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Coastal and Ocean Engineering
87 Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering John B. Herbich Wave Phenomena • Sediment Processes • Beach Proﬁle • Longshore Sediment Transport • Coastal Structures • Navigational Channels • Marine Foundations • Oil Spills • Offshore Structures
© 2005 by CRC Press LLC
Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering
87.1 Wave Phenomena
Airy (Low Amplitude) • Cnoidal (Shallow Water, Long Waves) • Stream Function • Stokian (Third Order)
87.2 Sediment Processes 87.3 Beach Proﬁle 87.4 Longshore Sediment Transport
General Energy Flux Equation • Threshold of Sand Movement by Waves
87.5 Coastal Structures
Seawalls • Breakwaters
John B. Herbich
Texas A & M University Consulting & Research Services, Inc.
87.6 87.7 87.8 87.9
Navigational Channels Marine Foundations Oil Spills Offshore Structures
Ocean engineering is a relatively new branch of engineering. The need for this new specialty was recognized in the 1960s. Several universities, including Texas A&M, MIT, Florida Atlantic, the U.S. Coast Guard Academy, and the U.S. Naval Academy, have established undergraduate degree programs in ocean engineering. Several universities have also developed programs at the graduate level specializing in ocean engineering. Ocean and coastal engineering covers many topics, generally divided between shallow water (coastal engineering) and deep water (ocean engineering), shown in Figure 87.1 and Figure 87.2.
87.1 Wave Phenomena
Wave phenomena are of great importance in coastal and ocean engineering. Waves determine the composition and geometry of beaches. Since waves interact with human-made shore structures or offshore structures, safe design of these structures depends to a large extent on the selected wave characteristics. The structural stability criteria are often stated in terms of extreme environmental conditions (wave heights, periods, water levels, astronomical tides, storm surges, tsunamis, and winds). Waves in the ocean constantly change and are irregular in shape, particularly when under the inﬂuence of wind; such waves are called seas. When waves are no longer under the inﬂuence of wind and are out of the generating area, they are referred to as swells. Many wave theories have been developed, including the Airy, cnoidal, solitary, stream function, Stokian, and so forth. Figure 87.3 describes the regions of validity for various wave theories. Cnoidal and stream function theories apply principally to shallow
© 2005 by CRC Press LLC
Cnoidal (Shallow Water. Wavelength is given by © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . Second Edition Wave Phenomena Characteristics Design Values Sediment Processes OnshoreOffshore Littoral Coastal Structures Seawalls Groins Breakwater Shore Connected Marine Foundation Shallow Deep Detached Navigation Channels Ports & Harbors Oil Spills Containment Removal Design Construction Maintenance Contaminated Design Construction Maintenance Contaminated Sediment Sediment Removal Removal Dredging Dredging Dredging Dredging Dredging Dredging FIGURE 87. Subscript o denotes deep water conditions.2 Ocean engineering (deep water). Long Waves) The theory originally developed by Boussinesq  has been studied and presented in more usable form by several researchers. Wave Phenomena Offshore Structures Offshore Pipelines Characteristics Design Values Floating Fixed Tension Dynamic Naval Positioning Architecture Structural Analysis Pile Driving Stability FIGURE 87.1 Coastal engineering (shallow water). and C = wave celerity. and transitional water. h = water depth.87-2 The Engineering Handbook. Shallow water L = T gh = CT gT 2 Ê 2ph ˆ tanh Á ˜ Ë L ¯ 2p gT 2 = C oT 2p (87. whereas Airy and Stokian theories apply to transitional and deep water (Airy applies to low amplitude waves). Airy (Low Amplitude) Wavelength is given by the following equations.1) Transitional water L= (87. g = acceleration due to gravity.2) Deep water Lo = (87.3) where T = wave period.
Department of Commerce.00155 gT2 Shallow water d = 0. An Introduction to Hydrodynamics and Water Waves.S.001 0. ERL 118-POL3-1&2.01 d gT2 0.0792 gT2 Deep water Transitional water H0 = 0.5) © 2005 by CRC Press LLC .040 L d = 0.14 L0 BREAKING Stokes’ 4th order Stokes’ 3rd order H th ry eo = d 0.3 0. 1969.) L= and wave period by 16d3 kK (k ) 3H (87.0004 0. U.4) È ˘ Í ˙ 16 yt h Í g kK (k ) ˙ T = h 3H yt Í H Ê 1 E(k ) ˆ ˙ Í1 + Á ˜˙ yt k 2 Ë 2 K (k )¯ ˙ Í Î ˚ (87.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-3 d = 0.1 0. B.006 0. Report No.4 FIGURE 87.500 L d = 0.004 0.04 0.002 0.02 0.2 0.3 Regions of validity for various wave theories (Source: Le Méhauté. DC. Environmental Science Services Administration.06 0. Washington. 78 ) − Stream Function V Br ea kin g lim it o (S lita ry v wa e H= NONBREAKING HB 4 Stokes’ 2nd order Stream Function V L2H ~ ~ 26 d3 Croidal Theory Linear (Airy) Theory 0.
Cnoidal waves are periodic and of permanent form. developed equations that should be summarized.2 Sediment Processes Along the coasts the ocean meets land. Stream function (Table 87. C. Waves. and A is a dimensional scale parameter. Stokian (Third Order) Wavelength is given by 2 2 gT 2 Ô Ô Ê pH ˆ È 5 + 2 cosh(4ph / L) + 2 cosh (4ph / L ˘ ¸ Ê 2ph ˆ Ï tanh Á ˜ Ì1 + Á ˜ Í ˙˝ 4 Ë L ¯Ô Ë L ¯ Î 2p sinh ( / ) d L 8 2 p ˚Ô ˛ Ó L= (87. U is a uniform current. Bruun  indicated that many beach proﬁles (Figure 87. and beach replenishment. tsunamis. both connected and detached.87-4 The Engineering Handbook. for a wave system rendered stationary by a reference frame moving with the speed of the wave. This parameter is consistent with the following beach proﬁles in nature: © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . h¢c = hc/H (water surface elevation above mean water). thus L = CT. and storms have been shaping the beaches for many thousands of years. Parallel to the shore and at an angle to the shore. h¢t = ht/H (wave surface elevation below mean water). There are two basic sediment movements: 1.6) with the coordinate z referenced to the mean water level.5) can be represented by h(x) = Ax2/3 where h is the water depth at a distance x offshore. Stream Function Stream function was developed by Dean  and is of analytical form with the wavelength L. K(k) = complete elliptic integral of the ﬁrst kind. off. (F¢D)m (maximum dimensionless drag force). and E(k) = complete elliptic integral of the second kind. Dean  showed that Hb/wT is an important parameter distinguishing barred proﬁles from nonbarred proﬁles (where Hb is breaking wave height. and breakwaters. currents.7) 87. it cannot be expressed by equations because many of the processes are site speciﬁc. pipeline crossings. k = modulus of the elliptic integrals. Researchers have.4 provides a deﬁnition for terms describing a typical beach proﬁle. Second Edition where yt = distance from the bottom to the wave trough. 87. w is fall velocity of sediment in water. is ÊL ˆ y = Á -U ˜ z + ËT ¯ Â X(n)sinhÈÍÎ L n=1 NN 2p n ˘ Ê 2p nx ˆ (h + z )˙ cosÁ ˜ ˚ Ë L ¯ (87.and offshore 2. and T is wave period). revetments. On. The shoreline behavior is very complex and difﬁcult to understand. however. The expression for the stream function. and along the shore (littoral drift). and (F¢I)m (maximum dimensionless inertia force). u¢c (horizontal dimensionless velocity at the crest).3 Beach Proﬁle Information on beach proﬁles is essential in designing structural modiﬁcations (such as seawalls.1) provides values of wavelength L¢ = L/ Lo. and the value of stream function on the free surface yh determined numerically. y. Figure 87. w m ¢ (maximum dimensionless vertical velocity). Beaches form the ﬁrst defense against the waves and are constantly moving on. coefﬁcients X(n).
593 0.661 0.0938 0.67 23.00097 0.407 -0.00 2.222 h¢ c 0.951 0.1697 0.904 0. J.744 0.065 1.1 407.571 0.03900 0. (2) The maximum dimensionless drag and inertial forces apply for a piling extending through the entire water column.00293 0.4 156.005 0.53 4.922 0.303 0.1260 0.7 535.005 0.944 0. Houston.359 0.06 0.88 5.187 0.28 1.43 13.090 -0.00 2.00 H /L0 0.94 0.211 1.70 0.004 0.21 5.” respectively.29 4.377 -0.013 1.73 0.44 3.260 0.29 1.959 0.05 0.533 0.824 0.02 0.2 162.00388 0.0625 0.46 0.16 3.430 -0.0 2774.218 -0.0 2985.01951 0.99 2.308 0.35 12.5 1001.456 -0.1 45.11 3.10 0.216 -0.664 0.20 7.88 0.133 1.01 0.7 1128.0000 10˚ 10˚ 10˚ 10˚ 20˚ 10˚ 10˚ 10˚ 30˚ 20˚ 10˚ 10˚ 30˚ 20˚ 20˚ 20˚ 50˚ 50˚ 30˚ 20˚ 75˚ 50˚ 30˚ 30˚ 75˚ 75˚ 50˚ 50˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 50˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 50˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 50˚ Notes: (1) Except where obvious or noted otherwise.50 1.347 -0.343 uc ¢ 49.278 -0.1275 0.00078 0.429 -0.47 4.116 0. R.96 5.401 0.00775 0.389 -0.0420 0.99 3.00390 0.16 3.00156 0.60 3.120 0.534 0.544 0.126 3. (3) Subscripts m.059 1.073 -0.0427 0.36 3.63 2.05 2.22 4. B.716 0. Houston.5 37.63 8.04 1.4 44.57 14.2 103. Used with permission.93 2.722 0.57 1.62 0.041 -0.20 0.00 4.01 2.00 1.005 0. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC .46 1.002 0.836 1.860 1.422 0.025 1.29 9.284 -0.50 0.9 1060.99 2.68 6.018 1.1 209.58 11.858 0.41 6.5 47.09 2.0313 0.142 -0.00975 0.01555 0.627 0.4 82. 1991.558 1.3 494.065 1.510 1.910 0.276 0. G.0 85. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company.11 1.0852 0.0183 0.4 116.98 13.00 1.47 0.642 0.431 -0.380 0.49 2.541 0.078 -0.01 0.47 16.68 47.22 7.0426 0.657 ht¢ -0.02 0.07 2.37 28.1704 L¢ 0.001 0.20 0.125 1.111 -0.211 0.002 0.653 0.00 1.63 3. Volume 2.85 9.569 0.005 0.569 0.83 19.82 29.120 0.61 13.47 0.931 0.20 0.323 -0.0549 0.02 0.83 2.570 0.1 113.1 72.16 1.69 3.128 0.467 -0.1 22.135 -0.44 3.857 0.6 2861.50 0.431 -0.44 0.718 0.98 6.98 2.48 6.358 -0.34 1.85 2.981 1. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering.64 3.1 Selected Summary of Tabulated Dimensionless Stream Function Quantities Case 1-A 1-B 1-C 1-D 2-A 2-B 2-C 2-D 3-A 3-B 3-C 3-D 4-A 4-B 4-C 4-D 5-A 5-B 5-C 5-D 6-A 6-B 6-C 6-D 7-A 7-B 7-C 7-D 8-A 8-B 8-C 8-D 9-A 9-B 9-C 9-D 10-A 10-B 10-C 10-D h/Lo 0.392 -0.57 3.34 6.017 1. dimensionless quantities are presented for mean water elevation.865 0.00 2.927 0.79 36.566 0.02 0.049 -0.090 0.50 5.00117 0.002 0.056 -0.31 15.201 -0.101 0.513 0.292 0.82 13.035 1.04 q(w m ¢ )* 10˚ 10˚ 10˚ 10˚ 20˚ 10˚ 10˚ 10˚ 30˚ 20˚ 20˚ 10˚ 30˚ 30˚ 20˚ 20˚ 50˚ 50˚ 30˚ 30˚ 75˚ 50˚ 50˚ 50˚ 75˚ 75˚ 50˚ 50˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 50˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ 75˚ (FD ¢ )m 2574.6 242.10 0.00777 0.50 0.623 0.001 0. c.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-5 TABLE 87. ed.597 0.899 0.116 3.64 22.1280 0.799 0.276 -0.713 0.062 -0.46 12.810 0.00389 0.64 40.09 2.32 43.86 13.20 0.3 457.6 38.002 0.938 0.96 1.000 -0.161 -0. Herbich.146 0.98 2.00039 0.85 2.782 0.38 5.677 0.99 2.00 2.479 * q(FI¢) m p Dc ¢ (Bottom) 1.199 0. Gulf.00582 0.839 0.6 222.009 -0.720 2.4 390.16 2.194 1.62 1.0730 0.784 0.” “crest.02 29.16 1.0 225.01 0. Source: Dean.563 1.0 1007.12 22. Beach proﬁles.66 7.” and “trough.096 -0.7 327.287 -0.43 3.466 -0.60 11.36 1.18 1.10 0.339 -0.63 3.05 0.005 0.011 2.87 18.01168 0.73 0.70 9.889 0.7 465.71 3.16 3.20 6.00195 0.62 1.47 6.99 2.76 0.54 3.93 0.0366 0.898 0.608 0.00195 0.71 23.0 1043.83 2.0840 0.94 2.98 19.08 26.31 11.466 -0.31 15.223 0.85 2.534 0.62 wm ¢* 13.609 0.29 7.35 1.05 0.102 -0.09 2.1681 0.3 59.02916 0.611 0.1245 0.97 0.5 17.724 0.6 1027.10 0.783 0. All rights reserved.01 0.137 (FI¢) * m 815.143 -0.329 1.62 23.09 5.3 197.0852 0.190 -0.86 2.1 465.23 1.9 242.391 -0.69 8.134 1.6 907. and t denote “maximum.45 1.137 0.14 2.05 0.008 0.98 2.
8b) Later. 87.85 .) © 2005 by CRC Press LLC .4 Longshore Sediment Transport The longshore transport (Q) is the volumetric rate of sand movement parallel to the shoreline. Coastal area Coast Beach or shore Foreshore Nearshore zone (defines area of nearshore currents) Inshore or shoreface (extends through breaker zone) Surf Zone Offshore Backshore luff or scarpment Beach scarp Crest of berm Berms Breakers High water level Ordinary low water level Plunge point Bottom FIGURE 87.8a) and Equation (87. I and II. 1987. Shore Protection Manual. one can expect bar formation. Waterways Experiment Station. a monotonic proﬁle can be expected. wT (87. vols. MS. Department of the Army.85 . Corps of Engineers.8b).85 in Equation (87. wT (87. Kriebel et al.87-6 The Engineering Handbook. (Source: Department of the Army.  found the value of 2.3 rather than 0. Coastal Engineering Research Center.4 Visual deﬁnition of terms describing a typical beach proﬁle.8a) When Hb < 0. Vicksburg. Second Edition ÏHigh waves Ô Ô Milder slope profiles ÌShort periods Ô Ô ÓSmall sediment diameter ÏLow waves Ô Ô Steeper profiles ÌLong periods Ô Ô ÓLarge sediment diameter When Hb > 0. on the basis of large laboratory data. Much longshore transport occurs in the surf zone and is caused by the approach of waves at an angle to the shoreline.
in relationship h = Ax2/3. rs = density of sand. is P = ECg (87.10 From Swart’s Laboratory Results 0. the energy ﬂux in the direction of wave advance per unit length of beach is P cos a = rgH 2 C g cos a 8 (87. Herbich.0 10. Houston.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-7 SEDIMENT SCALE PARAMETER. Used with permission.01 0. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering.01 0.11) where r is mass density of water. R. The wave energy density is calculated by E= rgH 2 8 (87. Pls (Department of the Army. and a = ratio of the volume of solids to total volume. J. D (mm) FIGURE 87. Houston. and H is wave height.1 1. accounting for sand porosity = 0. r = density of water. All rights reserved.6. (Source: Dean. G. General Energy Flux Equation The energy ﬂux per unit length of wave crest or.13) © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . ed. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company.r)ga ls (87. A(m1/3) 1. g = acceleration due to gravity.10) where E is wave energy density and Cg is wave group speed. 1984): Q= K P (r s . 1991. If the wave crests make an angle a with the shoreline.0 100.39. g is acceleration of gravity.) Longshore transport rate (Q. given in unit volume per second) is assumed to depend upon the longshore component of wave energy ﬂux.5 Beach proﬁle scale factor. Gulf.0 Suggested Empirical Relationship From Hughes’ Field Results From Individual Field Profiles Where a Range of Sand Sizes Was Given 0. A.12) The longshore component of wave energy ﬂux is Pl = P cos a sin a = rgH 2 C g cos a sin a 8 (87. versus sediment diameter. Beach proﬁles. Volume 2. equivalently. D.9) where K = dimensionless empirical coefﬁcient (based on ﬁeld measurements) = 0.0 SEDIMENT SIZE. the rate at which wave energy is transmitted across a plane of unit width perpendicular to the direction of wave advance. B.
where t*c = 1/eyi(Dv*). Wall-type structures such as seawalls. and revetments Seawalls Forces due to nonbreaking waves may be calculated using Sainﬂou or Miche–Rundgren formulas. ed. The empirical formula shown by dashed lines is as follows: t *c = 0.14) Threshold of Sand Movement by Waves The threshold of sand movement by wave action has been investigated by a number of researchers [e. plotted as a function of Dv*. Volume 2. and Tsuchiya empirical curves.87-8 The Engineering Handbook. Figure 87. 1991. Sleath. the pressure distribution is © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . Second Edition 4 Bagnold 2 10−1 8 6 4 2 Shields Theoretical curve Empirical formula Goddet Manohar Rance & Warren D d 0/ =5 0 Theoretical curves τ*c 100 Laminar 50 100 4 200 Turbulent 200 10−2 1 2 4 6 8 10 2 4 6 8 10 2 2 6 8 103 2 4 6 8 104 2 4 Dν∗ FIGURE 87. Rubble structures such as breakwaters. 1991]. Used with permission.) or rg 2 H C g sin 2a 16 Pl = (87.050 87. and yi(Dv*) is a function of sediment-ﬂuid number only.5 Coastal Structures Wave forces act on coastal and offshore structures.6 shows the modiﬁed Shields diagram.20 -23 / = 0. bulkheads. J. B.. Y. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. as well as the theoretical curve. revetments. Houston. Employing the Miche–Rundgren formula. All rights reserved.20Dv * / = 0.6 Threshold of sand movement by waves with Shields. the forces may be classiﬁed as due to non-breaking. Tsuchiya. (Source: Tsuchiya. Threshold of sand movement. and broken waves.010D13 v* for Dv * £ 1 for 1 £ Dv * £ 20 for 20 £ Dv * £ 125 for 125 £ Dv * (87. Gulf. Pile-supported structures such as piers and offshore platforms 3. Herbich. Fixed coastal structures include: 1. groins. breaking. Houston.g. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company.15) = 0. and certain types of breakwaters 2.
The distribution of dynamic pressure is shown in Figure 87.75(1 + cos b)Hmax (87. and LD is the wavelength in water depth D. ds is the depth at the toe of the wall. Vicksburg. vols. MS. D is the depth one wavelength in front of the wall. 1987.18) Goda’s method  assumes a trapezoidal pressure distribution (Figure 87. The pressure decreases parabolically from pm at the WL to zero at a distance of Hb/2 above and below the SWL.8. Coastal Engineering Research Center. h = water depth. and L = wavelength. The force represented by the area under the dynamic pressure distribution is pm H b 3 Rm = (87.17) where pm is the maximum dynamic pressure. The Minikin method described by the Department of the Army  estimates the maximum pressure (assumed to act on the SWL) to be: H b ds (D + ds ) LD D pm = 101g (87.9).7 Pressure distributions for nonbreaking waves. Waterways Experiment Station.19) in which b denotes the angle between the direction of wave approach and a line normal to the breakwater. Hb is the breaker height. I and II.) g Hi Ê 1+ cˆ p1 = Á ˜ Ë 2 ¯ cosh(2ph / L) (87.7 shows the pressure distribution at a vertical wall at the crest and trough of a clapotis. Figure 87. (Source: Department of the Army. Corps of Engineers. Hi = incident wave height.16) where c = wave reﬂection coefﬁcient.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-9 Crest of Clapotis at Wall h0 SWL Actual Pressure Distribution d Fc A γh p1 A Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution Trough of Clapotis of Wall SWL Hydrostatic Pressure Distribution F1 Actual Pressure Distribution γh p1 FIGURE 87. Shore Protection Manual. g = unit weight of water. Forces due to breaking waves may be estimated by Minikin and Goda methods. Department of the Army. The pressure extends to a point measured from SWL at a distance given by h*: h* = 0. The wave pressure at the wall is given by © 2005 by CRC Press LLC .
24) .) 1 p1 = (1 + cos b)(a 1 + a 2 cos 2 b)gH max 2 p2 = p1 cosh(2p h / L) p3 = a 3 p1 in which È 4p h / L ˘ a 1 = 0.) p1 η* hc d h pu p2 p3 Buoyancy h′ FIGURE 87. Department of the Army.87-10 The Engineering Handbook. 1987. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company. MS. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering.22) (87. Herbich. Y.20) (87.d Ê H ˆ 2 2d ˘ max ˙ a 2 = min Í b Á ˜ .8 Minikin wave pressure diagram.6 + 0.5Í ˙ Î sinh(4p h / L)˚ 2 (87. J. Random wave interaction with structures. Second Edition pm SWL Hb Dynamic Component Hydrostatic Component ds Combined Total γ (ds + Hb ) 2 FIGURE 87. Shore Protection Manual. ed. (Source: Goda. Vicksburg. Houston. (Source: Department of the Army.9 Distribution of wave pressure on an upright section of a vertical breakwater. Used with permission. Volume 1. Gulf. B. All rights reserved.21) (87. Corps of Engineers.23) È h . Coastal Engineering Research Center. vols. Waterways Experiment Station. 3hb Ë d ¯ H max ˙ Í Î ˚ © 2005 by CRC Press LLC (87. 1990. Houston. I and II.
4 lb/ft3).0 lb/ft3). roughness of the armor unit surface.2P 0. dating back to Roman times.13(S / N 0. (Source: Department of the Army.27) © 2005 by CRC Press LLC .3 H SWL (Minimum) Recommended Three-layer Section FIGURE 87.047 N/m3 (64. Van der Meer  developed stability formulas for plunging (breaking) waves and for surging (nonbreaking) waves. Vicksburg.0P -0. Coastal Engineering Research Center. Note that underlayer units are given in terms of W. I and II. Department of the Army. Sr = speciﬁc gravity of armor unit. the weight of armor units.2 ) For surging waves. and degree of interlocking obtained in placement. gw = unit weight of water: freshwater = 9800 N/m3 (62. sharpness of edges. Corps of Engineers. 1987.) a3 = 1 - ˘ h¢ È 1 1˙ hÍ cosh( h / L ) 2 p ˚ Î (87. Figure 87.2 ) cot ax zp where Hs = signiﬁcant wave height at the toe of the structure (87.1)3 cot q W= (87. seawater = 10.10 Rubble-mound section for wave exposure on both sides with moderate overtopping conditions. For plunging waves.28) (87. g rH3 K D (S r . Waterways Experiment Station. Design SWL W SWL (Minimum) 3r 2r W/10 W/10 W/200 to W/4000 −1. The rubble mound is protected by larger rocks or artiﬁcial concrete units. and KD = stability coefﬁcient that varies primarily with the shape of the armor units. relative to the water at the structure (Sr = wr/ww).18(S / N 0. q = angle of structure slope measured from horizontal in degrees. gr = unit weight (saturated surface dry) of armor unit in N/m3 or lb/ft3.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-11 Crest Width Breakwater Crest Max.10 presents the recommended three-layer section of a rubble-mound breakwater. H s / DDn50 = 1. vols. Shore Protection Manual. MS. This protective layer is usually referred to as armor or cover layer.26) where W = weight in newtons or pounds of an individual armor unit in the primary cover layer. Automated coastal engineering system (ACES) describes the computer programs available for the design of breakwaters using Hudson and related equations. H s / DDn50 * x z = 6.25) Breakwaters Rubble-mound breakwaters are the oldest form of breakwaters.
winds.11 Inﬂuence of slope angle. 1990.5 6 7 8 N = 3000 FIGURE 87. TX.1) = mass density of the stone = mass density of water = nominal diameter of the stone. J. 1992]. bank suction. Volume 1. particularly when passing [Herbich. Gulf. B. W. ed. (Source: Van der Meer. Vessel behavior in channels is a function of bottom suction. Houston. Rubble mounds — Recent modiﬁcations. Dn50 = (W50/ra)1/3 = 50% value (median) of the mass distribution curve = permeability coefﬁcient of the structure 2 = damage level. Navigational channels allow large vessels to reach harbors.87-12 The Engineering Handbook. x z Tz a D ra r Dn50 W50 P S A N tan a 2pH s / gTz2 = zero up-crossing wave period = slope angle = relative mass density of the stone.6 S=5 P = 0. Of paramount design consideration is the safety of vessels in a channel. Used with permission.6 Navigational Channels The development of very large commercial craft (VLCC) and ultralarge commercial craft (ULCC) forced many government planners and port managers to evaluate existing channels. interference of passing ships. D = ra/(r . and currents. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Second Edition 8 PLUNGING WAVES 7 Wave height Hs (m) cot α = 6 SURGING WAVES 6 5 cot α = 4 cot α = 3 4 cot α = 2 cot α = 1. Houston. S = A / Dn 50 = erosion area in a cross-section = number of waves (storm duration) Inﬂuence of breakwater slope angle is depicted in Figure 87. J.5 3 2 0 1 Dn50 = 1 m 2 3 4 5 ξz = cot α / Hs /Lz ∆ = 1. Herbich. TX. Most major maritime countries have criteria regarding the depth and width of channels. 87. The international commission ICORELS (sponsored by the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses — PIANC) recommends that general criteria for gross underkeel clearances can be given for drawing up preliminary plans: © 2005 by CRC Press LLC .11. Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company.) xz = surf similarity parameter. waves. All rights reserved.
) There are many in situ testing devices. straight channel Bend. When exposed to strong and long stern or quarter swells where speed may be high. including density.S.12 shows the deployment systems. shear vane velocity tools. Army Corps of Engineers. 40˚ turn Ship clearance Bank clearance a Very Good 160 325 385 80 60 Good 180 370 440 80 60 plus Poor 200 415 490 80 60 plus Channels with Yawing Forces Judgmenta Judgmenta Judgmenta 100 but not less than 100 ft 150 Judgment will have to be based on local conditions at each project. Source: U.7 Marine Foundations Design of marine foundations is an integral part of any design of marine structures. 1991]. natural gamma logger.3. This may include such techniques as rapid removal of oil from stricken tankers. and containing oil spills under the water surface.2 General Criteria for Channel Widths Minimum Channel Width in Percent of Beam Vessel Controllability Location Maneuvering lane. • Channel. Army Corps of Engineers. side-scan sonars. EM 1110-2-1613. 1983. 87. geotechnical properties of sediments at a given location. Engineering Manual: Hydraulic Design of Deep Draft Navigation Projects. as shown in Table 87. Geotechnical surveys and mapping of seabed characteristics have reached a high degree of sophistication. the gross underkeel clearance should be about 15% of the draft. High-resolution geophysical surveys determine water depth. and wind. For sections exposed to long swells. being lighter than water. several regimes are generally assumed: © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . As oil is spilled. and deep penetration types). sea beam. and subbottom proﬁlers (including shallow. continuous monitoring of oil wells. The Engineering Manual [U. 26˚ turn Bend. and vertical proﬁles. and surges during maximum storm conditions. 1983] provides guidance for the layout and design of deep-draft navigation channels. killing wild wells at sea.2 provides the general criteria for channel widths. Many of the properties may be obtained employing standard geotechnical methods. Deployment systems employed for sampling in situ include self-contained units.S. ﬂoats on the water surface and spreads laterally. U. currents. Bottom-mapping systems include multibeam bathymetry. the gross underkeel clearance should be about 15% of the draft. pressure meter. temperature probes. these include the vane shear test. DC. and deformational characteristics. medium. A number of soil engineering parameters are required. and sediment properties. • Waiting area. When exposed to strong or long swells. Washington. The design criteria require a thorough understanding of marine geology. 87. drilling rigs.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-13 TABLE 87. the gross underkeel clearance should be about 20% of the maximum draft of the large ships to be received. The geotechnical investigation is designed to include sediment stratigraphy. tides. • Open sea area. cone penetrometer test.8 Oil Spills The best method of controlling oil pollution is to prevent oil spills in the ﬁrst place. sediment types. and so forth [Young. Table 87. wave. strength. seaﬂoor imagery. Spilled oil. and submersibles.S. (Figure 87. Army Corps of Engineers. In the arctic areas information on fast ice and pack ice is required for the design of offshore structures (on artiﬁcial islands) and offshore pipelines.
more on rare occasions Note: Su = udrained shear strength. 13 to 33 ft sand 33 to 50 ft clay. f¢ = drained friction angle. f¢ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes f¢ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Sand f or Su Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No Common Properties Clay Cv.3 to 16 1 ft. 13 to 33 ft sand 1 ¥ object width plus embedment depth 3. c = drained cohesion intercept. k = permeability. St Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes c.5 to 2 ¥ anchor width 1 to 1. DC. related to object size and 2 water motion 33 to 100 ft. below individual pile tips To depth of pile anchor To expected penetration of anchor.3 Soil Engineering Parameters Normally Required for Categories of Geotechnical Engineering Applications Strength Properties Application Shallow foundation Deadweight anchors Deep pile foundations Pile anchors Direct-embedment anchors Drag anchors Penetration Breakout Scour Slope stability Soil Classiﬁcation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Grain Size Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Atterberg Limits Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes Clay Su. 10 to 16 1 ft sand for large 2 anchors 33 to 50 ft clay. k Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No Cc Yes No Yes No No No No No No No Sand Cc Yes No No No No No No No No No Subbottom Depth of Survey 1. f = undrained friction angle for sands rapidly sheared. maximum 33 to 50 ft clay.5 ¥ pile group width.5 to 2 ¥ foundation width 1. National Research Council. Cc = compression index. . 1989.TABLE 87. Source: Marine Board. St = sensitivity. Washington. Our Seabed Frontier — Challenges and Choices. Cv = coefﬁcient of consolidation. National Academy Press.
This viscous spreading is described by Ê DgL2t 3/2 ˆ Radius of oil slock = R = k5 Á ˜ Ë v 1/2 ¯ 16 / (87. D = the ratio of the absolute difference between the densities of sea water and the oil to that of seawater. D is the ratio of the difference between density of seawater and oil. or inertial spread. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . gravity-viscous. Our Seabed Frontier — Challenges and Choices.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-15 DRILLING RIG SELF-CONTAINED UNIT Small Vessel Drill Ship Drill String Single Umbilical Umbilical SUBMERSIBLE Thrusting Platform In Situ Tool/Sampler Sensor Fixed Carrier Tool Testrod Stabilizing Mass In Situ Tool/Sampler FIGURE 87. 1989. DC. Washington. in situ. k4 = nondimensional coefﬁcient experimentally determined to be 1.30) where k5 is the nondimensional coefﬁcient determined to be about 1. a transition occurs from the gravity-inertial regime to the gravity-viscous regime.14. and surface tension. dominates and is described by R = k 4 (DgLt 2 )1/4 (87. In the early stage. (Source: Marine Board. the gravityinertial regime. v is the kinematic viscosity of water. National Research Council.29) where R = radius of the oil slick. and t is the time. National Academy Press.12 Deployment systems used for sampling.) gravity-inertial. and experimental testings. L = original volume of oil spilled. g = force of gravity. generally less than 1 h. L is the original volume of spilled oil. and t = time.45. When the oil ﬁlm thickness becomes equal to the viscous layer in the water.
In addition. and r = density of water.32) where Ka = undetermined constant or order unit. t. and a buoyant compliant tower (Figure 87. the mass densities of the oil and the water. the area covered by the oil slick is not allowed to exceed AT . which is written as the sum of two individual forces. Wave forces on certain types of offshore platforms are computed by the Morrison equation. when the ﬁrst steel structure was installed in 18 feet of water. and in currents normal to the barrier greater than about 0. occurs when the oil ﬁlm thickness drops below a critical level. The surface tension spread is described by Ê s 2t 3 ˆ R = k6 Á 2 ˜ Ërv¯ 1/4 (87. For large spills. V = volume of oil that can be dissolved in this layer.S. The equation may be written as p 1 ˙(t ) + C D rD u(t ) u(t ) f (t ) = C M r D 2u 4 2 (87. u © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . as a function of time.31) where k6 = 2. ˙(t ). which is a function of the net surface tension. ﬁxed platforms. with the surface tension spread controlling thereafter. inertia and drag. This is described by Ê s 2V 6 ˆ AT = K a Á 2 3 6 ˜ Ë r vD s ¯ 18 / (87.33) Oil may be set up by wind and current against a barrier. inertial and viscous spreading will dominate for about the ﬁrst week.87-16 The Engineering Handbook. Oil may also be removed from the water surface by skimming devices.7 knots. on the order of 10. is written as a function of the horizontal water particle velocity. D = diffusivity.000 tons. spreading is terminated at the time 12 / 14 / Ê Vr ˆ Ê v ˆ Ê K ˆ t = Á ˜ Á ˜ Á a2 ˜ Ë ss ¯ Ë D ¯ Ë p k 6 ¯ 23 / (87.14). and s = solubility of the signiﬁcant oil fractions in the water. and the force of gravity. Deep-water marine structures include gravity platforms. in moderate currents. Most mechanical-type oil containment barriers fail in wave heights greater than 2 ft.13). continental shelf in water depths less than 600 feet (Figure 87. Although the exact mechanisms that cause the termination of spreading are unknown. f. Since that time over 4100 template-platforms have been constructed on the U. when the wave steepness ratio is greater than 0. guyed tower. tension-leg platform. therefore. the terminal areas of several oil slicks have been observed and used to determine an analytical relationship for the maximum area of a given oil spill based on the properties of the oil.9 Offshore Structures Many types of offshore structures have been developed since 1947. 87. Most mechanical skimming devices have only been able to work in waves less than 2 to 3 ft in height. s = surface tension. the surface tension regime. any containment device must take the setup estimates into account.30. at the axis of the cylinder. and is dependent on u(t). Second Edition The last phase. experimentally determined.08.34) The force. and the horizontal water particle acceleration. There are a number of containment devices (barriers) that prevent oil from spreading.
Copyright 1990 by Gulf Publishing Company. All rights reserved. (Source: Young. Houston. +5 m 1:7 Batter Pile Loads Ult. Load 1 mn 8 Main Piles –1.5 mn FIGURE 87. Houston. G. 4 Skirt Piles –grouted in sleeves El. 1991. Volume 2.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-17 12–Well Structure El. B. Marine foundation studies. DC. Axial Capacity 18 mn Design Lat.2 m diameter –Welded at top –91.) © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. 1989. Gulf. ed. − 85 m Template Weight 19.5 m penet. Washington. Herbich. Our Seabed Frontier — Challenges and Choices. Used with permission.13 Template-type pile foundation structure. National Research Council.) GRAVITY PLATFORM WATER DEPTH FEET METERS FIXED PLATFORM GUYED TOWER 700–2000 FEET (200–600 METERS) TENSION-LEG PLATFORM 1000–3000 FEET (300–900 METERS) BUOYANT COMPLIANT TOWER 1000–2500 FEET (300–750 METERS) 0–700 FEET (0–200 METERS) 0–1000 FEET (0–300 METERS) 2000 600 FLOATING PLATFORM 500 1500 400 GUY-LINES 1000 300 TETHERS 200 500 100 SEABED ANCHOR PILES 0 0 FIGURE 87. A. (Source: Marine Board. National Academy Press. J.14 Range of water depths for various types of deep-water marine structures.
The vertical motions are usually low. The design and dynamic analysis of offshore platforms. or other unconsolidated material built on the sea ﬂoor in shallow water by waves and currents. gravel. r. Mean high water (MHW) — The average height of the high waters over a 19-year period. Ebb current — The tidal current away from shore or down a tidal stream. When a part of a train of waves is interrupted by a barrier. or surf beat also may cause oscillations. pile foundations. Probable maximum water level — A hypothetical water level (exclusive of wave run-up from normal wind-generated waves) that might result from the most severe combination of hydrometeorological. Fetch — The area in which seas are generated by a wind having a fairly constant direction and speed. topside structures. Deﬁning Terms Armor unit — A relatively large quarry stone or concrete shape that is selected to ﬁt speciﬁed geometric characteristics and density. the effect of diffraction is manifested by propagation of waves into the sheltered region within the barrier’s geometric shadow. Variable winds. Hurricane — An intense tropical cyclone in which winds tend to spiral inward toward a core of low pressure. and other geophysical factors and that is considered reasonably possible in the region involved. Dunes — (1) Ridges or mounds of loose. Groin — A shore protection structure built (usually perpendicular to the shoreline) to trap littoral drift or retard erosion of the shore. Bar — A submerged or emerged embankment of sand. (2) The decrease of water-particle motion with increasing depth. Attenuation — (1) A lessening of the amplitude of a wave with distance from the origin.5 meters per second (75 mph or 65 knots) for several minutes or longer at some points. Second Edition the water density. usually associated with an increase in the height of the tide. Tropical storm is the term applied if maximum winds are less than 33. In normal cases it is used as primary wave protection and is placed in thicknesses of at least two units. respectively. Diffraction — The phenomenon by which energy is transmitted laterally along a wave crest. with maximum surface wind velocities that equal or exceed 33.5 meters per second. Artiﬁcial nourishment — The process of replenishing a beach with material (usually sand) obtained from another location. This level represents the physical response of a body of water to maximum applied © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . geoseismic. which include jacket structures. Flood current — The tidal current toward shore or up a tidal stream. may be found in Hsu . but when oscillations are excited by a tsunami or storm surge. and dynamic analysis. such as a breakwater. See seiche. with each of these factors considered as affecting the locality in a maximum manner. air oscillations. Sometimes used synonymously with fetch length or generating area. (2) Bed forms smaller than bars but larger than ripples that are out of phase with any water-surface gravity waves associated with them. corrections are applied to eliminate known variations and reduce the results to the equivalent of a mean 19-year value. Harbor oscillation (harbor surging) — The nontidal vertical water movement in a harbor or bay. For shorter periods of observations. wind-blown material. they may be quite large. usually associated with the decrease in height of the tide.87-18 The Engineering Handbook. It is usually of nearly uniform size and usually large enough to require individual placement. The quantities CM and CD are deﬁned as the inertia (or mass) coefﬁcient and the drag coefﬁcient. Particle motion resulting from surface oscillatory waves attenuates rapidly with depth and practically disappears at a depth equal to a surface wavelength. usually sand. discussion of wave forces is given in Chakrabarti .
3). D. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Dally.S. Coastal Engineering Research Center. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Tokyo. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Coastal Engineering Research Center. (Ed. Scour — Removal of underwater material by waves and currents. It is a water level with virtually no risk of being exceeded. B. Ocean Engineering T. Department of the Army. 20th Coastal Engineering Conference. Herbich. Vicksburg. Waterways Experiment Station. Gulf Publishing Co. I and II. R.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-19 phenomena such as hurricanes.. Houston. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston. DE. B. 1991.. primarily designed to prevent erosion and other damage due to wave action. Chakrabarti. B. Y. moving squall lines.. MS. 1296–1310. causing the wave crest to bend toward alignment with the underwater contours. 1987. pendulum fashion.. table. T. after the cessation of the originating force. Gulf Publishing Co. The part of the wave advancing in shallower water moves more slowly than that part still advancing in deeper water. G. Goda. J. Herbich. Gulf Publishing Co. Beach proﬁles. and Dean. B. Volume 2. 1985. Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Tech. J. Newark. Houston. MS. R. ASCE. or mathematical equation showing the distribution of wave energy as a function of wave frequency.S. ed. L. Undistorted Froude Number for Surf Zone Sediment Transport. G. and astronomical tide. Dean. R. pp. Dean. Proc.. Automated Coastal Engineering System. Tokyo University Press. tsunamis. Herbich. which may have been either seismic or atmospheric. 44. J. Mem. K. Equilibrium Beach Proﬁles: U. The spectrum may be based on observations or theoretical considerations. Several forms of graphical display are widely used. divers Savants a L’Academie des Science. Volume 1. B. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . Department of the Army. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston. 1). Signiﬁcant wave — A statistical term relating to the one-third highest waves of a given wave group and deﬁned by the average of their heights and periods. U. Wave forces on offshore structures. Houston. J.. Herbich. 1991 (vol. Coast Erosion and the Development of Beach Proﬁles. Volume 1. Wave spectrum — In ocean wave studies. ed. No. Department of the Army. rainfall. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Stream function wave theory and applications. Department of Civil Engineering. runoff. Waterways Experiment Station. University of Delaware. a graph. ed.R. 1992 (vol. combined with maximum probable ambient hydrological conditions such as wave setup. vols. Corps of Engineers. Houston. Refraction — (1) The process by which the direction of a wave moving in shallow water at an angle to the contours is changed. P. 1954. References Boussinesq. 1986. J. ed. 1954. (2) An oscillation of a ﬂuid body in response to a disturbing force having the same frequency as the natural frequency of the ﬂuid system. G. Seawall — A structure separating land and water areas.. Army Corps of Engineers. Kriebel. Gulf Publishing Co. Y. Hsu. J. Herbich. Random wave interaction with structures.. Volume 2. Volume 2. Vicksburg. R. G. Beach Erosion Board. Corps of Engineers. Design and dynamic analysis of offshore platforms. 2). W. B. Memo. Shore Protection Manual. especially at the base or toe of a shore structure. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. S. (2) The bending of wave crests by currents. 12. 1992. Bruun. Goda. No. Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures. other cyclonic meteorological events. Essai sur la theorie des eaux courantes. The composition of the higher waves depends upon the extent to which the lower wave are considered. H. Herbich. R.) 1990 (vol. Dean. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. 1990. ed. 1991. Seiche — (1) A standing wave oscillation of an enclosed water body that continues. 1990. J. 32:56. Tides are now considered to be seiches induced primarily by the periodic forces caused by the sun and moon. Department of the Army. 1991. and river ﬂow. No. 1977. 1877.
Port. R. Marine Outfalls Systems. B. Technical Standards for Port and Harbour Facilities in Japan. Arlington. Gulf Publishing Co. Texas A&M University. Coastal Engin. J. International Dredging Review: Bimonthly. Watanabe. Japan.. ed. beach erosion. Report advances in coastal and ocean engineering. Herbich. Port Engineering. B. R. Englewood Cliffs. Prentice Hall. Irvine... Belgium. P. FL. J. PIANC Bulletin: Published quarterly by the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses. Gulf Publishing Co. A comprehensive treatment of marine outfalls. D.. Marine Board. 1 and 2. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. A. Washington. 4th ed. Houston. 11(3):219–239. Marine Technology Society conference proceedings: Published by the Marine Technology Society. U. Chiyoda-ku. contract reports. A series of papers on coastal processes. Sea Technology: Published monthly by Compass Publications. Stability of breakwater armor layers — Design formula. J. CA. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . A.S. B. Army Corps of Engineers. J.S. Van der Meer. VA. ed. Design guidelines for ocean-founded structures. Coastal and Ocean Engineering: Published bimonthly by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Fort Collins. Report annually on topics in ocean engineering. IEEE proceedings of ocean conferences: Published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Reports case studies. Waterways Experiment Station. Offshore Technology Conference Preprints: Published by the Offshore Technology Conference. miscellaneous papers): Published by the Army Corps of Engineers.. W. 1978. American Gas Association project reports: Published by the American Gas Association. EM 1110-2-1613. Engineering Manual: Hydraulic Design of Deep Draft Navigation Projects. Report advances in ocean engineering. Boca Raton. P. 1983. 3-2-4 Kasumigaseki. The Hague. Y. TX. World Dredging. Washington. Bruun. Further Information ASCE Journal of Waterway. 1991. ed. TX. A comprehensive treatment on port and harbor design. Houston. Dallas. VA. 1969. DC. and replenishment. TX. 1980: Published by the Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan. and Dunlap. American Petroleum Institute standards: Published by the American Petroleum Institute. K. Tsuchiya. B. J. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. W. CRC Press. Second Edition Le Méhauté. Herbich. Houston. Herbich. 1991. Arlington. R. An Introduction to Hydrodynamics and Water Waves. National Research Council reports: Published by the National Academy Press. J. 1990. Department of Commerce. Center for Dredging Studies abstracts: Published by the Center for Dredging Studies. Tokyo. Grace. 1989–90. Handbook of Coastal Processes and Erosion. Threshold of sand movement. Schiller.. the Netherlands. U. Vicksburg. Mining & Construction: Published monthly by Wodcon Association. Environmental Science Services Administration. Young. Dallas. G. College Station. 1983. Jr. Gulf Publishing Co. Washington. Gulf.87-20 The Engineering Handbook. W. Volume 1. DC. Terra et Aqua: Published by the International Association of Dredging Companies. New York. Reports advances in coastal and ocean engineering. ERL 118-POL31&2. Rubble mounds — Recent modiﬁcations. U. NJ. Coastal Engineering Research Center (Technical reports. Marcel Dekker. Houston. Army Corps of Engineers. Inc. MS. In Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Seaﬂoor Scour. E.. A. Report No. DC. J. 1987. Volume 2. Van der Meer. ASCE specialty conference proceedings: Published by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Brussels. Marine foundation studies. B. Komar. 1987. Houston. vols. Herbich.S.. CO. Volume 2.
Handbook of Dredging Engineering. McGraw-Hill. B. J. B. New York. Offshore Pipelines Design Elements. 1992. A comprehensive treatise on the subject of dredging engineering. Information relating to design of offshore pipelines. © 2005 by CRC Press LLC . New York. 1981.Shallow Water and Deep Water Engineering 87-21 Herbich. J. Marcel Dekker. Herbich.