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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

**HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles
**

Due: 11:00pm on Friday, September 20, 2013

You will receive no credit for items you complete after the assignment is due. Grading Policy

**Vector Components--Review
**

Learning Goal: To introduce you to vectors and the use of sine and cosine for a triangle when resolving components. Vectors are an important part of the language of science, mathematics, and engineering. They are used to discuss multivariable calculus, electrical circuits with oscillating currents, stress and strain in structures and materials, and flows of atmospheres and fluids, and they have many other applications. Resolving a vector into components is a precursor to computing things with or about a vector quantity. Because position, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and angular momentum are all vector quantities, resolving vectors into components is the most important sk ill required in a mechanics course. The figure shows the components of F ⃗, Fx and Fy , along the x and y axes of the coordinate system, respectively. The components of a vector depend on the coordinate system's orientation, the key being the angle between the vector and the coordinate axes, often designated θ.

Part A

The figure shows the standard way of measuring the angle. θ is measured to the vector from the x axis, and counterclockwise is positive. Express Fx and

Fy

in terms of the length of the

vector F and the angle θ, with the components separated by a comma.

Typesetting math: 25%

ANSWER:

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Fx , Fy

HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

=

cos θF , sinθF

Correct

In principle, you can determine the components of any vector with these expressions. If F ⃗ lies in one of the other quadrants of the plane, θ will be an angle larger than 90 degrees (or π /2 in radians) and cos(θ)and

sin( θ) will

have the appropriate signs and values.

Unfortunately this way of representing F ⃗, though mathematically correct, leads to equations that must be simplified using trig identities such as

sin( 180

∘

+ ϕ) = − sin( ϕ)

and

cos( 90

∘

+ ϕ) = − sin( ϕ) .

These must be used to reduce all trig functions present in your equations to either sin(ϕ) or cos(ϕ) . Unless you perform this followup step flawlessly, you will fail to recoginze that

sin( 180

∘

+ ϕ) + cos(270

∘

− ϕ) = 0,

and your equations will not simplify so that you can progress further toward a solution. Therefore, it is best to express all components in terms of either sin(ϕ) or cos(ϕ) , with ϕ between 0 and 90 degrees (or 0 and π /2 in radians), and determine the signs of the trig functions by knowing in which quadrant the vector lies.

Part B

When you resolve a vector F ⃗ into components, the components must have the form with cos(θ) . In real problems the optimal coordinate system is often rotated so that the x axis is not horizontal. Furthermore, most vectors will not lie in the first quadrant. To assign the sine and cosine correctly for vectors at arbitrary angles, you must figure out which angle is θ and then properly reorient the definitional triangle. As an example, consider the vector N ⃗ shown in the diagram labeled "tilted axes," where you know the angle θ between N ⃗ and the y axis. Which of the various ways of orienting the definitional triangle must be used to resolve N ⃗ into components in the tilted coordinate system shown? (In the figures, the hypotenuse is orange, the side adjacent to θ is red, and the side opposite is yellow.)

⃗ ⃗ | F | cos( θ)or | F | sin( θ) .

The signs depend on which quadrant the vector lies in, and there will be one component with sin(θ) and the other

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Indicate the number of the figure with the correct orientation.

**Hint 1. Recommended procedure for resolving a vector into components
**

First figure out the sines and cosines of θ, then figure out the signs from the quadrant the vector is in and write in the signs.

**Hint 2. Finding the trigonometric functions
**

Sine and cosine are defined according to the following convention, with the key lengths shown in green: The hypotenuse has unit length, the side adjacent to θ has length cos(θ) , and the side opposite has length

sin( θ) .

The colors are chosen to remind you that the vector sum of the two orthogonal sides is the vector

whose magnitude is the hypotenuse; red + yellow = orange.

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

ANSWER: 1 2 3 4

Correct

Part C

Choose the correct procedure for determining the components of a vector in a given coordinate system from this list: ANSWER: Align the adjacent side of a right triangle with the vector and the hypotenuse along a coordinate direction with θ as the included angle. Align the hypotenuse of a right triangle with the vector and an adjacent side along a coordinate direction with θ as the included angle. Align the opposite side of a right triangle with the vector and the hypotenuse along a coordinate direction with θ as the included angle. Align the hypotenuse of a right triangle with the vector and the opposite side along a coordinate direction with θ as the included angle.

Correct

Part D

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

The space around a coordinate system is conventionally divided into four numbered quadrants depending on the signs of the x and y coordinates . Consider the following conditions: A. B. C. D.

x > 0, y > 0 x > 0, y < 0 x < 0, y > 0 x < 0, y < 0

Which of these lettered conditions are true in which the numbered quadrants shown in ? Write the answer in the following way: If A were true in the third quadrant, B in the second, C in the first, and D in the fourth, enter "3 ,2 ,1 ,4 " as your response.

ANSWER: 1,4,2,3

Correct

Part E

Now find the components

Nx

**and Ny of N ⃗ in the tilted coordinate system of Part B.
**

N

**Express your answer in terms of the length of the vector separated by a comma. ANSWER:
**

N x, N y

and the angle θ, with the components

=

−N sinθ, N cos θ

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Correct

**± Vector Addition and Subtraction
**

In general it is best to conceptualize vectors as arrows in space, and then to make calculations with them using their components. (You must first specify a coordinate system in order to find the components of each arrow.) This problem gives you some practice with the components. Let vectors A⃗ = (1, 0, −3), B⃗ = (−2, 5, 1), and C ⃗ as ordered triplets of values separated by commas.

= (3, 1, 1).

Calculate the following, and express your answers

Part A

ANSWER:

⃗ ⃗ A−B

= 3,-5,-4

Correct

Part B

ANSWER:

⃗ ⃗ B−C

= -5,4,0

Correct

Part C

ANSWER:

⃗ ⃗ ⃗ −A + B − C

= -6,4,3

Correct

Part D

ANSWER:

⃗ ⃗ 3A − 2C

= -3,-2,-11

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Correct

Part E

ANSWER:

⃗ ⃗ ⃗ −2 A + 3 B − C

= -11,14,8

Correct

Part F

ANSWER:

⃗ ⃗ ⃗ 2 A − 3( B − C )

= 17,-12,-6

Correct

Tracking a Plane

A radar station, located at the origin of xz plane, as shown in the figure , detects an airplane coming straight at the station from the east. At first observation (point A), the position of the airplane relative to the origin is

⃗ RA ⃗ RA .

The

position vector has a magnitude of 360 m and is located at exactly 40 degreesabove the horizon. The airplane is tracked for another 123 degreesin the vertical east-west plane for 5.0 s, until it has passed directly over the station and reached point B. The position of point B relative to the origin is

⃗ RB

(the magnitude of R⃗ B is 880 m). The contact points are shown in the diagram, where the x axis represents the ground and the positive z direction is upward.

Part A

Define the displacement of the airplane while the radar was tracking it: components of R⃗ BA ?

⃗ session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?displayMode=studentView&assignmentID=2523260

BA

⃗ ⃗ ⃗ RBA = RB − RA

. What are the

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Express R⃗ BA in meters as an ordered pair, separating the x and z components with a comma, to two significant figures.

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

Keep in mind that

⃗ ⃗ ⃗ RBA = RB − RA ⃗ ( RBA )

x

**.According to the rules of vector addition and subtraction, the x
**

x

component of R⃗ BA is

⃗ = (RB )

⃗ − ( RA )

x

.

**Hint 2. Finding the components of R⃗ A
**

^ What are the components of R⃗ A in the ^ i and k directions?

Express your answer in meters as an ordered pair, separating the x and z values with commas, to three significant figures. ANSWER:

RAx , RAz

= 276,231

m

Correct

**Hint 3. Finding the components of R⃗ B
**

^ What are the components of R⃗ B in the ^ i and k directions?

Express your answer in meters as an ordered pair, separating the x and z components with a comma, to three significant figures. ANSWER:

RB

x

,

RB

z

= -842,257

m

Correct

ANSWER:

⃗ RBA

= -1100,26

m

Correct

**Projectile Motion Tutorial
**

Learning Goal:

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Understand how to apply the equations for 1-dimensional motion to the y and x directions separately in order to derive standard formulae for the range and height of a projectile. A projectile is fired from ground level at time t = 0, at an angle θ with respect to the horizontal. It has an initial speed v0 . In this problem we are assuming that the ground is level.

Part A

Find the time tH it takes the projectile to reach its maximum height. Express tH in terms of v0 , θ, and

g

(the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity).

**Hint 1. A basic property of projectile motion
**

It is important to understand that the motion in the y direction is independent of the motion in the x direction because these directions are orthogonal (at right angles) to each other.

**Hint 2. What condition applies at the top?
**

What is the value of the projectile's vertical velocity when it has reached the top of its trajectory? ANSWER:

vtop

= 0

**Hint 3. Vertical velocity as a function of time
**

Find an expression for the projectile's vertical velocity as a function of time, Express your answer in terms of t,

v0 , θ, vy ( t).

and

g,

the acceleration due to gravity.

**Hint 1. Initial velocity in y direction
**

What is the initial y component of velocity? Provide your answer in terms of v0 and θ. ANSWER:

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vy0

HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

=

v0 sin( θ)

ANSWER:

vy ( t)

=

v0 sin( θ) − gt

**Hint 4. Putting it all together
**

You now have a general expression for the y-velocity as a function of time, and you also know the the yvelocity at the top (i.e. at time tH ). This gives an equation which you can solve for tH .

**Hint 5. A list of possible answers
**

There are four answers in the pulldown list below, one of which is the correct answer for this question (the time to reach the top). Once you have finished this part, therefore, you will have the answer for the question. (However, you will still need to enter this answer into the answer box in the main part of the problem.) ANSWER:

v0 g sin(θ )

\large{\frac{v_0 g}{\sin(\theta)}} \large{\frac{v_0\sin(\theta)}{g}} \large{\frac{g \sin(\theta)}{v_0}}

ANSWER: \texttip{t_{\mit H}}{t_H} = \large{\frac{{\sin}{\theta}v_{0}}{g}}

Correct

Part B

Find \texttip{t_{\mit R}}{t_R}, the time at which the projectile hits the ground. Express the time in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, \texttip{\theta }{theta}, and \texttip{g}{g}.

**Hint 1. Two possible approaches
**

There are two good ways to find the total flight time \texttip{t_{\mit R}}{t_R}: either by invoking the symmetry of this problem (limited to projectiles fired over level ground) or by finding a general expression for \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)}, the y position of the projectile, and setting this equal to the height at the end of the trajectory, \texttip{y_{\mit R}}{y_R}. The second method is more general (i.e., it would work if the

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

projectile landed on a hill of height H). What is the value of \texttip{y_{\mit R}}{y_R} in this problem? Express \texttip{y_{\mit R}}{y_R} in terms of quantities given in the introduction. ANSWER: \texttip{y_{\mit R}}{y_R} = 0

**Hint 2. Some needed kinematics
**

Give an expression for the height as a function of time, \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)}, taking y_0=0. Express your answer in terms of \texttip{t}{t}, \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, \texttip{\theta }{theta}, and \texttip{g}{g}.

**Hint 1. Equation of motion
**

You should plug into the usual formula for the position with constant acceleration, \large{y(t) = y_0 + v_{0y} t + \frac{a_y t^2}{2}}. In this problem, what is \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y}, the initial y component of velocity? Answer in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} and \texttip{\theta }{theta}. ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y} = v_{0} {\sin}\left({\theta}\right)

ANSWER: \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)} = \large{v_{0} {\sin}\left({\theta}\right) t-\frac{1}{2} g t^{2}}

**Hint 3. Solving for \texttip{t_{\mit R}}{t_R}
**

You now know the equation for \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)}. By plugging in \texttip{t_{\mit R}}{t_R} you can determine \texttip{y\left(t_{\mit R}\right)}{y(t_R)}. From Part B.i you know the value of \texttip{y_{\mit R}}{y_R} , which is equal to \texttip{y\left(t_{\mit R}\right)}{y(t_R)}.

ANSWER: \texttip{t_{\mit R}}{t_R} = \large{\frac{2 {\sin}{\theta}v_{0}}{g}}

Correct

Part C

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Find \texttip{H}{H}, the maximum height attained by the projectile. Express the maximum height in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, \texttip{\theta }{theta}, and \texttip{g}{g}.

**Hint 1. Equation of motion
**

Keep in mind the equation of motion for \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)} that you have found in Part B.ii. If you can't find the equation of motion and have not done Part B.ii, please finish this part now.

**Hint 2. When is the projectile at the top of its trajectory?
**

At which time \texttip{t_{\rm max}}{t_max} will the projectile reach the maximum height? Answer in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, \texttip{\theta }{theta}, and \texttip{g}{g}. ANSWER: \texttip{t_{\rm max}}{t_max} = \large{\frac{v_{0} {\sin}\left({\theta}\right)}{g}}

**Hint 3. Finding \texttip{H}{H}
**

Remember that H=y(t_{\rm max}).

ANSWER: \texttip{H\left(\theta \right)}{H(theta)} = \large{\frac{v_{0}{^2}\left({\sin}{\theta}\right)^{2}}{2g}}

Correct

Part D

Find the total distance \texttip{R}{R} (often called the range) traveled in the x direction; in other words, find where the projectile lands. Express the range in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, \texttip{\theta }{theta}, and \texttip{g}{g}.

**Hint 1. When does the projectile hit the ground?
**

The projectile reaches the ground at time \texttip{t_{\mit R}}{t_R}.

**Hint 2. Where is the projectile as a function of time?
**

Give an expression for the x position of the particle as a function of time. Answer in terms of \texttip{t}{t}, \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, and \texttip{\theta }{theta}.

**Hint 1. Acceleration in x direction
**

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

There is no acceleration in the x direction. ANSWER: \texttip{x\left(t\right)}{x(t)} = v_{0} {\cos}\left({\theta}\right) t

**Hint 3. Finding the range
**

Remember that R=x(t_R).

**Hint 4. A list of possible answers
**

Choose the correct answer for \texttip{R}{R} from the following list. (You will still have to enter this answer into the main answer box to receive credit.) ANSWER: \large{\frac{v_0^2}{g \sin(2\theta)}} \large{\frac{v_0 \sin(\theta)}{g}} \large{\frac{v_0^2}{g\cos(2\theta)}} \large{\frac{v_0^2\sin(2\theta)}{g}}

ANSWER: \texttip{R\left(\theta \right)}{R(theta)} = \large{\frac{2\left({\sin}{\theta}\right){\cos}{\theta}v_{0}{^2}}{g}}

Correct

The actual formula for \texttip{R\left(\theta \right)}{R(theta)} is less important than how it is obtained: 1. Consider the x and y motion separately. 2. Find the time of flight from the y-motion 3. Find the x-position at the end of the flight - this is the range. If you remember these steps, you can deal with many variants of the basic problem, such as: a cannon on a hill that fires horizontally (i.e. the second half of the trajectory), a projectile that lands on a hill, or a projectile that must hit a moving target.

**Graphing Projectile Motion
**

For the motion diagram given , sketch the shape of the corresponding motion graphs in Parts A to D. Use the indicated coordinate system. One unit of time elapses between consecutive dots in the motion diagram.

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Part A

Construct a possible graph for x position versus time, \texttip{x\left(t\right)}{x(t)}.

**Hint 1. Determine the initial value of \texttip{x\left(t\right)}{x(t)}
**

Is the initial value of the x position positive, negative, or zero? ANSWER: positive negative zero

Correct

Hint 2. Specify the shape of the \texttip{x\left(t\right)}{x(t)} graph

Does the x position change at a constant rate or a changing rate? You can determine this by looking at the change in x coordinate from one dot to the next. ANSWER: constant changing

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Correct

Since the x position changes at a constant rate (implying a constant x velocity), it must be represented by a graph with a constant slope.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part B

Construct a possible graph for the y position versus time, \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)}.

**Hint 1. Determine the initial value of \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)}
**

Is the initial value of the y position positive, negative, or zero? ANSWER: positive negative zero

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Correct

Hint 2. Specify the shape of the \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)} graph

Does the y position change at a constant rate or a changing rate? ANSWER: constant changing

Correct

Since the y position changes at a variable rate (implying a changing y velocity), it must be represented by a graph with a changing slope.

ANSWER:

Correct

Part C

Construct a possible graph for the x velocity versus time, \texttip{v_{\mit x}\left(t\right)}{v_x(t)}.

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

**Hint 1. Determine the initial value of \texttip{v_{\mit x}\left(t\right)}{v_x(t)}
**

Is the initial value of the x velocity positive, negative, or zero? Look at the x component of the first arrow. ANSWER: positive negative zero

Correct

Hint 2. Specify the shape of the \texttip{v_{\mit x}\left(t\right)}{v_x(t)} graph

Does the x velocity remain constant or does it change? You can determine this by comparing the x components of the arrows. ANSWER: It remains constant. It changes.

Correct

ANSWER:

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Correct

Part D

Construct a possible graph for the y velocity versus time, \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t\right)}{v_y(t)}.

**Hint 1. Determine the initial value of \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t\right)}{v_y(t)}
**

Is the initial value of the y velocity positive, negative, or zero? Look at the y component of the first arrow. ANSWER: positive negative zero

**Hint 2. Specify the shape of the \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t\right)}{v_y(t)} graph
**

Does the y velocity remain constant or does it change? You can determine this by comparing the y components of the arrows. ANSWER:

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

It remains constant. It changes.

**Hint 3. Specify the rate of change of \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t\right)}{v_y(t)}
**

Does the y velocity change at a constant rate or a changing rate? It may be helpful to write down the y components of successive arrows. See if the differences between successive arrows' y components stay the same. ANSWER: constant changing

ANSWER:

Correct

**Conceptual Problem about Projectile Motion
**

Learning Goal:

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

To understand projectile motion by considering horizontal constant velocity motion and vertical constant acceleration motion independently. Projectile motion refers to the motion of unpowered objects (called projectiles) such as balls or stones moving near the surface of the earth under the influence of the earth's gravity alone. In this analysis we assume that air resistance can be neglected. An object undergoing projectile motion near the surface of the earth obeys the following rules: 1. An object undergoing projectile motion travels horizontally at a constant rate. That is, the x component of its velocity, \texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x}, is constant. 2. An object undergoing projectile motion moves vertically with a constant downward acceleration whose magnitude, denoted by \texttip{g}{g}, is equal to 9.80 \rm{m/s^2} near the surface of the earth. Hence, the y component of its velocity, \texttip{v_{\mit y}}{v_y}, changes continuously. 3. An object undergoing projectile motion will undergo the horizontal and vertical motions described above from the instant it is launched until the instant it strikes the ground again. Even though the horizontal and vertical motions can be treated independently, they are related by the fact that they occur for exactly the same amount of time, namely the time \texttip{t}{t} the projectile is in the air. The figure shows the trajectory (i.e., the path) of a ball undergoing projectile motion over level ground. The time t_0 = 0\;\rm{s} corresponds to the moment just after the ball is launched from position x_0 = 0\;\rm{m} and y_0 = 0\;\rm{m}. Its launch velocity, also called the initial velocity, is \texttip{\vec{v}_{\rm 0}}{v_vec_0}. Two other points along the trajectory are indicated in the figure. One is the moment the ball reaches the peak of its trajectory, at time \texttip{t_{\rm 1}}{t_1} with velocity \texttip{\vec{v}_{\rm 1}}{v_1_vec}. Its position at this moment is denoted by (x_1, y_1) or (x_1, y_{\max}) since it is at its maximum height. The other point, at time \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2} with velocity \texttip{\vec{v}_{\rm 2}}{v_2_vec}, corresponds to the moment just before the ball strikes the ground on the way back down. At this time its position is (x_2, y_2), also known as (x_{\max}, y_2) since it is at its maximum horizontal range. Projectile motion is symmetric about the peak, provided the object lands at the same vertical height from which is was launched, as is the case here. Hence y_2 = y_0 = 0\;\rm{m}.

Part A

How do the speeds \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1}, and \texttip{v_{\rm 2}}{v_2} (at times \texttip{t_{\rm 0}}{t_0}, \texttip{t_{\rm 1}}{t_1}, and \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2}) compare? ANSWER:

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

\texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} = \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1} = \texttip{v_{\rm 2}}{v_2} > 0 \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} = \texttip{v_{\rm 2}}{v_2} > \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1} = 0 \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} = \texttip{v_{\rm 2}}{v_2} > \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1} > 0 \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} > \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1} > \texttip{v_{\rm 2}}{v_2} > 0 \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} > \texttip{v_{\rm 2}}{v_2} > \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1} = 0

Correct

Here \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} equals \texttip{v_{\rm 2}}{v_2} by symmetry and both exceed \texttip{v_{\rm 1}}{v_1} . This is because \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} and \texttip{v_{\rm 2}}{v_2} include vertical speed as well as the constant horizontal speed.

Consider a diagram of the ball at time \texttip{t_{\rm 0}}{t_0}. Recall that \texttip{t_{\rm 0}}{t_0} refers to the instant just after the ball has been launched, so it is still at ground level (x_0 = y_0= 0\;\rm{m}). However, it is already moving with initial velocity \texttip{\vec{v}_{\rm 0}}{v_0_vec}, whose magnitude is v_0 = 30.0\;{\rm m/s} and direction is \theta = 60.0\;{\rm degrees} counterclockwise from the positive x direction.

Part B

What are the values of the intial velocity vector components \texttip{v_{0,x}}{v_0, x} and \texttip{v_{0,y}}{v_0, y} (both in \rm{m/s}) as well as the acceleration vector components \texttip{a_{0,x}}{a_0, x} and \texttip{a_{0,y}}{a_0, y} (both in \rm{m/s^2})? Here the subscript 0 means "at time \texttip{t_{\rm 0}}{t_0}."

**Hint 1. Determining components of a vector that is aligned with an axis
**

If a vector points along a single axis direction, such as in the positive x direction, its x component will be its full magnitude, whereas its y component will be zero since the vector is perpendicular to the y direction. If the vector points in the negative x direction, its x component will be the negative of its full magnitude.

**Hint 2. Calculating the components of the initial velocity
**

Notice that the vector \texttip{\vec{v}_{\rm 0}}{v_0_vec} points up and to the right. Since "up" is the positive y axis direction and "to the right" is the positive x axis direction, \texttip{v_{0,x}}{v_0, x} and \texttip{v_{0,y}}{v_0, y} will both be positive.

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As shown in the figure, \texttip{v_{0,x}}{v_0, x}, \texttip{v_{0,y}}{v_0, y}, and \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} are three sides of a right triangle, one angle of which is \texttip{\theta }{theta}. Thus \texttip{v_{0,x}}{v_0, x} and \texttip{v_{0,y}}{v_0, y} can be found using the definition of the sine and cosine functions given below. Recall that v_0 = 30.0\;\rm{m/s} and \theta = 60.0\;\rm{degrees} and note that \large{\sin(\theta) = \frac{\rm{length\;of\;opposite\;side}}{\rm{length\;of\;hypotenuse}}} \large{= \frac{v_{0, y}}{v_0}}, \large{\cos(\theta) = \frac{\rm{length\;of\;adjacent\;side}}{\rm{length\;of\;hypotenuse}}} \large{= \frac{v_{0, x}}{v_0}.} What are the values of \texttip{v_{0,x}}{v_0, x} and \texttip{v_{0,y}}{v_0, y}? Enter your answers numerically in meters per second separated by a comma. ANSWER: 15.0,26.0 \rm{m/s}

ANSWER: 30.0, 0, 0, 0 0, 30.0, 0, 0 15.0, 26.0, 0, 0 30.0, 0, 0, -9.80 0, 30.0, 0, -9.80 15.0, 26.0, 0, -9.80 15.0, 26.0, 0, +9.80

Correct

Also notice that at time \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2}, just before the ball lands, its velocity components are v_{2, x} = 15\;\rm{m/s} (the same as always) and v_{2, y} = - 26.0\;\rm{m/s} (the same size but opposite sign from \texttip{v_{0,y}}{v_0, y} by symmetry). The acceleration at time \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2} will have components (0, -9.80 \rm{m/s^2}), exactly the same as at \texttip{t_{\rm 0}}{t_0}, as required by Rule 2.

The peak of the trajectory occurs at time \texttip{t_{\rm 1}}{t_1}. This is the point where the ball reaches its maximum height \texttip{y_{\rm max}}{y_max}. At the peak the ball switches from moving up to moving down, even as it continues to travel horizontally at a constant rate.

Part C

What are the values of the velocity vector components \texttip{v_{1,x}}{v_1, x} and \texttip{v_{1,y}}{v_1, y} (both in \rm{m/s}) as well as the acceleration vector components \texttip{a_{1,x}}{a_1, x} and \texttip{a_{1,y}}{a_1, y} (both

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in \rm{m/s^2})? Here the subscript 1 means that these are all at time \texttip{t_{\rm 1}}{t_1}. ANSWER: 0, 0, 0, 0 0, 0, 0, -9.80 15.0, 0, 0, 0 15.0, 0, 0, -9.80 0, 26.0, 0, 0 0, 26.0, 0, -9.80 15.0, 26.0, 0, 0 15.0, 26.0, 0, -9.80

Correct

At the peak of its trajectory the ball continues traveling horizontally at a constant rate. However, at this moment it stops moving up and is about to move back down. This constitutes a downward-directed change in velocity, so the ball is accelerating downward even at the peak.

The flight time refers to the total amount of time the ball is in the air, from just after it is launched (\texttip{t_{\rm 0}}{t_0}) until just before it lands (\texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2}). Hence the flight time can be calculated as t_2 - t_0, or just \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2} in this particular situation since t_0 = 0. Because the ball lands at the same height from which it was launched, by symmetry it spends half its flight time traveling up to the peak and the other half traveling back down. The flight time is determined by the initial vertical component of the velocity and by the acceleration. The flight time does not depend on whether the object is moving horizontally while it is in the air.

Part D

If a second ball were dropped from rest from height \texttip{y_{\rm max}}{y_max}, how long would it take to reach the ground? Ignore air resistance. Check all that apply.

**Hint 1. Kicking a ball of cliff; a related problem
**

Consider two balls, one of which is dropped from rest off the edge of a cliff at the same moment that the other is kicked horizontally off the edge of the cliff. Which ball reaches the level ground at the base of the cliff first? Ignore air resistance.

**Hint 1. Comparing position, velocity, and acceleration of the two balls
**

Both balls start at the same height and have the same initial y velocity (v_{0,y} = 0) as well as the same acceleration (\vec a = g downward). They differ only in their x velocity (one is zero, the other nonzero). This difference will affect their x motion but not their y motion. ANSWER:

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The ball that falls straight down strikes the ground first. The ball that was kicked so it moves horizontally as it falls strikes the ground first. Both balls strike the ground at the same time.

ANSWER: \texttip{t_{\rm 0}}{t_0} t_1 - t_0 \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2} t_2 - t_1 \large{\frac{t_2 - t_0}{2}}

Correct

In projectile motion over level ground, it takes an object just as long to rise from the ground to the peak as it takes for it to fall from the peak back to the ground.

The range \texttip{R}{R} of the ball refers to how far it moves horizontally, from just after it is launched until just before it lands. Range is defined as x_2 - x_0, or just \texttip{x_{\rm 2}}{x_2} in this particular situation since x_0 = 0. Range can be calculated as the product of the flight time \texttip{t_{\rm 2}}{t_2} and the x component of the velocity \texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x} (which is the same at all times, so v_x = v_{0,x}). The value of \texttip{v_{\mit x}}{v_x} can be found from the launch speed \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} and the launch angle \texttip{\theta }{theta} using trigonometric functions, as was done in Part B. The flight time is related to the initial y component of the velocity, which may also be found from \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} and \texttip{\theta }{theta} using trig functions. The following equations may be useful in solving projectile motion problems, but these equations apply only to a projectile launched over level ground from position (x_0 = y_0 = 0) at time t_0 = 0 with initial speed \texttip{v_{\rm 0}} {v_0} and launch angle \texttip{\theta }{theta} measured from the horizontal. As was the case above, \texttip{t_{\rm 2}} {t_2} refers to the flight time and \texttip{R}{R} refers to the range of the projectile. flight time: \large{t_2 = \frac{2 v_{0, y}}{g} = \frac{2 v_0 \sin(\theta)}{g}} range: \large{R = v_x t_2 = \frac{v_0^2 \sin(2\theta)}{g}} In general, a high launch angle yields a long flight time but a small horizontal speed and hence little range. A low launch angle gives a larger horizontal speed, but less flight time in which to accumulate range. The launch angle that achieves the maximum range for projectile motion over level ground is 45 degrees.

Part E

Which of the following changes would increase the range of the ball shown in the original figure? Check all that apply. ANSWER:

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Increase \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} above 30 \rm{m/s}. Reduce \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} below 30 \rm{m/s}. Reduce \texttip{\theta }{theta} from 60 \rm{degrees} to 45 \rm{degrees}. Reduce \texttip{\theta }{theta} from 60 \rm{degrees} to less than 30 \rm{degrees}. Increase \texttip{\theta }{theta} from 60 \rm{degrees} up toward 90 \rm{degrees}.

Correct

A solid understanding of the concepts of projectile motion will take you far, including giving you additional insight into the solution of projectile motion problems numerically. Even when the object does not land at the same height from which is was launched, the rules given in the introduction will still be useful. Recall that air resistance is assumed to be negligible here, so this projectile motion analysis may not be the best choice for describing things like frisbees or feathers, whose motion is strongly influenced by air. The value of the gravitational free-fall acceleration \texttip{g}{g} is also assumed to be constant, which may not be appropriate for objects that move vertically through distances of hundreds of kilometers, like rockets or missiles. However, for problems that involve relatively dense projectiles moving close to the surface of the earth, these assumptions are reasonable.

**Advice for the Quarterback
**

A quarterback is set up to throw the football to a receiver who is running with a constant velocity \texttip{\vec{v}_{\rm r}} {v_r_vec} directly away from the quarterback and is now a distance \texttip{D}{D} away from the quarterback. The quarterback figures that the ball must be thrown at an angle \texttip{\theta }{theta} to the horizontal and he estimates that the receiver must catch the ball a time interval \texttip{t_{\rm c}}{t_c} after it is thrown to avoid having opposition players prevent the receiver from making the catch. In the following you may assume that the ball is thrown and caught at the same height above the level playing field. Assume that the y coordinate of the ball at the instant it is thrown or caught is y = 0 and that the horizontal position of the quaterback is x=0. Use \texttip{g}{g} for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity, and use the pictured inertial coordinate system when solving the problem.

Part A

Find \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y}, the vertical component of the velocity of the ball when the quarterback releases it.

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Express \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y} in terms of \texttip{t_{\rm c}}{t_c} and \texttip{g}{g}.

**Hint 1. Equation of motion in y direction
**

What is the expression for \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)}, the height of the ball as a function of time? Answer in terms of \texttip{t}{t}, \texttip{g}{g}, and \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y}. ANSWER: \texttip{y\left(t\right)}{y(t)} = \large{v_{\rm{0y}} t-{\frac{1}{2}}gt^{2}}

Correct

Hint 2. Height at which the ball is caught, \texttip{y\left(t_{\rm c}\right)}{y(t_c)}

Remember that after time \texttip{t_{\rm c}}{t_c} the ball was caught at the same height as it had been released. That is, y(t_{\rm c}) = y_0 = 0.

ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y} = \large{{\frac{1}{2}}gt_{c}}

Correct

Part B

Find \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x}, the initial horizontal component of velocity of the ball. Express your answer for \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x} in terms of \texttip{D}{D}, \texttip{t_{\rm c}}{t_c}, and \texttip{v_{\rm r}}{v_r}.

**Hint 1. Receiver's position
**

Find \texttip{x_{\rm r}}{x_r}, the receiver's position before he catches the ball. Answer in terms of \texttip{D}{D}, \texttip{v_{\rm r}}{v_r}, and \texttip{t_{\rm c}}{t_c}. ANSWER: \texttip{x_{\rm r}}{x_r} = D+v_{r} t_{c}

**Hint 2. Football's position
**

Find \texttip{x_{\rm c}}{x_c}, the horizontal distance that the ball travels before reaching the receiver.

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Answer in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x} and \texttip{t_{\rm c}}{t_c}. ANSWER: \texttip{x_{\rm c}}{x_c} = v_{\rm{0x}} t_{c}

ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x} = \large{{\frac{D}{t_{c}}}+v_{r}}

Correct

Part C

Find the speed \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} with which the quarterback must throw the ball. Answer in terms of \texttip{D}{D}, \texttip{t_{\rm c}}{t_c}, \texttip{v_{\rm r}}{v_r}, and \texttip{g}{g}.

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

Remember that velocity is a vector; from solving Parts A and B you have the two components, from which you can find the magnitude of this vector. ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} = \large{\sqrt{\left({\frac{D}{t_{c}}}+v_{r}\right)^{2}+\left({\frac{1}{2}}gt_{c}\right)^{2}}}

Correct

Part D

Assuming that the quarterback throws the ball with speed \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}, find the angle \texttip{\theta }{theta} above the horizontal at which he should throw it. Your solution should contain an inverse trig function (entered as a s i n ,a c o s , or a t a n ). Give your answer in terms of already known quantities, \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x}, \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y}, and \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}.

**Hint 1. Find angle \texttip{\theta }{theta} from v_{0x} and v_{0y}
**

Think of velocity as a vector with Cartesian coordinates v_{0x}\hat{x} and v_{0y}\hat{y}. Find the angle \texttip{\theta }{theta} that this vector would make with the x axis using the results of Parts A and B.

ANSWER:

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

\texttip{\theta }{theta} = \large{{\atan}\left(\frac{v_{\rm{0y}}}{v_{\rm{0x}}}\right)}

Correct

**± Arrow Hits Apple
**

An arrow is shot at an angle of \theta = 45^\circ above the horizontal. The arrow hits a tree a horizontal distance D = 220 \; {\rm m} away, at the same height above the ground as it was shot. Use g = 9.8 \;{\rm m/s^2} for the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity.

Part A

Find \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a}, the time that the arrow spends in the air. Answer numerically in seconds, to two significant figures.

**Hint 1. Find the initial upward component of velocity in terms of D.
**

Introduce the (unknown) variables \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0} and \texttip{v_{\rm x0}}{v_x0} for the initial components of velocity. Then use kinematics to relate them and solve for \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a}. What is the vertical component \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0} of the initial velocity? Express your answer symbolically in terms of \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a} and \texttip{D}{D}.

**Hint 1. Find \texttip{v_{\rm x0}}{v_x0}
**

Find the horizontal component \texttip{v_{\rm x0}}{v_x0} of the initial velocity. Express your answer symbolically in terms of \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a} and given symbolic quantities. ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\rm x0}}{v_x0} = \large{\frac{D}{t_{a}}}

**Hint 2. Find \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0}
**

What is the vertical component \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0} of the initial velocity? Express your answer symbolically in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm x0}}{v_x0}. ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0} = v_{\rm{x0}}

ANSWER:

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\texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0} = \large{\frac{D}{t_{a}}}

**Hint 2. Find the time of flight in terms of the initial vertical component of velocity.
**

From the change in the vertical component of velocity, you should be able to find \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a} in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0} and \texttip{g}{g}. Give your answer in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0} and \texttip{g}{g}.

**Hint 1. Find \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t_{\rm a}\right)}{v_y(t_a)}
**

When applied to the y-component of velocity, in this problem the formula for \texttip{v\left(t\right)}{v(t)} with constant acceleration \texttip{-g}{-g} is v_y(t) = v_{y0} - g\;t What is \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t_{\rm a}\right)}{v_y(t_a)}, the vertical component of velocity when the arrow hits the tree? Answer symbolically in terms of \texttip{v_{\rm y0}}{v_y0} only. ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t_{\rm a}\right)}{v_y(t_a)} = -v_{\rm{y0}}

ANSWER: t_a = \large{\frac{2 v_{\rm{y0}}}{g}}

**Hint 3. Put the algebra together to find \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a} symbolically.
**

If you have an expression for the initial vertical velocity component in terms in terms of \texttip{D}{D} and \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a}, and another in terms of \texttip{g}{g} and \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a}, you should be able to eliminate this initial component to find an expression for \texttip{t_{\rm a^2}}{t_a^2} Express your answer symbolically in terms of given variables. ANSWER: t_a^2 = \large{\frac{2 D}{g}}

ANSWER: \texttip{t_{\rm a}}{t_a} = 6.7 {\rm s}

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Correct

Suppose someone drops an apple from a vertical distance of 6.0 meters, directly above the point where the arrow hits the tree.

Part B

How long after the arrow was shot should the apple be dropped, in order for the arrow to pierce the apple as the arrow hits the tree? Express your answer numerically in seconds, to two significant figures.

**Hint 1. When should the apple be dropped
**

The apple should be dropped at the time equal to the total time it takes the arrow to reach the tree minus the time it takes the apple to fall 6.0 meters.

**Hint 2. Find the time it takes for the apple to fall 6.0 meters
**

How long does it take an apple to fall 6.0 meters? Express your answer numerically in seconds, to two significant figures. ANSWER: \texttip{t_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}}}{t_f} = 1.1 {\rm s}

ANSWER: \texttip{t_{\rm d}}{t_d} = 5.6 {\rm s}

Correct

**± Horizontal Cannon on a Cliff
**

A cannonball is fired horizontally from the top of a cliff. The cannon is at height \texttip{H}{H} = 100{\rm m} above ground level, and the ball is fired with initial horizontal speed \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}. Assume acceleration due to gravity to be \texttip{g}{g} = 9.80{\rm m/s^2} .

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Part A

Assume that the cannon is fired at time t = 0 and that the cannonball hits the ground at time \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g}. What is the y position of the cannonball at the time t_{\rm g}/2? Answer numerically in units of meters.

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

In this problem, you are asked to find the height \texttip{y}{y} at a certain time. Nothing is asked or given about the distance coordinate \texttip{x}{x}. Therefore, you only need to consider the y equations of motion and variables. Write down the known and unknown y variables. Then find the appropriate equation(s) and substitute for the values.

**Hint 2. Identify the knowns and unknowns
**

The information given in the introduction can be used to determine the knowns and unknowns in the problem. For this part, you need to consider only the y variables. In terms of the given coordinate system, the initial height \texttip{y_{\rm 0}}{y_0} can be chosen to be 100{\rm m} . Of course, the acceleration in the y direction is exclusively the acceleration due to gravity: a_{\rm y}=-g. Which of the following quantities is/are also known? Check all that apply. ANSWER: \texttip{y}{y} at time \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g} \texttip{y_{\rm 0}}{y_0} \texttip{v_{\mit y}}{v_y} at time \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g} \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y}

**Hint 3. Determine which equation to use to find the height at the requested time
**

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Three equations that describe motion in the y direction are given below. Which would you use to determine the height \texttip{y}{y} of the cannonball at time t_{\rm g}/2? ANSWER: v_y = v_{0\rm y} -gt \large{y = y_0 + v_{0\rm y}t - \frac{1}{2}gt^2} v_y^2 = v_{0\rm y}^2 - 2g(y - y_0)

**Hint 4. Find \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g}
**

What is the value of \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g}? Express your answer numerically in seconds.

**Hint 1. Identify which equation to use to find \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g}
**

Which of the equations below could you use to find \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g}? ANSWER: x=x_0+v_{0\rm x}t v_y=v_{0\rm y}-gt \large{y=y_0+v_{0\rm y}t-\frac{1}{2}gt^2}

ANSWER: \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g} = 4.52 \rm s

ANSWER: y(t_{\rm g}/2) = 75.0 \rm m

Correct

The same answer can be obtained more easily (perhaps you did it this way) if you notice that v_{\rm 0y}=0. This means that the vertical displacement is given by \large{\Delta y=-\frac{1}{2}gt^2} and therefore \Delta y(t_{\rm g}/2) is one-quarter of \texttip{H}{H}; then \large{y(t_{\rm g}/2)=\frac{3}{4}H}.

Part B

Given that the projectile lands at a distance \texttip{D}{D} = 140{\rm m} from the cliff, as shown in the figure, find the initial speed of the projectile, \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0}.

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Express the initial speed numerically in meters per second.

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

The initial speed \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} can be determined if you know either \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x} or \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y} and the angle of elevation of the cannon \texttip{\theta }{theta}. Then you could use either v_{0\rm x}= v_0\cos\theta. or v_{0\rm y}= v_0\sin\theta. In this case, \theta=0, so there is no component of velocity in the vertical direction, and the second equation is not useful. You need to determine \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x} from the given information. In this case, v_0=v_{0\rm x} because the cannonball is launched with only an initial horizontal velocity. You are given the horizontal distance traveled by the cannonball and need to find its horizontal velocity (which is constant because the only force acting on the cannonball, gravity, acts exclusively in the vertical direction). You are not asked for or given any information about the y variables. Therefore, you need to consider only the x variables and equations.

**Hint 2. Knowns and unknowns
**

Since you are asked to find \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x}, you need to determine the knowns and unknowns only for the x variables. In the coordinate system shown in the figure in the problem introduction, the known/given x variables are x_0 = 0 and x(t_{\rm g})= 140{\rm m} .

**Hint 3. The equation to use
**

The equation that describes the motion in the x direction is x(t)=x_0+v_{\rm x}t. Substitute for the known quantities in this equation and solve for v_{\rm x} = v_0. Keep in mind that v_0=v_{0\rm x}= v_{\rm x} because the cannonball is launched with an initial horizontal velocity and no initial vertical velocity, and the horizontal component of the cannonball's velocity is constant. ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\rm 0}}{v_0} = 31.0 \rm m/s

Correct

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Part C

What is the y position of the cannonball when it is at distance D/2 from the hill? If you need to, you can use the trajectory equation for this projectile, which gives \texttip{y}{y} in terms of \texttip{x}{x} directly: \large{y = H - \frac{g x^2}{2 v_{0\rm x}^2}}. You should already know \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x} from the previous part. Express the position of the cannonball numerically in meters. ANSWER: \texttip{y_{\rm D/2}}{y_D/2} = 75.0 \rm m

Correct

Not surprisingly, the answer to this part is the same as that in Part A because a projectile travels equal horizontal distances in equal amounts of time.

**± Delivering a Package by Air
**

A relief airplane is delivering a food package to a group of people stranded on a very small island. The island is too small for the plane to land on, and the only way to deliver the package is by dropping it. The airplane flies horizontally with constant speed of 230{\rm mph} at an altitude of 550{\rm m} . The positive x and y directions are defined in the figure. For all parts, assume that the "island" refers to the point at a distance \texttip{D}{D} from the point at which the package is released, as shown in the figure. Ignore the height of this point above sea level. Assume that the acceleration due to gravity is \texttip{g}{g} = 9.80{\rm m/s^2} .

Part A

After a package is ejected from the plane, how long will it take for it to reach sea level from the time it is ejected? Assume that the package, like the plane, has an initial velocity of 230{\rm mph} in the horizontal direction. Express your answer numerically in seconds. Neglect air resistance.

**Hint 1. Knowns and unknowns: what are the initial conditions?
**

Take the origin of the coordinate system to be at the point on the surface of the water directly below the point at which the package is released. The directions of the axes are shown in the figure in the problem

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

introduction. In this coordinate system, what are the values of \texttip{x_{\rm 0}}{x_0}, \texttip{y_{\rm 0}}{y_0} , \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x}, \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y} of the package? Express your answers numerically and enter them, separated by commas, in the order \texttip{x_{\rm 0}}{x_0}, \texttip{y_{\rm 0}}{y_0}, \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x}, \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y}. Use units of meters and mph for distances and speeds, respectively.

**Hint 1. Initial velocity in the y direction
**

Because the package is ejected horizontally, the vertical component of its initial velocity is zero. ANSWER:

\texttip{x_{\rm 0}}{x_0}, \texttip{y_{\rm 0}}{y_0}, \texttip{v_{\rm 0x}}{v_0x}, \texttip{v_{\rm 0y}}{v_0y} =

0,550,230,0

\rm m, m, mph, mph

**Hint 2. What are the knowns and unknowns when the package hits the ground?
**

Take the origin of the coordinate system to be at the point on the surface of the water directly below the point at which the package is released. The directions of the axes are shown in the figure in the problem introduction. Let \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g} be the time when the package hits the ground. In this coordinate system, v_{\rm x}(t_{\rm g}) = 230{\rm mph} since there is no acceleration in the x direction. Which of the following values is/are known? Check all that apply. ANSWER: \texttip{x\left(t_{\rm g}\right)}{x(t_g)} \texttip{y\left(t_{\rm g}\right)}{y(t_g)} \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t_{\rm g}\right)}{v_y(t_g)}

**Hint 3. Find the best equation to use
**

Which of the equations below could you use to find the time \texttip{t_{\rm g}}{t_g} when the packet hits the ground?

**Hint 1. How to determine which equation to use
**

Only one of the quantities \texttip{x\left(t_{\rm g}\right)}{x(t_g)}, \texttip{y\left(t_{\rm g}\right)}{y(t_g)}, \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t_{\rm g}\right)}{v_y(t_g)} is known. Which one? You have to use the equation that contains this variable. ANSWER:

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

x=x_0+v_{0\rm x}t v_y=v_{0\rm y}-gt \large{y=y_0+v_{0\rm y}t-\frac{1}{2}gt^2}

ANSWER: \texttip{t}{t} = 10.6 \rm s

Correct

Part B

If the package is to land right on the island, at what horizontal distance \texttip{D}{D} from the plane to the island should the package be released? Express the distance numerically in meters.

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

You are asked to find \texttip{D}{D}, which is also the change in the x coordinate of the package over the time spent in the air. You should have calculated this time interval in Part A. Use it to find \texttip{D}{D}.

**Hint 2. The equation for \texttip{x\left(t\right)}{x(t)}
**

Since there is no acceleration in the horizontal direction, the equation for \texttip{x\left(t\right)}{x(t)} is x(t) = x_0 + v_{\rm 0x}t.

ANSWER: \texttip{D}{D} = 1090 \rm m

Correct

Part C

What is the speed \texttip{v_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}}}{v_f} of the package when it hits the ground? Express your answer numerically in miles per hour.

**Hint 1. How to approach the problem
**

The speed is the magnitude of the velocity, i.e., \sqrt{v_{\rm x}^2+v_{\rm y}^2}. You already know that

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

v_{\rm x} = 230{\rm mph} , so you need to find \texttip{v_{\mit y}}{v_y}.

**Hint 2. The equation for the velocity in the y direction
**

The equation for the velocity in the y direction \texttip{v_{\mit y}\left(t\right)}{v_y(t)} is v_{\rm y}(t) = v_{\rm 0y} + a_{\rm y}t. If you have completed the earlier parts, you should know all the quantities on the right side. ANSWER: \texttip{v_{\rm f \hspace{1 pt}}}{v_f} = 327 \rm mph

All attempts used; correct answer displayed

Part D

The speed at which the package hits the ground is really fast! If a package hits the ground at such a speed, it can be crushed and also cause some serious damage on the ground. Which of the following would help decrease the speed with which the package hits the ground? ANSWER: Increase the plane's speed and height Decrease the plane's speed and height

Correct

This is why it would be nice for rescue teams to have hybrid airplane-helicopters. Of course, then they can just airlift the stranded group.

**A message from your instructor...
**

The following problems are for practice only and will NOT be be graded as part of your homework

A Wild Ride

A car in a roller coaster moves along a track that consists of a sequence of ups and downs. Let the x axis be parallel to the ground and the positive y axis point upward. In the time interval from t=0 to t=4 s, the trajectory of the car along a certain section of the track is given by \vec{r}=A(1\;{\rm m/s})t\,\hat{i}+A\left[(1\;{\rm m/s^3})t^3-6(1\;{\rm m/s^2})t^2\right]\hat{j}, where \texttip{A}{A} is a positive dimensionless constant.

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Part A

At t=2.0\;\rm s is the roller coaster car ascending or descending?

You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: ascending descending

Part B

Derive a general expression for the speed \texttip{v}{v} of the car. Express your answer in meters per second in terms of \texttip{A}{A} and \texttip{t}{t}.

You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: \texttip{v}{v} = \rm m/s

Part C

The roller coaster is designed according to safety regulations that prohibit the speed of the car from exceeding 20\;\rm m/s. Find the maximum value of \texttip{A}{A} allowed by these regulations. Express your answer using two significant figures. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER: \texttip{A_{\rm max}}{A_max} =

**Vector Addition Ranking Task
**

Six vectors (\texttip{\vec{a}}{a_vec} through \texttip{\vec{f}}{f_vec}) have the magnitudes and directions indicated in the figure.

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Part A

Rank the vector combinations on the basis of their magnitude. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:

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HW #3: 2D motion and projectiles

Part B

Rank the vector combinations on the basis of their angle, measured counterclockwise from the positive x axis. Vectors parallel to the positive x axis have an angle of 0^\circ . All angle measures fall between 0^\circ and 360^\circ. Rank from largest to smallest. To rank items as equivalent, overlap them. You did not open hints for this part. ANSWER:

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Score Summary:

Your score on this assignment is 97.6%. You received 73.17 out of a possible total of 75 points.

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This has all the answers to the hints and the mastering physics problem answers. I recommend you use this as a reference because sometimes you can just be inputting the answer wrong.

This has all the answers to the hints and the mastering physics problem answers. I recommend you use this as a reference because sometimes you can just be inputting the answer wrong.

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