier and more
reliable, the new family of motor control gate
drivers feature integrated bootstrap functionality
implemented by means of an internal high-voltage
MOSFET whose biasing conditions are properly
managed to deliver current to the high-side circuit
through the low-side supply network, emulating
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
Time (ns)
V
I

(
V
)
Tested safe operating area
NTSOA
Fig 2: Negative Transient Safe Operating Area
HIN is pulsed
LIN is inactive
6 inch wire to short
output to negative bus
Bootstrap diode
only when required
+
HIN
C2
100 u
C1
R1
HV1
IGBT
Q2
IGBT
Q1
R2
HIN
HO
LO
COM
LIN LIN
VCC
VCC
RB DB
CB
VSS
VB
VS
Fig 3: Short circuit test setup
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time (nsec)
V
o
l
t
a
g
e
-21
Bad
-26
Good
Bad
-50
Competitor A
Competitor B
IRS2607D
Fig 4: Negative vs transient event point of failure test
comparison
69 68
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The Engineers of Distribution.
the external high voltage bootstrap diode. In
particular, the IRS2607D’s bootstrap function has
been designed to accommodate the more complex
trapezoidal modulation scheme, where the long-
off-times of the low-side switch and extended tri-
state conditions renders bootstrap circuit design
generally difficult.
High Fidelity in Power Motor Control
The new family of motor control-specific gate
drivers from IR offer full compatibility to 3.3 V
CMOS standards and integrate a new low distortion
input filter that guarantees precise pulse width
transmission even at the extremes of the filtering
time while guaranteeing that too short pulses do
not reach the power section as they would not be
long enough for the inverter output to change state.
Three-phase gate drivers are also designed to
accurately match propagation delays among all six
channels and are tested to guarantee the input to
output pulse width distortion (defined as difference
between input pulse-width and output pulse-width)
to be lower than 75 ns.
Application-Specific Features
The new IR HVIC families include gate driver ICs
that have been tailored to the final application. In
addition to ruggedness and extreme fidelity, new
features have been included to create even more
compact and robust inverters. The IRS26302D, for
example, is the first HVIC that includes all type
of over-current protection required in a modern
brake+inverter system or in a modern PFC+inverter
system. The IRS26310D includes a special zero
vector braking function that can be extremely
important when assessing the safety level of a
system with certification agencies. Whenever a
Permanent Magnet (PM) motor is driven in field
weakening, protection must already be integrated
in the IRS26310D.
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

1
E
X
A
M
P
L
E

2
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
t
FIL,IN
t
FIL,IN
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
t
FIL,IN
t
FIL,IN
Small pulses to the gate of the
switches may cause inverter damage
COMPETITOR’S HVIC INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER HVIC
Advanced Input Filtering
69 68
The Engineers of Distribution.
69 68
The Engineers of Distribution.
Three-Phase Single-Phase
IRS2336
IRS2330
IRS2332
IRS2336D
IRS2330D
IRS2332D
IRS26302D IRS26310D IRS26320 IRS2607D IRS2608(4)D IRS2609(4)D
Driving
Channels
6 6 6 6 6 +1 6 6 2 H & L 2 HB 2 HB
Product-
Specific
Function
• GND shunt
over-current
protection
• VCC& VBS
UVLO
• GND shunt
over-current
protection
• VCC& VBS
UVLO
• Op-Amp for
GND shunt
• GND shunt
over-current
protection
• VCC& VBS
UVLO
• Integrated
bootstrap
• GND shunt
over-current
protection
• VCC& VBS
UVLO
• Integrated
bootstrap
• Op-Amp for
GND shunt
• GND/PFC/
DC+ Shunt
over-current
protection
• VCC& VBS
UVLO
• Integrated
bootstrap
• Integrated
fault
diagnostic
protocol
1
• GND shunt
over-current
protection
• VCC& VBS
UVLO
• Integrated
Bootstrap
• DC bus
over-voltage
protection
2
• GND shunt
over-current
protection
• VCC& VBS
UVLO
• VCC short
protection
3
• Independent
high- and low-
side inputs
• Complementary
inputs
(programmable
deadtime)
• Single input
(programmable
deadtime)
Improvement
vs G2 Family
• No-short-pulse input filter
• Turn-on/turn-off delay and deadtime matching between channels
• V
S
headroom
4
• Reset dominance
5
• Power on reset of all internal latched logic
Product-
Specific
Improvement
• GND shunt overcurrent protection
• Redundant reset
5
• GND/PFC/
DC+ Shunt
over-current
protection
• Redundant
reset
5
• Integrated bootstrap suitable for Trapezoidal
and Sinusoidal modulation
• Integrated bootstrap suitable for sinusoidal modulation
Robustness
Improvement
• Negative V
S
no-flip-glitch compared with state-of-the-art gate driver IC
• Negative Transient Safe Operating Area datasheet specification
• Negative V
S
no-flip-glitch compared with
state-of-the-art gate driver IC
• Negative Transient Safe Operating Area datasheet
specification
• Negative V
S
IQ
CC
latch-up
robustness compared to
competitors, G2 and G5-D
version
Package QFN, MLP
available
MLP available
1. Integrated logic for fault dignostic (GND/PFC/DC Bus shunt over-current and VCC UVLO faults)
2. DC Bus over-voltage detection and protection through zero vector insertion
3. Low voltage supply short failure detection and protection through zero vector insertion
4. Minimum VS voltage allowing full functionality
5. Redundacy in the number of reset pulses transmitted to the high-side
71 70
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The Engineers of Distribution.
3.4 Infineon Technologies
Solutions for Motor Control and Drive
applications
Infineon Technologies offers products and solutions
for motor control and drive applications for the
Industrial, Consumer and Automotive Market.
Infineon’s key products for motor control solutions
are Microcontrollers, Gate Drivers, Mosfets, IGBTs,
Integrated Driver ICs, Voltage Regulators and
Sensors.
Target Markets
Automotive
Industrial
Consumer
Stepper Motors
DC Brush Motors
PMSM Motors
Brushless DC
Induction Motors
Switched Reluctance
Motor Types Key Products
Microcontrollers
8 bit
16 bit
Gate Drivers
Eicedrivers
H-Bridge drivers
3 Phase Drivers
MOSFETs
LV Mosfets
HV Mosfets
IGBTs
Trenchstop
Trenchstop 2
Integrated Driver ICs/
Modules
Cipos
TrilithICs
NovalithICs
Voltage Regulators
Linear
DC/DC
Sensors
Linear Hall Sensors
Hall Switches Overview about Key Products and
Motor Types
M
Central Control
Unit
Driver
Stage
Power Management
User Interface
&
Communication
AF Discretes
Sense &
Monitor
Linear Voltage Regulator
TLE42xxx, ...
DC/DC Converter
TLE6389, TLE8366, TLE7388...
Gate Drivers
EiceDRIVER
1ED020I12x, 2ED020I12X,6ED003L06x
3-Phase Bridge Drivers
TLE7183x, TLE7184x, TLE7185x, TLE7189x
Power Stage
IGBTs
HV Mosfets (500 V -900 V)
IPxxxx
LV Mosfets (20 V – 300 V)
IPxxxx, IGxxxxxx
Microcontroller
8-bit
XC866, XC886,
XC888, XC878
16-bit
XE164, XE167
Transceivers
CAN Transceiver
TLE625xxx
LIN Transceiver
TLE725xx
Sensors
Hall Switches
TLE49xxx, TLI49xxx,
Linear Hall Sensors
TLE49xxx
Integrated DriverIC /
Modules
CIPOS
IKCSxxFxxxx
NovalithICs
BTN79xx
high voltage applications
low voltage applications
high and low voltage applications
Block Diagram of a BLDC
Motor with Suitable Infineon
Products
71 70
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Using Infineon’s broad portfolio of power products
and Microcontrollers efficient and robust control
units for Stepper Motors, DC Brush, PMSM, BLDC,
Induction and Switched Reluctance Motors can be
designed. Infineon offers products and solutions for
the main blocks of a motor drive in low voltage and
high voltage applications.
Infineon Drive Kits – evalution Kits for efficient
and Successful Designs of Motor Control
applications
For efficient and successful designs Infineon offers
Drive and Evaluation Kits for different motor control
applications. The Drive Kits allow very fast and easy
evaluation of the hardware and software for driving
motors and shorten the time for the development
of the application.
There are Drive Kits available for low voltage and
high voltage applications (see overview below).
Dave Drive application Kit for PMSM and
blDC Motor Control with Infineon’s 8-bit
Microcontroller and low Voltage Inverter

DAvE Drive is a GUI based software
tool that allows application
developers to configure XC886/
XC888 software for control of
brushless synchronous 3-phase
motors in a very efficient way. With DAvE Drive,
the developer is only a few mouse clicks away
from customized code reflecting choice of motor,
motor speed, type of control and various other
options. DAvE Drive uses the full power of Infineon’s
microcontroller, e.g. it generates optimized FOC
code for XC886 using Vector Computer which
usually requires expert knowledge in both motor
control and assembler programming.
DAvE Drive is an application centric add-on to DAvE,
Infineon’s Digital Application Virtual Engineer. DAvE
provides initialization, configuration and driver
code to ease programming for beginners as well as
experts. This tool generates complete algorithms in
source code, ready to be compiled and debugged by
popular tools, as Keil compiler or Tasking compiler.
Key Features of DAvE Drive Application Kit
• XC886 with vector computer
• PWM unit
• Fast ADC with <200 ns sample time
• Power Board 23...56 V, 7.5 A
• 15 W PMSM Motor and plug in power supply 24 V
• Using Infineon 6ED003L06 gate driver,
BSC196N10 MOSFETs, CoolSET ICE3B0565
power supply and TLE4264 LDO
12 V
230 V
BLDC
XC866
20 A
DAvE
Drive
XC886
7.5 A
LIN Stepper
XC866
200 mA
FOC Motor Drive
XC878
XE164
7.5 A
3phase
Drive
XC886
3 A
Dual FOC + PFC
Motor Drive
XC878/XE164
7.8 A + 0.8 A
48 V
White Goods Air conditioner
Industrial Drives, Pumps, Fans, Valves and Power Tools
Pump/Blower Gauges
Field Oriented Control
Block Commutation
XC800 FOC
XC886
1.2 A
24 V
Valves, Gear Motor



Overview Infineon Drive Applications Kits
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• DAvE Drive Auto code generator
(fully functional application code) for
• Block commutation with hall sensors and
sensorless
• Sensorless FOC of PMSM
• Free toolchain integrated in DAvE Drive
• Flexibly generates optimized code and is not
based on static libraries
• Configures Infineon’s powerful and flexible
motor control peripherals
• Compresses a detailed user manual into a few
mouse clicks
• Helps designers to quickly and easily
implement advanced motor control techniques
on low-cost components
• Digital isolated real time monitoring tool (USB
to JTAG and CAN bridge)
• Suitable for Windows 98/2000/XP
Applications
• Industrial motor control
• Transportation systems
• Consumer Motor Control
• Appliance Motor Control
Hardware Description of Low Voltage Inverter
The Low Voltage Inverter is designed to provide a
robust power inverter including feedback signals
for 24 V and 48 V motors. The Inverter offers a
seamless fit to the DriveCards offered by Infineon.
• 3 phase full bridge inverter with n-channel
MOSFETs 19.6 m, 100 V
• Integrated driver with bootstrap technology
6ED003L06-F
• On Board power supply
• Switch mode power supply (15 V) for MOSFET
driver ICE3B0565JG
• Low drop voltage regulator (5 V) for MCU
TLE4264-2
• Voltage range: 23...56 V
• Maximum DClink current: 7.5 A
• Seamless connection of Infineon Technologies
DriveCards, Microcontroller boards, dedicated
for motor control

V
DClink
SMPS
LDO
5 V
15 V
Gain: 34
Back-EMF
feedback signals
3-phase motor
100 µF/
50 V
20 mΩ
V
CC
HINx
LINx
EN
FO
GND ITRIP
5 V
U_H/U_L
V_H/V_L
W_H/W_L
Enable
I
DClink
GND
V_U/
V_V/
V_W
U
V
W
Block Diagram of Low Voltage Inverter
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Pluggable PMSM Motor Board
A PMSM motor board is available in addition to the
low voltage inverter
• Easy to use with 24 VDC plug-in power supply
• Additional filter capacitor (100 µF, 50 V) on board
• Motor connections fed via jumpers for easy
current measurement
• Small PMSM motor on board (24 V, 15 W)
(Maxon EC flat 32)
Product Highlight of Dave Drive application Kit
eiceDRIVeR™ - IGbT/MoSfeT Gate Driver ICs
Description 6ED003L06-F
Integrated 3 Phase Gate Driver
The gate driver 6ED003L06-F is a full bridge driver
to control power devices like MOS-transistors
or IGBTs in 3-phase systems with a maximum
blocking voltage of +600 V. Based on the used SOI-
technology there is an excellent ruggedness on
transient voltages. No parasitic thyristor structures
are present in the device. Hence,no parasitic latch
up may occur at all temperature and voltage
conditions.
The six independent drivers are controlled at the
low-side using CMOS resp. LSTTL compatible
signals, down to 3.3 V logic. The device includes
an under-voltage detection unit with hysterese
characteristic and an over-current detection. The
over-current level is adjusted by choosing the
resistor value and the threshold level at pin ITRIP.
Both error conditions (under-voltage and over-
current) lead to a definite shut-down off all six
switches. An error signal is provided at the FAULT
open drain output pin. The blocking time after
overcurrent can be adjusted with an RC-network at
pin RCIN. The input RCIN owns an internal current
source of 2.8 μA. Therefore, the resistor RRCIN
is optional. The minimum output current can be
given with 120 mA for pull-up and 250 mA for pull-
down. Because of system safety reasons a 380 ns
interlocking time has been realised.
The function of input EN can optionally be extended
with an over-temperature detection, using an
external NTC-resistor (see Fig.1). There are
parasitic diode structures between pins V
CC
and VBx
due to the monolithic setup of the IC, but external
bootstrap diodes are still mandatory.

Low Voltage Inverter with PMSM Motor
75 74
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Features
• Insensitivity of the bridge output to negative
transient voltages down to -50 V as a result
of SOI technology
• Power supply of the high-side drivers
via bootstrap
• CMOS- and LSTTL-compatible input
(inverted logic)
• Signal interlocking of every phase to prevent
cross-conduction
• Overcurrent protection
• Undervoltage lockout
• ‘Shutdown’ of all switches during error
conditions
• Programmable restart after overcurrent
detection
• RohS-compliant PG-DSO-28 package
Typical Applications
• Washing machines
• Air conditioners
• Controlled fans
• Refrigerators
• Freezers
• Sewing machines
• Dishwashers
Benefits
• High system reliability
• Industry-standard footprint
• Safe operation
• Reduced component count




Input Noise
Filter
Input Noise
Filter
Input Noise
Filter
Input Noise
Filter
Input Noise
Filter
Input Noise
Filter
Input Noise
Filter
Input Noise
Filter
Set
Dominant
Latch
UV-
Detect
BIAS Network/V
DD
2
Deadtime &
Shoot-Through
Prevention
Deadtime &
Shoot-Through
Prevention
Deadtime &
Shoot-Through
Prevention
BIAS Network-VB1
BIAS Network-VB2
BIAS Network-VB3
HV Level-Shifter
+ Reserve-Diode
HV Level-Shifter
+ Reserve-Diode
HV Level-Shifter
+ Reserve-Diode
Compa-
rator
Compa-
rator
Compa-
rator
Delay
Delay
Delay
V
SS
/COM
Level-
Shifter
V
SS
/COM
Level-
Shifter
V
SS
/COM
Level-
Shifter
Latch
UV-
Detect
Latch
UV-
Detect
Latch
UV-
Detect
Gate-
Drive
Gate-
Drive
Gate-
Drive
Gate-
Drive
Gate-
Drive
Gate-
Drive
HIN1
LIN1
HIN2
LIN2
HIN3
LIN3
EN
ITRIP
RCIN
FAULT
VB1
HO1
VS1
VB2
HO2
VS2
VB3
HO3
VS3
VCC
LO1
LO2
LO3
COM
VSS
S Q
R
>1
Block Diagram of EiceDRIVER™
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Product Highlight of Dave Drive application Kit
XC886/888ClM Microcontroller Series
High Performance 8-bit Microcontroller with
On-Chip Flash Memory and CAN
The XC886/888CLM enhances the XC800 family of
8-bit μCs with a new member providing advanced
networking capabilities by integrating both a CAN
controller (V2.0B active) and LIN support on a single
chip. The on-chip CAN module reduces the CPU
load by performing most of the functions required
by the networking protocol (masking, filtering and
buffering of CAN frames).
Additional key features include up to 32 KByte of
embedded Flash memory, an intelligent PWM unit,
a highly accurate 10-bit ADC with fast conversion
speed, a CORDIC and a Multiplication Division Unit
(MDU) for fast mathematical computations. The
flexibility offered by the XC886/888CLM embedded
Flash products is also expanded to include a
family of compatible ROM versions for further cost
saving potential in high volume production. The
XC886/888CLM offers an optimised fit to a wide
range of CAN networking applications including
automotive body, control for industrial and
agricultural equipments, building control for lifts/
escalators, intelligent sensors, distributed I/O
modules and industrial automation.
Feature Set
• 24/32 kByte Flash (incl. 8 kByte data flash),
• 83...166 ns instruction cycle time@ 24 MHz
• On-chip ROM with Bootloader & Flash routines
• 256 Byte RAM, 1536 Byte XRAM
• MultiCAN (2 nodes, 32 Message objects)
• Multiplication/Division Unit (MDU)
• CORDIC (High speed computation of
trigonometric and hyperbolic functions)
• On-chip debugging interface (JTAG)
• 4 general purpose 16-bit timers
• CAPCOM 6E for multifunctional motor control
• 8 channel 10-bit A/D converter
• Brown out detection
• 2xUART (full duplex), LIN support
• LIN BSL support
• Synchronous Serial Channel (SPI comp.)
• On-chip OSC and PLL for clock generation
• Power saving modes
• General-purpose I/O Ports (34/48)
• Package: PG-TQFP-48 (green), PG-TQFP-64
(green)
• Temperature ranges:
• -40...+85°C
• -40...+125°C
• 3.3 V or 5 V (core supply over internal VR)
• High performance XC800 Core
• compatible to standard 8051 Core
• two clocks per machine cycle architecture
• 24/32 kByte Flash Memory for Program and
Data
• CAN
• MDU
• On-chip debug support (JTAG)



5 V/3.3 V
DC-Bus
To Load
V
CC
HIN 1, 2, 3
LIN 1, 2, 3
FAULT
EN
V
SS
R
NTC
R
RCIN
C
RCIN
V
CC
HIN 1, 2, 3
LIN 1, 2, 3
FAULT
EN
R
CIN
ITRIP
V
SS
VB 1, 2, 3
HO 1, 2, 3
VS 1, 2, 3
LO 1, 2, 3
COM
Application Circuit with 6ED003L06-F
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3-Phase Drive application Kit

The 3-phase motor drive application kit shortens
time-to-market for energy efficient motor control
designs targeting excellent speed control, reduced
noise and high system reliability. The kit is built
around the 8-bit XC886 MCU capable of running field
oriented control (FOC) and CIPOS™ - an intelligent
power module (IPM), which provides a high level of
system integration.
Key Features of the 3 Phase Drive Kit
• XC886 with vector computer
• PWM unit
• Fast ADC with <200 ns sample time
• Power Board 110...230 V
AC
, 3 A
• Inverter with 375...750 W
• Using Infineon IKCS12F60 CIPOS 12A, CoolSET
ICE3B0565 power supply and TLE4264 LDO
• Software package including source code
• Sensorless FOC of PMSM
• V/f control of ACIM for quick evaluation
• Free toolchain including compiler and debugger
• Digital isolated real time monitoring tool
(USB to JTAG and CAN bridge)
• DAvE compatible software packages
• DAvE Drive ready
• Suitable for Windows 98/2000/XP
Applications
• Home appliances
• Washing machines
• Dish washers
• Industrial motor control
• Pumps
• Fans
12 KB
Boot ROM
1)
24/32 KB Flash
2)
256 Byte RAM +
64 Byte Monitor RAM
1.5 KByte XRAM
XC800 Core
UART T0/T1
CORDIC
MDU
Ports
System Control Unit
EVR, POR,
Brownout
OSC &
PLL
SSC
UART1
Timer2
Timer21
CCU6
ADC
MultiCAN
Watchdor Timer
Debug & JTAG
Interrupt Controller
1) Includes 1 KB of Monitor ROM
2) Includes up to 8 KB for Data Flash
Block Diagram XC866/886
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Technical Parameters of the Evaluation Board
Power Board of 3 Phase Application Kit
EMC
Filter
GND
+15 V
L
N
PE
– +
Evaluation Board
Buck
Converter
+5 V V+ +1.5 V
V+
Protection
& Drive
~
~
3~M
U
VB1
V
VB2
W
VB3
V+
VSS
VRW
VRV
VRU
VDD
ITRIP
EN
/LIN3
/LIN2
/LIN1
/HIN3
/HIN2
/HIN1
I
K
C
S
1
2
F
6
0
A
A
Microcontroller
G
N
D
+
5
V
/
E
N
/
F
O
D
C
B
u
s
IWIV
IU
/
W
L
/
V
L
/
U
L
/
W
H
/
V
H
/
U
H
Is
e
n
s
e
T
s
e
n
s
e
Block Diagram of the 3-phase Evaluation Board
Input Voltage Range 85 ~ 265 V
AC
See the general safety instruction!
Maximum Input Current 6 A P
OUT
= 750 W, V
IN
= 195 V
AC

Nominal Input Current 3.5 A P
OUT
= 500 W, V
IN
= 230 V
AC

Maximum Output Power 750 W Durable Operation up to 10 min.
Nominal Output Power 500 W
Maximum Switching Frequency 20 KHz
Maximum Ambient Temperature @ P
OUT
= 750 W 40 °C V
IN
= 230 V
AC
, IU, V, W = 3.5 A, fp = 20 KHz
Maximum Ambient Temperature @ P
OUT
= 500 W 65 °C V
IN
= 230 V
AC
, IU, V, W = 2,5 A, fp = 20 KHz
Efficiency 93% P
OUT
= 750 W, V
IN
= 230 V
AC
, fp = 15 KHz
79 78
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The Engineers of Distribution.
Product Highlight of 3 Phase evaluation Kit
CIPOS™ - Integrated Power Module
The energy-efficient Infineon module family with
its latest updates integrates various power and
control components to increase reliability, and to
optimize PCB size and system costs. This simplifies
the power design and reduces significantly the time
to market. This SIL IPM is designed to control AC
motors in variable speed drives for applications
(from 8 A to up 22 A) such as air conditioning, washing
machines, vacuum cleaners and compressors up
to 3 kW. The package concept is specially adapted
to power applications that need extremely good
thermal conduction and electrical isolation, but
also EMI-safe control, innovative FAULT indication
and overload protection. The features of Infineon
TrenchStop™ IGBTs (VCE(sat) = 1.8 V) and anti-
parallel diodes (VF = 1.6 V) are combined with a
new optimized Infineon SOI gate driver for excellent
electrical performance – a concerted inverter
module for drives from one source.
System Configuration
• 3 halfbridges with TrenchStop
®
IGBT &
FWEmCon™ diodes
• 3Φ SOI gate driver
• Bootstrap diodes for high side supply
• Integrated 100 nF bootstrap capacitance
• Temperature sensor, passive components for
adaptions
• Isolated heatsink
• Creepage distance typ. 3.2 mm
Applications
• Compressors/Air conditioning
• Fans/blowers
• Pumps
• General purpose drives
• Drives for textile machines
• Washing machines
• Refrigerators
Features
• Fully isolated Single In-Line molded module
• TrenchStop
®
IGBTs with lowest VCE(sat)
• Optimal adapted antiparallel diode for low EMI
• Integrated bootstrap diode and capacitor
• Rugged SOI gate driver technology with stability
against transient and negative voltage
• Temperature monitor and over temperature
shutdown
• Overcurrent shutdown
• Undervoltage lockout at all channels
• Matched propagation delay for all channels
• Low side emitter pins accessible for all phase
current monitoring (open emitter)
• Cross-conduction prevention
• Lead-free terminal plating; RoHS compliant
• Qualified according to JEDEC1
(high temperature stress tests for 1000 h)
for target applications
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For further information please visit the Infineon webpage www.infineon.com or
www.infineon.com/cms/en/product/applications/industrial/Motor_Drives
Disclaimer:
The information given in this document shall in no event be regarded as a guarantee of conditions or characteristics. With respect to any
examples or hints given herein, any typical values stated herein and/or any information regarding the application of the device, Infineon
Technologies hereby disclaims any and all warranties and liabilities of any kind, including without limitation, warranties of non-infringement of
intellectual property rights of any third party.

TR1, U-HS
D1
TR3, V-HS
D3
TR5, W-HS
D5
TR2, U-LS
D2
TR4, V-LS
D4
TR6, W-LS
D6
RH1 RL1 RH2 RL2 RH3 RL3
CbsH1 CbsH2 CbsH3
H
O
1
L
O
1
V
B
1
V
S
1
H
O
2
L
O
2
V
B
2
V
S
2
H
O
3
L
O
3
V
B
3
V
S
3
V
CC
/HIN1
/HIN2
/HIN3
/LIN1
/LIN2
/LIN3
R
C
I
N
E
N
I
T
R
I
P
/
F
A
U
L
T
V
S
S
C
o
m
Driver-IC
C1 C2
R RTS
Rbs
Dbs1-
Dbs3
For integrated
components see
Table
V+ (10)
VRU (12)
VRV (13)
VRW (14)
U, VS1 (8)
V, VS2 (5)
W, VS3 (2)
VB3 (1)
VB2 (4)
VB1 (7)
V
DD
(22)
/HIN1 (15)
/HIN2 (16)
/HIN3 (17)
/LIN1 (18)
/LIN2 (19)
/LIN3 (20)
ITRIP (21)
EN (24)
VSS (23)
Block Diagram of CIPOSTM
81 80
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3.5 Maxim
automatic fan Control Techniques: Trends in
Cooling High-Speed Chips
Abstract: Cooling fans are an important part
of thermal management for high-power chips
(such as CPUs, FPGAs, and GPUs) and systems.
Unfortunately, their use can sometimes raise a
system’s acoustic noise level to the point where
it is objectionable to the user. By measuring
temperature and adjusting fan speed accordingly,
the fan’s speed (and noise level) can be minimised
when temperature is low, but increased under
worst-case conditions to prevent damage. This
article describes two techniques for automatically
controlling a cooling fan’s speed.
High-speed chips tend to run hot. As they get faster,
they get hotter. New generation high-speed digital
chips use smaller processes that allow the supply
voltage to be reduced, which helps somewhat, but
the number of transistors increases faster than the
supply voltage decreases. Power levels, therefore,
continue to rise. As chip temperature increases,
performance can suffer. Parameters shift, maximum
operating frequencies decrease, and timing can fall
out of specification. From the user’s point of view,
the product is no longer operating properly when
this occurs. The first reason for cooling high-speed
chips, therefore, is to maintain good performance
for the longest possible operating time and over
the widest possible range of environmental
conditions. The maximum allowable temperature
for a highspeed chip to meet its parametric
specifications depends on the process and how the
chip is designed (how ‘close to the edge’ the chip is
operating), among other factors. Typical maximum
die temperature values range from 90...130 °C.
Beyond the point where performance degradation
begins, excessive die temperature causes
catastrophic damage to chips. The maximum die
temperature limit is usually well over +120 °C
and depends on such factors as process, package,
and duration of high-temperature conditions.
High-speed chips are, therefore, cooled to avoid
reaching a temperature that could both degrade
performance and cause irreparable damage. A
single cooling technique is rarely used with high-
speed chips. Instead, combinations of techniques
are generally necessary to ensure high performance
and continued reliability. Heat sinks, heat pipes,
fans, and clock throttling are commonly employed
to cool highspeed chips. The last two, fans and
clock throttling, can help solve the heat problem,
but introduce problems of their own.
Fans can dramatically reduce the temperature of
a highspeed chip, but they also generate a great
deal of acoustic noise. The noise from a full-
speed cooling fan is annoying to some consumers
and is also becoming a target of government
agencies concerned about the longterm effects of
noise in the workplace. Fan noise can be reduced
significantly by varying the fan’s speed based on
temperature; the fan can turn slowly (and very
quietly) when temperature is low, and can speed up
as temperature increases.
Clock throttling – reducing clock speed to reduce
power dissipation – works by reducing system
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performance. When throttling the clock, the system
continues to function, but at a reduced speed.
Clearly, in highperformance systems, throttling
should be done only when it is absolutely necessary
– that is, when the temperature reaches the point
where functionality is about to be lost.
Controlling fan speed or clock throttling based on
temperature requires that the temperature of the
highspeed chip is measured first. This can be done
by placing a temperature sensor close to the target
chip – either directly next to it or, in some cases,
under it or on the heat sink. The temperature
measured this way corresponds to that of the high-
speed chip, but can be significantly lower (up to
around 30 °C) and the difference between measured
temperature and die temperature increases as
the power dissipation increases. Therefore, the
temperature of the circuit board or heat sink must
be correlated to the die temperature of the high-
speed chip.
A better alternative is possible with a number
of highspeed chips. Many CPUs, graphics chips,
FPGAs, and other high-speed ICs include a ‘thermal
diode’, which is actually a diode-connected bipolar
transistor, on the die. Using a remote-diode
temperature sensor connected to this thermal
diode, the temperature of the high-speed IC’s die
can be measured directly with excellent accuracy.
This not only eliminates the large temperature
gradients involved in measuring temperature
outside the target IC’s package, but it also
eliminates the long thermal time constants, from
several seconds to minutes, that cause delays in
responding to die temperature changes.
The need for fan control forces the designer to make
several key choices. The first choice is the method
of adjusting the fan’s speed. A common method
of adjusting the speed of a brushless DC fan is to
regulate the power-supply voltage of the fan. This
approach works well for power-supply voltages as
low as about 40% of the nominal value. There is
a drawback. If the power-supply voltage is varied
using a linear pass device, the efficiency is poor.
Better efficiency can be obtained using a switch-
mode power supply for the fan, but this increases
cost and component count.
Another popular fan-speed control technique is to
power the fan with a low-frequency PWM signal,
usually in the range of about 30 Hz, whose duty
cycle is varied to adjust the fan’s speed. This is
inexpensive because a single, small pass transistor
can be used. It is efficient because the pass
transistor is used as a switch. A disadvantage of
this approach, however, is that it can make the fan
somewhat noisier because of the pulsed nature of
the power supply. The PWM waveform’s fast edges
cause the fan’s mechanical structure to move
(somewhat like a badly designed loudspeaker),
which can easily be audible. Another fan-control
design choice is whether the fan’s speed is
measured as part of the control scheme. In addition
to power and ground, many fans are available with
a third wire that provides a ‘tachometer’ signal to
the fan-control circuitry. The tachometer output
produces a specified number of pulses (two pulses,
for example) for each revolution of the fan. Some
fan-control circuits use this tachometer waveform
as a feedback signal that allows the fan’s voltage
or PWM duty cycle to be adjusted to give a desired
83 82
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RPM. A simpler approach ignores any tachometer
signal and simply adjusts the fan’s drive to speed
up or slow down with no speed feedback. Speed
control using this method is less precise, but cost
is lower and at least one feedback loop is removed,
simplifying the control system.
In some systems, it is important to limit the change
rate of the fan speed. This is most critical when
the system is in close proximity to users. Simply
switching a fan on and off or changing speed
immediately as temperature changes is acceptable
in some environments. When users are nearby,
however, sudden changes in fan noise are apparent
and annoying. Limiting the rate of change of the
fan’s drive signal to an acceptable value (e.g., 1%
per second) ensures that the acoustic effects of fan
control are minimised. The fan speed still changes,
but it does so without attracting attention. The fan-
control profile is another important design variable.
Typically, the fan is off below a specific threshold
temperature and then begins to spin at a slow rate
(for example, 40% of full speed) once the threshold
is exceeded. As temperature increases, the fan’s
drive increases linearly with temperature until it
reaches 100% drive. The best slope depends on
system requirements. A more rapid slope results in
somewhat more consistent chip temperature, but
fan speed has more variation as power dissipation
changes from one moment to the next. If highest
performance is the goal, the starting temperature
and the slope should be chosen so that the fan
reaches full speed before the die temperature is
high enough to initiate clock throttling.
Implementing fan-control circuitry can be done
in several ways. A variety of remote temperature
sensors with up to five sensing channels is available
that can detect the die temperature of the high-
speed chip and transmit temperature data to a
microcontroller. Fan-speed regulators with multiple
channels of fantachometer monitoring can provide
reliable control of fan RPM or supply voltage based
on commands from an external microcontroller.
For low cost and simple implementation, ICs are
available with temperature sensing and automatic
fan control included in a single package. Sensor/
controllers also normally include overtemperature
detection for clock throttling and system shutdown,
thereby protecting the high-speed chips from
catastrophic failure due to overheating.
Examples of two such ICs, one with DC drive and
one with PWM drive, are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
The IC in Figure 1 senses remote temperature and
controls fan speed based on that temperature. It
produces a DC supply voltage for the fan through
an internal power transistor. Figure 2 shows an IC
that performs a similar function, but drives the fan
with a PWM waveform through an external pass
transistor. Both include complete thermal fault
monitoring with overtemperature outputs, which
can be used to shut down the system if the high-
speed chip gets too hot.
Application Note 3173:
http://www.maxim-ic.com/an3173
More Information
For technical questions and support:
http://www.maxim-ic.com/support
For samples: http://www.maxim-ic.com/samples
Other questions and comments:
http://www.maxim-ic.com/contact
83 82
The Engineers of Distribution.
83 82
The Engineers of Distribution.
Related Parts
MAX6653:
QuickView – Full (PDF) Data Sheet – Free Samples
MAX6660:
QuickView – Full (PDF) Data Sheet – Free Samples
On-Chip
PN Junction
High-Speed Chip
2200 pF
1 µF
+12 V
+3.3 V
5 kO
10 kO 10 kO 10 kO
TACH IN
FAN
DXP
DXN
MAX6660
V
CC
GND
ADD0
ADD1
SMBCLK
SMBDATA
ALERT
OVERT
SMBus
TM
SERIAL
INTERFACE
(TOSMBus MASTER)
TO SYSTEM SHUTDOWN
High-Speed Chip
1 µF
+3.3 V
5 kO
+3.3 V
+3.3 V
2200 pF
+3.3 V
TO CLOCK
THROTTLE
TO SYSTEM SHUTDOWN
SDR SDL PWM TACH
OUT IN
FAN FAIL
SMBCLK
MBDATA
ALERT
THERM
CRIT1 CRIT0
DXP
DXN
TO
SMBus
MASTER
MAX6653
Figure 1. Linear (DC-output) temperature sensor and automatic fan-speed controller. Fan speed is controlled automatically based on the
temperature of the high-speed chip. Tachometer feedback from the fan allows the fan controller to regulate fan speed directly. System
shutdown output prevents the high-speed chip from reaching destructive temperatures.
Figure 2. PWM-output temperature sensor and automatic fan-speed controller. Fan speed is controlled automatically based on
temperature. Clock throttle and system shutdown outputs prevent a high-speed chip from reaching destructive temperatures. CRIT0
and CRIT1 pins can be strapped to supply or ground to select default shutdown-temperature thresholds, ensuring protection even when
system software hangs.
AN3173, AN 3173, APP3173, Appnote3173,
Appnote 3173
Copyright © by Maxim Integrated Products
Additional legal notices:
http://www.maxim-ic.com/legal
85 84
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The Engineers of Distribution.
3.6 Microchip Technology
Motor Control Design Solutions
Discover Microchip’s Comprehensive Motor
Control Solutions
Why chose Microchip for your next motor control
design? Our 8-bit Microcontrollers and 16-bit
Digital Signal Controllers contain innovative on-chip
peripherals designed specifically for motor control.
With motor control devices from 8 to 100 pins, we
have the perfect part for every application.
Got a tight schedule? We provide free motor control
software with application notes and schematics
for most motor control algorithms to shorten your
development cycle. Our development tools are
specifically designed for motor control to promote
rapid prototyping of custom applications. We offer
technical training classes, web seminars to quickly
familiarise engineers with our devices and the
latest motor control algorithms.
Microchip can provide these products and resources
for motor control applications:
• 8 and 16-bit microcontrollers and digital
signal controllers
• MOSFET gate drivers
• Analog and Interface products
• Motor control development tools and reference
design hardware
• Motor control algorithms and software
• Motor control training and technical support
Microchip provides everything a motor control
design engineer needs: low-risk product
development, lower total system cost, faster time
to market, outstanding technical support and
dependable delivery and quality.
Mixed-Signal Power
Input
Motor
Feedback
Torque
Speed
Direction
Position
Sensors
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Don’t see what you need? Please ask! Just because
you don’t see it here doesn’t mean that it is not
available. As a leader in motor control, Microchip is
continuously designing new motor control devices
and creating new types of motor control support
software.
85 84
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85 84
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Whole Product Solution
Which MCU or DSC Should You Choose?
Microchip provides many devices that can be used
in motor control applications.
Microchip makes many families of MCUs and DSCs,
including 8-, 16- and 32-bit solutions. All of these
can be used in motor control applications. However,
some families contain special motor control
peripherals and features as described below. With
all of these families, the motor control designer can
choose the level of functionality and performance
that is required for the application.
PIC10F Microcontroller Family
The 6-pin products of the PIC10F family offer
the motor control designer an opportunity to
use microcontrollers in applications that have
historically been void of such devices. Whether it is
cost or space constraints, PIC10F microcontrollers
address these concerns by providing a pricing
structure that makes them nearly disposable with
form factors that can easily be implemented into
the most space constrained designs. The ADC,
comparator and timer peripherals found in the
PIC10F device family can be used to provide a user
interface for basic on/off control, speed control
and other intelligent motor functions. The PIC10F
features include:
• Up to 2 MIPS execution speed
• 2x3 DFN or 6-pin SOT-23 package
• Internal oscillator
• Comparator
• 8-bit ADC
87 86
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PIC12F and PIC16F Microcontroller Product
Family
The PIC12F and PIC16F product families have
an 8-bit CPU that can operate at speeds up to
5 MIPS. Device variants in the PIC12F family have
8 pins, while PIC16F variants are offered in 14-pin
through 64-pin packages. Some variants in the
PIC16F family have one or more Enhanced Capture
Compare PWM Peripheral (ECCP) modules. The
ECCP module is optimised for controlling ½ bridge
or H bridge motor drive circuits. It can also be used
to steer PWM control signals among 4 output pins
for BLDC motor commutation or stepper motor
control. The PIC12F and PIC16F device families
have these features for low-cost motor control
applications:
• Up to 5 MIPS execution speed
• One or more Enhanced Capture Compare PWM
(ECCP) modules
• Comparator with input multiplexer
• 8-bit or 10-bit ADC
• Internal RC Oscillator
• Internal 5 V Shunt Regulator
PIC18F Microcontroller Product Family
The PIC18F product family also has an 8-bit
CPU and offers extended performance over the
PIC16F device family. The PIC18F device family
can operate at speeds up to 12 MIPS and has a
hardware multiplier for faster calculation of control
algorithms. There are variants in the PIC18F
family with specialised motor control peripherals,
including a 3-phase motor control PWM peripheral
and a quadrature encoder interface (QEI). Other
PIC18F variants have the ECCP module found on the
PIC16F device family. Source code developed for the
PIC16F device family can be easily migrated to the
PIC18F family. Devices with the motor control PWM
module are well suited for variable speed 3-phase
motor applications, while devices with the ECCP
module are useful for brush DC and stepper motor
applications. The PIC18F family has these features
useful for 8-bit motor control applications:
• Up to 12 MIPS execution speed with hardware
multiplier
• Motor Control PWM Module with up to 8 Outputs
• Motion Control Feedback Module for Quadrature
Encoders
• One or more Enhanced Capture Compare PWM
(ECCP) modules
• 10-bit ADC with up to 200 ksps sample rate
• Up to 3 Internal Comparators
16-bit Product family with advanced Peripherals
Advanced Motor Control often does not require DSP
but benefi ts greatly from the DSP resources found
on the dsPIC
®
Digital Signal Controllers (DSCs).
For example, our sensorless fi eld-oriented control
algorithm makes use of the single cycle MAC with
data saturation, zero overhead looping and barrel
shifting to achieve stunning performance.
dsPIC
®
16-bit Digital Signal Controller
Product Family
• Large family of code and pin-compatible Flash
devices
• The dsPIC30F device family offers 5 V or 3.3 V
operation and are available in 28, 40, 64 and
80-pin packages
• The dsPIC33F device family provides 3.3 V
operation and are available in 20, 28, 44, 64, 80
and 100-pin packages
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• Easy to migrate between family members
• Facilitates low-end to high-end product
strategy
• Flash program memory for faster development
cycles and lower inventory cost
• High Speed 16-bit CPU with Complier-efficient
architecture
• 40 MIPS operation dsPIC33F (30 MIPS
operation on dsPIC30F)
• Modified Harvard architecture for
simultaneous data and program access
• 16 x 16-bit general purpose registers for
efficient software operations
• Optimised for C code by design with industry-
leading efficiency
• Built-in DSP engine enables high speed and
precision PID control loops
• Full featured DSP engine with two 40-bit
accumulators for multi-loop PID control
• Dual data fetches for single-cycle MAC
instruction support
• Hardware barrel shifter and single-cycle
multiplier
• Saturation support, rounding modes, circular
buffer and modulo addressing modes for
shorter control loops
• Direct-Memory Access (DMA)
(many dsPIC33F devices)
• Peripherals automatically store/retrieve data
from RAM without stealing cycles from the
CPU
• Single supply voltage rails eliminate extra
voltage regulator circuits
• Precision High Speed Internal Oscillator
eliminate external crystal
• Comprehensive System Integration Features
• Up to 4 Kbytes of Data EEPROM (dsPIC30F) for
non-volatile data storage
• High current sink/source I/O pins:
25/25 mA (dsPIC30F), 4/4 mA (dsPIC33F)
• Flexible Watchdog Timer (WDT) with on-chip
low-power RC oscillator for reliable operation
• Power-on Reset (POR), Power-up Timer
(PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST)
• Fail-Safe clock monitor operation detects
clock failure and switches to on-chip low
power RC oscillator
• Programmable code protection
• In-Circuit Serial Programming™ (ICSP™)
• Selectable Power-Saving modes – Sleep,
Idle and Alternate Clock modes; Doze mode
(dsPIC33F)
• Programmable Low-Voltage Detection (PLVD)
(dsPIC30F)
• Programmable Brown-out Reset (BOR)
• Industrial and extended temperature ranges
• Codeguard™ Security helps eliminate loss
of IP
Advanced On-chip Peripherals
Microchip’s 16-bit dsPIC Digital Signal Controllers
(DSC’s) provide on-chip peripherals to design high-
performance, precision motor control systems that
are more energy efficient, quieter in operation, have
greater range and an extended life.
• Motor Control PWM Module (MCPWM)
• Dedicated time base with up to 8 PWM outputs
• Up to 4 complementary pairs for 3-phase
control
• Independent output mode for BLDC Control
• Edge and Center-aligned Modes for quieter
operation
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The Engineers of Distribution.
• Programmable Dead-Time Insertion with
separate turn-on and turn-off times
• Programmable A/D trigger for precise sample
timing
• Up to 2 fault inputs to shutdown PWMs
• Multiple time bases (i.e., supports motor
control and PFC)
• High-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC)
• Up to 16 channels, 10-bit resolution, 1.1 Msps
(1 μs) high speed conversion rate
• Up to 4 sample and hold circuits for
simultaneous sampling capability for all
3 phases
• Flexible sampling and conversion modes with
16 result registers
• Monotonic with no missing codes
• Up to 2 Quadrature Encoder Interfaces (QEI)
for shaft encoder inputs
• Programmable digital noise filters on input
pins for robustness against noise
• Full encoder interface support: A, B, Index
and Up/Down
• Up to 2 Comparators
• 20 ns response time for rapid response
• Programmable voltage reference
• 12-bit A/D converter (up to 0.5 Msps operation)
• Up to eight Input Capture, Output Compare,
Standard PWM channels
• Communication peripherals including UART,
SPI, I
2
C™ and CAN
advanced Motor Control applications
Are you considering moving to brushless motors
or sinusoidal control, eliminating costly sensors
or adding PFC?
Let Microchip show you how to save energy, reduce
noise and cost, improve torque response and
reliability.
FOC Sensorless PMSM or ACIM
Are you looking for top of the line dynamic torque
response and effi ciency, and the lowest system cost
motor control solution? Take a look at Microchip’s
dsPIC sensorless Field Oriented Control (FOC)
AN1078 (PMSM) and AN1162 (ACIM) application
notes. The dsPIC DSC provides a very cost effective
solution to this complex algorithm. The dsPIC DSC’s
10-bit A/D module samples the motor voltage
and currents. Clarke and Park transformations
transform the A/D information to feed two PI loops
controlling torque and fl ux. Motor speed and position
are determined by an estimator which models the
motor. The outputs of the PI loops are transformed
using Space Vector Modulation to control the Motor
Control PWM Module’s PWM outputs. Sinusoidal
(180º) outputs provide smoother, quieter motor
operation.
PI
Σ

θ

PI PI
-
NREF IQREF
IDREF
-
VQ
VD
IQ
ID
V
V
SVM
I
I
D,Q
,
Position
Speed
-
A,B,C
,
V
V
Motor
3 Phase
Bridge
Ia
Ib
Position and
Speed
Estimator
D,Q
,
Σ
Σ
89 88
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89 88
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BLDC Sensorless
Want to eliminate your Hall-Effect sensors and
cabling cost by going sensorless? Take a look at
Microchip’s PIC18F MCU or dsPIC DSC sensorless
BLDC solutions. Application notes AN970/AN991/
AN992 (Sensorless BEMF), AN1083 (Sensorless
Filtered BEMF) and AN1160 (Sensorless Filtered
BEMF with Majority Detect) provide details. FIR
Filtering of the BEMF and/or using Majority Detect
can help with high-speed motors or motors with
distorted BEMF signals. The PIC18 MCU’s or dsPIC
DSC’s A/D samples the motor phase voltages. From
the voltages, the CPU determines the rotor position
and drives the motor control PWM module to
generate trapezoidal output signals for the 3-phase
inverter circuit.
Brushless Fan Control
Need a highly integrated fan controller with a
customisable speed/temperature profile? Take a
look at Microchip’s PIC12HV and PIC16HV devices.
The PIC12HV and PIC16HV devices have a built-in
5 V regulator and on-chip comparator to save
system cost. The rotor position is determined by
a Hall-Effect sensor connected to the on-chip
comparator. The Enhanced Capture Compare PWM
(ECCP) Module uses this feedback information
to drive the motor by steering the PWM signal to
the appropriate motor phase. Temperature sensor
inputs can be used to create a unique fan speed
profi le and the application can provide digital status
information to a host device.
3-ph
Inverter
IBUS
BLDC
Demand
Fault
V
DC
PIC18F MCU or
dsPIC
®
DSC
Phase Terminal Voltage Feedback
PWM3H
PWM3L
PWM2H
PWM2L
PWM1H
PWM1L
FLTA
AN0
AN1
AN2
AN12
AN13
AN14
ECCP
N
S
Hall Sensor PIC12HV615
12 V
DC
A
B
Temperature
PWMCommand
I
2
C™
Commutation
& Speed
5 V Reg
Comp
91 90
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The Engineers of Distribution.
Motor Control Application Notes by Motor Type
Motor Type/Algorithm Versus MCU Family
y l i m a F C S D ® C I P s d y l i m a F 8 1 C I P y l i m a F 6 1 C I P m h t i r o g l A e p y T r o t o M
Stepper Motor


Full and Half-Stepping
6 0 9 N A
7 0 9 N A
2 2 8 N A g n i p p e t S - o r c i M
Brushed DC Motor


5 0 9 N A l a n o i t c e r i d i n U
3 9 8 N A l a n o i t c e r i d - i B
6 9 6 N A 6 9 6 N A r o t o M o v r e S
BLDC and PMSM
Sensored
AN857 AN899 AN957
5 8 8 N A
7 1 0 1 N A l a d i o s u n i S d e r o s n e S
Sensorless BEMF
AN1175 AN970 AN901
2 9 9 N A
3 8 0 1 N A F M E B d e r e t l i F s s e l r o s n e S
0 6 1 1 N A t c e t e D y t i r o j a M h t i w F M E B d e r e t l i F s s e l r o s n e S
8 7 0 1 N A C O F t n u h S - l a u D s s e l r o s n e S
8 0 2 1 N A C F P h t i w C O F t n u h S - l a u D s s e l r o s n e S
AC Induction Motor
Open Loop V/F
AN887 AN900 AN984
AN889 AN843
5 5 9 N A
7 6 9 N A
8 0 9 N A l o r t n o C r o t c e V p o o L d e s o l C
2 6 1 1 N A C O F t n u h S - l a u D s s e l r o s n e S
6 0 2 1 N A g n i n e k a e W d l e i F h t i w t n u h S - l a u D s s e l r o s n e S
Other
6 0 1 1 N A C F P
9 2 2 1 N A B s s a l C e c n a i l p p A
Motor Type App. Note Description
Stepper Motor
AN822 Stepper Motor Micro-stepping with PIC18C452
AN906 Stepper Motor Control Using the PIC16F684
AN907 Stepper Motor Fundamentals
Brushed DC Motor
AN696 PIC18CXXX/PIC16CXXX DC Servomotor Applications
AN893 Low-Cost Bi-directional Brushed DC Motor Control Using the PIC16F684
AN905 Brushed DC Motor Fundamentals
BLDC and PMSM
AN857 Brushless DC Motor Control Made Easy
AN885 Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Fundamentals
AN899 Brushless DC Motor Control Using PIC18FXX31 MCU’s
AN901 Sensorless Control of BLDC Motor Using dsPIC30F6010
AN992 Sensorless Control of BLDC Motor Using dsPIC30F2010
AN957 Sensored Control of BLDC Motor Using dsPIC30F2010
AN970 Using the PIC18F2431 for Sensorless BLDC Motor Control
AN1017 Sinusoidal Control of PMSM Motors with dsPIC30F
AN1083 Sensorless Control of BLDC with Back-EMF Filtering
AN1078 Dual Shunt Sensorless FOC for PMSM
AN1160 Sensorless BLDC Control with Back-EMF Filtering Using a Majority Function
AN1175 Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Control with PIC16
AN1208 Integrated Power Factor Correction and Sensorless Field-Oriented Control System
AC Induction Motor
AN843 Speed-Control of 3-Phase Induction Motor Using PIC18 Microcontrollers
AN887 AC Induction Motor Fundamentals
AN889 VF Control of 3-Phase Induction Motors Using PIC16F7X7 Microcontrollers
AN900 Controlling 3-Phase AC Induction Motors Using the PIC18F4431
AN908 Using the dsPIC30F for Vector Control of an ACIM
AN955 VF Control of 3-Phase Induction Motor Using Space Vector Modulation
AN967 Bidirectional VF Control of Single and 3-Phase Induction Motor Using Space Vector Modulation
AN984 Introduction to ACIM Control Using the dsPIC30F
AN1162 Sensorless Field Oriented Control (FOC) of an ACIM
AN1206 Sensorless Field Oriented Control (FOC) of an ACIM Using Field Weakening
Other
AN1106 Power Factor Correction on dsPIC
®
DSC
AN1229 Meeting IEC 60730 Class B Compliance with dsPIC
®
DSC
y l i m a F C S D ® C I P s d y l i m a F 8 1 C I P y l i m a F 6 1 C I P m h t i r o g l A e p y T r o t o M
Stepper Motor


Full and Half-Stepping
6 0 9 N A
7 0 9 N A
2 2 8 N A g n i p p e t S - o r c i M
Brushed DC Motor


5 0 9 N A l a n o i t c e r i d i n U
3 9 8 N A l a n o i t c e r i d - i B
6 9 6 N A 6 9 6 N A r o t o M o v r e S
BLDC and PMSM
Sensored
AN857 AN899 AN957
5 8 8 N A
7 1 0 1 N A l a d i o s u n i S d e r o s n e S
Sensorless BEMF
AN1175 AN970 AN901
2 9 9 N A
3 8 0 1 N A F M E B d e r e t l i F s s e l r o s n e S
0 6 1 1 N A t c e t e D y t i r o j a M h t i w F M E B d e r e t l i F s s e l r o s n e S
8 7 0 1 N A C O F t n u h S - l a u D s s e l r o s n e S
8 0 2 1 N A C F P h t i w C O F t n u h S - l a u D s s e l r o s n e S
AC Induction Motor
Open Loop V/F
AN887 AN900 AN984
AN889 AN843
5 5 9 N A
7 6 9 N A
8 0 9 N A l o r t n o C r o t c e V p o o L d e s o l C
2 6 1 1 N A C O F t n u h S - l a u D s s e l r o s n e S
6 0 2 1 N A g n i n e k a e W d l e i F h t i w t n u h S - l a u D s s e l r o s n e S
Other
6 0 1 1 N A C F P
9 2 2 1 N A B s s a l C e c n a i l p p A
Motor Type App. Note Description
Stepper Motor
AN822 Stepper Motor Micro-stepping with PIC18C452
AN906 Stepper Motor Control Using the PIC16F684
AN907 Stepper Motor Fundamentals
Brushed DC Motor
AN696 PIC18CXXX/PIC16CXXX DC Servomotor Applications
AN893 Low-Cost Bi-directional Brushed DC Motor Control Using the PIC16F684
AN905 Brushed DC Motor Fundamentals
BLDC and PMSM
AN857 Brushless DC Motor Control Made Easy
AN885 Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Fundamentals
AN899 Brushless DC Motor Control Using PIC18FXX31 MCU’s
AN901 Sensorless Control of BLDC Motor Using dsPIC30F6010
AN992 Sensorless Control of BLDC Motor Using dsPIC30F2010
AN957 Sensored Control of BLDC Motor Using dsPIC30F2010
AN970 Using the PIC18F2431 for Sensorless BLDC Motor Control
AN1017 Sinusoidal Control of PMSM Motors with dsPIC30F
AN1083 Sensorless Control of BLDC with Back-EMF Filtering
AN1078 Dual Shunt Sensorless FOC for PMSM
AN1160 Sensorless BLDC Control with Back-EMF Filtering Using a Majority Function
AN1175 Sensorless Brushless DC Motor Control with PIC16
AN1208 Integrated Power Factor Correction and Sensorless Field-Oriented Control System
AC Induction Motor
AN843 Speed-Control of 3-Phase Induction Motor Using PIC18 Microcontrollers
AN887 AC Induction Motor Fundamentals
AN889 VF Control of 3-Phase Induction Motors Using PIC16F7X7 Microcontrollers
AN900 Controlling 3-Phase AC Induction Motors Using the PIC18F4431
AN908 Using the dsPIC30F for Vector Control of an ACIM
AN955 VF Control of 3-Phase Induction Motor Using Space Vector Modulation
AN967 Bidirectional VF Control of Single and 3-Phase Induction Motor Using Space Vector Modulation
AN984 Introduction to ACIM Control Using the dsPIC30F
AN1162 Sensorless Field Oriented Control (FOC) of an ACIM
AN1206 Sensorless Field Oriented Control (FOC) of an ACIM Using Field Weakening
Other
AN1106 Power Factor Correction on dsPIC
®
DSC
AN1229 Meeting IEC 60730 Class B Compliance with dsPIC
®
DSC
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Product Tables
Op Amps for Motor Control Applications*
Device
Op Amps Per
Package
GBWP
(MHz)
Operating Voltage
Range (V)
Rail-to-Rail Mid-Supply V
REF
Shutdown Pin
MCP6021/22/23/24 1, 2 or 4 10 2.5-5.5 In/Out MCP6021 MCP6023 MCP6023
MOSFET Drivers for Motor Control Applications*
Device Configuration Peak Output Current (A) Output Resistance (Ohms) Maximum Supply Voltage (V)
MCP1401/02 Single 0.5 5/8 18
TC1410/11/12/13 Single 0.5...3.0 15/15-2.5/2.5 16
TC4431/2 Single 1.5 10/10 30
TC4451/22 Single 12 2.2 18
TC4467/68/69 qUAD 1.2 15/15 18
8-bit PIC
®
Microcontrollers for Motor Control Applications*
Device Pins Flash KB
SRAM
Bytes
EE
Bytes
Timer
8/16-Bit
Comp
CCP/
ECCP
Motor Control
PWM
A/D
10-Bit
Quad
Enc
UART
SPI/
I²C™
PIC16F616/
PIC16HV616(1)
14 3.5 128 - 2/1 2 0/1 - 8 ch No - -
PIC16F684 14 3.5 128 256 2/1 2 0/1 - 8 ch No - -
PIC16F737 28 7 368 - 2/1 2 3 - 11 ch No 1 1
PIC16F747 40/44 7 368 - 2/1 2 3 - 14 ch No 1 1
PIC16F767 28 14 368 - 2/1 2 3 - 11 ch No 1 1
PIC16F777 40/44 14 368 - 2/1 2 3 - 14 ch No 1 1
PIC18F1230 18/20 4 256 128 0/2 3 - 6 4 ch No 1 -
PIC18F1330 18/20 8 256 128 0/2 3 - 6 4 ch No 1 -
PIC18F2331 28 8 768 256 1/3 - 2 6 5 ch Yes 1 1
PIC18F2431 28 16 768 256 1/3 - 2 6 5 ch Yes 1 1
PIC18F4331 40/44 8 768 256 1/3 - 2 8 9 ch Yes 1 1
PIC18F4431 40/44 16 768 256 1/3 - 2 8 9 ch Yes 1 1
Note 1: HV device has on-chip shunt regulator.
Fan Managers for Motor Control Applications*
Device Description
Typical
Accuracy (°C)
Maximum Accuracy
@ 25 °C (°C)
Maximum Temperature
Range (°C)
V
CC
Range (V)
Maximum Supply
Current (μA)
TC642 Fan Manager Note 1 Note 1 -40...+85 3.0...5.5 1,000
TC647B Fan Manager Note 1 Note 1 -40...+85 3.0...5.5 400
TC670 Predictive Fan Fault Detector N/A N/A -40...+85 3.0...5.5 150
Note 1: These devices use an external temperature sensor. Accuracy of the total solution is a function of the accuracy of the external sensor.
dsPIC30F Motor Control and Power Conversion Family
Device Pins
Flash
Memory
Kbytes
RAM
Bytes
EEPROM
Bytes
Timer
16-bit
Input
Capture
Output
Compare/
Standard
PWM
Motor
Control
PWM
Quad-
rature
Encoder
ADC
10-bit
1 Msps
Code-
Guard™
Security
Segments U
A
R
T
S
P
I
P
C

C
A
N
Package
Code
dsPIC30F2010 28 12 512 1024 3 4 2 6 ch Yes 6 ch, 4 S/H 1 1 1 1 -
SP, SO,
MM
dsPIC30F3010 28/44 24 1024 1024 5 4 2 6 ch Yes 6 ch, 4 S/H 1 1 1 1 -
SP, SO,
44-pin
ML
dsPIC30F4012 28/44 48 2048 1024 5 4 2 6 ch Yes 6 ch, 4 S/H 1 1 1 1 1
SP, SO,
44-pin
ML
dsPIC30F3011 40/44 24 1024 1024 5 4 4 6 ch Yes 9 ch, 4 S/H 1 2 1 1 - P, PT, ML
dsPIC30F4011 40/44 48 2048 1024 5 4 4 6 ch Yes 9 ch, 4 S/H 1 2 1 1 1 P, PT, ML
dsPIC30F5015 64 66 2048 1024 5 4 4 8 ch Yes 16 ch, 4 S/H 1 1 2 1 1 PT
dsPIC30F6015 64 144 8192 4096 5 8 8 8 ch Yes 16 ch, 4 S/H 3 2 2 1 1 PT
dsPIC30F5016 80 66 2048 1024 5 4 4 8 ch Yes 16 ch, 4 S/H 1 1 2 1 1 PT
dsPIC30F6010A 80 144 8192 4096 5 8 8 8 ch Yes 16 ch, 4 S/H 3 2 2 1 2 PF, PT
* These tables represents a sampling of device solutions recommended for motor control design. Microchip’s broad portfolio of 8-bit
microcontrollers, 16-bit digital signal controllers, analog and interface products, serial EEPROMs and related development systems contains
hundreds of products that could potentially be used for motor control design, depending upon the application requirements.
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dsPIC33F Motor Control and Power Conversion Family
Device Pins
Flash
KB
RAM
KB
DMA
# Ch
Timer
16-bit
Input
Capture
Output
Compare/
Standard
PWM
MC
PWM
QEI
ADC
10-/12-bit*
1.1/0.5 Msps
16-bit
DAC
Analog
Compa-
rators
Code-
Guard™
Security
Segments
U
A
R
T
S
P
I
I
²
C

P
M
P
R
T
C
C
C
A
N
Pkg
Code
dsPIC33FJ12MC201 20 12 1 – 3 4 2 4+2 ch 1 1 ADC, 4 ch – – 2 1 1 1 – – 0
SO, P,
SS
dsPIC33FJ12MC202 28 12 1 – 3 4 2 6+2 ch 1 1 ADC, 6 ch – – 2 1 1 1 – – 0
SO,
SP,
ML
dsPIC33FJ32MC202 28 32 2 – 3 4 2 6+2 ch 1 1 ADC, 6 ch – – 2 1 1 1 – – 0
SO,
SP,
MM
dsPIC33FJ32MC302 28 32 4 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 6 ch – 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 –
SO,
SP,
MM
dsPIC33FJ64MC202 28 64 8 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 6 ch – 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 –
SO,
SP,
MM
dsPIC33FJ64MC802 28 64 16 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 9 ch – 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 1
SO,
SP,
MM
dsPIC33FJ128MC202 28 128 8 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 6 ch – 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 –
SO,
SP,
MM
dsPIC33FJ128MC802 28 128 16 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 6 ch – 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 1
SO,
SP,
MM
dsPIC33FJ16MC304 44 16 2 – 3 4 2 6+2 ch 1 1 ADC, 9 ch – – 2 1 1 1 – – 0 PT, ML
dsPIC33FJ32MC204 44 32 2 – 3 4 2 6+2 ch 1 1 ADC, 9 ch – – 2 1 1 1 – – 0 PT, ML
dsPIC33FJ32MC304 44 32 4 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 9 ch – 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 – PT, ML
dsPIC33FJ64MC204 44 64 8 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 9 ch – 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 – PT, ML
dsPIC33FJ64MC804 44 64 16 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 9 ch 2 ch 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 1 PT, ML
dsPIC33FJ128MC204 44 128 8 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 9 ch – 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 – PT, ML
dsPIC33FJ128MC804 44 128 16 8 5 4 4 6+2 ch 2 1 ADC 9 ch 2 ch 2 – 2 2 1 1 1 1 PT, ML
dsPIC33FJ64MC506 64 64 8 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 1 ADC, 16 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 1 PT
dsPIC33FJ64MC706 64 64 16 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 2 ADC, 16 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 1 PT
dsPIC33FJ128MC506 64 128 8 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 1 ADC, 16 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 1 PT
dsPIC33FJ128MC706 64 128 16 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 2 ADC, 16 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 1 PT
dsPIC33FJ64MC508 80 64 8 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 1 ADC, 18 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 1 PT
dsPIC33FJ128MC708 80 128 16 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 2 ADC, 18 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 2 PT
dsPIC33FJ64MC510 100 64 8 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 1 ADC, 24 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 1 PT, PF
dsPIC33FJ64MC710 100 64 16 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 2 ADC, 24 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 2 PT, PF
dsPIC33FJ128MC510 100 128 8 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 1 ADC, 24 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 1 PT, PF
dsPIC33FJ128MC710 100 128 16 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 2 ADC, 24 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 2 PT, PF
dsPIC33FJ256MC510 100 256 16 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 1 ADC, 24 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 1 PT, PF
dsPIC33FJ256MC710 100 256 30 8 9 8 8 8 ch 1 2 ADC, 24 ch – – 3 2 2 2 – – 2 PT, PF
*dsPIC33 devices feature one or two user-selectable 1.1 Msps 10-bit ADC (4 S&H) or 500 ksps 12-bit ADC (1 S&H)
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Development Systems
Microchip offers a number of development boards
and advanced development tools that demonstrate
the capabilities of its motor control silicon solutions.
These tools work with Microchip’s MPLAB
®
ICD
2 In-Circuit Debugger (DV164005) to download,
program and debug application software. Our
systems make it easy to customise the software for
specific motors.
PICDEM™ MCLV Development Board (DM183021)
The PICDEM MCLV
development board
is intended for low-
voltage (up to 48 V),
Brushless DC (BLDC)
applications. The
board provides a low-cost method for users to
evaluate and develop motor control applications
using Microchip’s 28-pin PIC18FXX31 and dsPIC30F
motor control products. A 18-pin translator
board (AC162078) is also available and allows the
PIC18F1330 to be installed on the PICDEM MCLV
board.
dsPICDEM™ MCLV Development Board
(DM330021)
The dsPICDEM
MCLV development
board is intended
for low-voltage
BLDC applications
up to 48 volts at 10
amps. It provides a low-cost method for users to
evaluate and develop motor control applications
using dsPIC33F motor control products via a Plug
In Module (PIM) or 28-pin SOIC socket. Serial
interfaces include: RS-232C, CAN, LIN and USB
(for RTDM). Feedback support includes: Hall-Effect
Sensors, Shaft Encoder and three shunt resistors.
advanced Development Tools
This high-performance modular system provides
a method for quick prototyping and validation of
various motor types. The tools give you the flexibility
to select the appropriate control board and power
modules to meet your needs.
Based on the Microchip MCU family that you want to
design with, select one of the control board options
from the table below:
A 3-phase High Voltage
Power Module and
MC1 Motor Control
Development Board
are shown.
A 3-phase Low Voltage
Power Module with
Explorer 16 Board,
Motor Control Interface
Board and a Hurst Motor
are shown.
dsPICDEM™ Motor Control Development System
Control Board Options
dsPIC30F
Design
dsPICDEM MC1 Motor Control Development
Board (DM300020)
dsPIC33F
Design
Explorer 16 Development Board (DM240001)
dsPIC33FJ256MC710 Plug-In-Module
(MA330013) Motor Control Interface PICtail™
Plus Daughter Board (AC164128)
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Next, select a power module based on the voltage
and power requirements of the motor you want to
control.
Motors for Development
You can provide your own motor for application
development work or purchase one of these:
• AC300020 – 24 V brushless DC motor
• AC300021 – 208 V, ¹/³ HP 3-phase AC induction
motor
Motor Control Tuning GUIs
These software plug-in tools included with
MPLAB
®
IDE assist with the development of motor
control applications:
• AN901 BLDC Tuning Interface – Provides
a graphical method to configure the motor
parameters associated with the AN901
application.
• AN908 ACIM Tuning Interface – Provides
a graphical method to adjust the control
loop parameters associated with the AN908
application.
dsPICDEM™ Motor Control Development System
Power Module Options
Line Powered Application
up to 240 V AC, 800 W
dsPICDEM MC1H 3 Phase High
Voltage Power Module (DM300021)
DC Powered Application up
to 48 V DC, 600 W
dsPICDEM MC1L 3 Phase
Low Voltage Power Module
(DM300022)
Visit
www.microchipdirect.com
to order any of the
development systems
shown here.
• Data Monitor and Control Interface (DMCI) –
Provides a graphical method to input and adjust
software motor parameters. Plots can be used to
show a time history of control variables so that the
motor dynamic response can by analysed. This
tool is useful for tweaking software parameters
and visualising historical data during debug
sessions.
• Real-Time Data Monitor (RTDM) – Make a change
to a software parameter and see the effect
immediately without stopping the motor. A serial
USB or UART cable supports bi-directional data
transfers between the host PC and the MCU/
DSC.
DMCI Graphical Data Display
Other Development Tools
Take advantage of Microchip’s world-class
development tools for 8-bit PIC microcontrollers
and 16-bit dsPIC digital signal controllers, including
programmers, emulators, debuggers and additional
evaluation kits. Operating under the free MPLAB
Integrated Development Environment, Microchip’s
development systems are easy to use and help
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reduce design time. Software library support that
enables motor control applications is available in
Microchip’s C Compiler tool suites. In addition to
peripheral drivers, algorithms are available for
Proportional-Interface-Derivative (PID) control and
digital filtering.
DMCI Data Input Sliders and Variable Assignment
DMCI Data Input Page and Variable Assignment
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Training Solutions
Microchip provides a variety of ways to come up to
speed quickly on our 8-bit MCU’s and 16-bit dsPIC
DSC’s, as well as learn how to use them to spin a motor.
Pressed for time? Log on to www.microchip.com/
webseminars and download a web seminar on your
own schedule. These training modules are just the
right size to fit into your busy schedule.
Want to learn from an expert?
Log on to www.microchip.com/RTC and sign up for
a formal class taught by a Microchip engineer. Many
of these classes include hands on motor control
development work, so you can learn the theory
and then put it into practice. Additional classes
are available that cover the device programming
and peripheral usage, C language and control
techniques that are not specific to motor control.
need Design assistance?
Visit www.microchip.com/partners for a directory
of third party consultants and designers that can
help with your motor control application.
Get Started now!
Microchip makes it easy to add electronic motor
control functionality to your embedded design.
For access to Microchip’s complete motor control
design resources, visit the Motor Control Design
Center at www.microchip.com/ motor. Whether
you are a motor control expert or a beginner, this
dedicated site provides you with everything you need
to complete your motor control design, including:
• Applications by Motor Type: This on-line table
captures numerous end applications and
their typical motor types for the industrial,
automotive, consumer and appliance market
segments. Users are guided to the appropriate
products and software solutions for each type of
motor.
• Technical Documentation: Microchip offers a
variety of motor control-related application
notes, reference designs and other technical
documentation to help speed design time.
This technical library provides both theory and
operation considerations for a variety of motor
types.
Class Hours Type Abstract
MCT3201: BLDC Control
Techniques
7 Hands On
This workshop class provides a detailed overview of BLDC motor theory and control
algorithms. The class also provides an introduction to the dsPIC architecture, and motor
control peripherals, along with an in-depth look at Microchip’s BLDC Motor Control
firmware and Motor Control Graphical User Interface.
MCT7301: Field Oriented
Control of Permanent
Magnet Synchronous
Motors
7 Hands On
This workshop class provides a detailed overview of PMSM motor theory and control
algorithms. The class also provides an introduction to the dsPIC architecture, and motor
control peripherals, along with an in-depth look at Microchip’s PMSM Motor Control
firmware and Motor Control Graphical User Interface.
MCT4301: Field Oriented
Control of AC Induction
Motor
7 Hands On
This workshop class provides a detailed overview of ACIM motor theory and control
algorithms. The class also provides an introduction to the dsPIC architecture, and motor
control peripherals, along with an in-depth look at Microchip’s ACIM Motor Control
firmware and Motor Control Graphical User Interface.
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Support
Microchip is committed to supporting its customers
in developing products faster and more efficiently.
We maintain a worldwide network of field
applications engineers and technical support
ready to provide product and system assistance. In
addition, the following service areas are available at
www.microchip.com:
• Support link provides a way to get questions
answered fast: http://support.microchip.com
• Sample link offers free evaluation samples of
any Microchip device: http://sample.microchip.
com
• Training link offers webinars, registration for
local seminars/workshops and information on
annual MASTERs events held throughout the
world: www.microchip.com/training
• Forum link provides access to knowledge base
and peer help: http://forum.microchip.com
Purchase
microchipDIRECT is a web-based purchasing site
that gives you 24-hour-a-day access to all Microchip
devices and tools, including pricing, ordering,
inventory and support. You can buy the products you
need on an easily opened Microchip line of credit.
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3.7 on Semiconductor
AMIS305xx family
Stepper Motor Driver/Controller Products
The AMIS-305xx is a family of micro-stepping
stepper motor driver for bipolar stepper motors.
The ICs can be interfaced via I/O pins and the SPI
bus to an external microcontroller.
As one member of the family, the AMIS-30522
contains a current translation table and takes the
next micro-step on every rising (or falling) edge of
the signal on the NXT input pin. The DIR register
or input pin defines the direction of rotation. The
IC provides a speed and load angle output signal.
This in turn enables running on the external
microcontroller stall detection algorithms and
control loops based on load angle, and to adjust
torque and speed accordingly. AMIS-30522 uses
a proprietary PWM algorithm for reliable current
control. Additionally, the AMIS-30522 has an on-
chip voltage regulator, reset output and watchdog
reset.
The AMIS-30522 is implemented in AMIS I2T100
technology, combining both high-voltage analog
circuitry and digital functionality on the same IC.
Key Features
• Drivers and PWM current regulator
• Dual H-Bridge for 2 phase stepper motors
• Programmable peak-current up to 1,6 A using
a 5-bit current DAC
• Fully integrated current-sense
• PWM current control with automatic selection
of fast and slow decay
• Low EMC PWM with selectable voltage slopes
• Active fly-back diodes
• Interface
• SPI interface to external micro or DSP
• Speed and Load Information Output enables
sensor-less detection of stall or rotor position
and several very advanced applications
• Next step input
• Full output protection and diagnosis
• Thermal warning and shut-down
• Compatible with 5 V and 3.3 V microcontrollers
• Stepper
• 7 step modes from full-step up to
32 micro-steps
• Controller
• On-chip current translator
• Voltage Regulator
• Integrated 5V Regulator to supply external
microcontroller
• Integrated Reset Function to reset external
microcontroller
• Integrated Watchdog Function
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Applications
• Intelligent Positioning and Dynamic Motion of
Surveillance Cameras and Spotlights
• Dose Pumps
• Vending Machines
• Pick-and-Place Machines
• Dynamic Motion of Weaving and Sewing
Equipment
• Flap/valve Control in Climate Control Facilities
Motion Control Products
SPI Stepper Motor Drivers
AMIS30511 SOIC24 400 mA, 1/32 Micro-step
AMIS30512 SOIC24 400 mA, 1/32 Micro-step, V
REG
AMIS30521 NQFP32 800 mA, 1/32 Micro-step
AMIS30522 NQFP32 800 mA, 1/32 Micro-step, V
REG
Evaluation Kits
EVK-3052x Evaluation Kit for AMIS3052x
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3.8 Renesas Technology
Introduction - Challenges
According to most motor & appliances
manufacturers, improving the efficiency and
the safety of appliances & embedded systems
are now the key goals. Electronically controlled
variable-speed drives are now replacing the less
reliable solutions employed in older motor control
generation. These so called ‘classic’ solutions
such as universal motors or single phase induction
motors used up to now present several limitations
in terms of efficiency, safety and reliability.
Depending on the end application and its functional
requirements, either 3 phase induction motors
(asynchronous motors) or permanent magnet
synchronous motors will provide reliable operation
with excellent dynamic control. With efficiencies
up to 85% at high speed and 70% at low speed,
these inverter drives based solutions can provide
significant energy savings over standard PMDC.
The key challenges are now to offer advanced
algorithms to increase the ratio performances
versus costs of the complete solution. Finally the
new software techniques & new MCUs solutions
are offering flexible solutions, easy to up-grade and
easy to integrate.
Renesas Reference Platforms to address new
Challenges
To address the increase of energy efficiency,
Renesas is offering ‘Off the shelf’ solutions featuring
sensorless Field Oriented Control algorithms. Each
of the Motor Control Platforms is delivered with:
• Boards schematics (MCU & power stage)
• Bill Of Material, boards layout & Gerber files
• Software project source code running on HEW
1)

• Specific PC GUI for serial user interface to drive
the platform
• User’s Manual & calibration manual
Renesas approach is to offer very flexible Reference
Platforms (e.g. MCRPs
2)
), where any engineers may
evaluate the performance of the algorithms, add his
own source code, adapt his own motor and optimise
the complete system. As an example, the GUI PC
interface below is used to calibrate any PSM motor
(e.g. Permanent Magnet AC Synchronous, BLAC):
Thanks to such PC interface, it becomes easy to
adapt any specific or custom motors developed for
a specific applications where the number of poles,
the intrinsic rotor and stator parameters, etc.

1)
High-performance Embedded Workshop: Renesas GUI to develop/debug/simulate any software.
2)
Motor Control Reference Platforms
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1)
High-performance Embedded Workshop: Renesas GUI to develop/debug/simulate any software.
2)
Motor Control Reference Platforms
Renesas developed four main platforms in Europe
to control the four types of motor presented above:
PMDC, BLDC, PSM and Cast Motor. To adapt such
platform to custom motors, Renesas is offering
motor tuning & calibration services to speed-
up any evaluation of the software algorithm &
MCU capabilities. Please find below the Renesas
Reference Designs overview & positioning

The current reference designs are fully free of charge and presented in details below.
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PMDC Reference Platform: MCRP04
The Motor Control Reference Platform (MCRP04)
integrates simple and low-cost electronics to
efficiently drive any universal DC motors up to a
power of 350 W. The method employed for driving
the motor is a phase angle drive system running on
the highly integrated R8C/13 microcontrollers.
The platform is able to drive any high-voltage PMDC
motors thanks to an isolated user interface. The
user is able to adjust the motor speed by using an
encoder and real time information is displayed on a
simple LCD. Any tachometer can also be connected
to enable speed feedback. A specific demonstration
is available to simulate a washing machine program.
It includes features such as a control relay for the
door lock, drain pump and heater.
The user interface is used to control the platform
and select a specific ‘Appliance mode’ to simulate a
simple appliance including several steps activating
actuators, reading temperature, etc.
The phase angle control technique is used to adjust
the voltage applied to the load in order to achieve
the desired speed.
On the picture below the platform is Voltage:
230...240 V
AC
motor up to 17,500 RPM for a maximum
current of 1.6 A and a power up to 350 W.
Conclusion
Motor Type Universal DC Motor
Control Method Triac controlled
Waveform Type Trapezoidal (120°)
Rotor Position
Detection
Tachometer
CPU Used R8C/13 , R8C/26
Resources Used
10% CPU, 4KB flash, 400 B
RAM
Key Applications
Low-end washer, Mixer, Air
extractor, small appliances,
Fan, etc.

220/110 V
AC
Main Supply
Universal
Motor Speed
Sensor
User
Interface
Board
220/110 V
AC
Input,
55 V
AC
Output
50/60 Hz
transformer
Power Stage
Board
CPU
Board
(R8Cx)
I/O
Simulation
RS232 Serial
Interface
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blDC Reference Platform: MCRP03
The MCRP03 is based on R8C microcontroller. It
is design to offer low cost solutions to drive any
Brushless DC motors with or without sensors.
The driving technique use is the 120-degree block
commutation.
The serial U/I is used to select the rotation-speed
command. The MCU outputs the pattern accordingly
to the state of hall-sensors signal. The PWM duty
cycle is calculated by comparing the current speed
of rotation with the reference rotation speed via a
PI algorithm PWM signals are controlling only the
high side IGBTs.
The PWM duty cycle is clamped to limit the motor
current to its rated value. The switching of the output
pattern is made every edge of the hall-sensors
signal (6 times every electrical time period).
Conclusion
Motor Type High & low voltage BLDC
Control
Method
Block commutation (6 steps)
Waveform
type
Trapezoidal (120°)
Rotor Position
Detection
Sensorless (BEMF) or
Hall sensors
CPU Used R8C/13 – R8C/25
Resources
Used
20% CPU, 4 KB flash,
400 B RAM
Switching
Frequency
From 3...20 KHz
Key
Applications
Water pumps (dishwasher), Air
extractor, Washer, industrial
drives, compressors, fan,
Robotics, fork lift, door control,
air conditioning, Central
Heating Pump, etc.
24 Volt DC
Power Supply
BLDC Motor
HALL Sensors
User
Interface
Board
Sensor/
Sensorless
Board
CPU Board Interface
Board
Power Stage
Board
BEMF – Detection Lines
Serial Interface
(RS232)
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PSM (PMaC) Reference Platform: MCRP05
This MCRP05 based on SH7125 or SH7085 MCUs
controls any sensorless 3-phase Brushless
Sinusoidal Synchronous motor inverter by using
advanced Field Oriented Control algorithm (FOC).
The motor used is a Brushless motor PSM also
called Permanent Magnet motor (PMAC) or BLAC.
The system is in closed loop as the current detection
is done via a single shunt (three shunts is optional)
which offers a very low cost solution and avoid any
expensive encoder or current sensor.
The main focus applications are compressors, air
conditioning, fans, industrial drives, washer, etc.
The platform is flexible enough to develop any
application using Brushless motors.
The MCRP05 is mainly divided into three parts:
a CPU board, a Power stage & a low voltage demo
system PSM motor. The user interface is a PC based
GUI presented above.
Sensorless vector control algorithm using shunt current detection
Please, find below the FOC sensorless algorithm block diagram. The only different between the three shunts
and the single shunt configurations is in the ‘Current Detection’ block, the rest of the algorithm remains the
same.
W
[Speed Set]
0 [I
d
Set] +
+ +
I
d
PI
I
q
PI
V
q
V
d
I
q
I
d
V
q
V
u
V
w
I
u
I
v
I
w
V
´
V
³
I
´
I
³
d, q --> ³, ´ ³, ´ --> U, V, W MODULATION
IPM
inverter
Single shunt
(3 shunts optional)
Current
detection
U, V, W --> ³, ´ ³, ´ --> d, q
Flux phase
estimation
Z[-1]
Z[-1] Z[-1] Z[-1]
0 [Phase]
Speed
Estimation
Z[-1]
W [Estimated Speed]
Speed PI
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Finally the key benefits of the MCRP05 are that the
software is fully configurable to drive any low &
high voltage PSM motors. The ‘customise-h’ file in
the project source code is a very useful and flexible
file used to adapt the software without entering into
the code itself.
#define SINGLESHUNT
Select one shunt or three shunts for current detection
//#define THREESHUNTS
#define PWM_FREQ_CUSTOM 20000 PWM frequency modulation: between 3 KHz and 20 KHz
#define POSCURR Selects sign of the current read through the shunt and the related amplifier stage
#define EEPROM_USED Enable the use of the external E²PROM
#define DISPLAY_USED Enable display usage
#define MCRP05_SCI0_CONNECTION Enable SCIO for external connection
#define SAMPLE_FREQ_CUSTOM 10000 Control loop time in Hz between 2500 Hz up to 10 KHz
#define STARTUP_RAMPTIME_CUSTOM 800 Startup ramp time in ms
#define RPM_MIN_CUSTOM 600
#define RPM_MAX_CUSTOM 4500
#define R_ACC_CUSTOM 1000
#define C_POLI_CUSTOM 2
#define ID_NOM_CUSTOM 0
#define IQ_NOM_CUSTOM 30
#define R_STA_CUSTOM 7
#define KP_CUR_CUSTOM 150
#define KI_CUR_CUSTOM 100
#define KP_VEL_CUSTOM 30
#define KI_VEL_CUSTOM 20
min speed in RPM
max speed in RPM
acceleration ramp in RPM/sec
polar pairs number
flux current
max torque current in Arms/10
stator phase resistance in Ω/10
K prop. current control
K integ. current control
K prop. speed control
K integ. speed control
#define DEADTIM_CUSTOM 2.0 Dead-time value in μs @40 MHz
#define RSHUNT_CUSTOM 100.0
#define RSGAIN_CUSTOM 5000.0
#define AVCC_CUSTOM 5000.0
Shunt value in mΩ
Circuit gain x1000
A/D Range in mV
#define RVBUS1_CUSTOM 400000.0
#define RVBUS2_CUSTOM 4700.0
Split resistor 1 in Ω
Split resistor 2 in Ω
#define VIGBTV_CUSTOM 800.0
#define VDIODOV_CUSTOM 1400.0
V
CESAT
of the IGBT in mV
Free-wheel diode forward voltage in mV
#define FIRST_FLUX_LOWPASS_TIME_CUSTOM 10
#define DERIVATIVE_TIME_CUSTOM 1
#define LAST_FLUX_LOWPASS_TIME_CUSTOM 10
Flux phase estimation is made through following steps:
1) first low pass filter, 2) derivative, 3) last low pass filter
#define FIRST_SPEED_LOWPASS_TIME_CUSTOM 5
#define SECOND_SPEED_LOWPASS_TIME_CUSTOM 4
#define THIRD_SPEED_LOWPASS_TIME_CUSTOM 3
Filters parameters
Conclusion
Motor Type High & low voltage PSM (e.g. Brushless AC)
Control Method Field Oriented Control
Waveform Type Sinusoidal (180°)
Rotor Position Detection Sensorless (option to connect hall sensors or encoder)
Motor Current Measurement Single shunt (option to use three shunts)
CPU Used SH7125 or SH7085
Resources Used 50% CPU, 8 KB flash, 1 KB RAM
Switching Frequency From 3...20 KHz
Key Applications
Water pumps (dishwasher), Air extractor, Washer, industrial drives, compressors, fan, Robotics, fork lift,
door control, air conditioning, etc.
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There are mainly two ways to drive 3-phase cast
motors:
V/f Control Field Oriented Control (FOC)
Simple to implement
(HW & SW)
More difficult to implement
Simple motor tuning
procedure
Motor tuning required
Speed control with speed
sensor is possible
-
Speed control with speed sensor
is possible
Sensorless speed control is
possible
Separated Torque/Flux
control is not possible
Separated Torque/Flux control is
possible
Renesas chose the FOC approach because of the
following benefits:
• Better dynamic behavior, if load variations are
significant
• Much higher efficiency (due to flux control)
• Much higher speed reachable
The performances of the sensorless systems are
very good:
• Full starting torque
• Slip compensation (±3% over the full torque
range of speed accuracy)
• Wide speed range (from 6 Hz till over 600 Hz)
• High dynamic performances
• Current limits with speed reduction if maximum
values are exceeded
• Less than 50% of CPU time is required for the
SH7125
• Easy to customize to obtain the right
compromise between required resources and
obtained performances
Finally, the software parameters linked to the
motor and the application are fully customisable,
please find below the list of parameters that can
Cast Motor (aC asynchronous) Reference
Platform: MCRP04
Renesas developed a fully vector controlled
sensorless platform to drive any low and high
voltages 3-phase cast motors. The MCRP06 is
based on two boards: the CPU board is based on
the 32-bit RISC SH7125 and the power board is
featuring high voltage IPM (Integrated Power
Module) and three shunts for the current detection.
The Reference design is fully customisable: e.g. any
serial communication, any encoder or hall sensor
can be used.
Finally, the MCRP06 is also offered with the SH7286
MCU board featuring USB and CAN connections.
The key benefits of a cast motor over PMDC motor
are the following ones:
• Less acoustic noise
• The motor itself is much cheaper
• No brushes, so more reliability
• Long lifetime
• Wider speed range
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be easily adjusted via the User Interface. The board
schematics, the layout and the software are fully
available on the Renesas website.
Conclusion
Motor Type
High & low voltage, Cast Motor
(e.g. AC Asynchronous motors)
Control Method Field Oriented Control
Waveform Type Sinusoidal (180°)
Rotor Position
Detection
Sensorless (option to connect hall
sensors or encoder)
Motor Vurrent
Measurement
Three shunts
CPU Used SH7125 or SH7286
Resources Used 20% CPU, 8KB flash, 1KB RAM
Switching
Frequency
From 3KHz to 20KHz
Key Applications
Water pumps (dishwasher), Air extractor,
Washer, industrial drives, compressors,
fan, Robotics, fork lift, door control, air
conditioning, etc.
Microcontrollers Roadmap for Motor Control
The low-end 16-bit MCU dedicated for Motor Control
is based on the R8C Family perfectly designed
to drive any PMDC motors and BLDC motor
sensorless. On the other end, the SH Family is the
high-end 32-bit RISC MCU specifically developed to
control any PSM and Cast Motors using advanced
vector controlled sensorless algorithms. Please
find below the MCU overview for each motor type
including the control methods.

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The common MCU features are the following:
• High performance 16/32-bit CISC and RISC
Engine provides processing power for real time
control
• Optional Floating Point Unit (FPU) and
DSP capable CPU cores.
• Embedded Memory: max 1 MB flash,
max. 40 KB RAM
• Integrated Multifunctional Timer Units targeted
for Motor Control Applications
• Automatic Dead-time insertion & compensation.
• Up to 12-bit High Speed Multi Channel A/D and
D/A Converters
• On-Chip Peripherals allow ease of interface
to peripheral memory, LSI & host PC
• Low Power Consumption modes for energy
saving applications
• On Chip Debug Modes facilitate ease of
development and quick turnaround
• Self-test CPU software routines to address
IEC60730-1 safety
Renesas MCU’s offer the right balance between
performance and cost to meet the challenges
imposed on motor control for a multitude of
applications.

Motor Control applications
The current applications already mentioned above
are now moving from single phase motor or PMDC
motor to three-phase motor technologies. The
key reasons are the gain of efficiency, safety and
reliability. Please find below some example for
each Renesas references designs:
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Conclusion
Renesas is offering state of the art software
and reference designs to drive any advanced
motors. Please find below the summary of the key
differentiators:
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3.9 STMicroelectronics
Motor control with STM32
32-bit aRM
®
-based MCU
For 3-phase brushless motor vector drives
Vector Control Made Simple
STMicroelectronics’ STM32 offers the performance
of the industry-standard Cortex™-M3 core at
the service of vector (or field-oriented) control
algorithms. Vector-control algorithms are widely
used in high-performance drives. They provide
precise and responsive torque and speed control,
and guarantee optimised efficiency during
transient operations. Practically, they also have
the advantage of using the same framework to
control an asynchronous or synchronous motor.
This is interesting for development teams that
have to deal with various applications and motor
types. Finally, the sensorless algorithms for rotor
speed and position detection are also of interest
when trying to reduce the cost of the drive. The
benefits of the ARM™ architecture combined with
motor-control dedicated peripherals makes the
STM32 Performance line MCU family ideally suited
to optimise the overall performance of execution
while reducing the overall system cost.
Applications
• Appliances

Washing machines

Dishwasher pumps

Refrigerators

Air conditioners
• Industrial

Electric vehicles

Low-end and medium-range
industrial drives

Office automation

HVAC actuators and fans

Pumps

Blowers

Vending and cash machines
Nested vectored
IT controller
Cortex-M3
CPU
36/72 MHz
JTAG/SW debug
1 x SysTick timer
6 x 16-bit PWM
synchronized AC timer
DMA 7 channels
Up to 16 external ITs
26/36/51/80 I/Os
1 x SPI
1 x USART/LIN
smartcard/IrDA
modem control
ARM Lite
high-speed
bus matrix/
arbiter
(max.
72 MHz)
Bridge
A
R
M

p
e
r
i
p
h
e
r
a
l

b
u
s

(
m
a
x
.

7
2

M
H
z
)
Flash
I/F
32 KB-128 KB
Flash memory
6 KB-16/20 KB SRAM
20 B backup registers
Clock control
1 or 2 x 12-bit ADC
16 channels/1 Msps
Temperature sensor
Power supply
Regulated 1.8 V
POR/PDR/PVD
XTAL oscillators
32 kHz + 4~16 MHz
Internal RC oscillators
40 kHz + 8 MHz
PLL
RTC/AWU
2 x USART/LIN
smartcard/
IrDA modem control
1 x SPI
2 x I
2
C
ARM peripheral bus
(max. 36 MHz)
Bridge
®
3 x 16-bit timer
2 x watchdog
(independent and
window)
DMA: Direct memory access
RTC: Real-time clock
AWU: Auto wake-up capability with RTC alarm
POR: Power-on reset
PDR: Power-down reset
PVD: Programmable voltage detector
1 x USB 2.0FS
1 x CAN 2.0B
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The STM32 family benefits from the Cortex-M3
architectural enhancements (including the
Thumb-2
®
instruction set). It delivers improved
performance with better code density, has a tightly
coupled nested vectored interrupt controller that
significantly speeds response to interrupts, and
features industry-leading power consumption.
STM32 Key Benefits
The STM32 is the latest series of super-integrated
single-chip 32-bit ARM Cortex-M3-based MCUs.
The STM32 is an optimal choice to support many
applications with the same platform:
• From reduced memory and pin requirements
to larger needs
• From simple cost-sensitive to complex
high-value
The high level of pin-to-pin, peripheral and software
compatibility across the family gives you full
flexibility. You can upgrade to a higher or downgrade
to a lower memory size, or use different packages
without changing your initial layout or software. The
Performance line, STM32F103, operates at 72 MHz,
with more on-chip RAM and peripherals.
STM32F10x portfolio
Flash size
(bytes)
512 KB
256 KB
128 KB
64 KB
32 KB
0 KB
STM32F103T8
STM32F101T8
STM32F103T6
STM32F101T6
STM32F103C8
STM32F101C8
STM32F103C6
STM32F101C6
STM32F103CB
STM32F101CB
36 pins
QFN
48 pins
LQFP
64 pins
LQFP
100 pins
LQFP/BGA
Under development
Available now
Performance line
Access line
STM32F103R8
STM32F101R8
STM32F103RB
STM32F101RB
STM32F103R6
STM32F101R6
STM32F103V8
STM32F101V8
STM32F103VB
STM32F101VB
144 pins
LQFP/BGA
Leading-Edge Architecture with Cortex-M3 Core
• Harvard architecture
• 1.25 DMIPS/MHz and 0.19 mW/MHz
• Thumb-2 instruction set brings 32-bit
performance with 16-bit code density
• Single cycle multiply and hardware division
• Embedded, fast interrupt controller is now
inside the core allowing:
• Excellent real-time behavior
• Low latency down to six CPU cycles
inter-interrupt
• Six CPU cycles wake-up time from
low-power mode
• Up to 35% faster and up to 45% less code
than ARM7TDMI
®

High Level of Integration
• Built-in supervisor reduces need for external
components:
• Power-on reset, low-voltage detect, brown-out
detect, watchdog timer with independent clock
• One main crystal drives entire system:
• Inexpensive 4...16 MHz crystal drives CPU,
USB and all peripherals
• Embedded PLL generates multiple
frequencies
C
o
r
e

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

D
M
I
P
S
Drysthone
Cortex-M3 performance versus ARM7TDMI
rating
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 f
CPU
(MHz)
Cortex-M3
(Thumb-2)
ARM7TDMI
(ARM)
ARM7TDMI
(Thumb)
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• Optional 32 kHz crystal for RTC
• Embedded factory trimmed 8 MHz RC can be
used as main clock
• Additional low-frequency RC for RTC or
watchdog
• Only 7 external passive components required
for base system on LQFP100 package
Motor Control
The STM32 Performance line embeds timers and
ADC features that are perfectly suited to three-
phase brushless motor control. The advanced
control PWM timer offers:
• Six outputs
• Dead-time generation
• Edge-aligned and center-aligned waveforms
• Emergency stop and synchronisation capability
with the dual ADC
The dual ADC architecture allows simultaneous
sample and hold with 12-bit resolution, 1 μs
conversion time.
This dedicated set of peripherals combined with
the high performance of the Cortex-M3 core allows
your software to shorten the total vector control
loop to 24 μs (sensorless mode, three-phase PM
synchronous motor) allowing the STM32 to perform
other tasks than motor control in the application.
Field-Orientation in Sensorless Torque Control – PMSM
V
abc
i
abc s
i
aß s
V
aß s
V
qs
V
ds
i
qs
i
ds
i
qs
*
i
ds
*
Reverse park
and circle
limitation
Park Clarke
Sensorless
rotor position
observer
3-phase
inverter
PMSM motor
CALC
SVPWM
PID
PID
3-shunt
current
reading
r el
r el
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Vector Control Drive
• Theory
• Changing reference coordinates from fixed
stator coils to the moving rotor frame greatly
simplifies the equation describing the motor
• Method
• Clark and Park transformations convert
variables with fixed 3-axis, 120º shifted
coordinates into 2-axis orthogonal rotating
coordinates
• These last variables are DC, or slowly varying
values, which can be regulated by means of
simple PID controllers and then transformed
back to the fixed stator windings frame using
reverse transforms, as shown in the diagram
above
• Requirements
• Intensive math computations (trigonometric
functions, multiple PID regulators, speed
calculation)
• Minimum resolution of 16 bits for the main
control variables, with a need for 32-bit
intermediate results, such as integral terms
• Free CPU load must be kept for the remaining
applicative tasks, such as communication and
user interface
STM32 Safety Features for Greater
Control Robustness
Features
• Safety critical registers can be locked to prevent
power stage damage (software runaway)
• Deadtime, PWM output polarity, emergency
input enable
• All target registers are read/write until lock
activation (and then read-only if protected)
• Once the two lock bits are written, they cannot
be modified until next MCU reset
(write-once bits)
• If main clock fails, an internal RC oscillator
(FREEOSC, ~5 MHz average frequency) starts
immediately
• Interrupt can be generated for shut-down or
safe restart sequences
• Dual watchdog architecture with independent
clock sources
• Embedded reset circuitry (power-on reset,
power-down reset, programmable voltage
detector)
• Emergency stop dedicated input pin with
programmable state
Benefits
• Strengthens control algorithm to protect motor
operation from external disturbance
• Protects safety-critical registers in case of
system hang
• Quick error diagnosis and fault management
• Hardware protection of power stage whatever
the status of MCU oscillator
• Safety hardware features to comply with
IEC60335-1 norm
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STM32 MCU Family
STM32 dedicated peripherals for 3-phase
brushless motor control
PWM timer features
• Motor control timer clock
• Maximum input clock is 72 MHz to provide
13.9 ns edge resolution (12-bit
@
16 kHz
edge-aligned PWM)
• Double-update mode
• No loss of resolution in center-aligned mode
• Done thanks to an additional interrupt per
PWM cycle or DMA transfers
• Burst mode
• Possibility to update several registers of the
peripheral using a single DMA stream
• Programmable reload rate
• Versatile PWM output management
• Individually selectable polarities
• Redirection circuitry for 6-step drives
• Programmable hardware deadtime generation
• 8-bit register with 13.9 ns resolution at 72 MHz
Dual ADC features
• Dual ADC with simultaneous conversion mode
• 12-bit resolution
• Down to 1 µs conversion time
• Up to 16 channels, plus internal temperature
sensor and Vref
• External and internal trigger
(including PWM timer)
• Versatile channel sequencer
Inverter
V
α
V
β
I
α
6x PWM
Fault
α, β
a,b
I
a
I
b
V
bus
10-bit 3 µs
A/D
converter
SV
PWM
I
a
Speed/position
feedback timer
α,β
d,q
α,β
d,q
V
a
V
b
V
c
I
b
I
β
PWM timer
s
m
From block diagram to implementation
Total execution time of the field-oriented control in sensorless mode for PMSM motor is 24 µs –
total CPU load at 10 kHz sampling time is below 25 % – code size is less than 14 Kbytes.

Software

Hardware
STM32
r
r
r
r
Sensorless
estimation
r
Motor
T
E
H
T: Tachogenerator
E: Encoder
H: Hall sensors
6-channel
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• DMA capable
• Programmable sampling rate
Benefits
• Suitable for three-phase brushless PMSM or AC
induction motors
• Sensor and sensorless configurations
Speed feedback
• Handled by the general-purpose timers
• Encoder and Hall sensors can be handled by
general-purpose timers
STM3210B-MCKIT
Run your motor in just a few steps
In just a few minutes, you can run the kit’s PM
synchronous motor with the standalone demo,
in torque-control or speed-control mode, using
the LCD and the joystick on the STM3210B-EVAL
control board.
You can then fine tune or change many parameters
using the LCD user interface and run the PM
synchronous motor, or an induction motor:
• Real-time tuning of torque, flux and speed PIDs
• B-EMFs observer gains tuning (for sensorless
control)
• Variation of target speed (speed control) or
target torque and flux (torque control)
• Bus-voltage and power-stage temperature
monitoring
• Selection of variables to put on output for DAC
functionality implementation
You can apply changes to real-time settings to tune
the drive parameters on-the-fly and get feedback
values from the changed settings. Once familiar
with the demo, you will be able to explore our motor
control library that supports FOC (field-oriented
control) drive of PMSM and induction motors. The
library sources are free upon request, and help
speed up development of motor control applications.
With the free 32 Kbyte evaluation version of IAR’s
EWARM, you just open the libraries, develop the
application, fine tune the code and parameters
and compile. You can fine tune the application
while running the motor thanks to the real-time
debugging capability of the Segger J-Link.
Application-Specific Requirements
Using the same hardware and firmware platform,
you may incorporate application-specific
requirements by taking advantage of the STM3210B-
EVAL control board and the inverter board extension
features (USART/LIN port, standalone operation
potentiometer, wrapping area).
Class B Compliancy – How Do We Help?
Two key features help compliance with the EN/
IEC60335-1 norm: the dual watchdog architecture
and the internal clock circuitry. In order to make
certification even simpler with the STM32, a set of
self-test routines has been developed to fulfill most
of table H11.12.7 requirements. These routines have
been certified by the VDE, a worldwide recognised
test institute, and do not need to be re-evaluated if
left unchanged.
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S T M 3 2 M o t o r C o n t r o l
PMSM F O C v e r 1 . 0
Sensorless Demo
S p e e d c o n t r o l m o d e
T a r g e t M e a s u r e d
0 1 5 0 0 ( r p m ) 0 1 5 1 2
M o v e C h a n g e
Start LCD menu –
speed control demo
Speed control can be
modified during run-time
using joystick
S T M 3 2 M o t o r C o n t r o l
PMSM F O C v e r 1 . 0
Sensorless Demo
T o r q u e c o n t r o l m o d e
Target Measured
I q 0 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
S p e e d ( r p m ) 0 0 0 0 0
M o v e C h a n g e
S T M 3 2 M o t o r C o n t r o l
PMSM F O C v e r 1 . 0
T o r q u e
D
0 8 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0
0 4 5 0 0 (Iq)
M e a s u r e d 0 0 0 0 0 (Iq)
M o v e C h a n g e
Torque control demo –
Iq and Id parameters

can be adjusted
PID regulators can be adjusted
during run-time
S T M 3 2 M o t o r C o n t r o l
PMSM F O C v e r 1 . 0
Sensorless Demo
S p e e d c o n t r o l m o d e
T a r g e t M e a s u r e d
0 1 5 0 0 ( r p m ) 0 0 0 0 0
M o v e C h a n g e
P I

STM32 MCU Family
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Key Benefits
• Ready to run within minutes
(requires a power supply for the motor)
• Same hardware and firmware platform for
PMSM and induction three-phase motors
• Allows real-time control and monitoring
through a colour LCD and on-board push
buttons and joystick
• Segger/IAR JLink (included) Flash
programming and real-time debug capability
allows same hardware and firmware platform
to be used from evaluation to an advanced
development stage
• Bypass connector for external inverter
power-stage connection
Device summary
Motor Control Development Tools
Description Sales Type or Item
STM3210B MC library
Optimised, documented C firmware libraries for control of 3-phase PMSM or AC
induction brushless motors. In torque or speed control with STM32, sensor mode,
sensorless for PMSM. These are the standalone libraries of the STM3210B-MCKIT.
AI-JTAG/OPTO-1
The isolation board included in the STM3210B-MCKITcan also be ordered
separately. It provides galvanic isolation between the J-Link from Segger and any
high-voltage target board. The isolation board has two JTAG connectors (in/out).
Available from distributors and ST sales offices.
STM3210B-MCKIT
Demonstration, evaluation and development kit for STM32 includes firmware, LCD
user interface, STM3210B-EVAL board (control board), 7 A three-phase inverter
board, isolation board (AI-JTAG/OPTO-1), Segger J-Link debugger/programmer
and 24 VDC Shinano PMSM motor. Available from distributors and ST sales offices.
ST7MC-MOT/IND
240 V/800 W Selni 3-phase induction motor for use with STM3210B-MCKIT, the
STR750-MCKIT or with the ST7MC-KIT using induction motor default values
(for evaluation purposes).
STM32-library
Optimised and documented C firmware libraries
for control of both PMSM (sensor and sensorless
mode) and AC induction (sensor mode) brushless
motors are available upon request.
These modular libraries support both types of
motor in standalone mode using the hardware of
the STM3210B-MCKIT. The source files are provided
free of charge upon request. These libraries offer:
• Different current sensing methodologies
• Isolated current sensing
• Three shunt resistors with dual sample and hold
utilisation and advanced methodology for better
bus voltage exploitation
• Different rotor-position feedback
• Encoder (PMSM motor)
• Tachometer (AC motor)
• Hall sensors (60° and 120° placement)
• Sensorless (PMSM motor only)
119 118
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3.10 Texas Instruments
Texas Instruments – C2000TM Real-Time
Microcontrollers
The world is changing. Devices are getting smarter,
modern technology is spreading throughout the
globe, and advances are allowing us to reach new
heights like never before – all with an increased
focus on green energy and efficiency. But, that
doesn’t have to mean increased costs or longer
development cycles. With a 32-bit architecture,
advanced peripherals, analog integration, and
package sizes from 32 to 256 pins, the C2000™
MCU family enables real-time control in a variety
of applications. The C28x™ 32-bit core features a
single-cycle 32x32-bit hardware multiplier and
single-cycle atomic instruction execution. The
controlCARD-based tools and software libraries help
to dramatically shorten development time. Explore
our wide range of products and configurations to
find the perfect solution for your designs.
Texas Instruments Motor Control Solutions
TI provides a broad range of analog products,
digital controllers and software to precisely control
the position, velocity and torque of mechanical
drives. This guide provides motor control and drive
solutions for small drives including solenoids, DC
or brushless DC and steppers; and for larger drives
such as AC-open loop (inverters) and closed loop
(servo) systems that utilise much higher voltages,
typically hundreds of volts.
In addition to high-performance analog and
mixed-signal devices for a variety of motor control
applications, TI also offers high performance and
ultra-low-power microcontrollers to meet every
design challenge. TI’s C2000 microcontroller family
combines high-performance, real-time control
with the integration and ease of use of a MCU to
give you a powerful, single-chip solution for many
embedded applications including motor control.
C2000™ MCU Real-time Controller
As motor systems evolve with advanced features like
sensorless alternating current (AC) induction vector
control, ‘current-shaped’ switched-reluctance
control, and permanent magnet synchronous
motor (PMSM) field oriented control, motor control
designers are relying more and more on TI’s
TMS320C2000™ digital signal controllers and the
extensive suite of motor-control focused hardware
and software solutions to help them get their designs
to market faster with more customized features,
better performance and lower cost for virtually
any type of motor. C2000 controllers reduce the
overall cost of motor-control systems by providing
the integration and performance necessary to
implement advanced control techniques such as
sensorless vector control of three-phase motors.
Using the more processor-intensive vector control,
for example, allows developers to reduce the size
and cost of the motors and power electronics. With
C2000 controllers, developers can now capitalise
on the latest advancements in motor designs and
control techniques.
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Benefit
High Energy Efficiency via advanced Control
Overall System Performance Optimisation
Quicker Return on Investment
Easy System Interfacing
Feature
-Highly eIIicient 32-bit core to run real-time vector control
-0omputation speed Ior transient and dynamic control
-Ultra Fast 0n-chip A00 Ior key parameters monitoring
-Ultra Fast Ìnterrupt management
-0edicated 0n-0hip control interIaces
-Flexible 5W approach Ior 5ervo and A0 drives
-5calable PortIolio Irom low to high end Ior 5W development re-use

2
0, 0AN, 5PÌ, Uart peripherals
128-512 KB
Flash
52-68 KB
RAM
Boot
ROM
Memory Bus
Interrupt Management
C28x
TM
32-bit CPU
32 x 32-bit
Multiplier
32-bit
Timers (3)
Real Time
JTAG
R-M-W
Atomic
ALU
Optional
Floating
Point Unit
ePWM
eQEP
eCAP
Timers
ADC
Wachdog
GPIO
Up to 4 x SPI
Up to 2 x SCI
I
2
C
Up to
Dual CAN
P
e
r
i
p
h
e
r
a
l

B
u
s
TMS320F283xx, TMS320F2802xx
- ó0...300 MHz perIormance
- 5ame tools & 5W Irom low-end to high-end
- 0ompatibility Iixed and Floating-point
- A00: 12-bit, 1ó-ch, 12.5 M5P5
- Up to 512 kB on-chip Ilash
- Ì
2
0, 0AN, 5PÌ, UAT, McB5P
C2834x
- 300 MÌP5/ó00 MFL0P5
- 1ºó...51ó KB 5RAM
- 18 PWMs, ó HR PWMs
- 0AP, 0EP
- 25ó-B0A, 17º-B0A
2803 x
- ó0 MÌP5 + 0LA
- óó...128 KB Flash
- 1ó PWMs, ó HR PWMs
- 1ó-ch, 12-bit A00
- 0AP, 0EP
- 5ingle 3.3 V 5upply
- óó-0FP, 80-0FP
Next 0en.
Next 0en.
F2802 x
- ó0...ó0 MÌP5
- 32...óó KB Flash
- 8 PWMs, ó HR PWMs
- 13-ch, 12-bit A00
- 0AP, 00MP, 050
- 5ingle 3.3 V 5upply
- 38-T550P, ó8-0FP
F2833 x
- 150 MÌP5/300MFL0P5
- 1ºó...512 KB Flash
- 18 PWMs, ó HR PWMs
- 1ó-ch, 12-bit A00
- 0AP, 0EP
- 5ingle 3.3 V 5upply
- 17ó-0FP, 17ó-/17º-B0A
F281 x
- 150 MÌP5
- 128...25ó KB Flash
- 1ó PWMs
- 1ó-ch, 12-bit A00
- 0AP, 0EP
- 128-0FP, 17ó-0FP,
17º-B0A
F280 x
- ó0...100 MÌP5
- 32...25ó KB Flash
- 1ó PWMs, ó HR PWMs
- 1ó-ch, 12-bit A00
- 0AP, 0EP
- 100-0FP, 100-B0A
F2832 x
- 150 MÌP5
- 1ºó...512 KB Flash
- 18 PWMs, ó HR PWMs
- 1ó-ch, 12-bit A00
- 0AP, 0EP
- 17ó-0FP,
17ó-/17º-B0A
P
e
r
I
o
r
m
a
n
c
e
0evice
Production
5ampling
0evelopment
Future
Floating Point
5eries
5amples - March 0º
Piccolo
TM
5eries
5amples - May 0º
M0U Ior Real-Time 0ontrol
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The Engineers of Distribution.
Piccolo™ 32-Bit Microcontrollers:
Small Package, Big Performance
The new TMS320F2802x/F2803x Piccolo family of
C2000 MCUs provides a low-cost, high-integration
solution to help drive processor intensive real-
time control into cost sensitive applications. Initial
F2802x/F2803x devices will include 40...60 MHz
variations and up to 128 KB of flash memory
along with a host of integrated modules such
as a powerful ADC, dedicated high-resolution
PWMs, high-precision on-chip oscillators, analog
comparators, power-on reset, and brown-out
protection. A floating-point Control Law Accelerator
(CLA) can run control loops independent of the core.
Available in multiple package options starting at 38
pins, the Piccolo family is the ultimate combination
of performance, integration, size and low cost.
www.ti.com/piccolo
• Analog integration reduces system cost and
simplifies design Piccolo has integrated on-chip
V
REG
, BOR/POR, and analog comparators
• Enhanced control peripherals
• ADC with JIT sampling support
• Enhanced PWM with peak-to-peak current
control and cycle-by-cycle protection
• High-res PWM for high-frequency PFC or
auxiliary P/S control
• Performance and resources for execution of
multiple tasks on Piccolo B
• Motor control + PFC + system supervisory tasks
• Motor control + vibration noise reduction +
system supervisory tasks
• Multiple motor control + system supervisory
tasks
• Dual on-chip oscillator supports IEC60730
compliance without requiring external clock
source
High-performance
C28x CPU
• Up to 60 MHz performance
• Single cycle 32-bit MAC
• Fast interrupt response
and minimal latency
C28x 32-bitCPU
60 MHz
32 x 32-bit Multiplier
RMW Atomic ALU
Memory
64...128 KB Flash
20 KB ROM
Boot ROM
Debug
Real-Time JTAG
Power & Clocking
Dual OSC
10 MHz
Power on
Reset
Single
3.3 V
Supply
Brown Out
Reset
Enhanced
Architecture
• High accuracy on-chip
oscillators (10 MHz)
• Single 3.3 V supply with
BOR/POR supervision
Intelligent Peripherals
• 150 ps resolution on PWM
frequency & duty cycle
• 12-bit ratio-metric ADC
with individual channel
triggers
• Up to 3 x analog
comparators
with 10-bit reference
Peripheral Bus
Peripherals
Analog Modules
Timer Modules
Serial Interfaces
SPI
x 2
SCI
CAN
LIN
I
2
C
12-bit, 13/16-ch
Up to 4.6 MSPS
ADC
Comparators
Up to 3 x
ePWM x 7
(5 HR PWM
+ 9 PWM)
eQEP x 1
eCAP x 1
*Available on „Piccolo“ F2803x series
Note: ee detailed block diagram for device variations
Piccolo™ – Unique combination of performance and integration for real-time control
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The Control Law Accelerator (Piccolo B) ‘Turbo-
Charge’ performance leveraging significantly
reduced Sample-To-Output Delay & Jitter.
Delfino™ Microcontrollers: Floating-Point
Development at Your Finger Tips
With the Delfino microcontroller, TI offers two
flavors of floating-point MCUs with unparalleled
performance. F2833x devices operate at 150 MHz
with 300 MFLOPS of performance. The F283xx
MCUs offer a 50 percent performance boost,
on average, over current C2000 MCUs while
operating at the same 150-MHz clock rate. Built
on the standard C28x MCU architecture, they are
100 percent software compatible with all current
F28xx MCUs. The new C2834x Delfino MCUs push
the limits even further, offering 600 MFLOPS of
performance. The C2834x platform allows up to
52 percent code reduction and 70 percent reduction
in memory access time over current C2000 MCUs.
Additionally, the high-resolution PWM offers 65-ps
resolution. New speeds enable greater intelligence
and efficiency in high-end real-time control
applications. www.ti.com/delfino
Overview of digital motor control system
for Brushless DC and Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motor
Texas instruments offer a wide variety of
Microcontrollers and analog components to
implement a digital motor control system. Our
portfolio of microcontrollers offers devices that can
meet different performance points at competitive
pricing and allows the customers to scale up or
down on their design while maintaining the software
compatibility among the devices.
This article covers the fundamentals of
implementing a digital motor system for
synchronous motors, which are usually called
Brushless DC Motors (BLDC) but can also be called
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM),
depending of their construction and control
technique used. The feature distinguishing PMSM
motors from BLDC motors is the shape of the back-
emf waveform generated by spinning the rotor.
Synchronous motors, both BLDC and PMSM, have
no commutators. With none of the problems linked
to commutators, these motors are durable, robust
efficient and quiet. They are also very efficient,
delivering high torque even at zero speed. On the
other hand there are some limitations at high-
speeds. With sinusoidal control, smooth and very
efficient operation is achieved. With sinusoidal
control, smooth and very efficient operation is
achieved by using a much more complex control
scheme than for DC motors.
Some of the features of the BLDC motors are:
• No brush noise, fast, efficient, durable, robust,
easy to cool
• Synchronous
• High efficiency
• Linear current/torque
• More reliable than DC Motor (‘inside out’ design)
• Good for combustible environment
Typical applications for BLDC motors are:
• PC fans
• Automotive Fans
• Small motors
• Servo Drives
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• Automotive applications
(e.g. electrical power steering)
• Fuel pumps
• Air conditioning (HVAC)
• Compressors
Similar to DC motors, regulating a synchronous
motor usually means maintaining a torque, a speed
and/or a position. However, the control scheme is
different as we need a three phase inverter driven
by 6 PMW signals. The control feedback is typically
a hall-effect sensor, absolute encoder or resolver
in order to get position information. Sensorless
control is possible, based upon Back-emf
information for trapezoidal control and measured
terminal currents/voltages for sinusoidal control.
Synchronous Motor Examples
Magnetic circuits of the synchronous machines
with permanent magnets differ from one type
of motor to another depending largely upon the
mechanical construction. The physical disposition
of the magnets is determined by the performance
and other design goals.
Among the numerous solutions which exist, we find
most often:
• Non-salient rotor poles: in this case magnets
are attached such that the magnets are flux with
the cylindrical surface of the rotor. The magnetic
field is radial in this case.
• Salient rotor poles: In this case the magnets
are placed in the slots inside the rotor, and this
type of construction is found in so-called flux
concentration machine, owing to the nature of
the flux generated.
The figure below shows the construction of different
type of synchronous motor.

BLDC versus PMSM
Permanent magnet synchronous motors can
be classified in many ways, one of these that is
of particular interest to us is that depending on
back-emf profiles: Brushless Direct Current Motor
(BLDC) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
(PMSM). This terminology defines the shape of the
back-emf of the synchronous motor. Both BLDC
and PMSM motors have permanent magnets on the
rotor but differ in the flux distributions and back-
emf profiles. To get the best performance out of the
synchronous motor, it is important to identify the
type of motor in order to apply the most appropriate
type of control.
The figure below shows the back emf pattern for
BLDC and PMSM motors.

N
Ω
N
a) b)
c)
a) non-salient rotor pole (p = 1)
b) non-salient rotor pole (p = 2)
c) salient roto pole (p = 2)
N S
S N
Ω
N
Ω
S
S S
Synchronous Motor Rotation Construction
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In summary both BLDC and PMSM motors are
synchronous machines.
• The only difference between them is the shape
of the induced voltage, resulting from two
different manners of wiring the stator coils. The
back-emf is trapezoidal in the BLDC motor case,
and sinusoidal in the PMSM motor case.
• BLDC machines could be driven with sinusoidal
currents and PMSM with direct currents, but
for better performance, PMSM motors should
be excited by sinusoidal currents and BLDC
machines by direct currents.
• The control structure (hardware and software)
of a sinusoidal motor required several current
sensors and sinusoidal phase currents were
hard to achieve with analog techniques.
Therefore many motors (sinusoidal like
trapezoidal) were driven with direct current
for cost and simplicity reasons (low resolution
position sensors and single low cost current
sensor), compromising efficiency and dynamic
behavior.
• Digital techniques addressed by the C2000
family of MCUs make it possible to choose the
right control technique for each motor type:
Processing power is used to extract the best
performance wfrom the machine and reduce
system costs. Possible options are using
sensorless techniques to reduce the sensor
cost, or even eliminate it, and also complex
algorithms can help simplify the mechanical
drive train design, lowering the system cost.
Types of Motor Control
The two types of motor control are scalar control
and vector control.
Scalar control is the most simple control approach
for asynchronous induction machines. This control
strategy is very popular, easy to implement and

A
B
C
A
B
C
F
F
N
S
Phase A
Hall A
Phase B
Hall B
Phase C
Hall C

30°
60°
90°
120°
150°
180°
210°
240°
270°
300°
330°
360°
30°
60°
90°
 e
 e
 e
E?
Back EMF of BLDC Motor
1.50
1.00
0.50
0.00
-0.50
-1.00
-1.50
24 47 70 93 116 130 162 185 208 231 254 277 300 323 348
• Both (typically) have permanent-magnet rotor
and a wound stator
• BLDC (Brushless DC) motor is a permanent-magnet brushless
motor with trapezoidal back EMF
• PMSM (Permanent-magnet synchronous motor) is a permanent-magnet
brushless motor with sinusoidal back EMF
Back EMF of PMSM
Synchronous machine classification:
BLDC and PMSM
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well suited for very low cost and low performance
applications. In this case the command law is
very basic: we simply try to follow a speed profile
maintaining the ratio voltage versus frequency
constant (V/Hz = const). This control can either be
closed loop or open loop.
With open loop control, we assume that the load is
well known and that there are either no transients
that are significant, or that their effect can be
ignored. Obviously accuracy is limited with open
loop control. If the performance and accuracy are
important a speed sensor is used to sense the
speed and correct for any variations. However, due
to limitations on the motor response the controller
must necessarily be slow, and this technique leads
to a quite poor dynamic performance, which may
not meet design goals.
Vector Control
Vector control, also called Field Oriented Control,
allows designers to fulfill all the “ideal” control
requirements. Having information on all the
system parameters, such as phase current and
bus voltage, allows us to deliver the appropriate
power at the right moment made possible by the
real-time control and high MIPS available on TI
microcontrollers.
3-Phase
Inverter
PWM
Command
V/f profile
V
f
Speed scaler
PI
Speed calculator
PWM1
PWM2
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM6
+



x
+ Simple to implement: All you need is three sine waves feeding the motor
+ Position information not required (optional)
– Doesn't deliver good dynamic performance
– Torque delivery not optimised for all speeds
Scalar Control Scheme Limitations
Synchronous Motor Operation: Theory
• Synchronous motor construction: Permanent
magnets are rigidly fixed to the rotating axis
to create a constant rotor flux. This rotor flux
usually has a constant magnitude. The stator
windings when energised create a rotating
electromagnetic field. To control the rotating
magnetic field, it is necessary to control the
stator currents.
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• The actual structure of the rotor varies
depending on the power range and rated
speed of the machine. Permanent magnets are
suitable for synchronous machines ranging up-
to a few Kilowatts. For higher power ratings the
rotor usually consists of windings in which a DC
current circulates. The mechanical structure
of the rotor is designed for number of poles
desired, and the desired flux gradients desired.
• The interaction between the stator and rotor
fluxes produces a torque. Since the stator is
firmly mounted to the frame, and the rotor is
free to rotate, the rotor will rotate, producing a
useful mechanical output.
• The angle between the rotor magnetic field
and stator field must be carefully controlled
to produce maximum torque and achieve high
electromechanical conversion efficiency.
• The rotating stator field must rotate at the same
frequency as the rotor permanent magnetic
field; otherwise the rotor will experience
rapidly alternating positive and negative torque.
This will result in less than optimal torque
production, and excessive mechanical vibration,
noise, and mechanical stresses on the machine
parts. In addition, if the rotor inertia prevents
the rotor from being able to respond to these
oscillations, the rotor will stop rotating at the
synchronous frequency, and respond to the
average torque as seen by the stationary rotor:
Zero. This means that the machine experiences
a phenomenon known as ‘pull-out’. This is also
the reason why the synchronous machine is not
self starting.
• The angle between the rotor field and the stator
field must be equal to 90º to obtain the highest
mutual torque production. This synchronization
requires knowing the rotor position in order to
generate the right stator field.
• The stator magnetic field can be made to have
any direction and magnitude by combining
the contribution of different stator phases to
produce the resulting stator flux.
A
B
C
A
B
C
N
S
F
F
S
N
Rotor field
Stator field
• Rotor is carrying a constant magnetic field created
either by permanent magnets or current fed coils.
• The interaction between the rotating stator flux,
and the rotor flux produces a torque which will
cause the motor to rotate.
• The rotation of the rotor in this case will be at the same exact frquency as the applied exitation
to the rotor.
• This is synchronous operation.
Rotor speed (rad/s): Ω =

p
gives 60 f p (rpm)
f: AC supply frequency (Hz)
p: motor poles pair per phase
• Example: a 2 poles pair synchronous motor
will run at 1500 rpm for a 50 Hz AC
supply frequency
Synchronous motor operation: theory
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• Wound rotor synchronous machines: in the
above explanation the rotor magnetic field is
produced by permanent magnets. For cost and/
or mechanical power density reasons, the rotor
magnetic flux can be produced by energising
electrical coils mounted on the rotor (replacing
the permanent magnets) thanks to a separate
current source connected to the rotor via slip
rings - which are a brush arrangement.
• The wound rotor synchronous machine can also
be started as an induction machine, such that an
external starting mechanism is not needed.
Torque production condition
As seen previously in the three-phase winding
system, these three windings carry three currents
as described in the equations below:
The instantaneous electromagnetic power can be
defined as follows :
The average value of this instantaneous power and
also of the electromagnetic torque is different from
zero only if the following condition is true:
This equation captures the essence of the fact that
this machine can only produce a useful torque
output, if the rotor speed equals the speed of the
rotating magnetic field. (Ignoring of course, the
high frequency alternating torque, produced at the
synchronous frequency, which is largely damped
out by the inertia of the machine itself.) In order
to study and to build a model of the synchronous
motor, we use a simplified equivalent electrical
scheme for a single winding. The same model can
then be applied to the other phases.
The figure below shows the electromechanical
parameters for a synchronous motor.
e
stator
u
L
i
v I
u
L
E
S
V
• Simplified equivalent electrical
scheme of a widing of a three
phases synchronous motor
Note: stator resistance neglected

em
=
3 VI cos 
Ω

em
: electromechanical torque (Nm)
V: phase voltage (V)
I: phase current (I)
Ω: motor rotation speed (rad/S)
Synchronous motor
electromechanical
parameters
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Brushless DC Motor: Trapezoidal Control
In the case of a BLDC trapezoidal control, two
phases are always ON at the same time. The goal of
the BLDC control is to inject DC current into the two
phases for which the back-emf can be considered
as constant. This back-emf depends on the rotor
position compared to the stator windings. For a
complete electrical revolution, (360 degrees) we
distinguish six areas corresponding to 6 different
combinations of back-emf. A change from one
energising zone to another determines a switching
instant, meaning a moment when we need to
commutate from one pair of energised phases
to another. This determines the power switches
that need to be driven and therefore the PWM
command.
In order to determine the pair of power switches
(called IGBT’s for the rest of the discussion) that
needs to be active, one of the requirements is to
have the commutation trigger information. In the
case of a sensored BLDC control, this information
can be extracted using simple Hall Effect sensors.
These sensors also give us speed information to
implement the speed regulation loop. To control
the torque delivered by the motor, we need to
sense the current information to regulate the PWM
duty-cycle: the higher it is be the more energy we
transfer to the motor.
Therefore, for such control, we distinguish two
regulation loops:
• One speed loop
• One current loop
A
B
C
i
a
i
b
V
CN
N
Phase A
Phase B
Phase C

30°
60°
90°
120°
150°
180°
210°
240°
270°
300°
330°
360°
30°
60°
90°
 e
 e
 e
V
WM
AB AC BC BA CA CB AB
1 2 3 4 5 6 1
3 phases BLDC
star connection with
central point N
Two of the three phases are always energised,
while the third phase is turned off.
Switching instant are linked to rotor position
need for precise position sensing/evaluation of
30°, 90°, 150°, 210°, positions
BLDC control strategy
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The Engineers of Distribution.
The typical HW structure of the BLDC sensored control can be depicted as following:
Sensored BLDC System Block Diagram

Timers
and PWM
Compare
Units
Capture
Units
ADC
PWM1
PWM2
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM6
CAP1
CAP2
CAP3
ADCIN0
Three-phase
BLDC machine
PWM1
PWM2
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM6
Signal
Condotioning
DC Shunt
V
DO
CAP1
CAP2
CAP3
0/120/240°
position information
(e.g. Hall sensors)

+
DC Bus
TMS320F/C2000 DSP
A
B
C
As two phases are conducting at the same time, we
can simply sense the line-current delivered at the
output of the DC-bus capacitor. Using a shunt or a
simple resistor with some signal conditioning, we
implement a signal conversion chain connected to
one input of the on-chip Analog to Digital converter,
the capture input being used for the hall-effect
sensor information. The PWM status of the 6 PWM
outputs used to drive the legs of the power bridge
will change according to the position feedback
information.
Sensorless Motor Control System
In order to reduce the total system cost, it is
possible to implement sensorless BLDC control
suppressing the need for Hall Effect position
sensors. In a true ‘sensor less’ control scheme,
the shaft sensor is removed and the control of the
motor accomplished solely by monitoring individual
phase voltages. In this scheme, position of the
rotor shaft is not measured – it must be estimated
indirectly by the measurement of terminal voltages.
We measure the back-emf of the ‘off’ phase and we
detect the zero crossing of this back-emf. Since the
zero crossing of the back-emf occurs 30° before
the phase switching it is easy to deduce the next
switching instant.
The speed is estimated from the zero crossing
information (we know the time elapsed during
Sensored BLDC Motor Control System Block Diagram
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The Engineers of Distribution.
two back-emf zero crossings and we know the
mechanical angle difference from a given pole
pairs). Again a lot of documentation is available in
addition to easy to use software. The System block
diagram for sensor-less control can now be shown
as follows:
The single current shunt provides the DC-bus
current feedback for the current loop. For the
position and speed loop we use three shunts to
measure the phase voltages. There are other
issues that need to be addressed, such as the start-
up procedure (is an open loop procedure needed
or not), first commutations instants, computation
phase of phase imbalances and so on. The sample
software implementation and documentation can
be found on the TI Digital Motor Control Library web
page, under the name ‘PMSM3_1’.

Timers
and PWM
Compare
Units
Capture
Units
ADC
PWM1
PWM2
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM6
CAP1
CAP2
CAP3
Three-phase
BLDC machine
PWM1
PWM2
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM6
Signal
Condotioning
DC Shunt
V
DO

+
DC Bus
TMS320F/C2000 DSP
ADCIN1-3
ADCIN0
ADCIN0
A
B
C
Field Oriented Control Theory
In order to understand the Field Oriented Control
technique (FOC), let us start with an overview of the
separately excited direct current (DC) Motor.
In this type of motor, the excitation for the stator and
rotor is independently controlled. Electrical study of
the DC motor shows that the produced torque and
the flux can be independently tuned. The strength
of the field excitation (i.e. the magnitude of the
field excitation current) sets the value of the flux.
The current through the rotor windings determines
how much torque is produced.The commutator on
the rotor plays an interesting part in the torque
production. The commutator is in contact with
the brushes, and the mechanical construction is
designed to switch into the circuit the windings
that are mechanically aligned to produce the
Sensorless Trapezoidal BLDC Motor Control System Block Diagram
131 130
The Engineers of Distribution.
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The Engineers of Distribution.
maximum torque. This arrangement then means
that the torque production of the machine is fairly
near optimal all the time. The key point is that the
windings are managed to keep the flux produced
by the rotor windings orthogonal to the stator field.
On the synchronous machine, the rotor excitation is
given by the permanent magnets mounted onto the
shaft. On the asynchronous motor, the only source
of power and magnetic field is the stator phase
voltage.
Field Oriented Control Approach on
Three-Phase Motors
The goal of the Field Oriented Control (also called
Vector control) on synchronous (PMSM type) and
asynchronous machine is to be able to separately
control the torque producing and magnetizing flux
components. The control technique goal is to (in a
sense), imitate the DC motor’s operation.
According to the electromagnetic laws depicted
in the second chapter, the torque produced in the
synchronous machine is equal to vector cross
product of the two existing magnetic fields:
A
B
C
A
B
C
F
F
N
S
q = 90°
Back EMF (v)
Stator Current (ls)
T = constant
t
t
t
+ Reduced torque ripple
+ Better dynamic response
– Need rotor position info
Maintain the
’load angle’ at 90°!
T = Bs . Br . sin (θ), where T is the torque, Bs is
stator flux and Br is rotor flux.
This expression shows that the torque is maximum
when stator and rotor magnetic fields are orthogonal
meaning if we are to maintain the load at 90 degrees.
If we are able to ensure this condition all the time,
if we are able to orient the flux correctly, we reduce
the torque ripple and we ensure a better dynamic
response. However, the constraint is to know the
rotor position: this can be achieved with an absolute
encoder for instance, or an encoder that gives us
at least one pulse for every mechanical revolution.
For low-cost application where the rotor is not
accessible, we can apply different rotor position
observer strategies.
Why Vector Control?
FOC control will allow us to get around these
limitations, by decoupling the effect of the torque
and the magnetising flux. With decoupled control
of the magnetisation, the torque producing
component of the stator flux can now be thought
of as independent torque control. Now, decoupled
control, at low speeds, the magnetisation can be
maintained at the proper level, and the torque can
be controlled to regulate the speed.
To decouple the torque and flux, it is necessary
to engage several mathematical transforms, and
this is where the DSP adds the most value. The
processing capability provided by the DSP can
enables these mathematical transformations to
be carried out very quickly. This in turn means that
the entire algorithm controlling the motor in this
manner can be executed at a high rate, enabling
Vector Control Concepts
131 130
The Engineers of Distribution.
131 130
The Engineers of Distribution.
high dynamic performance. In addition to the
decoupling, a dynamic model of the motor is now
used for the computation of many quantities such
as rotor flux angle and rotor speed. This means that
their effect is accounted for, and the overall quality
of control is higher.
To summarise, FOC control enables direct control
of the torque magnitude, which enables better
dynamic performance.
FOC control scheme for a PMSM
The figure above presents a typical field oriented
control regulation scheme for PMSM.
Compared to the V/Hz control, we can see that a few
new modules are added: we have a forward loop
sending PWM commands to the inverter, a feedback
current control loop based on sensing phase
currents and a speed loop control built around a
speed sensor. The key mathematical components
that allow us to build the FOC scheme are the ‘Park’
transformation, and the ‘Clark’ transformation.
Park T Clarke T
3-phase
Inverter
Space
Vector
PWM
D,Q
d,q
D,Q
d,q
Park T
-1
Field Weakening
Controller
Speed
Calculator
PI PI
PI


†: i
c
calculated, i
a
+
i
b
+ i
r
= 0
q
r
i
c

i
a
i
b
i
d
i
q
q
r
I
Q
I
D
d,q
a,b,c
+



r
+

+

PWM1
PWM2
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM6
V
Q
x
V
D
x
I
Q
x
I
D
x

x V
q
x
V
d
x
Some key mathematical components are required!
Park Transform
The PARK transform is a simple rotational
transform. Obviously this transformation needs a
significant number of mathematical calculations
involving sines, multiplications, and additions.
Due to the availability of new control processor
technologies it becomes now possible to use this
transformation in a real-time control application,
running at a high rate.
The figure below shows the key components of
Park transform.

(V
S
) =
V
S1
V
S2
V
S3
• (V
S
): voltage vector applied
to motor stator (index s)
• Park transformation is a referential change
V
S1
V
S2
V
S3
cos
s
cos
s
cos
s
2
3
4
3
– )
– )
-sin
s
-sin
s
-sin
s
2
3
4
3
– )
– )
1
1
1
=
V
sd
V
sg
V
so
V
s1
V
s2
V
s3
V
sd
V
sg
V
so
V
sd
V
sg
V
so
V
s1
V
s2
V
s3
P(
s
) = = P(
s
) and =
-1
V
so
= 0
V
s2
V
sg
V
sd V
s3

s
= 
s1
V
s1
V
so
= 0
V
s2
V
sg
V
sd V
s3

s
= 
s1
V
s1
V
s1
+ V
s2
+ V
s3
= 0 (tri-phases balanced system)
V
sd
- V
sq
= O
V
sd
- V
so
= 0
V
sq
- V
so
= 0
• (V
sd
, V
sq
, V
so
,

) are calles the Park coordinates
• V
sd
: direct Park component
• V
sq
: squaring Park component
• V
so
: homopolar Park component
• V
so
is null for a three-phases balanced system
• Each pair of vomponent is perpendicular to each other
FOC Control Scheme for a PMSM
PARK Transform (1929): General Theory
PARK Transform Key Components
133 132
The Engineers of Distribution.
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The Engineers of Distribution.
PARK coordinates will play an important role in the
FOC control from a regulation point of view.
The diagram below shows the application of Park
transform on three phase sinusoidal volatage.
Clarke Transform
The normalised PARK can be seen as the result of
the combination of the CLARKE transform combined
with a rotation. Literature sometimes refers to
PARK in this way: this is the case of the TI Digital
Motor Control library. This gives an intermediate
step that helps to build the regulation scheme.
2
3
V
s1
V
s2
V
s3
P(
s
) = (V) = =
V cos (
s
t + 
V cos (
s
t - +
V cos

(
s
t - +
4
3
;
V
sd
V
sq
V
so
V
s1
V
s2
V
s3
V
sd
=
√ V cos 
V
sq
=
√ V sin 
V
so
= 0
(
s
= 
s
t)
3
2
3
2
• In a steady sinusoidal rating, Park coorinates are constant
when we take stator angle as synchronous angle
• We move from rotating to stationary domain
• We apply Park to the particular case of a steady sinusoidal rating
V
so
= 0
V
3
V
q
V
d

s
= 
s
t
V
1
= V

V
2
V

Clarke
V

= V
1
V

=
2V
2
+ V
1
√3
cos(
s
)
-sin(
s
)
V
d
V
q
=
sin(
s
)
cos(
s
)
.
V

V

+
Rotation
• General PARK transform is usually split in CLARKE transform and
one rotation
• CLARKE converts balanced three phase quantities into balanced
two phase orthogonal quantities
PARK TRANSFORM
We start from a three-phase balanced system
that we first transform in a two-phase balanced
system: this is the role of the CLARKE transform
that defines a two-phase stationary frame (α, β)
that fixes at the stator. As demonstrated in the
chapter 3, ACI machine equation used to build the
ACI equivalent model handles variables all pulsing
at ωS. If we ‘seat’ on the rotating frame (d, q) then
we see stationary variables. This is the role of the
θS angle rotation that allows us to move from the
rotating domain to the stationary domain = PARK
Transform.
In the next equation, PARK transform will be used
in ‘one-piece’ already including the
CLARKE transform effect.
Combining the CLARKE and PARK transforms
as defined above, we move from the three phase
rotating domain to the stationary domain: we just
need to control DC quantities in real-time.

V
1
V
2
V
3
V

V

V
d
V
q
Park
Clarke
Three phase
rotating domain
Two phase
rotating domain
Stationary domain
i
so
= 0
d

s
= 
s
t


i
s1
i
s3
i
s2
q
i
sq
i
s
i
sd
• Stator phase current
example: I
s
is moving at 
s
and its PARK coordinates are
constant (d,q) rotating frame
• Can be applied on any three-
phase balanced variables (flux...)
PARK on sinusoidal voltage steady distribution for ACI machine
Practical vector PARK representation on three-phases
sinusoidal distribution
PARK transform effect summary
133 132
The Engineers of Distribution.
133 132
The Engineers of Distribution.
Using these results, we will now apply the PARK
transform on the asynchronous machine electrical
equivalent circuit in order to reach the FOC goal,
which is to decouple flux and torque, by using the
rotor flux angle in PARK transformation.
PMSM FOC Control Strategy
As discussed earlier the FOC control is applicable
to both synchronous and asynchronous machines.
The study that we did on the asynchronous machine
is also valid for the synchronous machine meaning
that starting from the equivalent electrical model,
we can apply the PARK transform in order to find
the new decoupled equation that we need. As a
result the FOC regulation scheme for PMSM is
fairly similar to the asynchronous machine one. As
the rotor is always aligned with the excited poles
on the stator, we have no slip and we do not need a
current _model block.
The goal is to maintain the rotor and stator flux in
quadrature: the goal is to align the stator flux with
the q axis of the rotor flux, i.e. orthogonal to the
rotor flux. To do this the stator current component
in quadrature with the rotor flux is controlled to
generate the commanded torque, and the direct
component is set to zero. The direct component of
the stator current, can be used in some cases for
field weakening, which has the effect of opposing
the rotor flux and reducing the back-emf, which
allows for operation at higher speeds.
The figure below shows the flow for a FOC control
of PMSM motor.
For the control of the synchronous machine, it is
critical to know the rotor position at any time.
This is achieved either by using sensors, that give
position information, or it is also possible to run
observers that will predict the rotor position, based
on terminal voltages and currents.
Space Vector PWM
In all of the control schemes we have looked at,
the stimulus or the means of influencing the
motor currents in each case is voltage applied to
the motor terminals. These voltages deliver the
required voltage and frequency to run the motor, as
per the controller commands. This is accomplished
in most cases by having a pulse width modulated
amplifier, commonly called a PWM inverter.
A
B
C
A
B
C
F
F
N
S
q = 90°
+ Rotor flux aligned on d axis
+ I
sd
is forced equal to 0
Maintain the
’load angle’ at 90°!

R
and 
S
are othogonal for
maximum torque
i
so
= 0
V
q
d

s
= 
s
t


i
s
i
s3
i
s2
q
i
sq i
s

R
PMSM FOC control strategy
PMSM FOC control overview
135 134
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 135 134
The Engineers of Distribution.
This PWM inverter shown in the figure above must
be commanded to generate the required three-
phase sinusoidal waveform in the fundamental
frequency. This is done by comparing the three-
phase sinusoidal waveform with a triangular
carrier. In the digital world, on the DSP processor,
we compute a sinusoidal command and apply it
to the PWM units that generate the appropriate
PWM signal outputs usually connected to gate
drivers of the IGBT’s from the inverter. Basically
we are ‘chopping’ a DC voltage, in order to build
the appropriate fundamental frequency voltage
to the stator phases with the goal of maximising
efficiency. This then introduces other concerns
such as switching noise and harmonics.
The PWM signal generation is shown is the figure
below.
Upper & lower
devices can not
be turned on
simultaneously
(dead band)
Threev phase
outputs which
go to the motor
terminals
Power
Switching
Devices
DC bus
capacitor
PWM signal is
applied between
gate and source




• Traditional way: comparing three-phase sinusoidal waveforms with
a triangular carrier
• V
an
= V.sin (t) (Van phase-neutral voltage)
V
120
(010) V
80
(011)
V
0
(100)
V
270
(101) V
240
(100)
V
180
(110)
Zero Vectors
(000) & (111)
d
q
S3
S2
S4
S5
S6
V
an
S1

0 (111) 0 (000)
A
B
C
Cmp Value 1
Cmp Value 2
Cmp Value 3
0
(000)
V
0
V
60
0
(111)
0
(111)
V
60
V
0
0
(000)
• We build the required voltage vector as a combination of
one of the six basic switches configuration
• Third harmonic injection
• Line to line voltage still sinusoidal
• PWM technique
• DSP hardware implemented
• Increase the maximum inverter
output voltage of 15%
• Reduce transistor commutations
V
an
= V .sin(t)+ .sin(3t)
1
6
Motor
A
A_
B
B_
C
C_
Va Vb Vc
Space Vector PWM Principle
Voltage source inverter components
PWM signal generation
Space Vector PWM Principle
135 134
The Engineers of Distribution.
135 134
The Engineers of Distribution.
As stated above, Pulse Width Modulation technique
is used to generate the required voltage and
frequency to run the motor. This method is
increasingly used for AC drives with the condition
that the harmonic current is as small as possible
and the maximum output voltage is as large as
possible. Generally, the PWM schemes generate
the switching position patterns by comparing three-
phase sinusoidal waveforms with a triangular
carrier.
Space vector theory is used with improvement for
both the output crest voltage and the harmonic
copper loss. The maximum output voltage based
on the space vector theory is 15% higher than
the maximum with the conventional sinusoidal
modulation. It makes it possible to feed the motor
with a higher voltage than the more obvious sine-
wave modulation method. This modulator enables
higher torque at high speeds.
SVPWM Characteristics
Typical characteristic of this PWM command
strategy: the envelope of the generated signal is
carrying the first and the third harmonics. We can
see that as a consequence of the PWM command
scheme applied to the inverter. Literature also
talks about the third harmonic injection to boost
out the performance we get out of the DC bus
capacitor. This third-harmonic exists in the phase
to neutral voltage but disappear in the phase to
phase voltage.
Sensored PMSM FOC Control
PWM1
PWM2
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM6
V
ds
+
V
qs
+
Space Vector
PWM
Driver
R
C
• Filtering by a low-pass filter the PWM output, we
find the first and third harmonics
Space Vector PWM Characteristics
Sesored PMSM FOC Control
137 136
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 137 136
The Engineers of Distribution.
indicates the zero position of the rotor. This
pulse gives a reference indicating the exact rotor
position. Once the physical position of the rotor is
known, then the magnetic position can be simply
computed by adding a known offset, based on the
mechanical design specification of the motor.
• Resolver: The resolver generates two signals,
a modulated sine and cosine signal which
are sensed by means of two ADC inputs. The
rotor angle information is then extracted by
demodulation, followed by an arc-tangent
computation. The excitation frequency for the
resolver can be generated by the processor
as well.
As pointed out earlier, in order to implement a
FOC control, the control algorithm needs phase
current and rotor position information. The position
information is essential to maintain the orthogonal
alignment of the stator flux with the rotor magnetic
flux.
Several types of sensors can measure this rotor
position:
• Quadrature Optical encoder: This provides two
encoder signals which are in quadrature, which
are connected to the two Quadrature Encoder
Pulse pins of the processor, this sensor also
typically provides an index pulse This index pulse
Park T Clarke T
3-phase
Inverter
Space
Vector
PWM
D,Q
d,q
D,Q
d,q
Park T
-1
Field Weakening
Controller
Speed
Calculator
PI PI
PI


†: i
c
calculated, i
a
+
i
b
+ i
r
= 0
i
c

i
a
i
b
i
d
i
q
q
r
I
Q
I
D
d,q
a,b,c
+



r
+

+

PWM1
PWM2
PWM3
PWM4
PWM5
PWM6
V
Q
x
V
D
x
I
Q
x
I
D
x

x
V
q
x
V
d
x
Rotor
Angle
Etimator
(SMO)
Sensorless PMSM FOC Control
Sensorless Field Oriented Control for PMSM
137 136
The Engineers of Distribution.
137 136
The Engineers of Distribution.
Research literature has described a variety of
sensorless solutions for PMSMs, based on several
different observers. The regulation scheme shown
above is based on an angle estimator called
the Sliding Mode Observer (SMO). Software and
documentation can be found inside the PMSM3_2
system documentation from the TI Digital Motor
Control library.
From a hardware point of view, the position and
speed feedback hardware can now be eliminated,
with immediate cost savings. Overall there is
the same topology for sensored and sensorless
controls. Two phase currents are sampled. This
current information as well as the applied voltage
and motor parameters, is used by the estimator
model to estimate the position angle of the motor.
Sliding Mode state observer
B
c
A
c
K
C
c

Based on indirect
Bemf measurement
Estimated Bemf
- Filtered Bemf
No position sensor
Several techniques exist to
remove a speed sensor,
working at low speed or
at high speed.
Rotor observer:
The rotor position is
calculated by means of an
estimation of the Bemf in
a sliding mode observer,
using instantaneous values
of the motor (current).
Not working at very low
speed, an open loop start
up procedure is used until
the observer delivers a
good estimation.
The back-emf information contains the rotor position
information and the SMO computes the back-emf
based on which the rotor angle is extracted: This
assumes that the back-emf is large enough. This
usually leads to an open-loop start up, with a ‘forced
commutation’ i.e. operation assuming that the rotor
will follow the applied magnetic field closely. This
then allows the observer to start up, and allows the
detection of the position information.
C2000™ Motor Control Software Foundation
TI has developed a number of powerful software
modules designed specifically for the C2000™
platform of digital signal controllers. These modules
are typically used in computationally intensive real-
time applications where optimal execution speed
is critical. By using these routines, designers can
achieve execution speeds considerably faster
than equivalent code written in standard ANSI
Sensored vs. Sensorless Control
139 138
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 139 138
The Engineers of Distribution.
C language. In addition to providing ready-to-use DSP functions, TI’s modular approach can significantly
shorten your application development time.

Aplication Specific Systems ACI, PMSM...
Aplication Specific Systems DMC, DPS...
IQMath Library
Peripheral Driver
PWM ADC
QEP
Real-Time JTAG, RTDX, DSP/BIOS
TM
C28x
TM
H
a
r
d
w
a
r
e

T
o
o
l
s
C
o
d
e

C
o
m
p
o
s
e
r

S
t
u
d
i
o
T
M
3
r
d

T
o
o
l
s

(
S
i
m
u
l
i
n
k
,

V
i
s
S
i
m
)
••


TI's C2000 IQmath Library:
A mathematical approach and a set of supporting math libraries that enable:
• Reduced Implementation/Porting/Debugging Time of Math Algorthms in C/C++
• Increased Numerical Resolution of Algorithms from 16-bits to 32/64 -bits
Typical: IQmath
Users typically start with a
floating point algorithm,...
float Y, M, X, B;
Y = M*X + B
and then spend many hours
converting to a fixed-point algorithm
which is not easy to read
IQmath reduces this effort dramatically
and the code is easier to read and
looks ’natural’
int Y, M, X, B; //Q1 to Q15
Y = ((M*X) + B << Q) <<Q);
// Using IQmath in C:_iq Y, M, X, B; //Q1 toQ30
Y = _IQmpy(M, X) + B
// Using IQmath in C++:iq Y, M, X, B; //Q1 to Q30
Y = M*B + B;
IQmath™ can be termed as ‘virtual floating-point’
in that it looks like floating-point math, but is
implemented using fixed-point techniques. The
IQmath approach enables the seamless portability
of code between fixed and floating-point devices.
Various functions like Multiply, Divide, Multiply with
Rounding and Saturation, Square Root Root and
Sine and Cosine are available.
C2000™ Digital Motor
Control Software
Foundation
C2000™ IQMath Library
139 138
The Engineers of Distribution.
139 138
The Engineers of Distribution.
TI also offers a wide variety of motor-control-
specific software modules for Vector Control of
AC induction and PMSM drives as well as for
BLDC drives, like inverse Clarke/Park transforms,
extended-precision PID Controllers, leg current
measurement drivers, BLDC-Specific PWM Drivers
BLDC Commutation Triggers up ACI and PMSM
speed and rotor position estimators.
TMS320C2000™ Microcontroller Digital Motor
Control Libraries
The TMS320C2000 Digital Motor Control Software
Libraries are available for engineers developing
solutions using digital motor control on a C2000
microprocessor. TI provides several different
motor control libraries designed to fit most motor
control applications. The libraries are composed of
independent software modules created in optimised
C and come fully documented. Below is the list of
currently available software.
Motor-Specific Software Solutions
www.ti.com/c2000appsw
System Motor Type Sensored
Sensor-
less
Description
C28x™
Controller
ACI1_1 1 ph AC Induction •
Tacho I/P
VHz/SinePWM/Closed Loop (CL) Speed PID
ACI3_1 3 ph AC Induction •
Tacho I/P
VHz/SinePWM/CL Speed PID

ACI3_2 3 ph AC Induction •
MRAS (Speed Estimator)
VHz/SinePWM/CL Speed PID
ACI3_3 3 ph AC Induction •
Tacho I/P
FOC/SinePWM/CL Current PID for D, Q/CL
Speed PID

ACI3_4 3 ph AC Induction •
Direct Flux Estimator + Speed Estimator
FOC/SinePWM/CL Current PID for D, Q/CL
Speed PID

PMSM3_1 3 ph Permanent Magnet Synch •
QEP
FOC/SinePWM/CL Current PID for D, Q/CL
Speed PID

PMSM3_2 3 ph Permanent Magnet Synch •
Sliding Mode Observer (SMO) Position Es-
timator
FOC/SinePWM/CL Current PID for D, Q/CL
Speed PID

PMSM3_3 3 ph Permanent Magnet Synch •
Resolver/FOC/CL Current PID for D, Q/CL
Speed PID

PMSM3_4 3 ph Permanent Magnet Synch • QEP/FOC/Position Control •
BLDC3_1 3 ph Trapezoidal Brushless DC •
3 Hall Effect I/P
Trapezoidal/CL Loop Current PID/CL Speed
PID

BLDC3_2 3 ph Trapezoidal Brushless DC •
BEMF/Zero Crossing Detection
Trapezoidal/CL Loop Current PID/CL Speed
PID

DCMOTOR Bruched DC • Speed & Position/QEP without Index •
Digital Motor
Control Library
All Motor Types • •
Component Modules for Motor-Specific Ap-
plication

141 140
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 141 140
The Engineers of Distribution.
Piccolo – Dual-Axis PMSM Motor Control
Developer’s Kit
The Piccolo Dual-Axis Motor Control Demo is a
low voltage, low power platform targeted mainly
for software and algorithm development on PMSM
motors and PFC. Even though this platform is low
voltage it still reflects same methods, principles
and algorithms found on larger 110 V and 230 V
systems. Moreover, software is scalable to high
voltage / high power systems by simply changing
constants and scale-factors. This approach takes
away the hazards and extreme caution needed
when working and debugging high voltage systems
and allows the developer to focus more on software
techniques / methods.
PWM-1
F28xxx
I
2
C
UART
CAN
CPU
32-bit
A
B
PWM-2
A
B
PWM-3
A
B
PWM-4
A
B
CAP-1
PWM-1A
PWM-1B
PWM-2A
ADC
12-bit
V
REF
1
2
3
4
5
16
2H
3H
2L
3L
2H 3H
2L 3L
1
2
3
1H
1L
DRV8402 -IPM
4H
4L
PWM-2B
4
4H
4L
DC-Bus
spare
3 Phase
PMSM
PWM-3A
PWM-3B
PWM-4A
2H
3H
2L
3L
2H 3H
2L 3L
1
2
3
1H
1L
DRV8402 -IPM
4H
4L
PWM-4B
4
4H
4L
DC-Bus
spare
3 Phase
PMSM
Current
feedback
Voltage
feedback
Inc.
Encoder
QEP
3
Hall
Effect
CAP
1
12 V
12 V
QEP
3
HOST
Filter
+
V
AC
PFC-2PhIL
PWM-
5B
PWM-
5A
PWM-5
A
B
141 140
The Engineers of Distribution.
141 140
The Engineers of Distribution.
Features
• Single Controller for PFC stage + Dual Axis
Motor Inverter stages
• PFC – 2 phase Interleaved front end (12~24 V
AC

input)
• Leg Current sense for PFC current loop control
• 50 W (approx) total system power (1 x 50 W or
2 x 25 W motors)
• 2 x 3-phase Inverter power stages, based on TI’s
DRV8402 Integrated power stages
• Up to 50 V DC bus supported by DRV8402
• Cycle-by-Cycle current limit (by DRV8402 or by
Piccolo’s internal Comparator and trip logic)
• PMSM type motor support now, and BLDC in
future
• Hall effect and QEP sensor inputs provided for
speed/position feedback
• Current sense measurement via leg shunt
resistors on each phase
• Voltage measurements on Phase outputs
• Main-board accepts F28xxx control cards,
including latest with Piccolo
• Stand-alone operation with serial comms
(UART, I
2
C, CAN-bus) from Host
• On-board Isotaled USB-to-JTAG emulation
support for code development and debug
Tools
Texas Instruments offers a wide variety of hardware
and software tools that allow developers to evaluate
the microcontrollers. A control stick with a USB
interface and a control card are available for the
Piccolo™ family of devices. The control cards are
pin compatible which gives the freedom to evaluate
multiple devices using the same development
board. TI also offers a range a of software libraries
to implement a motor control system.
More information and more development kits
available at www.ti.com/f28xkits
The table on the next side shows the different
hardware offering from TI.
143 142
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com 143 142
The Engineers of Distribution.
Kit Part Number Description Price
“Piccolo”
F28027
TMDXCNCD28027 F28027 controlCARD $49.00
“Delfino”
F28335
TMDSCNCD28335 F28335 controlCARD $69.00
“Delfino”
C28343
TMDXCNCD28343 C28343 controlCARD $109.00
“Piccolo”
F28027
TMDXDOCK28027
Compatible with the
controlSTICK example
projects.
F28027 Piccolo
controlCARD,USB docking
station ,CCS V3.3 ,USB
cable
$79.00
“Delfino”
F28335
TMDSDOCK28335
F28335 Delfino
controlCARD, USB docking
station, CCS V3.3, USB
cable
$99.00
“Delfino”
C28343
TMDXDOCK28343
Included DIM100
controlCARD compatible
with C2000 application
tools!
C28343 DIM 100
controlCARD, Docking
station, CCS V3.3, 5 V power
supply
$159.00
F28335 TMDSPREX28335
F28335 peripheral explorer
kit. Includes power
supply, CCS, controlCARD
and peripheral explorer
baseboard
$179.00
Piccolo –
Dual-Axis
PMSM Motor
Control
Developer’s Kit
TMDS2MTRPFCKIT
Single piccolo controller for
PFC stage + dual axis motor
inverter stages
tbd
143 142
The Engineers of Distribution.
143 142
The Engineers of Distribution.
Safety Standards
The microcontroller offerings from TI can meet
the safety requirements of IEC60730 and other
standards. The IEC60730 standard is classified as:
• Class A: Thermostats, lighting control, humidity
control etc.
• Class B: These prevents unsafe operation
• Class C: These prevents special hazards
• Appliance products, HVAC systems usually fall
under Class B
Customers have the freedom to choose their
implementation depending on the type of end
equipment and safety aspects of end equipment.
The safety tests can be implemented as:
• Single channel with functional tests; which
mainly covers tests performed prior to shipment
of the device
• Single channel with periodic self test; which
are periodic self tests performed during actual
operation of the appliance
• Dual channel with lock step: where two CPUs
performing same tasks or performing vital
functions independently
The IEC 60730 support becomes more flexible
with Piccolo devices as the following features are
implemented on the device:
• Independent Dual on chip 10 MHz oscillator with
3% accuracy:
• Possibility to calibrate accuracy to <1% using
on-chip temp sensor
• Independent clocking of CPU, Watch Dog &
32-bit Timers
• Robust clock failure detection mechanism
• On board analog comparators with
asynchronous trip actions
Summary
C2000 microcontrollers reduce the overall cost of
motor control systems by providing the integration
and performance necessary to implement advanced
control techniques such as sensorless vector
control of three-phase motors. Using the more
processor-intensive vector control, for example,
allows developers to reduce the size and cost of
the motors and power electronics. With C2000
microcontrollers, developers can now capitalise
on the latest advancements in motor designs and
control techniques.
• TI offers a wide portfolio of MCUs and analog
components to design a digital motor control
system
• SW and HW tools are available to reduce the
development cycle time
• The MCUs have built in HW features that in
conjunction with SW can meet the IEC safety
requirements
144 144
The Engineers of Distribution.
www.silica.com
4. Glossary
MCU Microcontroller unit
MDU Multipicate device unit
MOSFET Metal oxide semiconductor field effect
transistor
OP-AMP Operational amplifier
PCB Printed circuit board
PFC Power factor correction
PID Packet ID
PLC Power line conditioner
PLD Programmable logic device
PLL Phase locked loop
P(M)SM Permanent magnet synchronous
motors
PWM Pulse width modulation
RAM Random access memory
RISC Reduced instruction set computer
ROM Read only memory
SAR Specific absorption rate
successive approximation register
SCI Serial communication interface
SMD Surface mounted devices
SOI Silicon-on-insulator
SPI System programming interface
SPM Smart power module
SR Switched reluctance
SSC Synchronous serial channels
TTL Transistor-transistor logic
UART Universal asynchronous receiver/
transmitter
USB Universal serial bus
USIC Universal serial interface controller
VHDL VHSIC hardware description language
AC Alternating current
ADC Analog-to-digital converter
ASIC Application-specific IC
ARM Computer processor architecture
BICMOS Bipolar complementary metal oxide
semiconductor
BLAC Brushless alternating current
BLDC Brushless direct current
CAN Serial bus system made up of a twisted
pair of conductors
CMR Common mode rejection
DAC Digital analog converter
DC Direct current
DMC Differential mode coupling
DSC Digital signal controller
DSP Digital signal processor
EMC Electromagnetic compatibility
EMI Electromagnetic interference
ESD Electrostatic discharge
FADC Fast analog-to-digital converter
FOC Field oriented control
FPGA Field programmable gate array
GPTA General-purpose timer array
IC Integrated circuit
IEC International Electrotechnical
Commission
IGBT Insulated gate bipolar transistors
IM Induction motor
IPC In-plant point of coupling
IPM Intelligent power module
JTAG Joint Test Action Group
MAC Media access controller
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SILICA | The Engineers of Distribution. SILICA | The Engineers of Distribution. www.silica.com
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Motor Control
WORKBOOK