The Literature

Analyzing and Critiquing the Literature
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A review of literature should be integrated and critical. Each study should be reviewed individually, summarized and then juxtaposed with other studies in the area showing how this research leads to the question in your specific research. The variables under study in your research should emerge from the literature. The design of the study should emerge from the review of literature. This chapter should lead the reader to an understanding of how your study will contribute to the literature.

What is meta-analysis?
Meta-analysis is a statistical approach to understanding the literature.  Meta-analysis uses effect size statistics to evaluate the literature.

Criticisms of Meta-analysis
Coding of the data  Reporting of significant effects only or lack of reporting of effects that are not statistically significant

Descriptive Research Methods .

Scientific Method Decide on a problem  Gather facts to refine the problem (narrow definition is best)  Develop hypotheses (through induction)  Test hypotheses  .

attitudes. . and progress.Definition of Descriptive Research  Descriptive research describes the present status of people.

Forms of Descriptive Research Ex post facto (after the fact)  Case studies  Correlation studies  Developmental studies  Survey studies  .

Sampling Techniques  Good sampling techniques are required of all researchers. .

Population  A population is defined as all members that are described by the characteristics selected by the experimenter. All women students at SJSU. . All students in KIN 250. ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ All students at SJSU. All MA sport management students. All Kinesiology majors.

Sample  A sample is a portion of the defined population. .

Different types of Samples Simple random sample  Systematic sample  Stratified sample  Cluster sample  Proportional sample  .

Simple Random Sample Table of Random Numbers  Choosing numbers out of a hat  .

Systematic Sample  Systematically selects every nth person .

however the sample has equal numbers within a particular characteristic. .Stratified Sample  A stratified sample assures a random sample.

Cluster Sample A sample is chosen because it is difficult to sample the entire population.  A cluster sample is often easier and less costly. but generalizability is limited because of an N of 1. choosing all members of a particular class rather than individuals..g. e.  .

Proportional Sample Proportion out groups that you might want in your sample.  .  The proportions should be logically based in the literature.

 Ex post facto research is research that takes place after the fact.Ex Post Facto Research Ex post facto research is sometimes called causal comparative research.  Often ex post facto research is used to explain something in the present from data collected sometime in the past.  .

What puts them into these categories?  .  Participants are self-selected.  Extraneous variables may not be accounted for.Problems with Ex Post Facto Designs Is the cause that you hypothesize correct?  Many causes may be interrelated or the result of more than one variable interacting.

one school.Case Studies Case studies are usually an examination into one element of a population.g.  Case studies are often conducted in social work and counseling for diagnosis and recommendation purposes. one person. one research class.  . e.. one school district.

diaries. sociological.  Subjects’ recall – personal documents. or psychological  . and letters  Measures may be physical.Case Studies Observe – take notes on events and their relationships by their location in time and space.

Case Studies Must be careful about generalization  Data are limited to one unit  Case studies can be qualitative or quantitative  .

.  Null (HO) ◦ Physical activity will not affect body composition.  Alternative ◦ Physical activity will affect body composition.Writing Hypotheses  Directional (H1) ◦ Physical activity program will affect body composition such that physical activity individuals will lose more fat than sedentary individuals.

The hypothesis is accepted if the probability of finding a statistically significant effect by chance alone is less than 5 times in100 (p<.05).  .05). The researcher wants to reject the null hypothesis. The hypothesis is rejected if the probability of finding a statistically significant effect by chance alone is less than 5 times in 100 (p<. The researcher wants to accept the directional hypothesis.

Type II error means the probability of accepting a false null hypothesis.Hypothesis Testing HO True Accept Reject Correct decision Type1 error () HO False Type II error Correct decision () •Alpha () means the probability level acceptable for statistical significance in a study. •Beta ()) measures the Type II error. . Type I error also means the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis.

Hypothesis Testing Directional H1 True Accept Correct decision H1 False Type1 error () HO True Correct decision Null HO False Type II error () Reject Type II error () Correct decision Type1 error () Correct decision •Alpha () means the probability level acceptable for statistical significance in a study. . •Beta ()) measures the Type II error. Type II error means the probability of accepting a false null hypothesis. Type I error also means the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis.

Correlational Studies Correlational studies examine the relationship between two or more variables.  .  Correlations examine how variables covary together.

A. L. Research Design & Statistics for Physical Education.: Englewood Cliffs. (1985). Prentice-Hall.Positive Correlation From: Rothstein. NJ. Inc. .

Types of Correlations Pearson correlation  Spearman correlation  Partial correlation  Multiple correlation  Multiple regression  .

.Developmental Studies  Developmental studies are concerned with changes that take place as a function of time.

Kinesiology   Growth and Development ◦ Physical milestones Motor Development ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Studies of the patterns of movement Motor learning across the lifespan Exercise physiology across the lifespan Biomechanics across the lifespan Sociocultural effects across the lifespan .

usually 6 months or less and all data are collected .Types of Developmental Studies  Longitudinal studies ◦ Long term. collect data from the same subject over a number of years  Cross sectional studies ◦ Short term.

.Survey Design  Surveys are used to gather extensive amounts of information for large groups of individuals in short time spans.

Survey Designs Public opinion  Attitudes  Achievement  Educational  Governmental  Industrial  Political  .

Survey Design  A good survey ◦ Wide scope ◦ Accuracy ◦ Ease of data collection  A bad survey ◦ Superficial ◦ Poor return rate ◦ Poor survey instruments .

Things to Keep in Mind When Creating Surveys Define terms  Avoid statements with double implications  Avoid leading questions  Beware of double negatives  .

Things to Keep in Mind When Creating Surveys Clearly identify the survey purpose  Outline the field of study  Avoid overlapping questions  Order questions in a logical format  ◦ Simple to complex  Make sure questions are clear ◦ Eliminate ambiguities ◦ Eliminate all grammatical errors  Pre-code data for computation .

Profile of Mood States .

. Spence and Helmreich constructed the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ).Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Personality Attributes Questionnaire   Bem (1974) constructed the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) – It presented from 20 adjectives viewed as desirable for men. and 20 gender-neutral adjectives. 20 adjectives viewed as desirable for women.

Examples of Popular and Widely Used Instruments Beck Depression Inventory  Myers Briggs Indicator  Keirsey Temperment Sorter  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory  Leadership Opinion Questionnaire  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS IV)  Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory  Measures of Self-Esteem. Self Efficacy  Dishman’s Exercise Adherence Measure  .

(2002). : E. A.LeUnes. N. Lewiston.Health and Psychosocial Instruments  .D.  See: HaPI . Bibliography on psychological tests used in research and practice in sport and exercise psychology.Y. Mellen Press.

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