Problem 13.1 The position of point P relative to point O is given as a function of time by s = 40 + 2t 3 ft.

Determine the position, velocity, and acceleration of the point at t = 4 s. Strategy: Use Eqs. (13.3) and (13.4) to determine the velocity and acceleration as functions of time. Solution:
s = 40 + 2t 3 ft v= ds = 6t 2 ft/s dt s(4s) = 168 ft ⇒ v(4s) = 96 ft/s a(4s) = 48 ft/s

O s

P

s

dv = 12t ft/s2 a= dt

Problem 13.2 The milling machine is programmed so that the position of its head is given as a function of time by s = 0.3 − 0.2 cos(5t) m. (When t is in seconds, the argument of the cosine is in radians.) (a) (b) Determine the velocity of the head as a function of time. What is the acceleration of the head at t = 4 s?
s

Solution:
s = 0.3 − 0.2 cos(5t) v= a= ds = sin(5t) dt dv = 5 cos(5t) dt ⇒ v = sin(5t)m a(4s) = 2.04 m/s2

Problem 13.3 The person drops a ball at time t = 0. The ball’s position relative to the ﬂoor is given as a function of time by s = −16.1t 2 + 4 ft. (a) (b) (c) How long does it take the ball to fall to the ﬂoor? What is the ball’s velocity just before it hits the ﬂoor? Determine the ball’s acceleration.

s

Solution:
s = −16.1t 2 + 4 ds v= = −32.2t dt a = −32.2 a) 0 = −16.1t 2 + 4 ⇒ t = 0.498 s ⇒ b) v(0.498s) = −16.05 ft/s c) a = −32.2 ft/s2
sϭ0

What is the boat’s maximum velocity during this interval of time.67 m/s .24t 2 dt dv = 3.96 m/s2 a(4s) = 1. (a) (b) Determine the boat’s velocity and acceleration at t = 4 s.48t = 0 ⇒ t = 6.08t 3 m.28 m/s2 b) a = 3.08t 3 v= a= ds = 4 + 3.6t 2 − 0.4 The boat’s position during the interval of time from t = 2 s to t = 10 s is given by s = 4t + 1.67s v(6.6t 2 − 0.48t dt ⇒ a) v(4s) = 12.2t − 0. and when does it occur? Solution: s = 4t + 1.2 − 0.67s) = 14.2 − 0.Problem 13.

5 The rocket starts from rest at t = 0 and travels straight up. the rocket’s velocity and acceleration are v = 229 m/s and a = 28. At t = 10 s. where b and c are constants.6 m/s a = 22.2 m/s2 = 2b + 1200 c Solving.2 m/s2 . we get v = 104. Its height above the ground can be approximated by the function s = bt 2 + ct 4 .Problem 13.2 m/s2 . What are its velocity and acceleration at t = 5 s? Solution: s = bt 2 + ct 4 v = 2bt + 4ct 3 a = 2b + 12ct 2 At t = 10 s (1) (2) s v = 229 m/s = 20b + 4000 c a = 28.006625 substituting these into (1) and (2) and evaluating at t = 5 s.125 and c = 0. we get b = 10.

(a) (b) What is the maximum velocity during this interval of time. At this point = −3 so we have a maximum. and at what time does it occur? What is the acceleration when the velocity is a maximum? dv = 0 (it could be a minimum) dt da This occurs at t = 4 s.6 The position of a point during the inter1 3 val of time from t = 0 to t = 6 s is given by s = − 2 t + 2 6t + 4t m. dt Maximum velocity occurs where a = (a) Max velocity is at t = 4 s. where v = 28 m/s and (b) a = 0 m/s2 Solution: 3 2 s = −1 2 t + 6t + 4t m 2 v = −3 2 t + 12t + 4 m/s a = −3t + 12 m/s2 .Problem 13.

6 This is indeed a maximum.7 The position of a point during the interval of time from t = 0 to t = 3 seconds is s = 12 + 5t 2 − t 3 ft. from which dt t= 10 = 1. dt . (a) (b) What is the maximum velocity during this interval of time.667 seconds. The maximum dt 2 Solution: (a) ds = 10t − 3t 2 .Problem 13.667 = 8.33 ft/s (b) The acceleration is dv = 0 when the velocity is a maximum. and at what time does it occur? What is the acceleration when the velocity is a maximum? d2v = −6 < 0. The maximum occurs when The velocity is dt dv = 10 − 6t = 0. since velocity is v = 10t − 3t 2 t =1.

777 m/s ds v= = 0.4 sin(2π t) a) v(0.Problem 13.4 sin (2π t) m. what is the acceleration of P ? s P Solution: s = 0.375s) = −1.8π cos(2π t) dt dv = −1. (a) (b) (c) Determine the velocity and acceleration of P at t = 0.513 m/s2 c) vmax ⇒ t = 0.2 m/s2 b) vmax = 0. What is the maximum magnitude of the velocity of P ? When the magnitude of the velocity of P is a maximum.375 s. nπ ⇒ a = 0 .6π 2 sin(2π t) a= dt ⇒ a(0.8 The rotating crank causes the position of point P as a function of time to be s = 0.8π = 2.375) = −11.

draw graphs of the position s . Solution: . and acceleration a of point P as functions of time for 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 s. conﬁrm that the slope of the graph of s is zero at times for which v is zero. Using your graphs. velocity v .Problem 13.9 For the mechanism in Problem 13. and the slope of the graph of v is zero at times for which a is zero.8.

An engineer analyzing the data determines that for a 10-s interval of time beginning at t = 0. 1. . dt 2 The acceleration maxima occur at d2v d3s = 2 = 0. 2 These acceleration maxima have the absolute value dv dt 2 2 nπ = 0. 4 d2s = −0. dt from which 2π t = (2n − 1)π (2n − 1) . . . 2. M. 2.8π 3 sin(2π t) = 0.4π 2 cos(2π t).Problem 13.10 A seismograph measures the horizontal motion of the ground during an earthquake. the position is approximated by s = 100 cos(2π t) mm. where 2 n = 1. or t = . 2 The acceleration is n .628 m/s. n = 0. 2 4 where (2M − 1) ≤ 10 seconds.2π ] = 0. .2π sin(2π t) m/s. K .95 m/s . . or t = K ≤ 10 seconds. t= t= (2n−1) 4 . 3. These velocity maxima have the absolute value ds dt = [0.4π = 3.4π 2 cos(2π t) = 0. What are (a) the maximum velocity and (b) maximum acceleration of the ground during the 10-s interval? Solution: (b) (a) The velocity is ds = −(2π )100 sin(2π t) mm/s = −0. . dt The velocity maxima occur at dv = −0. dt 3 dt from which 2π t = nπ .

(b) What are the position and acceleration when the velocity is a maximum? s Solution: s = 30t 2 − 20t 3 mm v = 60t − 60t 2 mm/s a = 60 − 120t mm/s2 da = −120 mm/s3 dt (a) dv Maximum velocity occurs when = a = 0.5 − 2. (since da/dt < 0.5 mm s = 5 mm a = 0 mm/s2 .Problem 13.11 During an assembly operation. we have a maximum). (a) Determine the maximum velocity during this interval of time. This occurs at dt 0 = 60 − 120t or t = 1/2 second. the robot’s arm moves along a straight horizontal line. The velocity at this time is (b) v = (60) 1 2 − 60 1 4 mm/s v = 15 mm/s The position and acceleration at this time are s = 7. During an interval of time from t = 0 to t = 1 s. the position of the arm is given by s = 30t 2 − 20t 3 mm.

where b = − 25 125 . Engineers measuring the position of the car ﬁnd that from t = 0 to t = 18 s the position is 1 1 approximated by s = 5t 2 + t 3 − t 4 ft. 12 This is a maximum since 12 d2a < 0.85 25 = −3. and that t is measured in seconds. t =11. At t = 11. accelerates.17 25 The maximum acceleration is a = 10 + 2t − 6 2 t 25 = 14.85 t =4. (a) The velocity is 2 3 ds = v = 10t + t 2 − t ft/s.12 In the test of a prototype car. The negative value is outside the interval of interest. 25 2 3 t 25 = 125. the driver starts the car from rest at t = 0. t =11. 6 3 (b) The maximum velocity is v = 10t + t 2 − Acceleration is a= dv = 10 + 2t − dt 6 t 2.85 The maximum occurs at da 12 =2− t = 0. dt 25 The maximum occurs at dv 6 2 = 10 + 2t − t = 0.52 seconds.17 ft/s2 . c=− . √ with the solution t = −b ± b2 − c = 11. 3 50 (a) (b) What is the maximum velocity. dt 25 from which t= 50 = 4. dt 25 In canonical form this quadratic equation is t 2 + 2bt + c = 0.85 s there is a maximum since 12 d2v t = 2− dt 2 t =11.Problem 13. and at what time does it occur? What is the maximum acceleration. and at what time does it occur? s Solution: Assume that s is measured in feet.85 or −3.69 < 0.8 ft/s.17 . and then applies the brakes. =− dt 2 t =4.17 seconds.

(a) (b) Determine A. C . where A. from which 448 = 64C + 512D . At t = 8 seconds s = 448 ft. C . (b) The position is given by s = 15t 2 − t 3 . s = 176 ft. B . and D . What are the approximate velocity and acceleration of the vehicle at t = 8 s? The velocity at t = 8 seconds is v = 30t − 3t 2 t =8 Solution: (a) At t = 0. Solve these two simultaneous equations to obtain C = 15 and D = −1 . from which 176 = 16C + 64D . . from which the velocity is v= ds = 30t − 3t 2 . the velocity is zero.Problem 13. Since the vehicle starts from rest at t = 0. and D are constants. B . At t = 4 s. dt = 48 ft/s . The acceleration is a= dv = 30 − 6t. and s = Bt + Ct 2 + Dt 3 . s = 0. s = 448 ft. At t = 4 seconds. s = 176 ft. dt The acceleration at t = 8 seconds is a = [30 − 6t ]t =8 = −18 ft/s2 . The vehicle starts from rest at t = 0 and s = 0. and at t = 8 s. hence 0 = A . and 0 = B .13 Suppose you want to approximate the position of a vehicle you are testing by the power series s = A + Bt + Ct 2 + Dt 3 .

At t = 0. v = −10 m/s.14 The acceleration of a point is a = 20t m/s2 . 3 where C1 is the constant of integration. 3 . hence C1 = −10 and the velocity is v = 10t 2 − 10 m/s. At t = 3 seconds. thus C2 = 40.Problem 13. s = 40 m. The velocity at t = 3 seconds is v = 10t 2 − 10 t =3 = 80 m/s . s= 10 3 t − 10t + 40 3 = 100 m. t =3 At t = 0. When t = 0. What are the position and velocity at t = 3 s? Solution: The velocity is v= a dt + C1 . s= (10t 2 − 10) dt + C2 = 10 3 t − 10t + C2 . where C2 is the constant of integration. s = 40 m and v = −10 m/s. Thus v= 20t dt + C1 = 10t 2 + C1 . The position is s= v dt + C2 . The position is s= 10 3 t − 10t + 40 m.

At t = 0. and the velocity as a function of time is v = 30t 2 − 12t 3 + 20 ft/s .15 The acceleration of a point is a = 60t − 36t 2 ft/s2 . and the position is s = 10t 3 − 3t 4 + 20t ft . The position is s= v dt + C2 = (30t 2 − 12t 3 + 20) + C2 At t = 0. v = 20 ft/s. What are position and velocity as a function of time? Solution: The velocity is v= a dt + C1 = (60t − 36t 2 ) + C1 = 30t 2 − 12t 3 + C1 . = 10t 3 − 3t 4 + 20t + C2 . s = 0. hence C1 = 20.Problem 13. When t = 0. s = 0 and v = 20 ft/s. hence C2 = 0.

Problem 13.16 The snow petrel takes off with constant acceleration. how much time does its takeoff require? Solution: a = constant v = at + v o 0 s = at 2 /2 + s o 0 when s = 4 m.33 s s . v = 6 m/s 4 = at 2 /2 6 = at 4 = (at)t/2 = 6 t/2 t = 1. If it requires a distance s = 4 m and is moving at 6 m/s when it lifts off.

Measurements obtained from videotape indicate that one bird requires 1. where C and D are constants.130 m/s3 Substituting the known numbers.42)2 /2 + D(1.42) + D(1. What are the constants C and D ? Solution: s0 = v0 = 0 a v s = C + Dt = Ct + Dt 2 /2   = Ct 2 /2 + Dt 3 /6    Integrating twice We have two equations in two unknowns. Solving.42)2 /2 4.Problem 13.17 A bioengineer studying the mechanics of bird ﬂight models the acceleration of the snow petrel shown in Problem 13. we get C = 4.42 seconds and a distance of 4. we get 6.16 by an equation of the form a = C + Dt .3 = C(1.3 m to take off and is moving at 6.1 m/s when it lifts off.1 = C(1.20 m/s2 D = 0.42)3 /6 .

000 ft? How fast is it going when it reaches that altitude? U S A R M Y Solution: a = 100g = 100(32. or 100 times the acceleration due to gravity. (a) (b) How long does it take to reach a velocity of 60 mi/h? How long does it take to reach an altitude of 10. Suppose that a missile lifts off from the ground and has a constant vertical acceleration of 100 g ’s.0273 s 10.2 ft/s2 ) = 3220 ft/s2 v = (3220 ft/s2 )t s = (1610 ft/s2 )t 2 a) b) 60 mph 88 ft/s 60 mph = (3220 ft/s2 )t ⇒ t = 0.Problem 13.000 ft = (1610 ft/s2 )t 2 ⇒ t = 2.49 s) = (3220 ft/s2 )(2.49 s v(2.49 s) = 8025 ft/s .18 Missiles designed for defense against ballistic missiles have attained accelerations in excess of 100 g ’s.

Problem 13.81 m/s2 and the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the moon is 1. how high does it go? Solution: a = −g v = −gt + v0 1 s = − gt 2 + v0 t 2 Searth = (10 m/s)2 2(9.10 m = 30.62 m/s2 . how high does it go? If the object is at the surface of the moon and is given an upward velocity of 10 m/s.9 m v0 g 2 v0 g = v0 2 2g + v0 v0 g a) b) Smoon = .19 The acceleration due to gravity at sea level on earth is 9.62 m/s2 ) ⇒ v = −gt + v0 = 0 ⇒ t = 1 s=− g 2 = 5.81 m/s2 ) (10 m/s)2 2(1. (a) (b) If an object at sea level on the earth is given an upward velocity of 10 m/s and aerodynamic drag is negligible.

Problem 13.32t dt (1 + 0.20 The airplane releases its drag parachute at time t = 0.6 ⇒ a(3 s) = −6. a= = 1 + 0.32t)2 .66 m/s2 . Its velocity is given as a function of time by 80 v= m/s.32t What is the airplane’s acceleration at t = 3 s? Solution: v= 80 dv −25. 1 + 0.

Problem 13.21 How far does the airplane in Problem 13.20 travel during the interval of time from t = 0 to t = 10 s?

Solution:
v= 80 ; s= 1 + 0.32t
10 s 0

1 + 3.2 80 dt = 250 ln = 359 m 1 + 0.32t 1

Problem 13.22 The velocity of a bobsled is v = 10t ft/s. When t = 2 s, the position is s = 25 ft. What is its position at t = 10 s?

Solution: The equation for straight line displacement under constant acceleration is
s= a(t − t0 )2 + v(t0 )(t − t0 ) + s(t0 ). 2

Choose t0 = 0. At t = 2, the acceleration is a= dv(t) dt = 10 ft/s2 ,

t =2

the velocity is v(t0 ) = 10(2) = 20 ft/s, and the initial displacement is s(t0 ) = 25 ft. At t = 10 seconds, the displacement is s= 10 (10 − 2)2 + 20(10 − 2) + 25 = 505 ft 2

Problem 13.23 In September, 2003, Tony Schumacher started from rest and drove a quarter mile (1320 ft) in 4.498 seconds in a National Hot Rod Association race. His speed as he crossed the ﬁnish line was 328.54 mi/h. Assume that the car’s acceleration can be expressed by a linear function of time a = b + ct . (a) (b) Determine the constants b and c. What was the car’s speed 2 s after the start of the race?

Solution:
a = b + ct, v = bt + ct 2 , 2 s= bt 2 ct 3 + 2 6

Both constants of integration are zero. (a) 328.54 mph 88 ft/s c = b(4.498 s) + (4.498 s)2 60 mph 2

1320 ft =

b c (4.498 s)2 + (4.498 s)3 2 6 b = 177 ft/s2 c = −31.16 ft/s3 c (2 s)2 = 292 ft/s 2

(b)

v = b(2 s) +

its position is s = 600 m. The position is obtained from the velocity: 6 3 s(t − t0 ) = v(t) dt + s(t0 ) = 200t − 2 3 t 3 6 + 600 = 1070 m . When t = 3 seconds.Problem 13.24 The velocity of an object is v = 200 − 2t 2 m/s. 3 . Choose the initial conditions at t0 = 3 seconds. What are the position and acceleration of the object at t = 6 s? Solution: The acceleration is dv(t) = −4t m/s2 . dt At t = 6 seconds. the acceleration is a = −24 m/s2 .

8 m/s s = 531.1t m/s2 . we get v = 55.1t m/s2 v0 = 42 m/s s0 = 240 m Integrating v = v0 + 2t + 0. What are the vehicle’s position and velocity at t = 6 s? Solution: a = 2 + 0.25 An inertial navigation system measures the acceleration of a vehicle from t = 0 to t = 6 s and determines it to be a = 2 + 0.1t 2 /2 s = v0 t + t 2 + 0.6 m . v = 42 m/s.1t 3 /6 + s0 Substituting the known values at t = 6 s. the vehicle’s position and velocity are s = 240 m.Problem 13. At t = 0.

we have s = −4591 + 3061t − 4gt 2 /z and s = 15000 m.26 The missile shown in Problem 13. They are values that correspond to a constant 4g deceleration starting at t = 0 which ﬂies through the conditions v = 2943 m/s. a = −39.24t m/s s = s0 + v0 t − 39. How long does it take the missile to go from the ground to an altitude of 15 km (approximately 50. Note. s = 4415 m v = 2943 m/s.24t 2 /2 m . We now need to ﬁnd when s = 15000 m.18 lifts off and accelerates for 3 s at 100g ’s.Problem 13. we get t = 6. After 3 s.5t 2 We must solve for v0 and s0 .24 m/s2 v = v0 − 39. s0 = −4591 m. Solving. 2943 = v0 − 4g(3) 4415 = s0 + v0 (3) − 4g(3)2 /z Solving. s = 4415 m at t = 3 s.69 seconds 2 t = 3 s. v0 = 3061 m/s. Thus. v0 and s0 are not the velocity and acceleration at t = 3 s.24 m/s a = −39. For 3 ≤ t.000 ft)? Solution: (0 ≤ t ≤ 3 s) v0 = s0 = 0 a = 981 m/s2 a = 981 m/s2 v = 981t m/s s= At 981t 2 2 m = 490. its weight and aerodynamic drag cause it to have a nearly constant deceleration of 4g ’s.

What is the airplane’s velocity when it rotates (lifts off) at t = 30 s? a 9 ft/s2 3 ft/s2 0 t 0 5s 30 s Solution: Velocity = Area under the curve v= 1 (3 ft/s2 + 9 ft/s2 )(5 s) + (9 ft/s2 )(25 s) = 255 ft/s 2 .27 The graph shows the airplane’s acceleration during its takeoff.Problem 13.

28 Determine the distance traveled during its takeoff by the airplane in Problem 13.5 ft for 5 s ≤ t ≤ 30 s a = 9 ft/s2 .Problem 13. v= 6 ft/s2 5s t2 + (3 ft/s2 )t 2 s= t3 t2 + (3 ft/s2 ) 6 2 v(5 s) = 30 ft/s.5 ft 2 ⇒ s(30 s) = 3625 ft . s(5 s) = 62. Solution: for 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 s a= 6 ft/s2 5s 6 ft/s2 5s t + (3 ft/s2 ). (t − 5 s)2 + (30 ft/s)(t − 5 s) + 62. s = (9 ft/s2 ) v = (9 ft/s2 )(t − 5 s) + 30 ft/s.27.

Problem 13. s = (44 ft/s)t 0 = −ct + 44 ft/s ⇒ a) b) . s = −c At the stop we have 295 ft = −c t2 + (44 ft/s)t + 44 ft 2 c = 3. The driver takes one second to react before he applies the brakes.41 s t2 + (44 ft/s)t + 44 ft 2 88 ft/s 60 mph = 44 ft/s.29 The car is traveling at 30 mi/h when the trafﬁc light 295 ft ahead turns yellow. what constant rate of deceleration will cause the car to come to a stop just as it reaches the light? How long does it take the car to travel the 295 ft? 30 mi/h 295 ft Solution: for 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 s a = 0. (a) (b) After he applies the brakes. v = −ct + 44 ft/s. v = 30 mph s(1 s) = 44 ft for t > 1 s a = −c (constant).857 ft/s2 t = 11.

the motorist misses the deer.8(4.4 m.3 = 4.7 m.8 m/s. h The distance traveled in the ﬁrst interval is s = 27.Problem 13. he applies the brakes and decelerates at a constant rate of 4 m/s2 .33 + 86.8(0. If the deer takes 5 seconds from t = 0 to react and leave the road. The distance traveled in the second interval is a s(t) = − t 2 + v(0)t = −2(4. After a reaction time of 0.3 s) and the time before the deer leaves the road (5 − 0.7)2 + 27.30 A t = 0 a motorist traveling at 100 km/h sees a deer standing in the road 100 m ahead. does the motorist miss it? Solution: Divide the time into two intervals.3) = 8. the reaction time of the motorist (0.7) = 86.4 = 94.3 seconds. The initial velocity is v(0) = 100 km = 27. Yes. 2 The total distance traveled is s(5) = 8. .33 m. which is less than the 100 m from motorist to deer at t = 0.7 s).

from which s(t3 ) = 2500 m. A plot of velocity versus time can be made and the area under the curve will be the distance traveled. and the time required to decelerate from top speed to zero. From symmetry. The distance trav2 /2 from which s(t ) = 2(50)2 /2 = eled during this time is s(t1 ) = at1 1 2500 m. The third time interval is given by v(t3 ) = −at3 + 100 = 0. The distance trav2 eled at top speed is s(t2 ) = 100000 − 2500 − 2500 = 95000 m = 95 km. The initial time is obtained from v(t1 ) = at1 . For the comfort of the passengers. Determine the time required for a trip of 100 km. Solution: Divide the time of travel into three intervals: The time required to reach a top speed of 100 m/s. from which t2 = 950. and the distances traveled during these intervals are equal.31 A high-speed rail transportation system has a top speed of 100 m/s. The time of travel is obtained from the distance traveled at zero acceleration: s(t2 ) = 95000 = 100t2 . the ﬁrst and last time intervals are equal. The length of the constant speed section of the trip can be adjusted to force the length of the trip to be the required 100 km. Recall that the change in the position from an initial time t0 to a time t is equal to the area deﬁned by the graph of the velocity as a function of time from t0 to t . The total time of travel is ttotal = t1 + t2 + t3 = 50 + 950 + 50 = 1050 s = 17. Check. the time traveling at top speed. the magnitude of the acceleration and deceleration is limited to 2 m/s2 .Problem 13. The distance traveled is s(t3 ) = a 2 − t3 + 100t3 . Check. Strategy: A graphical approach can help you solve this problem. from which t3 = 100/2 = 50 s.5 minutes . from which t1 = 100/2 = 50 s. .

The length of the middle interval is s(t2 ) = d − s(t1 ) − s(t3 ) = 3.63751 × 109 seconds. The time required to reach 0. then decelerates at 0. coasts until time to decelerate. Proxima Centauri.2422 day) = 3.01 g (0. t3 = t1 . suppose that a spacecraft accelerates from the vicinity of the Earth at 0. Ignoring relative motion between the solar system and Proxima Centauri. = a 0. A solar year is 365.2422 days 1 days 86400 sec The distance traveled is s(t1 ) = a 2 t + v(0)t + s(0). In solar years: ttotal = 1.year)(3 × 108 m/s)(365. 2 1 . from which s(t1 ) = 4.0777 × 1016 m.026 × 109 seconds.0581 × 108 seconds.0981 m/s2 86400 s 1 day where v(0) = 0 and s(0) = 0 (from the conditions in the problem).01 times the acceleration due to gravity at sea level) until it reaches one-tenth the speed of light. 3 × 107 The total time of ﬂight is ttotal = t1 + t2 + t3 = 1.587 × 1015 m. is 4.1 times the speed of light is t1 = v 3 × 107 m/s = 3. From symmetry.63751 × 109 sec = 51.Problem 13.22 light . The time of ﬂight at constant velocity is t2 = 3. Divide the time of ﬂight into the three intervals. How long does the trip take? (Light travels at 3 × 108 m/s.22 light years from the Earth.2422 solar days. and s(t1 ) = s(t3 ).32 The nearest star.0777 × 1016 m = 1.) Solution: The distance to Proxima Centauri is d = (4.995 × 1016 m.01 g until it comes to rest in the vicinity of Proxima Centauri.9 solar years 1 solar years 365.

The total distance traveled is s(t2 − 10) = a (t2 − 10)2 + v(10)(t2 − 10) + s(10). t = 10 s.33 ft 2 since v(0) = 0. −30 and . 2 from which (b) s(5) = −30 2 5 + 150(5) + 583.33 = 958. and the car has a constant acceleration a = −30 ft/s2 until it comes to rest. hence the maximum occurs at the end of the interval. Solution: (a) For the ﬁrst interval.Problem 13. from which (t2 − 10) = − 150 = 5.33 A race car starts from rest and accelerates at a = 5 + 2t ft/s2 for 10 seconds. t2 ≥ 10 s.33 ft. the velocity is v(t) = (5 + 2t) dt + v(0) = 5t + t 2 (c) the total time of travel is t2 = 15. The velocity is an increasing monotone function. Determine (a) the maximum velocity. (b) the total distance traveled. (c) the total time of travel. (b) The distance traveled in the ﬁrst interval is s(10) = 10 0 (5t + t 2 ) dt = 5 2 1 3 t + t 2 3 10 = 583. 0 The time of travel in the second interval is v(t2 − 10) = 0 = a(t2 − 10) + v(10). from which vmax = 150 ft/s . The brakes are then applied.

The displacement in the ﬁrst interval is s(t) = 2t + 2 3 t +2 3 dt + 6 = t 2 + 1 4 t + 2t + 6. (a) (b) What is the total time of travel? What total distance does the point move? The total time of travel is (a) (b) ttotal = 39. the velocity is v(t − 6) = a(t − 6) + v(6) = 0. the position of a point is s = 6 m and its velocity is v = 2 m/s.5) + 270. from which (t − 6) = − v(6) 158 =− = 39. from which the total distance is stotal = 3390 m The displacement at the end of the interval is s(6) = 270 m. t ≥ 6.Problem 13.5)2 + 158(39. The distance traveled is s(t − 6) = −4 (t − 6)2 + v(6)(t − 6) + s(6) 2 Solution: For the ﬁrst interval the velocity is v(t) = (2 + 2t 2 ) dt + v(0) = 2t + 2 3 t + 2 m/s. the acceleration of the point is a = 2 + 2t 2 m/s2 . 6 = −2(39. From t = 6 s until it comes to rest.34 When t = 0.5 + 6 = 45. From t = 0 to t = 6 s. its acceleration is a = −4 m/s2 . For the second interval. 3 The velocity at the end of the interval is v(6) = 158 m/s.5. a −4 .5 seconds.

The distance traveled at the end of the 2 second phase is ss (t) = 18.Problem 13. The total distance traveled at the end 2 of the second phase is stotal = Vc (11) + 55.1 = 234.1 m.513 2 ss (t) = (4) = 36.06 m/s.78 m/s for the cheetah. If the animals run along the same straight line. and as = = 4. Divide the intervals into the acceleration phase and the chase phase. For the springbuck.7 = 126. The permissible separation between the two at the beginning for a successful chase is d = sc (15) − ss (15) = 361.11 m. For the cheetah. and Vs = 65 km/h = 18. the distance traveled in the ﬁrst is 6. start at the same time.35 Zoologists studying the ecology of the Serengeti Plain estimate that the average adult cheetah can run 100 km/h and that the average springbuck can run 65 km/h. the distance traveled during the acceleration phase is 4.56 m.56 = 361.513 m/s2 for the 4 4 springbuck.1 − 234. how close must the a cheetah be when the chase begins to catch a springbuck in 15 s? Solution: The top speeds are Vc = 100 km/h = 27.7 m. The acceleration is ac = Vc Vs = 6.4 m . and are each assumed to have constant acceleration and reach top speed in 4 s.06(11) + 36.94 m/s2 for the cheetah.94 2 sc (t) = (4) = 55.

This distance is traversed in the time t2 = 44 = 6. The separation between the two cars at 4 seconds is d = 440 − 396 = 44 ft.467) ft/s = 9. (80 − 75)(1.Problem 13. 2 The distance traveled by the pursued car during this acceleration is sc (t1 ) = 75(1. . If the police begin constant acceleration at the instant they are passed and increase their speed to 80 mi/h in 4 s.467)(4) = 396 ft.36 Suppose that a person unwisely drives 75 mi/h in a 55 mi/h zone and passes a police car going 55 mi/h in the same direction.467) The total time is ttotal = 6 + 4 = 10 seconds. The acceleration of the police car is a= (80 − 55)(1. how long does it take them to be even with the pursued car? Solution: The conversion from mi/h to ft/s is 1.467)t1 = 110(4) = 440 ft. 4s The distance traveled during acceleration is s(t1 ) = 9.169 ft/s2 .169 2 (4) + 55(1.467 ft − h mi − second .

what dt 2 ft 2 ft Strategy: The position of P relative to O as s = (2 ft) cos θ + (2 ft) cos θ and take the derivative of this expression with respect to time to determine the velocity. dt dt For θ = 1 radian and dθ = 1 radian/second. O θ P s Solution: The distance s from point O is s = (2 ft) cos θ + (2 ft) cos θ.37 If θ = 1 rad and is the velocity of P relative to O ? dθ = 1 rad/s.Problem 13. dt ds = v(t) = −4(sin(1 rad)) = −4(0.841) = −3. The derivative is ds dθ = −4 sin θ .37 ft/s dt .

dθ /dt = −2 rad/s and d 2 θ /dt 2 = 0.Problem 13. dt dt The acceleration is d2s = −4 cos θ dt 2 from which d2s = a = −4 cos(1 rad)(4) = −8.64 ft/s2 dt 2 dθ dt 2 − 4 sin θ d2θ dt 2 . . what are the velocity and acceleration of P relative to O ? Solution: The velocity is ds dθ = −4 sin θ = −4(sin(1 rad))(−2) = 6. if θ = 1 rad.38 In Problem 13.37.73 ft/s .

what dt is the velocity and acceleration of P relative to O ? If θ = 1 rad and 200 mm θ 400 mm Solution: The acute angle formed by the 400 mm arm with the horizontal is given by the sine law: 200 400 = . α = 0. 400 O P s For θ = 1 radian.5 cos θ dθ dt .39 dθ = 1 rad/s. sin α sin θ from which sin α = 200 sin θ. s = 200 cos θ + 400 cos α. cos α dα dt = 0. dθ dt .4343 radians.Problem 13. The position relative to O is. From the expression for the angle α. The velocity is ds = v(t) = −200 sin θ dt dθ dt − 400 sin α dα dt . . from which the velocity is v(t) = (−200 sin θ − 200 tan α cos θ) Substitute: v(t) = −218.4 mm/s .

Problem 13.40 An engineer designing a system to control a router for a machining process models the system so that the router’s acceleration during an interval of time is given by a = −0.4v in/s2 , where v is the velocity of the router in in/s. When t = 0, the position is s = 0 and the velocity is v = 2 in/s. What is the velocity at t = 3 s?
s

Solution:
a=
v 2 in./s

dv = −(0.4 s−1 )v dt dv = v
3s 0

−(0.4 s−1 )dt ⇒ ln

v 2 in./s

= −1.2

v = (2 in./s)e−1.2 = 0.602 in./s

Problem 13.41 What is the position of the router in Problem 13.40 at t = 3 s? Solution:
a=
v 2 in./s

dv = −(0.4 s−1 )v dt dv = v
t 0

−(0.4 s−1 )dt ⇒ ln

v 2 in./s

= −(0.4 s−1 )t

v=

ds −1 = (2 in./s)e−(0.4 s )t dt
3s 0

s(3 s) =

(2 in./s)e−(0.4 s

−1 )t

dt = 3.494 in.

Problem 13.42 The boat is moving at 10 m/s when its engine is shut down. Due to hydrodynamic drag, its subsequent acceleration is a = −0.05v 2 m/s2 , where v is the velocity of the boat in m/s. What is the boat’s velocity 4 s after the engine is shut down? Solution:
a=
v 10 m/s

dv = −(0.05 m−1 )v 2 dt dv = −(0.05 m−1 ) v2 10 m/s 1 + (0.5 s−1 )t
t 0

dt ⇒ −

1 v

v 10 m/s

= −(0.05 m−1 )t

v=

v(4 s) = 3.33 m/s

43 In Problem 13.Problem 13.42.97 m .5 s−1 )t 2 + (1 s−1 )(4 s) 2 4 s 0 10 m/s 1 + (0.42 we know v= 10 m/s ds = ⇒ s(4 s) = dt 1 + (0. what distance does the boat move in the 4 s following the shutdown of its engine? Solution: From Problem 13.5 s−1 )t dt s(4 s) = (20 m) ln = 21.

4 in. Its downward acceleration is a = 2./s) 1 − e−(0.4 − 0.4 in.Problem 13.6v in/s2 .6 s−1 )v dt dv (2./s ./s) − (0. where v is the ball’s velocity in in/s.44 A steel ball is released from rest in a container of oil./s) − (0./s = t ⇒ v = (4 in.6 s −1 )v = 0 t dt − v + 4 in.6 s−1 )t v(2 s) = 2.795 in./s 5 ln 3 4 in. What is the ball’s downward velocity 2 s after it is released? Solution: a= v 0 dv = (2.

44 we know v= ds = (4 in.6 e 3 − 1 + (4 in.44./s)t s(2 s) = 3. (−0.6 dt t 0 s−1 )t s(2 s) = (4 in./s) 1 − e−(0.Problem 13./s) 1 − e−(0.6 s−1 )t s−1 )t dt = 20 in.34 in. .45 In Problem 13. what distance does the ball fall in the ﬁrst 2 s after its release? Solution: From 13.

9g (1 − e−ct ) dt.81 m/s2 and the constant c = 3.9g ds = (1 − e−ct ).225 m. dt c At t = (64)(60) = 3840 s.9g c t+ e−ct 1 − .9g − cv . .9g − cv. A steel ball released at the surface requires 64 minutes to reach the bottom. c c dv = 0. dt Integrating. s 0 ds = 0 t 0.46 The greatest ocean depth yet discovered is the Marianas Trench in the western Paciﬁc Ocean. v= 0. The ball’s downward acceleration is a = 0.02 s−1 . we obtain s = 11.Problem 13. where g = 9. c Separating variables and integrating. Integrating and solving for v .9g − cv t 0 dt = t. What is the depth of the Marianas Trench in kilometers? Solution: a= dv = 0. v 0 We obtain s= 0.

0003 ft−1 )v 2 dt dv (14 ft/s2 ) − (0.0003v 2 ft/s2 .Problem 13.0003 ft−1 )v 2 = 0 t 200 ft/s 0 dt t = 25.47 The acceleration of a regional airliner during its takeoff run is a = 14 − 0.1 s . where v is its velocity in ft/s. How long does it take the airliner to reach its takeoff speed of 200 ft/s? Solution: a= dv = (14 ft/s2 ) − (0.

Problem 13.47.48 In Problem 13.0003 ft−1 )v 2 ds vdv (14 ft/s ) − (0. what distance does the airliner require to take off? Solution: a=v dv = (14 ft/s2 ) − (0.0003 ft 2 −1 200 ft/s 0 )v 2 = 0 s ds s = 3243 ft .

she falls at a constant velocity. When the parachute opens s = 0 and v = 30 m/s. From then on.4 m/s (c) Choose coordinates such that distance is measured positive downward. g − cv 2 . v = 14. The velocity is related to position by the chain rule: dv dv ds dv = =v = a.4 m/s2 The velocity as a function of distance is ln |g − cv 2 | = −2c(s + C).49 A sky diver jumps from a helicopter and is falling straight down at 30 m/s when her parachute opens. (a) (b) (c) What is the value of c.Problem 13. from which C=− 1 2c ln |g − 900c| = −7. (a) After the initial transient. her downward acceleration is approximately a = g − cv 2 .81 m/s2 and c is a constant. After an initial “transient” period she descends at a nearly constant velocity of 5 m/s.4398. dt ds dt ds from which v dv = ds.3924 m−1 v2 (5)2 m2 /s2 Integrate: − 1 2c ln |g − cv 2 | = s + C.81 m/s2 = = 0. when the velocity is highest: amax = |g − cv 2 | = |g − c(30)2 | = 343. where g = 9. For s = 2 m. The maximum acceleration (in absolute value) occurs when the parachute ﬁrst opens. so that the acceleration is zero and cv 2 = g . from which c= (b) g 9. and what are its SI units? What maximum deceleration is the sky diver subjected to? What is her downward velocity when she has fallen 2 meters from the point where her parachute opens? Solution: Assume c > 0.

Problem 13. What total distance does the sled travel? Solution: Acceleration Phase a = 30 + 2t m/s2 v = 30t + t 2 m/s s = 15t 2 + t 3 /3 m When v = 400 m/s. v1 = 400 m/s.003v 2 m/s2 until its velocity decreases to 100 m/s. vf = 100 m/s a=v sf s1 dv = −0. At this point. It then hits a water brake and its acceleration is a = −0.003) . t = 10 s and s = 1833 m. acceleration ends.50 The rocket sled starts from rest and accelerates at a = 30 + 2t m/s2 until its velocity is 400 m/s.003) vf v1 ds = − v dv v2 sf − 1833 m = − sf = 2300 m 1 [ln(100) − ln(400)] (0. Deceleration Phase starts at s1 = 1833 m.003v 2 ds 1 (0. Let us start a new clock for the deceleration phase.

51 In Problem 13.50. We need to ﬁnd out how long it takes to decelerate from 400 m/s to 100 m/s and add this to the 10 s required for acceleration. At t = 10 s.5 s 3 400 t = 10 + td = 12.Problem 13. The deceleration is given as a= td 0 dv = −0.003 dv v2 =− 1 1 − 100 400 −0. what is the sled’s total time of travel? Solution: From the solution to Problem 13.5 s .003td = − 1 v 100 400 0. the velocity is 400 m/s.50.003td = td = 2.003v 2 m/s2 dt dt = 100 400 −0. the acceleration takes 10 s.

How fast is the car moving when s = 420 m? Solution: a=v vf 12 dv = 0. the car is moving at 12 m/s.01s m/s2 .01 s ds 100 420 m 100 m v2 2 vf = 0.01 12 m/s 2 vf s2 2 2 = 122 (4202 − 1002 ) + 0.01 2 2 vf = 42.01s m/s2 ds 420 v dv = 0.5 m/s . When s = 100 m.Problem 13.52 A car’s acceleration is related to its position by a = 0.

The velocity at s = 2 ft is v = 4 + 4(22 ) = 20 ft/s Solve for a and carry out the differentiation.53 Engineers analyzing the motion of a linkage determine that the velocity of an attachment point is given by v = A + 4s 2 ft/s. its acceleration is measured and determined to be a = 320 ft/s2 . ds . What is its velocity of the point when s = 2 ft? Solution: The velocity as a function of the distance is v dv = a. ds When s = 2 ft. a = 320 ft/s2 . a=v dv = (A + 4s 2 )(8s).Problem 13. When s = 2 ft. where A is a constant. from which A = 4.

54 The acceleration of an object is given by the function a = 2s ft/s2 . What is the velocity when the object has moved 2 ft from its initial position? Solution: The differential equations for the velocity and distance are dv = 2s. v = 1 ft/s. separate variables and integrate: v dv = 2s. v = 3 ft/s where the positive sign on the square root is chosen because the velocity increases with distance. v 2 = 9. At s = 2 ft.Problem 13. dt and ds = v. When t = 0. . ds from which C1 = 1 and v 2 = 2s 2 + 1. dt Use the chain rule.

where s is the position of the projectile in the barrel in meters and c is a constant that depends on the initial gas pressure behind the projectile.5 m c ds s ⇒ (200 m/s)2 3m = c ln 2 1. Determine the value of the constant c necessary for the projectile to leave the barrel with a velocity of 200 m/s. Assume that the acceleration of the projectile is given by a = c/s m/s2 . The projectile starts from rest at s = 1. Solution: a=v dv c = .55 Gas guns are used to investigate the properties of materials subjected to high-velocity impacts.85 × 103 m2 /s2 .5 m and accelerates until it reaches the end of the barrel at s = 3 m.5 m c = 28.⇒ ds s 200 m/s 0 s vdv = 3m 1.Problem 13. A projectile is accelerated through the barrel of the gun by gas at high pressure.

4 (200 m/s)2 = −2.86 × 103 m2. ⇒ ds s 200 m/s 0 vdv = 3m 1.5c (3m)−0.Problem 13.) Determine the value of the constant c necessary for the projectile to leave the barrel with a velocity of 200 m/s.55 is air.4 2 c = 38. a more accurate modeling of the acceleration of the projectile is obtained by assuming that the acceleration of the projectile is given by a = c/s γ m/s2 . where γ = 1.4 /s2 .55.5 m c ds s 1.4 is the ratio of speciﬁc heats for air.4 − (1.56 If the propelling gas in the gas gun described in Problem 13. (This means that an isentropic expansion process is assumed instead of the isothermal process assumed in Problem 13.5m)−0.4 . Solution: a=v dv c = 1.

from which v 2 /2 = −2s 2 + C . from which C = 1/2. and that you give the mass a velocity v = 1 m/s in the position s = 0. s1 = +1/2 m is the distance traveled before the spring brings it to a stop. separate variables. . Suppose that a = −4s m/s2 . the velocity on the ﬁrst return is negative (opposite the sign of the initial displacement). At the return to s = 0. the velocity is v = ± v = −1 m/s . 4 2 Since the displacement has the same sign as the velocity. (b) 2 = ±1 m/s. 2 from which s1 = ± 1 1 = ± m. and integrate: v dv = −4s ds . (a) The velocity is zero at the position given by 0 = −2(s1 )2 + 1 .Problem 13. The velocity is v 2 /2 = −2s 2 + 1/2. From 2 the physical situation. The initial velocity v(0) = 1 m/s at s = 0. Substitute the given acceleration. the mass is subjected to a deceleration proportional to s . The coordinate s measures the displacement of the mass relative to its position when the spring is unstretched. (a) (b) How far will the mass move to the right before the spring brings it to a stop? What will be the velocity of the mass when it has returned to the position s = 0? s Solution: The velocity of the mass as a function of its position is given by v dv/ds = a . If the spring is linear.57 A spring-mass oscillator consists of a mass and a spring connected as shown.

Problem 13. 2 At t = 0. v = 0 and s = 1 m.58 In Problem 13.] . [Note: From the initial conditions. the velocity is negative (opposite the sign of the initial displacement): √ v = −2 1 − s 2 m/s . Determine the velocity of the mass as a function of s as it moves from the initial position to s = 0.57. The velocity is given by 1 √ v(s) = ±(−4s 2 + 4) 2 = ±2 1 − s 2 m/s.57. the velocity as a function of position is given by v2 = −2s 2 + C. s 2 ≤ 1 always. Solution: From the solution to Problem 13. From the physical situation. suppose that at t = 0 you release the mass from rest in the position s = 1 m. from which C = 2(1)2 = 2.

dt ds √ = ±2 dt. and v = 0. Determine the position of the mass as a function of time as it moves from its initial position to s = 0. from which s(t) = cos 2t m where the negative sign for the square root is chosen because s decreases with increasing t at t = 0 + · · · Separate variables and integrate: Use the chain rule: v dv = −4s.Problem 13.59 In Problem 13.57. suppose that at t = 0 you release the mass from rest in the position s = 1 m. 1 − s2 At t = 0. s = 1 m. from which C = cos−1 (1) = 0. s = 1 m. dt . − cos−1 (s) = ±2t + C. ds Separate variables and integrate: v 2 = −4s 2 + C . and v 2 = 4(1 − s 2 ) Substitute: √ ds = ±2 1 − s 2 . dt and ds = v. At t = 0. from which C = 4. Solution: The differential equations for the velocity and position are dv = −4s.

The maximum velocity occurs where = 0. the mass falls 1. we have v 2 = dv 2(32. (a) How far does the mass fall? (b) What is the maximum velocity of the mass as it falls? s Solution: The acceleration is given by a= dv dv ds dv = =v = 32. Substituting this value for s into the equation for v .2 − 25s)s .2)2 − 50 502 .55 ft/s . ds dv = From the original equation for acceleration. Its downward acceleration is a = 32. 0 = (32. or vMAX = 4. Since we want maximum velocity. or s = (32.2 − 50s ft/s2 .288 ft before coming to rest. Thus.2s − 25s 2 . dt ds dt ds Integrating.288 ft.2)2 (25)(32. From the integration of the equation of motion. we have a = v ds 2 (32.Problem 13. we can assume that v = 0 at this point.2 − 50s).2 − 50s ft/s2 .2 − 50s) ds or v2 = 32.60 The mass is released from rest with the springs unstretched.2s − 25s 2 ). Setting v = 0.2/50) ft when v = vMAX . 2 (a) The mass falls until v = 0. we get 0 = (32. we get v 0 v dv = 0 s (32. We ﬁnd v = 0 at s = 0 and at s = 1. Thus. where s is the position of the mass measured from the position in which it is released. we get 2 =2 vMAX (b) (32.2 − 50s) ft/s .

(a) (b) How far does the mass fall? What is the maximum velocity of the mass as it falls? (a) The mass falls until v = 0 0 = (10 ft/s)2 + (64.2 ft/s2 )s − (50 s−2 ) s2 2 v 2 = (10 ft/s)2 + (64.2 ft/s2 ) − (50 s−2 )s ds vdv = 0 s [(32.2 ft/s2 ) − (50 s−2 )s ]ds v 2 = (10 ft/s)2 + (64.60 is in the position s = 0 and is given a downward velocity of 10 ft/s.2 ft/s2 ) − (50 s−2 )s ⇒ s = 0.Problem 13.20 ft (b) The maximum velocity occurs when a = 0 0 = (32.4 ft/s2 )s − (50 s−2 )s 2 ⇒ s = 2.4 ft/s2 )s − (50 s−2 )s 2 .644 ft)2 v = 10.644 ft v2 2 − (10 ft/s)2 2 = (32.4 ft/s2 )(0.99 ft/s Solution: a=v v 10 ft/s dv = (32.61 Suppose that the mass in Problem 13.644 ft) − (50 s−2 )(0.

from which v0 = 24. .62 If a spacecraft is 100 mi above the surface of the earth.000 mi from the center of the earth? The radius of the earth is 3960 mi. Then 0 = 2(78962.000 mi Solution: For computational convenience.5 1 2 + C. namely miles and hours: g= 32.486. ds . and H = 238.913.000. 2 v dv = −gRE From which v0 = √ 599575671 = 24.7) 39602 238. 2 from which C = −10405562 mi2 /h2 . At the 100 mile altitude. − s0 H v0 = 2 2gRE Suppose that the velocity at the distance of the Moon’s orbit is zero.2 mi/h. check.Problem 13. Neglect the effect of the moon’s gravity. (where H > s0 always). ds s Separate variables. s2 Integrate: 2 − v 2 = −2gRE Check: Use the result of Example 13.4862 mi/h Converting: v0 = 24486.7 mi/h .000 + C. the equation for the velocity is 2 =2 g v0 2 RE RE + 100 + C. what initial velocity v0 straight away from the earth would be required for the vehicle to reach the moon’s orbit 238. The velocity as a function of position is given by gR 2 dv v = a = − 2E .1 ft/s .2 mi 1h 5280 ft 1 mi 1h 3600 s = 35.17 ft 1 s2 1 mile 5280 ft 36002 s2 1 h2 = 78962. 1 1 . (See Example 13. convert the acceleration due to Earth’s gravity into the units given in the problem.5) 100 mi 0 238.

0 × 106 m) = 1395 m/s The maximum velocity occurs when v = 0 r= 2G = 6010 km 2G − r0 v0 2 ⇒ h = r − r0 = 4272 km .89 × 1012 m3 /s2 . dv G =− 2 ⇒ ds s v v0 vdv = − r r0 v0 2 1 1 G v2 − =G − ds ⇒ s2 2 2 r r0 v 2 = v0 2 + 2G r0 − r rr0 (a) (b) v(r0 + 1.Problem 13.738 × 106 m.89 × 1012 m/s2 . r0 = 1. The magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity of the moon at a distance s from the center of the moon is 4.63 The moon’s radius is 1738 km. (a) (b) What will the magnitude of its velocity be when it is 1000 km above the surface of the moon? What maximum height above the moon’s surface will it reach? v0 = 2000 m/s a=v Solution: Set G = 4. s2 Suppose that a spacecraft is launched straight up from the moon’s surface with a velocity of 2000 m/s.

Problem 13.64* The velocity of an object subjected only to the earth’s gravitational ﬁeld is
2 2 v = v0 + 2gRE

1 1 − s s0

1/2

,

where s is position relative to the center of the earth, v0 is the velocity at position s0 , and RE is the earth’s radius. Using this equation, show that the object’s acceleration 2 2 is given as a function of s by a = −gRE /s . Solution:
2 + 2gR 2 v = v0 E

1 1 − s s0

1/2

a=

dv dv =v dt ds
2 2 2gRE 2gRE − s s0

2+ Rewrite the equation given as v 2 = v0

Take the derivative with respect to s . 2gR 2 dv =− 2E ds s

2v

Thus a=v gR 2 dv − 2E ds s

Problem 13.65 Suppose that a tunnel could be drilled straight through the earth from the north pole to the south pole and the air evacuated from it. An object dropped from the surface would fall with the acceleration a = −gs/RE , where g is the acceleration of gravity at sea level, RE is radius of the earth, and s is the distance of the object from the center of the earth. (The acceleration due to gravitation is equal to zero at the center of the earth and increases linearly with the distance from the center.) What is the magnitude of the velocity of the dropped object when it reaches the center of the earth? Solution: The velocity as a function of position is given by
v dv gs . =− ds RE

N Tunnel s RE

S

Separate variables and integrate: v2 = − g RE s 2 + C.

At s = RE , v = 0, from which C = gRE . Combine and reduce: v 2 = gRE 1 − s2 2 RE √ gRE

At the center of the earth s = 0, and the velocity is v =

Problem 13.66 Determine the time in seconds required for the object in Problem 13.65 to fall from the surface of the earth to the center. The earth’s radius is 6370 km. Solution: From Problem 13.65, the acceleration is
a=v
v 0

g dv =− s ds RE
s RE

v du = −

g RE

s ds

v2 =

g RE

2 − s2) (RE

Recall that v = ds/dt v=
0 RE

ds g =± dt RE g RE
tf

2 − s2 RE

ds
2 − s2 RE

dt
0

g tf = ± sin−1 RE tf = ±

s RE

0 RE

= ± sin−1 (1)

RE π = ±1266 s = ±21.1 min g 2

4 m/s . ax = 40 y = t 3 + 40t. Solution: x = 20t 2 − 160.8 m/s2 (80)2 + (52)2 = 95.67 The coordinates (in meters) of a point moving in the x -y plane are given as functions of time by x = 20t 2 − 160 and y = t 3 + 40t . Determine the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration of the point at t = 2 s.Problem 13. vy = 3t 2 + 40. vx = 40t. ay = 6t vx (2) = 40(2) = 80 ⇒ v= vy (2) = 3(2)2 + 40 = 52 ax (2) = 40 ay (2) = 6(2) = 12 ⇒ a= (40)2 + (12)2 = 41.

7 m r|t =4s = 266i + 75.3j − 36. the position of the center of mass of the F-14 at the time shown (t = 0) is r = 10i + 6j + 22k (m).3 m z4 = 0 4 vz dt = −(4t + 2t 3 /3) + z0 z4 = −4(4) − 2(4)3 /3 + 22 = −36.0 m y4 = 0 4 vy dt = 12t + t 3 /3 + y0 y4 = 12(4) + (4)3 /3 + 6 m = 75.68 In terms of a particular reference frame. The velocity from t = 0 to t = 4 s is v = (52 + 6t)i + (12 + t 2 )j − (4 + 2t 2 )k (m/s). What is the position of the center of mass of the plane at t = 4 s? Solution: r0 = 10i + 6j + 22k m v = (52 + 6t)i + (12 + t 2 )j − (4 + 2t 2 )k m/s x4 = 0 4 vx dt = 52t + 3t 2 + x0 x4 = (52)(4) + 3(4)2 + 10 m = 266.7k (m) .Problem 13.

69 The acceleration of an object moving in the x -y plane is a = (4t − 2)i + (−2t 2 + 4)j (ft/s2 ). its position is r = 3i − 2j (ft) and is velocity is v = 6i + 8j (ft/s).Problem 13. What are the position and velocity of the object at t = 3 s? Solution: ax = 4t − 2.5j)ft vx (3) = 2(3)2 − 2(3) + 6 = 18 2 vy (3) = − (3)3 + 4(3) + 8 = 2 3 ⇒ v(3) = (18i + 2j)ft/s . At t = 0. sy = − t 4 + 2t 2 + 8t − 2 3 6 sx (3) = 2 3 (3) − (3)2 + 6(3) + 3 = 30 3 1 sy (3) = − (3)4 + 2(3)2 + 8(3) − 2 = 26. vx = 2t 2 − 2t + 6.5 6 ⇒ r(3) = (30i + 26. sx = 2 3 t − t 2 + 6t + 3 3 2 1 ay = −2t 2 + 4. vy = − t 3 + 4t + 8.

70 A projectile is launched from ground level with initial velocity v0 = 20 m/s.8 m θ0 = 60◦ ⇒ R = 35.3 m . we have 2v0 sin θ0 1 0 = − gt 2 + v0 sin θ0 t ⇒ t = 2 g R = v0 cos θ0 t ⇒ R = v0 2 sin 2θ0 g a) ⇒ b) c) θ0 = 30◦ ⇒ R = 35.3 m θ0 = 45◦ ⇒ R = 40. y 0 u0 x R Solution: Set g = 9. (b) θ0 = 45◦ (c) θ0 = 60◦ . vx = v0 cos θ0 .Problem 13. sy = − gt 2 + v0 sin θ0 t 2 ax = 0. sx = v0 cos θ0 t When it hits the ground. vy = −gt + v0 sin θ0 . Determine its range R if (a) θ0 = 30◦ . v0 = 20 m/s 1 ay = −g.81 m/s2 .

71 A projectile is launched from ground level with an initial velocity v0 = 20 m/s. g ◦ 2v0 2 cos 2θ0 dR ◦ = = 0 ⇒ θ0 = 45 dθ0 g R(45 ) = v0 2 sin(90◦ ) v0 2 = g g Putting in the numbers for this problem. θ0 = 45◦ .Problem 13.70 we know that R= v0 2 sin 2θ0 . and what is the maximum range? Solution: From 13.8 m . What initial angle θ0 above the horizontal causes the range R to be a maximum. R = 40.

The light line is attached to a weight ﬁred by the mortar. Neglect aerodynamic drag and the weight of the line for your preliminary analysis.70 we know that R= v0 2 sin 2θ0 ⇒ v0 = g Rg sin 2θ0 y 45° 72 x v0 = (300 ft)(32. If you want the line to be able to reach a ship 300 ft away when the mortar is ﬁred at 45◦ above the horizontal.72 Suppose that you are designing a mortar to launch a rescue line from coast guard vessel to ships in distress. what muzzle velocity is required? Solution: From 13.Problem 13.3 ft/s sin(90◦ ) .2 ft/s2 ) = 98.

1 sy = − gt 2 + v0 sin θ0 t 2 When we reach the maximum height.70 we have vy = −gt + v0 sin θ0 .3 ft/s)2 sin2 (45◦ ) 2(32.Problem 13.73 In Problem 13.2 ft/s2 ) = 75 ft . 0 = −gt + v0 sin θ0 ⇒ t = v0 sin θ0 g v0 sin θ0 g 2 1 1 h = − gt 2 + v0 sin θ0 t ⇒ h = − g 2 2 h= v0 2 sin2 θ0 2g + v0 sin θ0 v0 sin θ0 g Putting in the numbers we have h= (98.72. what maximum height above the point where it was ﬁred is reached by the weight? Solution: From Problem 13.

Problem 13. it is 7 ft above the ground. The horizontal distance the shot travels from the point of release to the point where it hits the ground is 60 ft.2 ft/s2 . What was the initial velocity v0 of the shot? 0 30Њ Solution: ax = 0. sx = v0 cos 30 t ay = −32.608 s.1 ft/s2 )t 2 + v0 sin 30 t + 7 ft When it hits the ground we have 60 ft = v0 cos 30 t 0 = −(16. vy = −(32.08 ft/s ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ .74 When the athlete releases the shot.1 ft/s2 )t 2 + v0 sin 30 t + 7 ft Solving simultaneously we ﬁnd t = 1. vx = v0 cos 30 . v0 = 43.2 ft/s2 )t + v0 sin 30 sy = −(16.

vy0 = 0. and y0 = 30 m The equation for y becomes y = 30 − (9.) ax = 0 v x = v x0 x = x0 + vx0 t ay = −g vy = vy0 − gt y = y0 + vy0 t − gt 2 /2 From the problem statement.9 m .Problem 13. vx0 = 40 m/s.75 A pilot wants to drop survey markers at remote locations in the Australian outback. at what horizontal d from the desired impact point should the marker be released? h 0 d Solution: We want to ﬁnd the horizontal distance traveled by the marker before it strikes the ground (y goes to zero for t > 0.81)t 2 /2 Solving with y = 0. we get tf = 2. Substituting this into the equation for x . If he ﬂies at a constant velocity v0 = 40 m/s at altitude h = 30 m and the marker is released with zero velocity relative to the plane.47 s. we get xf = 40tf = 98. x0 = 0.

3) ft (3 feet short of the hole) and (33. Vy = V0 sin θ0 − gt. For hitting (33. The results are: For hitting (27. y = (V0 sin θ0 )t − gt 2 . . x = (V0 cos θ0 )t .3) feet (3 feet beyond the hole).Problem 13.2 ft/s. 2 0 v0 θ 30 ft 3 ft From the x equation. V0 = 34. We can substitute this information the equation for Y with Yf = 3 ft and solve for V0 . The motion in the vertical (y ) direction is given by ay = −g. Solution: Set the coordinate origin at the point where the golfer strikes the ball. we can ﬁnd the time at which the ball reaches the required value of x (27 or 33 feet). The motion in the horizontal (x ) direction is given by ax = 0.3) feet. This time is tf = xf /(V0 cos θ0 ). Vx = V0 cos θ0 . V0 = 31.3) feet. what range of velocities v0 will cause the ball to land within 3 ft of the hole? (Assume the hole lies in the plane of the ball’s trajectory).2 ft/s.76 If the pitching wedge the golfer is using gives the ball an initial angle θ0 = 50◦ . Strategy: We need to ﬁnd the velocities which cause the ball to pass through the points (27.

4◦ Home plate .68 s) 1 6 ft = − (32. What was the ball’s initial velocity.77 A batter strikes a baseball 3 ft above home plate and pops it up.68 s)2 + v0 sin θ0 (3.2 ft/s2 ax = 0 vx = v0 cos θ0 sx = v0 cos θ0 t ay = −g vy = −gt + v0 sin θ0 1 sy = − gt 2 + v0 sin θ0 t + 3 ft 2 Second base 90 90 ft ft When the second baseman catches the ball we have 127. and what was the angle between the ball’s initial velocity vector and the horizontal? Solution: The equations of motion g = 32.68 s) 2 Solving simultaneously we ﬁnd v0 = 70.3 ft = v0 cos θ0 (3.Problem 13.02 ft/s. The second baseman catches it 6 ft above second base 3.68 s after it was hit. θ0 = 60.2 ft/s2 )(3.

Problem 13. (2) (3) (4) . For θ = 1◦ . from which vx = v0 cos θ . from which x(t) = v0 cos θt . Yes. the pitcher misses the strike zone. v0 cos θ Substitute: y(tp ) = h = − g 2 d v0 cos θ 2 + d tan θ + 6. h = 4. from which vy = −gt + v0 sin θ . The time of passage across the home plate is x(tp ) = d = v0 cos θtp . dt dx = v0 cos θ . At a distance d = 58 ft. from which dt g y(t) = − t 2 + v0 sin θt + 6. dy = −gt + v0 sin θ .92 ft No. 2 since the initial position is y(0) = 6 ft. For θ = 2◦ . Let θ be the initial angle of the ball’s velocity vector above the horizontal.91 ft . h = 3. since the initial dt position is zero. dt dvy = −g . (b) if θ = 2◦ . Neglecting aerodynamic effects. the pitcher hits the strike zone. from which tp = d . above the ground to 4 ft 6 in. The velocity equations are (1) dvx = 0.78 A baseball pitcher releases a fastball with an initial velocity v0 = 90 mi/h. 4 ft 6 in 1 ft 10 in 58 ft Solution: The initial velocity is v0 = 90 mi/h = 132 ft/s. The batter’s strike zone extends from 1 ft 10 in. determine whether the ball will hit the strike zone (a) if θ = 1◦ . the height is h. above the ground. When it is released. the ball is 6 ft above the ground and 58 ft from the batter’s plate.

as measured by hand held radar from behind the plate). where d = 58 ft. v0 = 102.8 ft/s .7 mph ≤ v0 ≤ 100.2 ft/s.2 ≤ v0 ≤ 146.5 ≥ h ≥ 1. assume that pitcher releases the ball at an angle θ = 1◦ above horizontal.833. For h = 1. and 4.78. although the 100 mph upper value is achievable only by a talented few (Nolan Ryan. Solution: From the solution to Problem 13. which is within the range of major league pitchers. The pitcher will hit the strike zone for velocities of release of 102.5. Check: The range of velocities in miles per hour is 69. while with the Houston Astros. θ(d tan θ + 6 − h) 2 cos2 . Solve for the initial velocity: v0 = gd 2 .1 mph.8 ft/s. + d tan θ + 6.79 In Problem 13. v0 = 146. and determine the range of velocities v0 ft/s) within which he must release the ball to hit strike zone. and a release angle of θ = 1◦ .Problem 13.78. h=− g 2 d v0 cos θ 2 the the (in the For h = 4.833 ft. would occasionally in a game throw a 105 mph fast ball.

and the velocity of the arrow by VA .33(2. Vx = VA cos θ . The required range when the arrow is released is d + R = 82. At t = dt 0. The rhino travels a distance d = 8. The time of ﬂight is given by g y(tﬂight ) = 0 = − tﬂight + VA sin θ tﬂight .Problem 13. The range of his bow when it is fully drawn and aimed 45◦ above the horizontal is 100 m. The time of ﬂight when the angle is 20◦ is tﬂight = 2VA sin θ = 2. dt dvy = −g . Vy = dt VA sin θ . how far away should the rhino be when the student releases the arrow? 20° Solution: The strategy is (a) to determine the range and ﬂight time of the arrow when aimed 20◦ above the horizontal. g The maximum range (100 meters) occurs when the arrow is aimed 45◦ above the horizon. from which dt g y = − t 2 + VA sin θt + Cy . The speed of the rhino is 30 km/h = 8. (1) dvx = 0. 2 At t = 0.5 m . 2 from which tﬂight = 2VA sin θ . If he fully draws his bow and aims 20◦ above the horizontal. dy = vy = −gt + VA sin θ .3 m.18 s.3 m/s. Vy . y = 0.80 A zoology student is provided with a bow and an arrow tipped with a syringe of sedative and is assigned to measure the temperature of a black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis ). . from which vx = Vx . Cx . Neglect aerodynamic drag on the arrow. from which vy = −gt + Vy .18) = 18. At t = 0. from which Cy = 0. A truculent rhino charges straight toward him at 30 km/h.2 m. x(0) = 0. from which Cx = 0. g and the range is R = VA cos θtﬂight = 64. and then (c) to add this distance to the range of the arrow.33 m/s. At t = 0. g (2) (3) (4) The range is given by x(tﬂight ) = R = VA cos θtﬂight = 2 cos θ sin θ 2VA . dx = vx = VA cos θ . from which x(t) = VA cos θt + Cx . The equations for the trajectory are: Denote the constants of integration by Vx . Solve for the arrow velocity: VA = √ gRmax = 31. Cy . (b) to determine the distance traveled by the rhino during this ﬂight time.

the ball clears the crossbar by 10.06 ft. Suppose that the kicker attempts a 40-yard ﬁeld goal (xc = 120 ft). By what vertical distance does the ball clear the crossbar? Solution: Set the coordinate origin at the point where the ball is kicked. Thus. Substituting in the numbers (g = 32. Substitute this time into the y equation to ﬁnd the y coordinate YB of the ball as it passes over the crossbar. Set x = xc = 120 ft and 2 ﬁnd the time tc at which the ball crossed the plane of the goal posts. 0 θ v0 xc yc . The y motion is given by ay = −g . x = (V0 cos θ0 )t . gt 2 Vy = V0 sin θ0 − gt . y = (V0 sin θ0 )t − . and kicks the ball with an initial velocity v0 = 70 ft/s and θ0 = 40◦ . The x (horizontal) motion of the ball is given by ax = 0.2 ft/s2 ).Problem 13. Vx = V0 cos θ0 . the ball must make the ball go between the two uprights supporting the crossbar and be above the crossbar when it does so.24 s and yB = 20. To kick a ﬁeld goal.81 The crossbar of the goalposts in American football is yc = 10 ft above the ground.06 feet. we get tc = 2.

Problem 13.82 An American football quarterback stands at A. At the instant the quarterback throws the football, the receiver is at B running at 20 ft/s toward C , where he catches the ball. The ball is thrown at an angle of 45◦ above the horizontal, and it is thrown and caught at the same height above the ground. Determine the magnitude of the ball’s initial velocity and the length of time it is in the air. Solution: Set x as the horizontal motion of the football, y as the vertical motion of the football and z as the horizontal motion of the receiver. Set g = 32.2 ft/s2 , θ0 = 45◦ . We have
az = 0, vz = 20 ft/s, sz = (20 ft/s)t 1 ay = −g, vy = −gt + v0 sin θ0 , sy = − gt 2 + v0 sin θ0 t 2 ax = 0, vx = v0 cos θ0 , sx = v0 cos θ0 t When the ball is caught we have sz = (20 ft/s)t 1 0 = − gt 2 + v0 sin θ0 t 2 sx = v0 cos θ0 t sx 2 = sz 2 + (30 ft)2 We can solve these four equations for the four unknowns sx , sz , v0 , t We ﬁnd t = 1.67 s, v0 = 38.02 ft/s

C

Receiver’s path Path of the ball

90Њ

A B 30 ft

Problem 13.83 The cliff divers of Acapulco, Mexico must time their dives that they enter the water at the crest (high point) of a wave. The crests of the waves are 1 m above the mean water depth h = √ 4 m. The horizontal velocity of the waves is equal to gh. The diver’s aiming point is 2 m out from the base of the cliff. Assume that his velocity is horizontal when he begins the dive. (a) (b) What is the magnitude of the driver’s velocity when he enters the water? How far from his aiming point must a wave crest be when he dives in order for him to enter the water at the crest?
26 m

1m

Solution:
t = 0, vy = 0, y = 27 m, x0 = 0 ay = −g = −9.81 m/s Vy = Vy00 − gt y = y0 − gt 2/2

h 6.4 m 2m

27 m
y = 1 m at tIMPACT for an ideal dive to hit the crest of the wave t1 = tIMPACT = 2.30 s Vy (t1 ) = 22.59 m/s ax = 0 Vx = Vx0 XI = Vx0 t1 + X0 At impact XI = 8.4 m. For impact to occur as planned, then Vx = 8.4/t1 = 3.65 m/s = constant The velocity at impact is (a) |V | = (Vx )2 + [Vy (t1 )]2 = 22.9 m/s

8.4 m

√ The wave moves at gh = 6.26 m/s. The wave crest travels 2.30 seconds while the diver is in their s = √ ght1 = 14.4 m.

Problem 13.84 A projectile is launched at 10 m/s from a sloping surface. The angle α = 80◦ . Determine the range R .

10 m/s 30Њ a

R

Solution: Set g = 9.81 m/s2 , v0 = 10 m/s.
The equations of motion are ax = 0, vx = v0 cos(80 − 30 ), sx = v0 cos 50 t 1 ◦ ◦ ◦ ay = −g, vy = −gt + v0 sin(80 − 30 )t, sy = − gt 2 + v0 sin 50 t 2 When the projectile hits we have R cos 30 = v0 cos 50 t 1 ◦ − R sin 30 = − gt 2 + v0 sin 50 t 2
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

⇒ t = 2.32 s,

R = 17.21 m

y 100 ft/s 60° x y = –0. Determine the point of impact. . The surface on which it lands is described by the equation shown. vy = (V0 sin θ0 ) − gt . Strategy: Find the equations for the x and y coordinates of the projectile and substitute them into the equation for the surface.001x 2 . The equation of the surface upon which the projectile impacts is y = −0. tI . Thus.001x 2 Solution: The motion in the x direction is ax = 0.Problem 13. t2 2 . x = (V0 cos θ0 )t . and the motion in the y direction is given by ay = −g .001(V0 cos θ0 )2 tI 2 with the known values. we get (V0 sin θ0 )tI − g I = −0. can be determined by substituting the values of x and y from the motion equations into the equation for the surface. y) = (318. we get tI = 6. Solve for the time of impact then substitute this time back into the equations for the x and y coordinates of the projectile. the time of impact. y = (V0 sin θ0 )t − gt 2 /2.4) ft. We know that V0 = 100 ft/s and θ0 = 60◦ . vx = V0 cos θ0 . Evaluating Hence.85 A projectile is launched at 100 ft/s at 60◦ above the horizontal.37 s Substituting this value into the motion equations reveals that impact occurs at (x.4. −101.

2 Inverting: vy (t) = (3) dvz = az = −1. The components of the ball’s acceleration in m/s2 are ax = −1.66j (m/s) . vx (0) = 2.2t + Vz . What is the velocity of the ball at t = 1 s? y x Solution: Assume that the effect of gravity is included in the given accelerations. vz (0) = 0. vx from which ln(vx ) = −1. or 12 vy (1) = − v = 0. At t = 0.2t − 1).86 At t = 0. az = −1. from which ln vx 2 = −1.2vx .2t. 8 −1. (2) dvy = ay = −8 − 1.2 from which ln 8 + vy 1.2 vy 8 = −1.Problem 13.2vy .2t + Vy . (e 1.2vz .2vz . a steel ball in a tank of oil is given a horizontal velocity v = 2i (m/s). Invert to dt obtain vz (t) = Vz e−1. vy (0) = 0. from ln 1 + 1. and 8 (1 − e−1. 8 + vy 1.2vy . hence Vz = 0 and vz (t) = 0.2vx . At t = 0. At t = 0.2t .66 m/s .2 ) = −4. At t = 1 second. .602i − 4.6024 m/s .2 = −1.2 dt.2t + Vx . from which ln(vz ) = −1. Separate variables and integrate: dt dvx = −1. The equations for the path are obtained from: (1) dvx = ax = −1.2t . Separate variables and integrate: dt dvy = −1.2 = 0.2 dt. Inverting: vx (t) = 2e−1.2t. vx (1) = 2e−1. ay = −8 − 1.

2 = −2.165i − 2. y(0) = 0. from which y(t) = − 8 1.86. 1.2 8 (e−1. 1. from which 1. 1.784j (m) .2t ).2t .2 y(1) = − 8 1. y(t) = − .2t + Cx .2 e−1. x(1) = 2 (1 − e−1.2 1. 1.87 In Problem 13.2 1 +1− 1. At t = 1.Problem 13.2t + t + Cy . The equations for the coordinates: (1) dx = vx = 2e−1.2 e−1. from which x(t) = dy = dt 2 (1 − e−1.2 1. or (2) r = 1.2 8 1. what is the position of the ball at t = 1 s relative to its position at t = 0? Solution: Use the solution for the velocity components from Problem 13.2t − 1).2 ) = 1.2 At t = 0.784 m .2 (3) At t = 0. then z(t) = 0.2t 1 +t − . from which dt x(t) = − 2 e−1.165 m .2 Since vz (0) = 0 and z(0) = 0.2 e−1. x(0) = 0.86. 1.

88 The point P moves along a circular path with radius R .23 y P Solution: x = R cos θ y = R sin θ vx = −R sin θ dθ dt dθ dt θ x vy = R cos θ |V | = Vx2 + Vy2 dθ dt 2 2 |V| = R 2 sin2 θ + R 2 cos2 θ dθ dt 2 |V| = R2 dθ dt (sin2 θ + cos2 θ) |V| = R dθ dt . Strategy: Use Eqs.Problem 13. Show that the magnitude of its velocity is |v | = R |dθ/dt |. 13.

Problem 13. and y dx =− dt x d2x dt 2 =− 1 x = −0.89 If y = 150 mm. what are the magnitudes of the velocity and dt 2 acceleration of point P ? dy = 300 mm/s. y 300 mm + y x2 dx dt dy dt − y x d2y dt 2 = −0. from which x = dy dt dy dt 2 P (R 2 1 − y2) 2 = 0.4619 m/s2 .2598 m. and dt Solution: The equation for the location of the point P is R 2 = x2 + y2. d 2y = 0.3464 m/s |ap | = d2x dt 2 2 + d2y dt 2 2 = 0.4619 m/s2 .1732 m/s. The magnitudes are: 2 2 |vP | = dx dt + dy dt = 0.

01 m/s. = −0. . The acceleration is dt d2x d = dt 2 dt V (2Cx)2 +1 −4C 2 V x ((2Cx)2 + 3 1) 2 Solution: Denote C = 0.0003 x 2 x dx is positive (car is moving to right in sketch).099i + 0. or Substitute and solve: dx = dt V (2Cx)2 + 1 a = −0.90 A car travels at a constant speed of 100 km/h on a straight road of increasing grade whose vertical proﬁle can be approximated by the equation shown. The equation for the road is y = Cx 2 from which dy = 2Cx dt dx dt . When the car’s horizontal coordinate is x = 400 m.0993 m/s2 d2y = 2C dt 2 dx dt 2 + 2Cx d2x dt 2 = 0.414j(m/s2 ) = 27. The magnitude of the constant velocity is dy dt 2 2 V = + dx dt = dx dt .0003 and V = 100 km/h = 27.Problem 13.78 m/s. what is the car’s acceleration? y y = 0.4139 m/s2 .

2g and yp = The primed coordinates: y = y − yp reduce: y =− x = x − xp . 2g y =− g (x )2 2 cos2 θ 2v0 0 to obtain y(x) = − gx 2 + x tan θ0 . The accelerations are ax (t) = 0. 2 2v0 cos2 θ0 y y′ x′ x vx (0) = v0 cos θ0 . dy dx = 0. the equation describing the trajectory is y =− g (x )2 . x(0) = 0. 2 cos2 θ 2v0 0 g 2 + 2x x ) + (x + x ) tan θ ((x )2 + xp p p 0 2 cos2 θ 2v0 0 2 sin2 θ v0 0 . 2 cos2 θ 2v0 0 At the peak. g y = v 2 sin2 θ0 v 2 sin2 θ0 −g(x )2 − 0 − x tan θ0 + x tan θ0 + 0 2 2 2g g 2v0 cos θ0 − 2 sin2 θ v0 0 . peak from which xp = 2 cos θ sin θ v0 0 0 .18.Problem 13. y(t) = − t 2 + (v0 sin θ0 )t 2 Eliminate t from the equations by substituting t= x v0 cos θ0 Solution: The initial conditions are t = 0. 13. y system is obtained by solving the differential equations subject to the initial conditions: g x(t) = (v0 cos θ0 )t. Substitute xp = 2 cos θ sin θ v0 0 0 . y(0) = 0. and vy (0) = v0 sin θ0 . g 2 sin2 θ v0 0 .91 Suppose that a projectile has the initial conditions shown in Fig. ay (t) = −g . 2g y =− − . The path of the projectile in the x . Show that in terms of the x y coordinate system with its origin at the highest point of the trajectory. Substitute and g(x + xp )2 + (x + xp ) tan θ0 − yp .

= vx = −2 sin(2t). Show that (a) the magnitude of the velocity is constant. vx (0) = 0.92 The acceleration components of a point are ax = −4 cos 2t . |a| (3) which always points to the origin. from which vx (t) = −2 sin(2t) + Vx . = vy = 2 cos(2t). from which vy (t) = 2 cos(2t) + Vy . vy (0) = 2. and it does (c) The magnitude of the acceleration: |a| = (−4 cos(2t))2 + (−4 sin(2t))2 = 4 = const . (b) The velocity is v(t) = −i2 sin(2t) + j2 cos(2t). At t = 0.Problem 13. v = 2j. (d) The trajectory path is x(t) = cos(2t) and y(t) = sin(2t). (b) the velocity and acceleration vectors are perpendicular. (d) the trajectory of a point is a circle with its center at the origin. dt from which y(t) = sin(2t) + Cy . At t = 0. (2) The unit vector parallel to the acceleration is e= a = −i cos(2t) − j sin(2t). Solution: The equations for the path are (1) dvx = ax = −4 cos(2t). from which Vx = 0. from which Cy = 0. For az = 0 and zero initial conditions. az = 0. (a) The magnitude of the velocity is |v| = (−2 sin(2t))2 + (2 cos(2t))2 = 2 = const. At t = 0. ay = −4 sin 2t . These satisfy the condition for a circle of radius 1: 1 = x2 + y2 . If the two are perpendicular. The acceleration is a(t) = −i4 cos(2t) − j4 sin(2t). dt dx At t = 0. dt from which x(t) = cos(2t) + Cx . from which Vy = 0. dvy = ay = −4 sin(2t). x(0) = 1. its position and velocity are r = i. the dot product should vanish: a(t) · v(t) = (−2 sin(2t))(−4 cos(2t)) + (2 cos(2t))(−4 sin(2t)) = 0. y(0) = 0. it follows that vz (t) = 0 and z(t) = 0. At dt dy t = 0. (c) the magnitude of the acceleration is constant and points toward the origin. from which Cx = 0.

a stationary wheel is subjected to a constant angular acceleration α = 110 rad/s2 until t = 1 s. ω0 = θ0 = 0 (a) At t = 1 s. θ Solution: α = 110 rad/s2 ω = αt + ω0 2 θ = (1 2 αt ) + ω0 t + θ0 From the problem statement. (a) (b) What is the wheel’s angular velocity at t = 1 s? At t = 0. the angle θ = 0. Determine θ in radians and in revolutions at t = 1 s.Problem 13. θ = 110(1)2 /2 = 55 radians (8.75 revolutions) . ω = (110)(1) + 0 = 110 rad/s (b) At t = 1 s.93 When an airplane touches down at t = 0.

(a) (b) Is dθ/dt positive or negative? What is the magnitude of dθ/dt in rad/s? L θ L0 Solution: (a) Positive.27 × 10−5 rad/s 24(3600) s L θ L0 (b) Actually.01 s. (The earth moves about 1◦ around its orbit each day.) . The ﬁgure shows the earth seen from above the North Pole.Problem 13. The earth rotates such that a point on the equator moves eastward. and let L0 be a ﬁxed reference direction.94 Let L be a line from the center of the earth to a ﬁxed point on the equator. rad 2π ω= = 7. Noon to Noon is 24 hrs. earth rotates 2π radians in 23 hours 56 min 4.

25(3)2 − 0. At t = 0.5 − 1.6(3)2 + 5 = 7. L u L0 Solution: α = 2.5(3) − 0.2t 3 + 5t θ(3) = 1.5t − 0. Determine θ and ω at t = 3 s.6t 2 + 5 θ = 1.95 The angular acceleration of the line L relative to the line L0 is given as a function of time by α = 2.2(3)3 + 5(3) = 20.2t rad/s2 . θ = 0 and the angular velocity of L relative to L0 is ω = 5 rad/s.25t 2 − 0.Problem 13.2t ω = 2.1 rad/s ⇒ .5 − 1.85 rad ω(3) = 2.

α= dt dθ dt dθ Solution: α=ω dω = −2ω2 ⇒ dθ = −2 ω 10 rad/s dω = ω =− π 3 π/3 π/6 −2dθ ln ω 10 rad/s π π − 3 6 ω = (10 rad/s)e−π/3 = 3. What is the angular velocity when θ = 60◦ ? Strategy: Use the chain rule to write the angular acceleration as dω dθ dω dω = = ω. When θ = 30◦ .95 relative to the line L0 is given α = −2ω2 rad/s2 where ω is the angular velocity in rad/s.509 rad/s . the angular velocity is 10 rad/s.96 The angular acceleration of the line L shown in Problem 13.Problem 13.

8 rad/s θ2 = αt dt = αt 2 /2|2 0 = 0.93 s .4 rad/s2 for 2 s. He then turns off the jets and rotates with constant angular velocity. Angular Acceleration Phase: θ0 = 0.8 s 0.Problem 13.8(tf − 2) Solving tf = π + 0. the angular acceleration phase and the constant angular velocity phase. ω0 = 0 α= dω = 0.8 tf = 4.8 rad Constant Angular Velocity Phase: θ = θ2 + ω2 (t − 2) rad We want θf = 180◦ = π radians π = 0. From the time he activates the jets.4 rad/s2 dt 2 0 2 0 ω2 = αdt = αt |2 0 = 0.97 The stationary astronaut activates hydrogen peroxide jets that give him a constant angular acceleration α = 0.8 + 0. how long does it take him to rotate 180◦ relative to his original position? Solution: The motion has two parts.

9 rad/s .2ω ⇒ dt 6 − 0.2ω 6 ω 0 dω = 6 − 0. Its angular acceleration is given by α = 6 − 0.98 The hydroelectric generator is started from rest. where ω is the angular velocity in rad/s. What is the angular velocity of the generator 10 s after it is started? Solution: α= dω = 6 − 0.2ω rad/s2 .Problem 13.2ω 10 s dt 0 − 5 ln = 10 ⇒ ω = 30(1 − e−2 ) ω = 25.

t →∞ The angular velocity at time t is given by dω = α = −0. and θ(t) = 2094.4e−0.99 The rotor of an electric generator is rotating at 200 rpm when the motor is turned off. where ω is the angular velocity in rad/s. ω(0) = 20.01t .01 dt. Due to frictional effects.01ω.01t → 0 into the angular travel to obtain θtotal = 2094.Problem 13. Invert to obtain ω(t) = Ce−0.4.01t + C . The rotor comes to rest at a time so great that ω → 0 = lim (20.01t ).33 revs 2π rad . and C = 2094. ω from which ln(ω) = −0.01t .944e−0. At t = 0. Count the angular travel from the time the motor is turned off. from which C = 20. How many revolutions does the rotor turn after the motor is turned off? Solution: The angular velocity at t = 0 is ω(0) = 200 rev min 1 min 60 s 2π rad rev = 20.01ω rad/s2 .944 rad/s.944 rad/s.944e−0. dt Separate variables and integrate: dω = −0.01t ) → 0. The angular travel is dθ = ω = 20. from which θ(0) = 0.4 rad revs = 333. dt Substitute e−0. from which θ(t) = −2094.01t + C .4(1 − e−0.944. the angular deceleration of the rotor after it is turned off is α = −0.

where θ is the needle’s angular position in radians relative to a reference direction. The needle is given an angular velocity ω = 2 rad/s in the position θ = 0.100 The needle of a measuring instrument is connected to a torsional spring that gives it an angular acceleration α = −4θ rad/s2 . θ = 1 rad = 57.3◦ (b) . (a) (b) What is the magnitude of the needle’s angular velocity when θ = 30◦ ? What maximum angle θ does the needle reach before it rebounds? θ Solution: α=ω dω = −4θ ⇒ dθ ω 2 ωdω = −4 0 θ θdθ ⇒ 22 ω2 − = −2θ 2 2 2 ω = 2 1 − θ2 (a) ω = 2 1 − (π/6)2 = 1.Problem 13.704 rad/s Maximum angle means ω = 0.

(13. The angular velocity of e is ω = dθ/dt = 2 rad/s. constant. n = −i de = −2i rad/s when θ = 90◦ dt (b) e = (1) cos θ i + (1) sin θ j de = − sin θ dt dθ dt i + cos θ dθ dt j y n y n e θ ω = dθ = 2 rad/s dt x e θ = 90° x Evaluating at θ = 90◦ de dθ = − i = −2i rad/s dt dt . Determine the derivative de/dt when θ = 90◦ in two ways: (a) (b) Use Eq.101 The angle θ measures the direction of the unit vector e relative to the x axis. y e θ x Solution: (a) de dθ = n = ωn dt dt when θ = 90◦ . Express the vector e in terms of its x and y components and take its time derivative of e.33).Problem 13.

5841 + π 2 t =4 is a unit vector in the direction of positive θ . The angle is θ = [mod(2t 2 . The angle θ is given as a function of time by θ = 2t 2 rad.5841 rad.102 The angle θ measures the direction of the unit vector e relative to the x axis. t =4 . 2π ) = 0.35j π 2 + j sin 0. de dt = 16 i cos 0. From which. What is the vector d e/dt at t = 4 s? Solution: By deﬁnition: de = dt where n = i cos θ + π 2 + j sin θ + π 2 dθ dt n. 2π )]t =4 = mod(32. The angular rate of change is dθ dt = [4t ]t =4 = 16 rad/s.823i + 13. y ) (“modulus”) is a standard function that returns the remainder of division of the ﬁrst argument by the second. where mod(x.Problem 13.5841 + = −8.

103 The line OP is of constant length R . 2 Use the trigonometric sum-of-angles identities to obtain: n = −i sin θ + j cos θ . (i. de = dt dθ dt n. y = R sin θ .e. perpendicular to e). write the position vector of P relative to O as r = R e where e is a unit vector that points from O toward P . dθ dt . dP =R dt dθ dt (−i sin θ + j cos θ) = Rω0 (−i sin(ω0 t) + j cos(ω0 t)) which is the velocity of the point P relative to the origin O . so that dx dθ = ω0 : = −R sin θ dt dt dy = R cos θ dt dθ dt . Take the derivative and note that R is a constant and θ = ω0 t . where n is a unit vector in the direction of positive θ . Take the derivative: dx dP =i dt dt +j dy dt . and conﬁrm that your result agrees with the result of (a).. Use the relations vx = y P R θ O x Strategy: In part (b). Solution: (a) The point P is described by P = ix + jy . Use the dt dt (b) The coordinates are related to the angle θ by x = R cos θ .33)). and deﬁnition (Eq. dP = Rω0 (−i sin(ω0 t) + j cos(ω0 t)) dt The results are the same.Problem 13. Substitute. . Thus n = i cos θ + π 2 + j sin θ + π . The angle θ = ω0 t . (a) (b) dx dy and vy = to deterdt dt mine the velocity of P relative to O . de dP =R when R is constant. (13. Use Eq. Substitute into the derivative of the vector P. where ω0 is a constant. (13.33) to determine the velocity of P relative to O . Note that P = R e.

104 The armature of an electric motor rotates with a constant angular velocity of 400 rpm (revolutions per minute).35 m/s (b) at = 0.08 m . P (a) (b) What is the magnitude of the velocity of point P relative to point O ? What are the normal and tangential components of the acceleration of P relative to O ? O 80 mm Solution: (a) vP /O = (0. an = (vP /O )2 = 140.Problem 13.4 m/s2 0.08 m)(400 rpm) 2π rad 1 rev 1 min 60 s = 3.

θ = t 3 vP = (0.08)(10)4 = 800 m/s2 ⇒ vP = (8et ) m/s2 aP = (1.Problem 13. Solution: α = 2t.08)2(10) = 1.104 starts from rest at t = 0.6 m/s2 aP n = (0. ω = t 2 . Determine the velocity and acceleration of point P relative to point O in terms of normal and tangential components at t = 10 s.105 The armature shown in Problem 13.6et + 800en ) m/s2 1 3 .08)(10)2 = 8 m/s aP t = (0. Its angular acceleration is given as a function of time by α = 2t m/s2 .

Problem 13.01 rad/s2 t 60 .83 ω = = 3. (b) The angular acceleration is α= 180.106 Suppose you want to design a medical centrifuge to subject samples to a normal acceleration of 1000 g’s.3 The speed in rpm is N =ω rad s 1 rev 2π rad 60 s 1 min = 1730 rpm .83 rad/s.81 = 180. (a) If the distance from the center of the centrifuge to the sample is 300 mm. what constant angular acceleration is necessary? 300 mm Solution: (a) The normal acceleration at a constant rotation rate is an = Rω2 . 0. what speed of rotation in rpm is necessary? (b) If you want the centrifuge to reach its design rpm in 1 min. giving ω= an = R (1000)9.

5t 2 at = (0.9)2 + (2.3 m)(3 rad/s)2 = 2.3 m)(3 rad/s2 ) = 0.85 m/s2 . ω = 3t.Problem 13.9 m/s2 an = (0. θ = 1.106 starts from rest at t = 0 and is subjected to a constant angular acceleration α = 3 rad/s2 .107 The medical centrifuge shown in Problem 13. What is the magnitude of the total acceleration to which the samples are subjected at t = 1 s? Solution: α = 3.7 m/s2 a= (0.7)2 m/s2 = 2.

(a) (b) What speed of rotation in rpm is necessary? If you want the centrifuge to reach the rpm determined in part (a) in 2 min. 13.108 The radial distance from the axis of the centrifuge in Fig.07 rad/s ω = 106 rpm (b) dω = α.07 rad/s = α(120 s) α = 0. what constant angular acceleration is necessary? Solution: r = 8 m (a) aN = ω2 r = 981 m/s2 ω2 = 981/8 rad 2 ω an 8m /s2 ω = 11. Suppose that you want to subject a sample to a normal acceleration of 100g ’s.Problem 13.38 to the sample container is 8 m. constant dt ω = ω0 + αt ω0 = 0 11.0923 rad/s2 .

The tangential component of the boat’s acceleration as a function of time is at = 0.4t m/s2 v = 0.2t 3 /3 s |4s = 4.853en v = 3. (a) (b) What are the boat’s velocity and acceleration in terms of normal and tangential components at t = 4 s? What distance does the boat move along its circular path from t = 0 to t = 4 s? Solution: (a) at = 0.4t m/s2 .2et m/s (b) s = 0.4t et + v 2 /r en a = 1.109 A powerboat being tested for maneuverability is started from rest at t = 0 and driven in a circular path of 12 m radius.Problem 13.6et + 0. a = 0.27 m an = +v 2 /r .2t 2 m/s At t = 4 s.

110 (a) (b) The angle θ = 2t 2 rad. P What are the velocity and acceleration of point P in terms of normal and tangential components at t = 1 s? What distance along the circular path does point P move from t = 0 to t = 1 s? θ 4m O Solution: θ = 2t 2 dθ = 4t = ω dt d2θ rad =4 2 =α dt 2 s s = rθ = 4θ = 8t 2 vt = 16t m/s v = rω = 4(4t) = 16t at = (a) dv = 16 m/s2 dt (b) s = Rθ = 8t 2 = 8(1)2 = 8 m et P eN θ O 4m v = 16(1)et m/s = 16 et (m/s) a = Rα et + Rω2 eN a = (4)(4)et + (4)(42 )eN (m/s2 ) a = 16et + 64eN (m/s2 ) .Problem 13.

110. What are the velocity and acceleration of point P in terms of normal and tangential components when P has gone one revolution around the circular path starting at t = 0? Solution: From the solution to Problem 13.77 seconds. θ = 2t 2 rad ω = 4t rad/s α = 4 rad/s2 s = 8t 2 m vt = 16t m/s at = 16 m/s2 We want to know v and a when θ = 2π .111 The angle θ = 2t 2 rad. vt = 16t et and a = Rα et + Rω2 eN Substituting in the time t1 . Substituting into the ﬁrst eqn. we ﬁnd that θ = 2π when t = t1 = 1.Problem 13.110. From the solution to Problem 13.1eN (m/s2 ) . we get vt = 28.4et (m/s) a = 16et + 201.

the crank AB is rotating with a constant counterclockwise angular velocity of 5000 rpm. y C Solution: ω = (5000 rpm) 2π rad rev min 60 sec = 524 rad/s (a) 1 ft (524 rad/s)et = (87. (b) in terms of cartesian components. Determine the velocity of point B (a) in terms of normal and tangential components.112 At the instant shown. VB = (87.Problem 13.71i − 61.3et ) ft/s VB = (2 in.) 12 in.71j) ft/s 45Њ B A x (b) 2 in .3 ft/s)(− cos 45◦ i − sin 45◦ j) = (−61.

Determine the acceleration of point B (a) in terms of normal and tangential components.700 ft/s2 )(cos 45◦ i − sin 45◦ j) = (32.112 is rotating with a constant counterclockwise angular velocity of 5000 rpm. (b) in terms of cartesian components. 700en ) ft/s2 ap = (45.113 The crank AB in Problem 13.700 (a) aP = (45.Problem 13. 300j) ft/s2 (b) .) (524 rad/s)2 = 45. 300i − 32.693 ft/s2 ≈ 45. Solution: ω = (5000 rpm) 2π rad rev 1 ft 12 in. an = (2 in. min 60 sec = 524 rad/s at = 0.

27 × 10−5 rad/s.0292 m/s2 . |v| = 401 m/s |a| = 0.114 Suppose that you are standing at point P at 30◦ north latitude (that is. What are the magnitudes of your velocity and acceleration relative to a nonrotating reference frame with its origin at the center of the earth? axis of the earth is r = Re cos 30◦ . |a| = ωe P RE 30° Equator Solution: Standing at 30◦ North latitude. Your velocity is given by |v| = rωe and your acceleration is 2 r. (24 h)(3600 s/h) Hence S ωe = 7. a point 30◦ north of the equator).27 × 10−5 rad/s. your radius from the spin N r 30° Re ωe = 2π rad = 7. The radius of the earth is RE = 6370 km.Problem 13.

the magnitude of the airplane’s velocity is 130 m/s.115 At the instant shown.34en ) m/s2 v2 (130 m/s)2 = = 1490 m an 11.Problem 13. and the rate of change of its path angle is dθ/dt = 5◦ /s. an = (130 m/s)ω = 11.34 m/s2 (b) ρ= . its tangential component of acceleration is at = −4 m/s2 . (a) (b) What are the airplane’s velocity and acceleration in terms of normal and tangential components? What is the instantaneous radius of curvature of the airplane’s path? θ Solution: ω = (5 /s) ◦ π rad 180◦ = π rad/s 36 aP t = −4 m/s2 .34 m/s2 (a) vp = (130et ) m/s ap = (−4et + 11.

116 In the preliminary design of a sunpowered car.68 m/s2 50 m .6 m/s2 )s At point B SB = 200 + Thus vB = (18. a group of engineering students estimates that the car’s acceleration will be 0.6 m/s2 ⇒ ds v 0 50 m B A 200 m vdv = 0 s (0.28et ) m/s aB = (0.6 m/s2 .28 m/s. Suppose that the car starts from rest at A and the tangential component of its acceleration is at = 0. aBn = 2 vB = 6.6 m/s2 )ds v 2 = 2(0. What are the car’s velocity and acceleration in terms of normal and tangential components when it reaches B ? Solution: at = v dv = 0.6 m/s2 .68en ) m/s2 50π 2 m ⇒ vB = 18.Problem 13.6et + 6.

6 − 0.6 − 0. the students estimate that the tangential component of the car’s acceleration will be at = 0.20 m/s)2 = 0.20 m/s. 2 vB = 4.197et + 4.002v 2 ⇒ ds aBn = vB 0 50π 2 m sB vdv = 0.002v 2 m/s2 . If the car starts from rest at A.03 m/s2 50 m at = 0.002v 2 ds 0 vB = 14.197 m/s2 Thus vB = (14. where v is the car’s velocity in m/s.Problem 13.6 − 0.20et ) m/s aB = (0.6 − 0.117 After subjecting the car design described in Problem 13.116 to wind tunnel testing.002(14.03en ) m/s2 . what are its velocity and acceleration in terms of normal and tangential components when it reaches B ? Solution: At point B SB = 200 + at = v dv = 0.

001sB )et + v 2 /ρ eN (m/s2 ) Solving.905eN (m/s2 ) .05et (m/s) a = (0.4 − 0.001s m/s2 . SB = 200 + 2πρ/4 where ρ = 50 m.116.001s ds SB 0 v dv = (0.4 − 0. where s is the distance the car travels along the track from point A.001s 2 v2 = 0.001s) ds SB 0 0.4 − 0.4 − 0. a = 0. so SB = 278.05 m/s v = 12.121et + 2.Problem 13.4 − 0.001s m/s2 dt ds dt v v 0 dv = 0. v = 12.5 m Solving for v .4s − 2 2 From Fig.117 is given in terms of the car’s position by at = 0. P13.118 Suppose that the tangential component of acceleration of the car described in Problem 13. What are the car’s velocity and acceleration in terms of normal and tangential components at point B ? Solution: at = dv dv ds = = 0.

66 ft/s2 from the constant acceleration is a= (88)2 − 3441.817 ft/s2 .3 ft/s. the distance is s(2) = 132. The acceleration is a= v2 − C 2s The distance traveled from A to B is s = 2(80) + (30) and the speed in π (120 + 100) = 275 ft.3)2 = = 46. v ds where a is constant.78. 180 At a point 2 seconds past A. The ﬁrst part of the hill ends at 142. Separate variables and integrate: v 2 = 2as + C .8172 + 46.78 = 7. . R 120 The magnitude of the acceleration is [v(s)]s =275 = 60 5280 3600 = 88 ft/s.02 = 46.Problem 13.0 ft/s2 .67 + 7. What is the magnitude of its acceleration 2 s after the car passes point A? y 120 ft 30° B 30° 80 ft 100 ft 80 ft x Solution: Use the chain rule to obtain dv = a.97 ft. The normal acceleration is an = v2 (74.119 A car increases its speed at a constant rate from 40 mi/h at A to 60 mi/h at B .83. A The velocity is as a function of time is v(t) = v(0) + at = 58.817t ft/s. 2(275) Note: This is a large acceleration–the driver (and passengers) would no doubt be uncomfortable. At s = 0. 2 from which C = 3441.817 ft/s2 .817 2 t . The distance from A is s(t) = 58. and the velocity is v(2) = 74. so that at this point the car is still in the ﬁrst part of the hill.67 ft/s. |a| = √ 7. The tangential acceleration is at = 7.67t + 7. v(0) = 40 5280 3600 = 58.

1 = = 59.1 ft/s. The tangential acceleration is at = 7.8172 + 44.817)(120) + 3441.119. R 100 The magnitude of the acceleration is |a| = √ 7. (a) The velocity at a distance 120 ft from A is v(120) = √ 2as + C = √ (2)(7.3 ft/s2 .817 ft/s2 .92 ft/s.817 ft/s2 from Problem 13.817)(160) + C = 77. The normal acceleration is an = (v(160))2 5943.120 The car increases its speed at a constant rate from 40 mi/h at A to 60 mi/h at B . The tangential acceleration is unchanged: at = 7. The normal acceleration is (72. Determine the magnitude of its acceleration when it has traveled along the road a distance (a) 120 ft from A and (b) 160 ft from A.78 (b) The velocity at distance 160 ft from A is v(160) = √ 2(7. an = R 120 The magnitude of the acceleration is At 160 ft the car is on the second part of the hill.32 = 45 ft/s 2 . Solution: Use the solution in Problem 13.] |a| = √ 7.94 ft/s2 [Note: The car will “lift off” from the road.432 = 59.43 ft/s2 .8172 + 59.119.92)2 (v(120))2 = = 44.Problem 13. = 72. At 120 ft the car is in the ﬁrst part of the hill.

or ﬁve times the acceleration due to gravity. Earth’s gravity effectively exerts an acceleration of 1 g in the vertical direction.81 m/s2 ) = 2. Test engineers want to subject the candidates to an acceleration of 5 g ’s.121 Astronaut candidates are to be tested in a centrifuge with 10-m radius that rotates in the horizontal plane. Determine the angular velocity of the centrifuge in revolutions per second so that the magnitude of the total acceleration is 5 g ’s.19 rad/s 10m . Solution: an 2 + g 2 = (5g)2 ⇒ an = an = rω2 ⇒ ω = an /r √ 24g 10 m ω= √ 24(9.Problem 13.

Problem 13.50 m/s2 at the rocket’s altitude. Substituting g = 9. Determine: (a) the normal and tangential components of the rocket’s acceleration.50 m/s2 and v = 3000 m/s into these relations. . where r is the radius of curvature of the path. and (b) the instantaneous radius of curvature of the rocket’s path.75 m/s2 . 60° The normal acceleration is also given by aN = v 2 /r . we get aT = −4. and r = 1094 km. Solution: The components of the acceleration are aT = g cos(60◦ ) toward the rear of the rocket.122 After ﬁrst-stage separation and before the second-stage engines have ﬁred. a rocket is moving at v = 3000 m/s and the angle between its velocity vector and the vertical is 60◦ . aN = 8. the rocket’s acceleration is that due to gravity. Because aerodynamic forces are negligible. which is 9.23 m/s2 . and aN = g sin(60◦ ) normal to the axis of the rocket directed 30 degrees away from straight down.

(a) (b) What are the velocity and acceleration of the shot in terms of normal and tangential components when it is at the highest point of its trajectory? What is the instantaneous radius of curvature of the shot’s path when it is at the highest point of its trajectory? 20° Solution: ax = 0 vx = vx0 = 16 cos 20◦ .81t At highest point.81en (m/s2 ) y et eN x .47 − 9.81 = 23. vy = 0 (a) (b) v = 16 cos 20◦ et = 15. ρ = v 2 /|an | ρ = (15)2 /9.0et (m/s) a = 9.Problem 13. vy0 = 16 sin 20◦ (c) ay = −9.81t = 5.81 m/s 2 |aN | = v 2 /ρ.123 The athlete releases the shot with velocity v = 16 m/s at 20◦ above the horizontal.0 m vy = vy0 − 9.

55◦ |an | = 9.123.67 m/s2 |at | = 9.124 At t = 0.2)2 /9. vx = 15.81 cos r = 9.Problem 13.0 m/s vy = 5. |an | = v 2 /ρ ρ = v 2 /|an | = (15. (a) (b) What are the velocity and acceleration of the shot in terms of normal and tangential components at t = 0.81t m/s v= 2 + v2 vx y At t = 0.3 s.0 m y V et en Vx an r Vy x 9.63et + 9.2et (m/s) We have the following geometry From the diagram tan r = vy /vx r = 9.81 m s2 Solution: From the solution to Problem 13.63 m/s2 a = −1.67en (m/s2 ) r at .3 s.47 − 9.2 m/s v = 15.67 ρ = 24. v = 15.81 sin r = 1.3 s? Use the relation an = v 2 /ρ to determine the instantaneous radius of curvature of the shot’s path at t = 0. the athlete releases the shot with velocity v = 16 m/s.

(13. vy = vy0 − 9. Also.81 dx v x0 d2y 2 = −9.81t. the athlete releases the shot with velocity v = 16 m/s.168 dx d2y = −0.125 At t = 0.8/(t 2 /2).0 m x 2 vx 0 From the solution to 13.81/vx 0 dx 2 We also know v0 = 16 m/s and vy0 = v0 sin 20◦ = 5.5 m.04 m/s At t = 0. hence y = y0 + vy0 t − 9. tx0 ≡ 0 dy = 0.3 s.47 m/s y0 ≡ 0 vx0 = v0 cos 20◦ = 15.3 s. Use Eq.81 y = v y0 ( )− v x0 2 x v x0 2 .42) to determine the instantaneous radius of curvature of the shot’s path at t = 0.123.Problem 13.0434 dx 2 and ρ = 24. vx = vx0 x = x0 + vx0 Hence t = x/vx0 and x 9. Solution: 1+ ρ= dy dx d2y dx 2 2 3/2 We now have y(x) vy dy = 0 − 9. x = 4.

98 m/s2 . The normal acceleration is the component of acceleration in the direction of en .Problem 13. The radius of curvature at t = 3 seconds is ρ= |v|2 = 218 m an . an = en · a or an = 8 sin β + (6t) cos β . At t = 3 seconds.8442 rad. The instantaneous path angle is tan β = vy −3t 2 = .12 m/s. The unit vector parallel to the path is et = i cos β + j sin β . The components of the acceleration are a = 8i − (6t)j. What is the instantaneous radius of curvature of the path of the point at t = 3 s? Solution: The components of the velocity: v = 8t i − (3t 2 )j. At t = 3 seconds. the magnitude of the velocity is |v|t =3 = (8t)2 + (−3t 2 )2 = 36. vx 8t At t = 3 seconds. The unit vector normal to the path pointing toward the instantaneous radial center is en = i cos β − π 2 + j sin β − π 2 = i sin β − j cos β. y = 10 − t 3 m. an = 5. β = −0.126 The cartesian coordinates of a point moving in the xy -plane are x = 20 + 4t 2 m. Thus.

8 − 0.36 m/s2 . vx = 10.8 m/s. vy ) = (0.36t m/s2 .32 m/s. The equations for the motion in the x direction are ax = 0. ax y The normal acceleration component is given by aN = 2 = 1. x = 21.1t 3 m.Problem 13.67 m/s2 |a|2 − aT The unit vector in the tangential direction is given by eT = vx i + vy j v = = 0. the variables have the values ax = 3. vx y x The magnitude of the acceleration is given by |a| = 2 + a 2 = 3. and the equations for motion in the y direction are ay = 1.928i + 0.6 m. The cartesian components of its acceleration are ax = 0. ay = −0.371ay = 3.18t 2 m/s. Determine the tangential and normal components of its acceleration at t = 6 s.9t 2 − 0.6t m/s2 . and y = 0.36t m/s2 . vx = 0.63 m/s. y Solution: The solution will follow that of Example 13.8t − 0.6 m/s2 . with the time changed to t = 6 s. 0) at t = 0.371j. |v| |v| The tangential acceleration component is given by aT = a · eT = 0. The magnitude of the velocity is given by |v| = 2 + v 2 = 11. Assume that motion starts at the origin (0.44 m. At t = 6 s.21 m/s2 .11. x = 0. 0).928ax + 0. vy = 1.8 − 0. .06t 3 m.62 m/s2 . vy = 4. The helicopter starts from rest (vx . and y = 19.6t m/s2 and ay = 1.127 The helicopter starts from rest at t = 0.3t 2 m/s.

4. This agrees with the value dx 2 |v|2 = 80. The derivatives required to evaluate the radius of curvature are dy = dx 2 (0.96 m. we get x = 21. Solving the x relation for t and substituting this into the y relation.42) is ρ = . we get y = (0.Problem 13.42) to determine the instantaneous radius of curvature of the path of the helicopter in Problem 13.6 m. d2y = −0.06t 3 .128 Use Eq. 0.0154. We need y(x)for the path of the helicopter of Example 13. (13.128 found from ρ = aN .06(10x).1t 3 and y = 0.6. 3 2 (0.127 at t = 6 s.11.42). We have x = 0.96 m using the values in Problem 13. and ρ = 80. 3 dy = dx and d2y 1 = − dx 2 3 Substituting these into Equation (13.9)(10)2/3 x −1/3 − 0.9)(10x)2/3 − 0.9t 2 − 0.9) (10)2/3 x −4/3 . 1+ dy dx d2y dx 2 2 3/2 Solution: Equation (13.

The component of the acceleration tangent to the ﬂight path is at = −g sin β .Problem 13. from which at = g gt 2 v0 . The path angle is β : tan β = sin β = vy −gt = . the airplane shown is to achieve “weightlessness” for a short period of time by ﬂying along a path such that its acceleration is ax = 0 and ay = −g . If the velocity of the plane at O at time t = 0 is v = v0 i.. + (gt)2 The unit vector parallel to the velocity vector is e = i cos β + j sin β . + (gt)2 Divide by v0 . Solution: The velocity of the path is v(t) = v0 i − gt j. 1 2 −2 at = g 1 + gt v0 gt v0 . The acceleration vector is a = −jg . show that the autopilot must ﬂy the airplane so that its tangential component of the acceleration as a function of time is gt v0 1+ gt v0 2 y x O at = g . vx v0 −gt 2 v0 .129* For astronaut training.

The acceleration is a = −jg . from which 1 2 −2 an = g v0 2 + (gt)2 v0 =g 1+ gt v0 . from which cos β = v0 2 + (gt)2 v0 . the velocity is v(t) = v0 i − gt j. The unit vector normal to e is en = i cos β − π 2 + j sin β − π 2 = i sin β − j cos β.129. The component parallel to the normal component is an = g cos β . The unit vector parallel to the ﬂight path is e = i cos β + j sin β . what is the airplane’s normal component of acceleration as a function of time? Solution: From Problem 13. The ﬂight path angle is β .Problem 13.129. pointing toward the instantaneous radial center of the path.130* In Problem 13.

from which the velocity is |v| = ω= 2 + v 2 = 0.15 m/s2 check. R The angle is β = tan−1 ax = y x = 19. dt P y 300 mm Solution: The equation for the circular guide is R 2 = x 2 + y 2 .131 and If y = 100 mm.5◦ − 2 d dvx = dt dt 1 x dy dt y dy x dt y x2 dx dt dy dt − y x d2y dt 2 =− + = −0.1591 m/s2 The unit vector tangent to the path (normal to the radius vector for a circle) is ep = −i sin β + j cos β .0707 m/s. The angular velocity vx y |v| = 0. from which x = R 2 − y 2 = 0. dt The velocity of point P is vp = ivx + jvy . d 2y = 0.Problem 13. from which at = −ax sin β = 53. .212 m/s. Check: an = ax cos β = −0.7071 rad/s.283 m. and dx y =− dt x dy = vx = −0. what are the velocity and acceleration of dt 2 P in terms of normal and tangential components? dy = 200 mm/s.150 m/s2 .0 mm/s2 since ay = 0 an = −Rω2 = −0.

y vx = − x dy y =− vy .Problem 13. and vx = −150 mm/s (Since the point is moving upward in the slot.8 mm.). from which vy = 300 y x 2 +1 = 259. from which θ = sin−1 y R = sin−1 (0.131 moves upward in the slot with velocity dy v = 300et (mm/s).132* Suppose that the point P in Problem 13. from which d2y = −an sin θ = −150 mm/s2 dt 2 y x 2 The velocity is |v| = 300 = 1 −2 + 1. what are and dt 2 d y ? dt 2 Solution: The position in the guide slot is y = R sin θ .8 mm/s . When y = 150 mm. From the solution to Problem 13. dt x 2 + v2 = v vx y y directed toward the radius center. The velocity along the path in the guide slot is assumed constant. vy is positive.131. hence at = 0. The normal acceleration is an = |v|2 = 300 mm/s2 R x = R cos θ = 259.5) = 30◦ .

an = −ax sin θ + ay cos θ . .0993i + 0. = 0 . so the tangential comdv ponent of the acceleration is zero. an = 0. When x = 400 m. from which at = 0.133* A car travels at 100 km/h on a straight road of increasing grade whose vertical proﬁle can be approximated by the equation shown.000035 . dt . what are the tangential and normal components of the car’s acceleration? Solution: The strategy is to use the acceleration in cartesian coordinates found in the solution to Problem 13. y y = 0.90. θ = tan−1 dy dx . The angle at θ = tan−1 d Cx 2 dx = tan−1 (6x × 10−4 )x =400 = 13.90 the accelerations are a = −0.0003 x 2 x and use this angle to transform the accelerations to tangential and normal components.4139j (m/s2 ). ﬁnd the angle with respect to the x -axis.5◦ .Problem 13. at = = 0. check. .4256 m/s2 Check: The velocity is constant along the path. From the solution to Problem 13. x =400 From trigonometry (see ﬁgure) the transformation is at = ax cos θ + ay sin θ .

an = −ax sin θ + ay cos θ . = dt dt 1 dx dt dx dt 2 .03. [1 + (0. From the solution to Problem 2. dx > 0. By dt inspection. the normal acceleration at the bottom of the canal is identical to the y component of the acceleration. at = = 0. He starts at y = 20 ft.06.06x and dx dx 2 From Eq (13. From y = Cx 2 . check. .42). 0.7 ft. d2x dt 2 Check: The velocity is constant along the path. dy = 2Cx dt d2y = 2C dt 2 Substitute: K(20 − Cx 2 ) 2 dx = . d2x dt 2 dx dt x =0 x =0 = 0. and the magnitude of his velocity is approximated by v = √ 2(32.025. + 2Cx .03 x 2 x Solution: (a) y = 0. The acceleration is d2x = dt 2 −KCx 1 (20 − Cx 2 ) 2 (4C 2 x 2 1 + 1) 2 1 dx dt − K(4C 2 x)(20 − Cx 2 ) 2 3 (4C 2 x 2 + 1) 2 dx dt . the tangential and normal accelerations are at = ax cos θ + ay sin θ . C = 0.06 At x = 0. + dx dt 2 = v = K(20 − y) 2 = K(20 − Cx 2 ) 2 .06x)2 ]3/2 ρ= ft. At the bottom of the canal the values are dx dt dy dt d2y dt 2 √ = K 20 = 35. What is the normal component of his acceleration when he reaches the bottom? y y = 0.133. x =0 = 2C = 77.89 ft/s. and an = 77. so dy d2y = 0.134 A boy rides a skateboard on the concrete surface of an empty drainage canal described by the equation shown. dt and dx dx . x =0 The angle with respect to the x axis at the bottom of the canal is θ = tan−1 1 1 The magnitude of the velocity is dy dt 2 dy dx x =0 = 0. check.Problem 13.42 to determine the instantaneous radius of curvature of the boy’s path when he reaches the bottom. (a) (b) Use Equation 13. so the tangential dv component of the acceleration is zero. from which at = 0 . = 0.28 ft/s2 .2)(20 − y) ft/s. (b) ρ = 16. x =0 2 = 0. 1 dt (4C 2 x 2 + 1) 2 Since the boy is moving the right. where K = 8.28 ft/s2 .03x 2 .

d2y dt 2 = 2C dx dt 2 y =10 + 2Cx d2x dt 2 = −9. 1 From the solution to Problem 13.134.Problem 13. From the solution to Problem 13.84 ft/s2 y =10 = K(20 − Cx 2 ) 2 (4C 2 x 2 + 1)− 2  y =10 = −K dx dt  y =10 Cx 1 (20 − Cx 2 ) 2 (4C 2 x 2 + 1) 2 1  1 (4C 2 x)(20 − Cx 2 ) 2  + 3 (4C 2 x 2 + 1) 2 y =10 = −24. an = −ax sin θ + ay cos θ.133. an = 11.58 ft/s2 .133 and 13.135 In Problem 13.61◦ . at = ax cos θ + ay sin θ.11 ft/s. at = −23. from which 1 y =10 from which = 17.257 ft. at y = 10 ft. what is the normal component of the boy’s acceleration when he has passed the bottom and reached y = 10 ft? Solution: Use the results of the solutions to Problems 13.134. y =10 The angle is θ = tan−1 dy dx y =10 = 47. x= dx dt d2x dt 2 y C = 18.78 ft/s2 .78 ft/s.134. .

by multiplying the equation for et by sin θ and the equation for en by cos θ and adding. dt dt Similarly.136* Using Eqs (13. Solution: Equations (13.Problem 13. we get dt dθ dθ (− sin θ i + cos θ j) = en . we get j = sin θ et + cos θ en . d et = Taking the derivative of et = cos θ i + sin θ j. Similarly.41) are et = cos θ i + sin θ j and en = − sin θ i + cos θ j.41): (a) Show that the relations between the cartesian unit vectors and the unit vectors et and en are i = cos θ et − sin θ en and j = sin θ et + cos θ en (b) Show that d et /dt = dθ/dt en and d en /dt = −dθ/dt et . we get d en /dt = −(dθ/dt)et (b) . we get i = cos θ et − sin θ en . taking the derivative of en = − sin θ i + cos θ j. (a) Multiplying the equation for et by cos θ and the equation for en by (− sin θ) and adding the two equations.

. and v = 0.4t m/s θ = 2 rad/s ˙ eθ v=r ˙ er + r θ At t = 1 s.4 m/s. r = 1.2 m. Determine the velocity of the collar in terms of polar coordinates at t = 1 s.Problem 13.2t 2 m θ = 2t rad r ˙ = 0.2t 2 m and θ = 2t rad.4eθ (m/s) r ˙ = 0.137 The polar coordinates of the collar A as functions of time are r = 1 + 0. A r θ Solution: r = 1 + 0.4er + 2.

what is the acceleration of the collar in terms of polar coordinates at t = 1 s? Solution: r = 1 + 0.138 In Problem 13. r ˙ = 0. ¨=0 θ r = 1.4 m/s2 .4 m/s.2t 2 m θ = 2t rad ˙ = 2 rad/s r ˙ = 0.4t m/s θ r ¨ = 0.Problem 13.137. and θ ˙ + r θ) ¨ eθ ˙ 2 )er + (2r ˙θ a = (r ¨ − rθ a = −4.4 m/s2 At t = 1 s.2 m. ˙ = 2 rad/s r ¨ = 0.4er + 1.6eθ (m/s2 ) .

r ¨ = 0.26eθ ) ft/s2 vA = r ˙ er + r θ .8. r ˙ = 1. θ = 0.02t 3 rad.6. r ¨ = 0.12t θ u At t = 2 s we have r = 13.16 ˙ = 0.8.4t 2 .06t 2 θ ¨ = 0.4t 2 ft and θ = 0.6er + 3. r A Solution: r = 12 + 0.24 θ ¨ = 0. r ˙ = 0.24 θ ˙ eθ = (1. θ = 0.Problem 13. Determine the velocity of A in terms of polar coordinates at t = 2 s.6.02t 3 ˙ = 0.139 The polar coordinates of point A of the crane are given as functions of time by r = 12 + 0.8t.

determine the acceleration of A of the crane in terms of polar coordinates at t = 2 s. Solution: Use the data from problem 13.139 ˙ 2 )er + (r θ ¨ + 2r ˙ )eθ = (0.139.140 In Problem 13.Problem 13.03eθ ) ft/s2 aA = (r ¨ − rθ ˙θ .0166er + 4.

Point P moves along the line at a constant speed of 4 m/s. x The radial velocity of the point is dr = 4 m/s. Determine the magnitude of the velocity and acceleration of P when r = 2 m. dt from which d2θ = 0. The magnitude is eθ = 4er + 4eθ (m/s).89 m/s2 The vector velocity is v= dr dt er + r dθ dt .141 The radial line rotates with a constant angular velocity of 2 rad/s. dt from which d2r = 0. dt 2 The acceleration is a = [−2(4)]er + [2(4)(2)]eθ = −8er + 16eθ (m/s2 ).66 m/s . Solution: The angular velocity of the line is dθ = ω = 2 rad/s.Problem 13. dt 2 y 2 rad/s P 4 m/s r O The magnitude is |v| = √ 42 + 42 = 5. |a| = √ 82 + 162 = 17.

9 m.7 ◦ vA = (4j) m/s = 4 m/s(sin θ er + cos θ eθ ) vA = (2. x ¨=0 y = 0. x ˙ = 0.33eθ ) m/s . At the instant shown.9 = 33.Problem 13. y A x Solution: Given x = 0.81j (m/s2 ). Determine the velocity of A in terms of polar coordinates. its coordinates are x = 0.6 m.6 0. y = 0.81 We have θ = tan−1 Then er = cos θ i + sin θ j eθ = − sin θ i + cos θ j ⇒ i = cos θ er − sin θ eθ j = sin θ er + cos θ eθ y x = tan−1 0. y ˙ = −9. y ˙ = 4.6.22er + 3. and its velocity and acceleration are v = 4j (m/s) and a = −9.142 The collar A slides on the vertical bar.9.

142.44er + 8.143 In Problem 13.16eθ ) m/s2 .81 m/s2 )(sin θ er + cos θ eθ ) aA = −(5. Solution: See Problem 13.143 aA = −(9.81 m/s2 )j = −(9.Problem 13. determine the acceleration of A in terms of polar coordinates.

Substitute: 2. Solution: The velocity along the path is v=4 (a) 1852 m 1 knot 1h 3600 s = 2.06 m/s. The velocity vr = dr d dθ = (10θ) = 10 m/s.062 = 10 dθ dt 2 + r2 dθ dt 2 = (100 + 62. where θ is in radians. At θ = 2π .Problem 13.032 m/s dt vr = 10 (b) dθ = 0. dt From geometry. vx = vr .323 m/s . per hour. y x The path is r = 10θ . or 1852 meters.8 m.144 A boat searching for underwater archaeological sites in the Aegean Sea moves at 4 knots and follows the path r = 10θ m.82 ) dθ dt 2 . determine the boat’s velocity (a) in terms of polar coordinates and (b) in terms of cartesian coordinates. (A knot is one nautical mile. dt dt dt The velocity along the path is related to the components by 2 + v2 = v 2 = vr θ dr dt 2 + r2 dθ dt 2 = 2. r = 10(2π ) = 62. dt vθ = r dθ = 2.) When θ = 2π rad. and vy = vr sin θ + vθ cos θ . and vy = vθ .062 . from which dθ = 0. At θ = 2π .0323 rad/s. the cartesian components are vx = vr cos θ + vθ sin θ .

381er + 7. Determine the velocity of A in terms of polar coordinates.381. At the instant shown.813. The radial position of A (in meters) is given as a function of θ by r = 2 cos θ .25eθ ) m/s v=r ˙ er + r θ . r ¨ = −29. r ¨ − 2 cos θ θ ˙2 r = 2 cos θ. r ˙ = −3. θ = 25◦ and dθ/dt = 4 rad/s.00 ˙ eθ = (−3. y A r u x Solution: ˙.145 The collar A slides on the circular bar. θ r = 1. θ θ = 25 .Problem 13. r ˙ = −2 sin θ θ ¨ = −2 sin θ θ Using the given data we have ◦ ˙ ¨=0 = 4.

145. Determine the acceleration of A in terms of polar coordinates.145 ˙ 2 )er + (r θ ¨ + 2r ˙ )eθ = (−58.146 In Problem 13.0er − 27. Solution: See problem 13.Problem 13. d 2 θ/dt 2 = 0 at the instant shown.0eθ ) m/s2 a = (r ¨ − rθ ˙θ .

147 The radial coordinate of the earth satellite is related to its angular position θ by r= 1. 1 + 0.72 × 1010 m2 /s.000239 rad/s θ and r ˙ = 2283 m/s and from above vθ = 4565 m/s v = 2283er + 4565eθ (m/s) .5 cos θ ˙ (−p)(0. 1 + 0.5 cos θ Satellite r θ The product of the radial position and the transverse component of the velocity is rvθ = 8. hence However vθ = r θ ˙ = 8.5 cos θ) r ˙= We also know that rvθ = 8.91 × 107 m = p r= p .72 × 1010 m2 /s ˙ . we get Solving for θ ˙ = 0.72 × 1010 m2 /s r 2θ ˙ .91 × 107 m.5)(− sin θ)θ 2 (1 + 0.Problem 13. r = 1. What is the satellite’s velocity in terms of polar coordinates when θ = 90◦ ? Solution: At θ = 90◦ .

147.5 cos θ B A2 (1 + 0.5B sin θ θ (1 + 0.5 cos θ)3 sin θ r ˙= 0.5 A A3 cos θ(1 + 0. what is the satellite’s acceleration in terms of polar coordinates when θ = 90◦ ? Solution: Set A = 1.5 cos θ) sin θ θ (1 + 0.5A sin θ ˙ = 0.Problem 13.72 × 1010 m2 /s r= A ˙ =B . θ 2A A2 A4 .91 × 107 m. r ¨ = 0. θ ¨ = −B . r ˙= Thus ˙ 2 )er + (r θ ¨ + 2r ˙ )eθ = (−1.5 cos θ)2 B2 A4 ˙= B = θ r2 ¨=− θ B A2 ˙=− (1 + 0.5 cos θ)2 r ¨= When θ = 90◦ we have r = A. rvθ = r(r θ) 1 + 0. B = 8.5B cos θ ˙ θ = 0.148* In Problem 13.5 cos θ)2 A B2 0.091er ) m/s2 a = (r ¨ − rθ ˙θ 2 B ˙= B .

vr = v0 . The radial component of its velocity is v0 when r = r0 .149 A bead slides along a wire that rotates in the xy -plane with constant angular velocity ω0 . dvr dvr dr dvr = = vr . from which C= vr = 2 − ω2 r 2 v0 0 0 . Strategy: The radial component of the bead’s velocity dr is vr = .Problem 13. Determine the polar components of the bead’s velocity as a function of r . − rω0 By using the chain rule. 2 and 2 + ω 2 (r 2 − r 2 ). and the radial component of the acceleration dt is ar = d 2r −r dt 2 dθ dt 2 y ω r x = dvr dt 2 . from which 2 rdr . from which Separate variables and integrate: vr dvr = ω0 2 vr v= 2 + ω 2 (r 2 − r 2 )e + rω e v0 0 θ 0 0 r 2 2 = ω0 r2 2 + C. dr Solution: From the strategy: ar = 0 = vr dvr 2 r. viz. − ω0 dr The transverse component is vθ = r dθ dt = rω0 .. The radial component of the bead’s acceleration is zero. At r = r0 . dt dr dt dr you can express the radial component of the acceleration dvr 2 in the form ar = vr − rω0 . v0 0 0 .

Now note that vθ = dt rω. Multiply the entire relationship by r . Solution: We are given that aθ = rα + 2vr ω = 0. dt d 2 (r ω) = 0. then r 2 ω = constant. Note that if .150 If the motion of a point in the xy plane is such that its transverse component of acceleration aθ is zero.Problem 13. We have r 2 ω = r(rω) = rvθ = constant. This was what we needed to prove. We get 0 = (r 2 α + 2rvr ω) = r 2 dω dt + 2r dr dt ω = r d 2 (r ω). show that the product of its radial position and its transverse velocity is constant: rvθ = constant.

2 r + dr dθ dA r or 1 dθ dA = r r dt 2 dt θ (b) x Thus. 2 Solution: From the solution to Problem 13. b). Show that this result follows from the fact that the transverse component aθ of the planet’s acceleration is zero. Kepler deduced that the line from the sun to a planet traces out equal areas in equal times (Fig. a). 2 1 = r 2 ω = constant. the resulting differential element of area is given by dA = 1 r(rdθ )]. aθ = 0 implies that r 2ω = r 2 dθ = constant.150. [When r changes by an amount dr and θ changes by an amount dθ (Fig. if dA = constant. then equal areas are swept out in equal times.151* From astronomical data. dt .Problem 13. dt t2 t2 + ∆ t A t1 + ∆ t A t1 (a) y The element of area is dA = 1 r(rdθ).

− rω0 ar = vr dr where the chain rule has been used to obtain dvr dvr = vr . = (ω0 2 2 from which . from which v= 2 + (ω 2 − K)(r 2 − r 2 )e + rω e v0 0 θ 0 0 r Separate variables and integrate: 2 − K)rdr. − ω0 dr At r = r0 .131. where K is a constant. vr dvr = (ω0 2 2 vr 2 − K) r + C.Problem 13. Determine the polar components of the velocity of C as function of r . When r = r0 .152 The bar rotates in the xy -plane with constant angular velocity ω0 . vr = v0 . y ω0 C r x Solution: Use the same strategy used in Problem 13. The radial component of acceleration of the collar C is ar = −Kr . The radial acceleration is given by dvr 2. from which C= vr = 2 − (ω 2 − K)r 2 v0 0 0 . 2 2 + (ω 2 − K)(r 2 − r 2 ). v0 0 0 and The transverse velocity is vθ = ω0 r . the radial component of velocity of C is v0 . dt dr from which ar = −Kr = vr dvr 2 r.

˙ = 0.44 m.153 The hydraulic actuator moves the pin P upward with constant velocity v = 2j (m/s). Solution: vP = 2j (m/s) r = r er ˙ eθ v=r ˙ er + r θ Also.15er + 1. r = 2. y θ = 35◦ .Problem 13. r ˙ = 1.64eθ (m/s) θ . r = 2i + y j (m) v=y ˙ j (m/s) = 2j (m/s) r ˙=y ˙ sin θ ˙=y rθ ˙ cos θ r= x2 + y2 tan θ = y x Hence y P θ x 2m ˙ eθ V=r ˙ er + r θ V = 1.40 m. Determine the velocity of the pin in terms of polar coordinates and the angular velocity of the slotted bar when θ = 35◦ . Solving. we get y = 1.15 m/s.671 rad θ s eθ er θ .

153 V = 2j m/s.Problem 13.154 The hydraulic actuator moves the pin P upward with constant velocity v = 2j (m/s). Solution: From Problem 13. constant a= dv ≡0 dt ˙ = ω = 0.631 rad/s2 θ ˙=ω θ ¨=α θ tan θ = y ˙ = 2 m/s y ¨=0 y y = x 2 y y = 2 tan θ y ˙= 2 sec2 ˙ θθ θ x = 2m . Determine the acceleration of the pin in terms of polar coordinates and the angular acceleration of the slotted bar when θ = 35◦ .671 rad/s θ θ = 35◦ ˙ 2 + 2 sec2 θ θ ¨ y ¨ = 2(2 sec θ)(sec θ tan θ)θ ˙ 2 ¨ = [−2 sec θ tan θ ](θ ) θ sec θ ˙ = 0.

and α = 0.015 m/s. dr dθ = 0. v= dr dθ er + r eθ dt dt = 0.508er + 0. vy = vr sin θ + vθ cos θ = −0.15(1 + 0.155 In Example 13. r = 0.5 cos θ)−1 ◦ r u Follower x Cam = 0. (b) vx = vr cos θ − vθ sin θ = −1. determine the velocity of the cam follower when θ = 135◦ (a) in terms of polar coordinates and (b) in terms of cartesian coordinates.Problem 13. . ω = dθ/dt = 4rad/s .508 m/s.232 m.5 cos θ)−2 dt dt = 0.297 m/s.15. y Solution: (a) θ = 135 .928eθ (m/s).075 sin θ(1 + 0.

Problem 13.075 dt 2 dt + 0.381 m/s2 ay = ar sin θ + aθ cos θ = −5.15. (b) ax = ar cos θ − aθ sin θ = −0. Solution: See the solution of Problem 13. determine the acceleration of the cam follower when θ = 135◦ (a) in terms of polar coordinates and (b) in terms of cartesian coordinates.06eθ (m/s2 ).52er + 4. (a) dθ d2r = 0.5 cos θ)−2 2 sin2 θ(1 + 0.362 m/s2 .1905 m/s2 . a= d2r −r dt 2 dθ dt 2 er + r d2θ dr dθ eθ +2 dt 2 dt dt = −3. .155.075 dθ dt 2 cos θ(1 + 0.156* In Example 13.5 cos θ)−3 = 0.

the slotted bar rotates with constant angular velocity ω = 10 rad/s and the radial position of the follower A is determined by the proﬁle of the stationary cam. r = 1 + 0. (b) vx = vr cos θ − vθ sin θ = −13.66 ft/s. dr dθ =− sin 2θ dt dt = −8. ω = dθ/dt = 10 rad/s. Determine the velocity of the cam follower when θ = 30◦ (a) in terms of polar coordinates and (b) in terms of cartesian coordinates.66er + 12. y r A θ x Solution: (a) θ = 30◦ .5 cos 2θ = 1. and α = 0.25 ft. v= dθ dr er + r eθ dt dt = −8.5eθ (ft/s).5 cos(2θ ) ft.50 ft/s. The path of the follower is described by the polar equation r = 1 + 0. vy = vr sin θ + vθ cos θ = 6. .75 ft/s.157 In the cam-follower mechanism.Problem 13.

. ay = ar sin θ + aθ cos θ = −263 ft/s2 .158* In Problem 13. +2 dt 2 dt dt = −225er − 173eθ (ft/s2 ). Solution: See the solution of Problem 13. (a) d2r = −2θ 2 cos 2θ dt 2 = −100 ft/s2 . a= d2r −r dt 2 dθ dt 2 er + r d2θ dr dθ eθ .157.157.Problem 13. (b) ax = ar cos θ − aθ sin θ = −108 ft/s2 . determine the acceleration of the cam follower when θ = 30◦ (a) in terms of polar coordinates and (b) in terms of cartesian coordinates.

eθ : r = r(er cos2 θ − eθ cos θ sin θ + er sin2 θ + eθ sin θ cos θ) = r er (c) The time derivatives are: dr dr dθ =v=i cos θ − r sin θ dt dt dt +j from which v= dθ dr (i cos θ + j sin θ) + r (−i sin θ + j cos θ). and the results: j = er sin θ + eθ cos θ (b) The position vector is r = x i + y j = (r cos θ)i + (r sin θ)j = r(i cos θ + j sin θ). the radial unit vector is er = i cos θ + j sin θ . derive Eq. y eθ er r P (c) θ x Solution: (a) From geometry (see Figure). j in terms of er .47) for the velocity in terms of polar coordinates. j are related to the unit vectors er . Solve for i by multiplying er by cos θ . Solve for j by multiplying er by sin θ .Problem 13. (13.159 The cartesian coordinates of a point P in the x −y plane are related to its polar coordinates of the point by the equations x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ . Use the results of Part (a) expressing i. and subtracting the resulting equations: i = er cos θ − eθ sin θ . (a) (b) Show that the unit vectors i. and since the transverse unit vector is at right angles: eθ = i cos θ + π 2 + j sin θ + π 2 = −i sin θ + j cos θ. By taking the time derivative of the position vector of point P expressed in terms of cartesian coordinates. Substitute the results of Part (a) v= dr dθ dr er + r eθ = er + rωeθ dt dt dt . eθ by i = er cos θ − eθ sin θ and j = er sin θ + eθ cos θ . eθ by sin θ . (13. derive Eq. and eθ by cos θ . Beginning with the expression for the position vector of P in terms of cartesian coordinates. dt dt dr dθ sin θ + r cos θ dt dt . r = x i + y j.52) for the position vector in terms of polar coordinates.

2eθ + 586.2 ft/s. and the propeller turns at 2000 rpm in the counterclockwise direction when seen from the front of the airplane.4)2 = −219324. The acceleration az = 0. The transverse acceleration is The angular velocity is ω = 2000 2π rad 1 rev 1 min 60 s aθ = r = 209. (Let the z-axis be oriented as shown in the ﬁgure. Determine the velocity and acceleration of a point on the tip of the propeller in terms of cylindrical coordinates.7 ft/s The radial acceleration is ar = −rω2 = −5(209. The radius of its propellor is 5 ft. 5 ft z The radial velocity at the propeller tip is zero. since the airplane travels at constant speed.4 rad/s. since the propeller rotates at a constant angular velocity.5er (ft/s2 ) .160 The airplane ﬂies in a straight line at 400 mi/h.5 ft/s2 . Thus a = −219324.) Solution: The speed is v = 400 mile h 1h 3600 s 5280 ft 1 mile = 586. dr d2θ +2 dt 2 dt dθ dt = 0.7ez (ft/s) .Problem 13. The transverse velocity is vθ = ωr = 1047. The velocity vector in cylindrical coordinates is v = 1047.

4eθ + 447.25 from which the transverse velocity is vθ = r dθ dt = 894. . θ = 2z rad. v = 894.2ez + dz dt 2 = 1000 m/s.Problem 13.4 m/s. What is the velocity of the particle in terms of cylindrical coordinates? y x P z 1 km/s Solution: The radial velocity is zero. 4 V z from which dθ 1000 = 894. dt dt The velocity vector: The angular velocity is y 2 Substitute: v= r2 dθ dt 2 + 1 4 dθ dt x = dθ dt r2 + 1 √ = 1. = √ dt 1.25. since the path has a constant radius.2 m/s. dθ dz =2 .161 A charged particle P in a magnetic ﬁeld moves along the spiral path described by r = 1 m. The magnitude of the velocity is v= r2 dθ dt 2 The velocity along the cylindrical axis is dz 1 = dt 2 dθ dt = 447. where z is in meters.4 rad/s. The particle moves along the path in the direction shown with constant speed |v| = 1 km/s.

Determine the velocity of projectile A relative to projectile B (a) at t = 0.366i + 0.66j) m/s ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ . two projectiles A and B are simultaneously launched from O with the initial velocities and elevation angles shown.5 s and (b) at t = 1 s. the answer is the same for both times vA/B = (−3.66i + 3.162 At t = 0.366j) vA/B = (−3. y 10 m/s A B 60Њ O 30Њ x 10 m/s Solution: vA = −(9.81 m/s2 j)t + (10 m/s)(cos 60 i + sin 60 j ) vB = −(9.66j) m/s Since vA/B doesn’t depend on time.Problem 13.66i + 3.81 m/s2 j)t + (10 m/s)(cos 30 i + sin 30 j ) vA/B = vA − vB = (10 m/s)(−0.

What is the velocity of point A relative to point B at the instant shown? y A 10 rad/s B 2 ft O x Solution: vA = −(10 rad/s)(2 ft)i = −(20 ft/s)i vB = (10 rad/s)(2 ft)j = (20 ft/s)j vA/B = vA − vB = (−20i − 20j) ft/s .163 Relative to the earth-ﬁxed coordinate system. the disk rotates about the ﬁxed point O at 10 rad/s.Problem 13.

What is the acceleration of point A relative to point B at the instant shown? Solution: aA = −(10 rad/s)2 (2 ft)j = −(200 ft/s2 )j aB = −(10 rad/s)2 (2 ft)i = −(200 ft/s2 )i aA/B = aA − aB = (200i − 200j) ft/s2 . the disk rotates about the ﬁxed point O with a constant angular velocity of 10 rad/s.164 Relative to the earth-ﬁxed coordinate system.Problem 13.

The train on the straight track is traveling at 20 ft/s. what is the velocity of passenger A relative to passenger B ? y 50 0f t O B A x 50 ft/s 20 ft/s Solution: vA = (−20j) ft/s. vB = (50j) ft/s vA/B = vA − vB = (−70j) ft/s .Problem 13.165 The train on the circular track is traveling at 50 ft/s. In terms of the earth-ﬁxed coordinate system shown.

aB = − (50 ft/s)2 i = (−5i) ft/s2 500 ft aA/B = aA − aB = (5i − 2j) ft/s2 .Problem 13. what is the acceleration of passenger A relative to passenger B ? Solution: aA = (−2j) ft/s2 .166 The train on the circular track is traveling at a constant speed of 50 ft/s. In terms of the earth-ﬁxed coordinate system shown. The train on the straight track is traveling at 20 ft/s and is increasing its speed at 2 ft/s2 .

4 m)(− sin 25 i + cos 25 j) = (−0. Relative to the reference frame shown.) Determine the x and y components of the velocity of A relative to O and the velocity of B relative to A. Solution: vB/O = vB/A + vA/O vA/O = (5 rad/s)(0. bar OA has a counterclockwise angular velocity of 5 rad/s and bar AB has a counterclockwise angular velocity of 10 rad/s. They are connected by a pin at A. point B moves in a circular path. Relative to point A.4-m long and rotates in the x -y plane. Then you can determine the velocity of B relative to O .00j) m/s vB/O = (−4.167 Each bar is 0.46i + 2.Problem 13.31i + 3. (Imagine yourself sitting on point A with point B rotating around you.813j) m/s vB/A = (10 rad/s)(0.845i + 1.81j) m/s ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ y B A 60Њ 25Њ O x . What is the velocity of point B relative to the reference frame at the instant shown? Strategy: Point A moves in a circular path about O .4 m)(− sin 60 i + cos 60 j) = (−3.

1 ) = 285.93◦ east of north The ground speed is now v = (290 km/h) sin(80.168 A private pilot wishes to ﬂy from a city P to a city Q that is 200 km directly north of city P . At the altitude at which the airplane will be ﬂying.0 min v 285.6 km/h ◦ Q N W S E 200 km 50 km/h P 50 290 = 80. The airplane will ﬂy with an airspeed of 290 km/h. VPlane /Ground = VPlane /Air + VAir /Ground VPlane /Air = (290 km/h)(cos θ i + sin θ j) VAir /Ground = −(50 km/h)i VPlane /Ground = [(290 cos θ − 50)i + (290 sin θ)j] km/h We want the airplane to travel due north therefore 290 cos θ − 50 = 0 ⇒ θ = cos−1 Thus the heading is 90◦ − 80.700 h = 42.Problem 13. What direction should the pilot point the airplane to ﬂy directly from city P to city Q? How long will the trip take? Solution: Assume an angle θ . measured ccw from the east.6 km/h The time is t= d 200 km = = 0.07 ◦ . there is an east wind (that is. the wind’s direction is west) with a speed of 50 km/h.07◦ = 9.

60 m/s √ C 500 m The time is t= d = v 5002 + 4002 m = 55. measured ccw from the east.2 s 11.60 m/s .) If you want to travel in a straight line from point C to point D in a boat that moves at a constant speed of 10 m/s relative to the water. (Assume that the current is uniform. in what direction should you point the boat? How long does it take to make the crossing? 3 m/s D Solution: Assume an angle θ . VBoat /Ground = VBoat /Water + VWater /Ground VBoat /Water = (10 m/s)(cos θ i + sin θ j) VWater /Ground = (3 m/s)j VBoat /Ground = [(10 cos θ)i + (3 + 10 sin θ)j] m/s We want the boat to travel at an angle tan φ = Therefore 400 500 3 + 10 sin θ 400 ◦ = ⇒ θ = 25.11◦ north of east 400 m W N E S Thus the heading is The ground speed is now v= (10 cos θ)2 + (3 + 10 sin θ)2 = 11.11 10 cos θ 500 25.169 The river ﬂows north at 3 m/s.Problem 13.

VBoat /Ground = VBoat /Water + VWater /Ground VBoat /Water = vB /W (cos θ i + sin θ j) VWater /Ground = (3 m/s)j VBoat /Ground = [(vB /W cos θ)i + (3 + vB/W sin θ)j] m/s We want the boat to travel at an angle tan φ = Therefore 3 + vB/W sin θ 500 12 = ⇒ vB/W = vB/W cos θ 400 5 cos θ − 4 sin θ To be a minimum we must have dvB/W 12(4 cos θ + 5 sin θ) 4 ◦ = = 0 ⇒ tan θ = − ⇒ θ = −38.) What minimum speed must a boat have relative to the water in order to travel in a straight line from point C to point D ? How long does it take to make the crossing? Solution: Assume an angle θ .Problem 13.874 m/s 5 cos θ − 4 sin θ 400 500 . that this heading puts the boat’s relative velocity perpendicular to the line from C to D .874 m/s 12 = 1.170 The river ﬂows north at 3 m/s. The relative speed is now vB/W = The time is t= d = v √ 5002 + 4002 m = 342 s 1. (Assume that the current is uniform. measured ccw from the east.7 dθ (5 cos θ − 4 sin θ)2 5 Notice.

Therefore vwind /boat 1 = −vwind /boat 2 cos 60◦ + 6 knots 6 knots = vwind /boat 2 sin 60◦ vwind /boat 1 = 2.536i + 6j) knots vwind /ground = (2.Problem 13.91◦ east of north direction = tan−1 .928 knots ◦ ◦ ⇒ Using either position one or position two we have vwind /ground = (2.536 6 = 22. 0 0 60Њ Tell-tale N W S E Solution: vwind /ground = vwind /boat + vboat /ground In position one we have vwind /ground = vwind /boat1 i + (6 knots)j In position two we have vwind /ground = vwind /boat2 (− cos 60 i + sin 60 j) + (6 knots)i Since the wind has not changed these two expressions must be the same. the sailboat sails north with speed v0 = 6 knots (nautical miles per hour) and then sails east at the same speed. Determine the direction and magnitude of the wind’s velocity (in knots) relative to the earth.51 knots 2. The tell-tale indicates the direction of the wind relative to the boat.536 knots vwind /boat2 = 6.536)2 + (6)2 knots = 6.171 Relative to the earth.

31 s da 3 1 1 1 = t− 2 − t 2 dt 2 2 Evaluating this at t1 .31 s . Evaluating velocity at t = t1 . What is the maximum velocity of the tool during this time interval. The acceleration is a = 2 + t 1/2 − t 3/2 m/s Acceleration is zero at t1 = 2. calculating the velocity.Problem 13. and at what time does it occur? (a) Solution: s0 = v0 = 0 10 8 s. and checking to see if it is a max or min. we get v(t1 ) = 3.72 m/s at t1 = 2. s 3 4 v = 2t + s= t 0 v dt 2 3 2 5/2 t − 5 2 5 2 7/2 t m 7 s = t2 + Plotting. (a) (b) Draw a graph of the tool’s position from t = 0 to t = 4 s.172 An engineer analyzing a large-scale machining process determines that a tool that moves in a straight line starts from rest at time t = 0 and position s = 0 and moves with acceleration a = 2 + t 1/2 − t 3/2 m/s2 from t = 0 to t = 4 s.95 dt Hence. we get da = −1. we get (b) Maximum velocity can be found two way — Plotting the velocity or ﬁnding where acceleration is zero. velocity is a maximum. m 6 4 a = 2 + t 1/2 − t 3/2 m/s2 v= 0 t a dt 2 3/2 2 5/2 m/s t − t 3 5 2 0 (a) 0 1 2 t.

81 m/s2 .Problem 13. sy = − gt 2 + v0 sin(α − 30◦ )t 2 When the projectile hits R cos 30 = v0 cos(α − 30 )t 1 ◦ ◦ −R sin 30 = − gt 2 + v0 sin(α − 30 )t 2 Solving we ﬁnd R= 8v0 2 ◦ cos(α − 30 ) sin α 3g ◦ ◦ (a) Using a root solver we ﬁnd 15 = (b) 8v0 2 cos(α − 30◦ ) sin α ⇒ α = 33.4 m 3g g ⇒ α = 60◦ . ay = −g vy = −gt + v0 sin(α − 30◦ ) 1 sx = v0 cos(α − 30◦ )t. Determine the angle α for which the range R is a maximum.4◦ 3g To maximize dR 8v0 2 ◦ = cos(30 − 2α) = 0 dα 3g The maximum range is therefore R= 8v0 2 2v0 2 cos(30◦ ) sin(60◦ ) = = 20. v0 = 10 m/s Using horizontal x and vertical y we have ax = 0.173 A projectile is launched at 10 m/s from a sloping surface. What is the maximum range? 30Њ a 10 m/s R Solution: Set g = 9. vx = v0 cos(α − 30◦ ). (a) (b) Determine the value of the angle α for which the range R = 15 m.6◦ or α = 86.

5 F .4 sin θ )2 sin θ cos θ v0 0 0 0 g 2 v0 g Rmax = = 0. g Range factor .8 cos2 θ sin θ (1 − 0. g 0 (1 – 0.4 sin θ0 ). and show that the maximum distance is 2 0. 2 At the end of ﬂight. and = 0.5589 θ0 =33. This is conﬁrmed as a maximum by graphing g 2 v0 R as shown.41◦ . and vx (t) = V0 cos θ0 .4 a c .6 motion: dvy dvx = −g. from which θ0 = 33.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Launch angle.3 t o .174 A catapult designed to throw a line to ships in distress throws a projectile with initial velocity v0 (1–0. g y(t) = − t 2 + (V0 sin θ0 )t .41◦ . and x(t) = (V0 cos θ0 )t.Problem 13.4 sin θ0 ). from which dt dt vy (t) = −gt + V0 sin θ0 . dR = dθ0 −0. g Noting V0 = v0 (1–0. The maximum range is 2 (1 − 0.559v0 . Determine the value of θ0 for which the distance the projectile is thrown is a maximum. deg The range is R = x(tﬂight ) = 2V02 sin θ0 cos θ0 .4 sin θ0 ) θ0 Solution: The path is obtained by integrating the equations of . where θ0 is the angle above the horizontal. the maximum range occurs when dR d =0= dθ0 dθ0 2V02 sin θ0 cos θ0 g = 0.2 r .4 sin θ0 ) + cos(2θ) = 0. y(tﬂight ) = 0. from which: after some algebraic reduction. from which tﬂight = 2V0 sin θ0 .

Determine the approximate coordinates of the point where the projectile hits the ground.006x 2 40° x Impact point 6 4 2 f(x) 0 −2 −4 x =29.48 −6 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 x.477 m from which yimpact = 6. and this value was reﬁned by iteration (using TK Solver Plus) to yield ximpact = 29.4ximpact − 0. Only one crossing is of interest (the other was ximpact = 0). The result: g y(t) = − t 2 + (V0 sin θ)t m. meters Solve for tﬂight : tﬂight = V0 sin θ g 1± 1− 2gyimpact V02 sin2 θ .4x – 0. The two functions  V02 cos θ sin θ 1 ± f (ximpact ) = g 2 2g(0.006x 2 . y(tﬂight ) = yimpact 2 = 0. where x and y are in meters. Substitute: ximpact = V02 cos θ sin θ g 1± 1− 2gyimpact V02 sin2 θ .175 At t = 0.4ximpact − 0. Solution: The path of the projectile is obtained by integrating the equations of motion: d2y = −g dt 2 and d2x =0 dt 2 using the initial conditions. The proﬁle of the surface the projectile strikes can be approximated by the equation y = 0.577 m .006ximpact )   − ximpact 1− V02 sin2 θ were graphed against values of ximpact to determine the zero crossings. y 20 m/s y = 0. At impact.4x − 0. 2 and x(t) = (V0 cos θ)t m. a projectile is located at the origin and has a velocity of 20 m/s at 40◦ above the horizontal.006ximpact .Problem 13.

0 h –1 –2 Launch angles –3 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 angle. What two values of θ0 will cause the apple to land in the carpenter’s hand. When the apple reaches the hand g 2 y(tﬂight ) = − tﬂight + (V0 sin θ0 )tﬂight = 12 ft. 2 and x(t) = (V0 cos θ0 )t . from which x(tﬂight ) = 12 = V02 sin θ0 cos θ0 g 1± 1− 24g (V0 sin θ0 )2 The two functions f (θ0 ) = V02 sin θ0 cos θ0 g 1± 1− 24g (V0 sin θ0 )2 − 12 were graphed to determine the zero crossings and the results were reﬁned by iteration (using TK Solver Plus) to obtain θ0 = 60.08◦ . 12 ft horizontal and 12 ft vertically from the point where it is thrown? θ0 Solution: The path obtained from the equations of motion is given by g y(t) = − t 2 + (V0 sin θ0 )t.Problem 13.9◦ and θ0 = 74. The apple is thrown at 32 ft/s.176 A carpenter working on a house asks his apprentice to throw him an apple. 2 Solve for the time of ﬂight: tﬂight = V0 sin θ0 g 1± 1+ 24g (V0 sin θ0 )2 3 2 1 f . deg .

Problem 13. from which. s 14 The magnitude of the acceleration is (2t + 0.1t 2 ]t =12. How long after it starts does it spin out.1t 2 )2 r 2 . dt 2 since the radius is a constant. and how fast is it going? s O P en 400 m et Solution: The tangential component of the acceleration can be integrated independently of the radial acceleration to determine the angular velocity: aθ = r dr d2θ +2 dt 2 dt dθ dt =r d2θ = 2 + 0.36 s (A zero crossing also occurs at a negative time. − 36 was graphed to determine the zero crossing and the result reﬁned by iteration.36 s = 40 m/s V = 40 m s 1 km 103 m 3600 s 1h = 144 km/h . dt 2 r 10 8 6 4 2 f(t) 0 –2 –4 –6 –8 –10 10 Zero Crossing 11 12 13 time. The radial acceleration is ar = 1 d2r − rω2 = − (2t + 0. When the magnitude of its total acceleration reaches 6 m/s2 .2t m/s2 .36 s = [2t + 0.2t)2 + . The tangential component of its acceleration is at = 2 + 0. and it spins out.177 A motorcycle starts from rest at t = 0 and moves along a circular track with a 400-m radius.1t 2 )2 m/s2 .) The velocity at spin out is V = [rω]t =12.2t)2 + The function f (t) = (2 + 0. at time of spin out: 36 = (2 + 0. The result: t = 12. it is ignored.2t m/s2 .1t 2 m/s.1t2 )2 r 2 |a| = (2 + 0. From which rω = 2t + 0.1t 2 )2 400 2 (2t + 0.2t)2 + (2t + 0. friction can no longer keep the motorcycle on the circular track.

8.4c). where c is a constant.178 At t = 0. What is the value of c? y x Solution: Choose a coordinate system with the origin at O and the x axis parallel to the plane surface.3 −.313 s−1 . c 0. and = −cvz .8g − cvy .8g t m. from which Cx = Cy = y(t) = 2 .4c)) + c2 was used to ﬁnd the zero crossing.8i − j (m).4c. y(0) = 0.Problem 13.4 −.8g + Cvy e−ct . When the ball hits the bottom of the tank. c .4c)) + c2 . from which x(t) = (1 − e−ct ) m. at time of impact. Cvy = vy (t) = 0. a steel ball in a tank of oil is given a horizontal velocity v = 2i m/s. x(t) = 0.8g . c 0. Cvx = 2. The path is obtained by integrating the equations of motion: dvx = −cvx .5 1 c.4c + ln(1 − 0.8g 2 x(t) = − e−ct + Cx . c2 c 0. and vz (t) = 0. A graph of f (c) = 0. y(t) = − c c From the initial conditions.5 . z(t) = 0. From the equation for x .1 f 0 −. dt dt Separating variables and integrating: vx (t) = Cvx e−ct . and z(t) = 0. Cvz = 0. its position relative to its position at t = 0 is r = 0.8g − cvy . 1/s 1. dt dvy dvz = −0.8g)(0. (e c Integrating: 0.2 .8g 2 .1 −. Substitute these into the equation for y to obtain 0 = (0. e−ct = 1 − 0.2 −.4 . (1 − e−ct ) − c2 c When the ball strikes the bottom y(t) = −1.3 . vy (t) = − From the initial conditions. or ct = − ln(1 − 0. and the result reﬁned by iteration to obtain c = 1. The components of the ball’s acceleration are ax = −cvx . and vz (t) = Cvz e−ct . x(0) = 0.4c + ln(1 − 0.8g −ct − 1). from which vx = 2e−ct . ay = −0. az = −cvz . c 1 −ct e + t + Cy .8g 0.8g(0.5 2 0.5 Zero Crossing 0 .

Problem 13. (a) Draw a graph of the magnitude of the velocity of P from t = 0 to t = 2 s.63 m/s at t = 0.179 The polar coordinates of a point P moving in the xy -plane are r = t 3 − 4t m.5 1 time. s 1. Solution: (a) The velocity is v= dr er + r dt dθ dt eθ = (3t2 − 4)er + (t3 − 4t)(2t − 1)eθ . θ = t 2 − t rad. (b) Estimate the minimum magnitude of the velocity and the time at which it occurs. (b) The minimum magnitude is found from a search of the tabulated values of the magnitude: |vp | = 2.79 s 0 . Magnitude of Velocity 10 9 8 7 6 5 |v | 4 3 2 1 0 The magnitude is |vp | = (3t2 − 4)2 + (t3 − 4t)2 (2t − 1)2 m/s. The graph of the magnitude is shown.5 2 .

. r = (t 3 − 4t). aθ = (t 3 − 4t)(2) + 2(3t 2 − 4)(2t − 1). dt dt θ = t 2 − t. The magnitude is |a| = 2 + a2 .31 s 20 15 10 5 0 0 .5 1 time.5 2 ar = 6t − (2t − 1)2 (t 3 − 4t). (b) Estimate the minimum magnitude of the acceleration and the time at which it occurs. ar θ The graph is shown. From Problem 13.179 from t = 0 to t = 2 s.Problem 13. dt dt Acceleration 50 45 40 35 30 |a| 25 Minimum = 2.310 s Note for user’s of TK Solver Plus. 2 = 6t . Substitute: dθ d2θ = 2t − 1. s 1.074 @ 0. Solution: The acceleration is a= d2r dt 2 −r dθ dt 2 er + r d2θ dt 2 +2 dr dt dθ dt eθ .0738 m/s2 at t = 0. dr d2r = 3t 2 − 4. 2 = 2.180 (a) Draw a graph of the magnitude of the acceleration of the point P in Problem 13.197. The minimum is found from a search of the tabulated values of the magnitude of the acceleration: |a|min = 2.

4 3.73 s 0 .248 m/s.5 .5 cos 2π t m.5 1 .4π cos[2π(t − 0.4 .9 1 time.1)] rad. The corresponding values of r and θ are r = 1. dt dθ = −0.5 cos(2π t))2 (−0.248 at 0.2 .5 − 0.Problem 13.5 |v | 2 1.3 . s The maximum value was found from a search of the tabulated values: |vp |max = 3.5 3 2.7 . y r P θ x Solution: The velocity is vp = dr er + r dt dθ dt eθ dr = π sin(2π t) m.1)] dt The magnitude of the velocity is |vp | = (π sin(2π t))2 + (1 − 0.066 m and θ = 37◦ .4π cos[2π(t − 0.2 sin[2π(t − 0. Determine the values of r and θ at which the magnitude of the velocity of P attains its maximum value.5 0 Robot hand Velocity Maximum = 3.181 The robot is programmed so that point P describes the path r = 1 − 0. θ = 0.6 .8 .1)])2 .1 .

6 time. The magnitude is found by a search of the tabulated values: |ap |max = 22.1))). 0 .2 .4π cos(2π(t − 0.8 1 .182 In Problem 13.5 15 |a| 12. 2 + a 2 . determine the values of r and θ at which the magnitude of the acceleration of P attains its maximum value.181. The values of the radius and angle are r = 1. from which: Max = 22.5 0 .Problem 13. Although not required by the probThe magnitude is |ap | = ar θ lem.64 m/s2 .475 s aθ = (1 − 0.636 at t = 0. from which: ar = 2π 2 cos(2π t) − (1 − 0.1)))2 aθ = r d2θ dt 2 dr +2 dt dθ dt .5 5 2.8π 2 sin(2π(t − 0.5◦ . Solution: The acceleration components are: ar = d2r −r dt 2 dθ dt 2 Robot arm acceleration 25 22.5 10 7.5 20 17.4 .5 cos(2π t))(−0. s .494 m and θ = 20.5 cos(2π t))(0.1)) + 2(π sin(2π t)) × (−0. a graph of the acceleration as a function of time is shown.4π cos(2π(t − 0.

and the value for the maximum is |a |MAX ∼ = 350 ft/s2 Follower Accel. Using an automatic numerical solver given as |a| = ar θ to plot the results.15. We proceed as in Example 13. Hence. y r A θ x Solution: Refer to the solutions of Problems 13.Problem 13. Use your graph to estimate the maximum magnitude of the follower’s acceleration and the angle(s) at which it occurs. (b) From the graph. (a) We ﬁnd the value for ˙= vr = r dr dr dr dθ dr by = = ω = −0. dθ dt dθ a 320 m 300 a g 280 260 f 240 t 220 – s 200 – 180 s 160 140 0 50 100 150 200 250 Follower Angle (deg) 300 350 400 . In order to determine the components of the acceleration in polar coordinates. the maximum magnitudes of acceleration occur at θ = 0◦ and θ = 180◦ . The path of the follower is described by the polar equation r = 1 + 0. or − sin(2θ)θ (vr ) = dt dt d d dθ [vr ] = [− sin(2θ)ω]ω = −2 cos(2θ)ω2 . We need only to ﬁnd r ¨ . ˙ = constant and θ ¨ = 0. and the radial position of the follower A is determined by the proﬁle of the stationary cam. we need to be able to determine all of the variables ˙ 2 and that aθ = r θ ¨ + 2r ˙.183 In the cam-follower mechanism. the slotted bar rotates with a constant angular velocity ω = 10 rad/s. In these problems. we get r ¨= r ¨= d d ˙ . (a) (b) Draw a graph of the magnitude of the follower’s acceleration as a function of θ for 0 ≤ θ ≤ 360◦ . we start with r ˙ = vr . Taking a derivative. we get the graph at the right.5 cos 2θ . Since ω is constant. the acceleration components for the follower were derived as functions of the angle θ .158. ¨ − rθ ˙θ in the right hand sides of ar = r ¨ . Magnitude (ft/s^2) vs Angle (deg) = −ω sin(2θ). Note that ω = θ v = vr er + rωeθ = −ω sin(2θ)er + rωeθ . We already know everything except r ¨ and θ ¨=ω θ ˙ = 0.5(2) sin(2θ)ω dt dt dθ dt dθ 360 340 We can now solve for the accelerations and the magnitude is 2 + a 2 . To ﬁnd r ¨ .157 and 13.

22 s into the equation for vy . vy = 0 = 10 − 9. we set y = 0 m into the y equation and solve for the time(s) when this occurs.e. Solving.81t 2 /2 (m). Let this time be t = t2 . we get a maximum height of yMAX = 7.81t (m/s). Substituting this time into the y equation.22 s. (a) What maximum height above the ground does the ball reach? (b) How long after release it does the ball hit the ground? (c) What is the magnitude of its velocity just before it hits the ground? Solution: The equations of motion for the ball are ay = −g = −9. There will be two times. Solving..81 m/s2 .10 m. Only the positive time has meaning for us. The equation for t2 is y = 0 = 2 + 10t2 − 9. vy = vy 0 − gt = 10 − 9. Call this time t = t1 . we get t2 = 2. one positive and one negative.8 m/s .81t1 (m/s). we get t1 = 1. we ﬁnd that at impact. (a) The maximum height occurs when the velocity is zero.81t 2 2 /2 (m).02 s.184 Suppose you throw a ball straight up at 10 m/s and release it at 2 m above the ground. and y = y0 + vy 0 t − gt 2 /2 = 2 + 10t − 9. To ﬁnd out when this occurs. i. (b) The ball hits the ground when y = 0 m.Problem 13. Doing this. It can be obtained by setting velocity to zero. vy = −11. (c) The velocity at impact is determined by substituting t2 = 2.

The distance traveled during the reaction time is d = V0 (0. and s(t) = −0. from which the total distance is dt = 353.17) The driver’s reaction time increases this by 0. dt 0.5 second.33(0.14 + 47. The initial speed is: V0 (a) 65 mi 1h 5280 ft 1 mi 1h 3600 s = 95.33 = 0 is t0 = = = 7.4g (0.8 ft The time required to come to a full stop ds(t0 ) V0 95. From which dt 2 The distance traveled after brake application is traveled from brake application to full stop is given by 2 + V t .90 s . and that cars can safely achieve a deceleration of at least 0.2gt0 0 0 0 Solution: The speed-time equation from initial speed to stop is given by integrating the equation ds = −0. from which s(t ) = 353.66 = 400.5 = 7.4g .14 ft.4)(32.Problem 13.5 s. hence the total time to stop after observing the yellow light is T = t0 + 0.66 ft.5) = 47.33 ft/s. that the drivers’ reaction times are as long as 0. (a) (b) How long must the light remain yellow to allow drivers to come to a stop safely before the light turns red? What is the minimum distance cars must be from the intersection when the light turns yellow to come to a stop safely at the intersection? (b) d2s = −0.5) = 95. Assume that cars will be approaching the intersection traveling as fast as 65 mi/h.185 Suppose that you must determine the duration of the yellow light at a highway intersection.4g .4gt + V0 . dt where V0 is the initial speed and the distance is referenced from the point where the brakes are applied. s(t)0 = −0.2gt 2 + V0 t.40 s.

33 m/s from which (1) 2V0 + d0 = 80 . 3 The velocity at t = 4 seconds is ds(t) dt = [2t 2 + 2t + V0 ]t =4 = 32 + 8 + 2. from which = 2t 2 + 2t + V0 . 3 Subtract (1) from (2) to obtain V0 = 94 − 80 6 = 2.s(4) = 3 2 3 4 + (42 ) + V0 (4) + d0 = 90. d0 are the initial velocity and position. What is its velocity when t = 4 s? Solution: The position-time equation is given by integrating ds d2s = 4t + 2. and dt 2 dt s(t) = 2 3 t + t 2 + V0 t + d0 . 3 from which (2) 4V0 + d0 = 94 . From the problem conditions: s(2) = 2 3 2 + (22 ) + V0 (2) + d0 = 36. 3 t =4 .Problem 13.33 m/s.33 = 42. When t = 2 s.186 The acceleration of a point moving along a straight line is a = 4t + 2 m/s2 . and when t = 4 seconds. where V0 . its position is s = 36 m. its position is s = 90 meters.

The altitude at burnout is hburnout = (12. Since the negative time is not allowed. The velocity at burnout is Vburnout = (25)(2) = 50 m/s. and determine (a) (b) the maximum velocity of the rocket during the ﬂight and the maximum altitude the rocket reaches. in canonical form: (tﬂight − 2)2 + 2b(tﬂight − 2) + c = 0.11 s.92 s.1 s.187 A model rocket takes off straight up. Its acceleration during the 2 s its motor burns is 25 m/s2 . Maximum occurs at burnout because after burnout.Problem 13. The maximum altitude is g hmax = − (tmax alt − 2)2 + Vburnout (tmax alt − 2) + hburnout = 177.1 s. and = −g. dt tmax alt − 2 = Vburnout = 5. Neglect aerodynamic drag.42 m 2 . = 25. The time of maximum altitude is given by ds = 0 = −g(tmax alt − 2) + Vburnout .5t 2 . g from which from which tmax alt = 7.11. √ The solution (tﬂight − 2) = −b ± b2 − c = 11. The issue of maximum velocity becomes this: is the velocity at burnout greater or less than the velocity at ground impact? The time of ﬂight is given by 0 = −g(tﬂight − 2)2 /2 + Vburnout (tﬂight − 2) + hburnout . the rocket has negative acceleration and velocity constantly decreases until it reaches zero at maximum altitude. where b = −(Vburnout /g) and c = −(2hburnout /g).5)(4) = 50 m. from which. Phase 2. Thus the maximum velocity during phase 2 occurs when the rocket impacts the ground. Solution: The strategy is to solve the equations of motion for the two phases of the ﬂight: during burn 0 ≤ t ≤ 2 s seconds. The velocity at impact is Vimpact = −g(tﬂight − 2) + Vburnout = −59 m/s which is higher in magnitude than the velocity at burnout. and after burnout: t > 2 s. from which dt 2 dt s(t) = −g(t − 2)2 /2 + Vburnout (t − 2) + hburnout . the time of ﬂight is tﬂight = 13. The velocity during phase 1 is constantly increasing because of the rocket’s positive acceleration. from which dt 2 dt since the initial velocity and position are zero. The acceleration is: ds d2s = −g(t − 2) + Vburnout (t ≥ 2). (t ≥ 2). The velocity from maximum altitude to impact must be constantly increasing since the rocket is falling straight down under the action of gravity. = −0. Phase 1: The acceleration is: ds d2s = 25t. and s(t) = 12.

187 was (serendipitously) posed in a manner to yield the time of ﬂight as a peripheral answer. what is the total time of ﬂight from takeoff until the rocket hits the ground? Solution: The solution to Problem 13.187.Problem 13. The time of ﬂight is given there as tﬂight = 13.11 s .188 In Problem 13. if the rocket’s parachute fails to open.

189 The acceleration of a point moving along a straight line is a = −cv 3 . If the velocity of the point is v0 . Separating variables and integrating: dt ds dt ds dv 1 = −cds . where c is a constant. At s = 0. from which − = −cs + C . dt dv dv ds dv = =v = −cv 3 . s= 2 cv0 . v = v0 . Invert: v0 cs = − 1.Problem 13. from v2 v 1 v0 v0 1 which − = −cs − . what distance does the v0 point move before its velocity decreases to ? 2 Solution: The acceleration is dv = −cv 3 . Using the chain rule. and v = . v v0 1 + v0 cs v v0 1 When v = .

When the stream is y(timpact ) = (20 − 12) = 8 ft.190 Water leaves the nozzle at 20◦ above the horizontal and strikes the wall at the point indicated. from which dy dx = −gt + Vn sin θ. The path is obtained by integrating the equations: dvy dvx = −g and = 0.62 ft/s 2(35 tan θ − 8) . and x0 = 0. 2 At this same time the horizontal distance is x(timpact ) = 35 = (Vn cos θ)timpact . dt dt Substitute: 0=− g 2 35 Vn cos θ 2 + 35 tan θ − 8. from which timpact = 35 . dt dt g y = − t 2 + (Vn sin θ)t + y0 . 2 x = (Vn cos θ)t + x0 . What was the velocity of the water as it left the nozzle? Strategy: Determine the motion of the water by treating each particle of water as a projectile. Vn cos θ from which Vn = 35 cos θ g = 68. the time is g 0 = − (timpact )2 + (Vn sin θ)timpact − 8.Problem 13. Choose the origin at the nozzle so that y0 = 0. = Vn cos θ. 20° 20 ft 12 ft 35 ft Solution: Denote θ = 20◦ .

The function f (v0 ) = 2v0 sin θ(v0 cos θ − 10)2 − 400 g was graphed to ﬁnd the zero crossing. 2 = 0.5 37 37.7 ft = 10.7 + 20 = 32. where the origin is taken at the point where the ball leaves the quarterback’s hand.191 In practice. The path is determined by integrating the equations.5 38 Velocity. 2 x = (v0 cos θ)t. g 20 ft Zero crossing 100 80 60 40 20 f(v) 0 –20 –40 –60 –80 –100 35 35.5 36 36. x = (v0 cos θ)tﬂight . y = 0. = v0 cos θ. g from which 400 g = 2v0 sin θ(v0 cos θ − 10)2 . and the result reﬁned by iteration: v0 = 36. v0 d2x d2y = −g.48 ft/s . Assume that the ball is thrown and caught at the same height above the ground. dt dt g y = − t 2 + (v0 sin θ)t. “lob” pass. (v0 cos θ − 10) But also from which Substitute: 20 = (v0 cos θ − 10) 2v0 sin θ . When the ball reaches the receiver’s hands. from which tﬂight = 2v0 sin θ . a receiver standing 20 ft in front of him starts running straight down ﬁeld at 10 ft/s and catches the ball. At the same instant.27 s and the distance down ﬁeld that the quarterback throws the ball is d = 12. which seem reasonable for a short. check. tﬂight = 20 . Check : The time of ﬂight is t = 1. dt 2 dt from which 45° 10 ft/s dy dx = −gt + v0 sin θ. . ft /s At this time the distance down ﬁeld is the distance to the receiver: x = 10tﬂight + 20. What is the velocity v0 ? 0 45° 10 ft/s 20 ft Solution: Denote θ = 45◦ .Problem 13.6y ds . a quarterback throws the football with a velocity v0 at 45◦ above the horizontal.

125 s.58 m/s.125 s. We know that vx = 2 m/s and ax = 0. y = 0.25 m? y y = 0.192 The constant velocity v = 2 m/s. ax y .Problem 13.889 m/s and dt d2y = ay = −5. we obtain dy = 0. dt 2 At t = 0.4π cos(2π t) and dt d2y = −0. dt 2 Therefore |v| = |a| = 2 + v 2 = 2.2 sin(2π t). What are the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration of point P when x = 0. vx y 2 + a 2 = 5.25 m at t = 0.2 sin π x P x 1m Solution: Let x = 2t m/s.58 m/s2 .8π 2 sin(2π t). From y = 0.141 m and dy = vy = 0. Then x = 0.19 m/s.

0◦ .27 m/s2 . What is the acceleration of point P in terms of normal and tangential components when x = 0. Then ay at θ ax at = ax cos θ + ay sin θ = 0 + (−5.889 2 = 24.193 The constant velocity v = 2 m/s.58) sin 24. aN = ax sin θ − ay cos θ = 0 − (−5.58) cos 24. The instantaneous radius is ρ= 2 + v2 vx y aN aN = (2)2 + (0.939 m.Problem 13. 5.25 m? Solution: See the solution of Problem 13. The angle θ between the x axis and the path is θ = arctan vy vx = arctan 0.10 .0◦ = −2.889)2 = 0.0◦ = 5.10 m/s2 .192.

25 = 29. Then ay aθ ar θ ar = ax cos θ + ay sin θ = 0 + (−5.5 = −4. The polar angle θ is θ = arctan y x = arctan 0.86 m/s . aθ = −ax sin θ + ay cos θ = 0 + (−5.58) sin 29.75 m/s2 .5◦ = −2.141 0.25 m? Solution: See the solution of Problem 13.58) cos 29.5◦ .Problem 13.192. 2 ◦ ax .194 The constant velocity v = 2 m/s. What is the acceleration of point P in terms of polar coordinates when x = 0.

4t. Determine the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration of P at t = 1 s.2t ft. The velocity components are vr = dr dθ = 0. The magnitude of the acceleration is |a| = 2 + a 2 = 1.42 = 0. vθ = r = (0.13 ft/s2 ar θ . dt dt At t = 1 seconds the magnitude of the velocity is |v| = 2 + v2 = vr θ √ 0.195 A point P moves along the spiral path r = (0. where t is in seconds.1)θ ft.2t)2 = 0. dr dt dθ dt aθ = r = 2(0.2 ft/s. and r = 0 at t = 0. P r θ Solution: The path r = 0.2t)(22 ) ft/s2 .22 + 0. θ = 2t rad. The angular position θ = 2t rad.Problem 13.2)(2) = 0. where θ is in radians.447 ft/s The acceleration components are: ar = d2r −r dt 2 d2θ dt 2 dθ dt +2 2 = −(0.8 ft/s2 .

2 m. Substituting these into v = vr er + vθ eθ . and θ = 40◦ .71j (m/s) .. Determine the velocity of the follower when θ = 40◦ (a) in terms of polar coordinates. These are vr = r the relation derived from the law of cosines to get r ˙ . Substituting in the numbers. Carrying ˙ sin θ = 0. ω = 12 rad/s. and (b) in terms of cartesian coordinates. we get r = 0. and the radial position of the follower A is determined by the proﬁle of the stationary cam. This can be most easily done by referring to the diagram at the right.42 m. we can write R 2 = h2 + r 2 − 2hr cos θ . and eθ = − sin θ i + cos θ j. v = −5. h = 0. out this differentiation. we get 2r r ˙ − 2hr ˙ cos θ + 2hr θ Solving for r ˙ . Recalling that ω = θ i. vr = −2.42 m radius.13 m/s. R = 0.e. We need to ﬁnd the components of ˙ .90i + 3. We can differentiate ˙ and vθ = r θ the velocity. (h cos θ − r) P r θ R c O h ˙ and substituting in the numerical values.196 In the cam-follower mechanism. This can be rewritten as r 2 − 2hr cos θ + (h2 − R 2 ) = 0. we get v = (vr cos θ − vθ sin θ)i + (vr sin θ + vθ cos θ)j. The slotted bar is pinned a distance h = 0.Problem 13. and vθ = 6. Using the law of cosines.64 m/s (b) The transformation to cartesian coordinates can be derived from er = cos θ i + sin θ j.2 m to the left of the center of the circular cam. the slotted bar rotates with a constant angular velocity ω = 12 rad/s.553 m. The follower moves in a circular path of 0. y r A θ h x Solution: (a) The ﬁrst step is to get an equation for the path of the follower in terms of the angle θ . we get r ˙= ˙ sin θ hr θ .

and eθ = sin θ i + cos θ j. In order to determine the components of the acceleration in polar coordinates. Since ω is constant. we get ar = −125. we get a = −63. Taking a derivative. we get r ¨= ˙ sin θ + hr θ ˙ 2 cos θ + hr θ ¨ sin θ r ˙ 2 + 2hr θ . (h cos θ − r) Evaluating. ˙ sin θ = 0 from Problem 13. Substituting these into a = ar er + ae eθ . we get a = ar er + aθ eθ .553 m at this position on the cam.196. θ ¨=ω θ ˙ = 0.1 j(m/s2 ).81 m/s2 and aθ = −51.Problem 13.17 m/s2 . determine the acceleration of the follower when θ = 40◦ (a) in terms of polar coordinates and (b) in terms of cartesian coordinates.46 i − 120. To ﬁnd r ¨ . Substituting this into the equation for ar and evaluating an . We need only to ﬁnd the value for r and the value for r ¨ at θ = 40◦ . Taking a derivative with respect to time. we need to be able to determine ˙ 2 and ¨ − rθ all of the variables in the right hand sides of ar = r ¨ + 2r ˙ .196 we start with r r ˙ − hr ˙ cos θ + hr θ (we divided through by 2). we ﬁnd that r = 0.196 will be used in this solution. we get a = (ar cos θ − aθ sin θ)i + (ar sin θ + aθ cos θ)j. . we get r ¨ = −46. Solution: (a) Information from the solution to Problem 13. we start with r ˙ = vr . We already know everything except r ˙θ ¨ and that aθ = r θ ¨ . Substituting in the numbers.197* In Problem 13.2 m/s2 (b) The transformation of cartesian coordinates can be derived from er = cos θ i + sin θ j. Substituting into the original equation for r .