Header Data and other essential fields like IP, MAC, FCS, SEQ NO etc Trailer

#TCP/IP Architecture Layer Example Protocols

Application Transport Internet Network access

HTTP, POP3, SMTP TCP, UDP IP Ethernet, Frame Relay

#Smooth Round trip time (SRTT)


R2 (Neighbor)


with the router just blindly reacting to the CSU/DSU for that timing. If the line status is up. a protocol status of down usually is caused by mismatched data link layer configuration. the CSU/DSU sends clock pulses over the cable to the router. The CSU/DSU knows the speed. In effect.#Interface Status Codes and Their Meanings Name Line status Protocol status Location First status code Second status code General Meaning Refers to the Layer 1 status²for example. and the router reacts to the clocking signal. is the device on the other end powered on? Refers generally to the Layer 2 status. It is always down if the line status is down. and when to receive the next bit. Clocking?? Routers can use serial links without the need for additional conĮguration or auto negotiation to sense the serial link͛s speed. the CSU/DSU tells the router when to send the next bit over the cable. . is the cable installed. is it the right/wrong cable.

#Terminology 2.544 Mbps link Fast Ethernet = 100 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet = 1000 Mbps 10 Gigabit Ethernet = 10 Gbps #Flash Memory *Rewriteable *Permanent storage *Ideal for storing Įles that need to be retained when the router loses power. #Ping command . *Cisco purposefully uses Flash memory instead of disk drives in its products because there are no moving parts in Flash memory.5X = Old Network types like dial-up (56 kbps) T1 = 1. so there is a smaller chance of failure as compared with disk drives.

Wendell Odom.CCIE CCNA ICND2 Official Exam Certification Guide 2nd Ed. called an ICMP echo reply. NOTE: y The term IOS image simply refers to a file containing IOS. y UTP patch Cable .The ping command sends an ICMP echo request packet to the stated destination address. for the duration of your login session to the router. y #terminal ip netmask-format decimal You can change the format of the display of the subnet mask in show commands. y ³I¶ve even heard of a couple of large networks with a few full-time people who do nothing but plan and implement access lists!´ . The TCP/IP software at the destination then replies to the ping echo request packet with a similar packet.

but rather it defines services that applications need. Application Layer in OSI model y TCP/IP application layer protocols provide services to the application software running on a computer. y The application layer provides an interface between software running on a computer and the network itself. allows ISPs to reduce the wasting of IP addresses by assigning a company a subset of a network number rather than the entire network. CIDR also can allow ISPs to summarize routes such that multiple Class A. which helps reduce the size of Internet routing tables. .#Advantages of CIDR Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR). such as the ability to transfer a file in the case of HTTP. y The application layer does not define the application itself. or C networks match a single route. B.

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