Tunnelling Methods

• cross-section and length of continuous tunnel. • limits of surface disturbance. and many others factors. • local experience and time/cost considerations (what is the value of time in the project). .The choice of tunnelling method may be dictated by: • geological and hydrological conditions.

) . etc.tunnel construction methods: • Classical methods • Mechanical drilling/cutting • Cut-and-cover • Drill and blast • Shields and tunnel boring machines (TBMs) • New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM) • Immersed tunnels • Special methods (Tunnel jacking.

• The process for bored tunnelling involves all or some of the following operations: • Probe drilling (when needed) • Grouting (when needed) • Excavation (or blasting) • Supporting • Transportation of muck • Lining or coating/sealing • Draining • Ventilation .

These methods had much in common with early mining methods and were used until last half of the 19th century. English. and transportation of muck was done on cars on narrow gauge tracks and powered by steam. and so on. Italian and American systems. • Excavation was done by hand or simple drilling equipment. Austrian. • Progress was typically in multiple stages i. although some of their principles have been used in combination up to present day. • Supports were predominantly timber. Nevertheless some of the world’s great tunnels were built with these methods. progress in one drift.Classical Methods • Among the classical methods are the Belgian.e. • The lining would be of brickwork. . then drift in another drift. German. These craft-based methods are no longer applicable. then support.

figure left) started from a central top heading which allowed two timber crown bars to be hoisted into place. .The English method (crown-bar method. the rear ends supported on a completed length of lining. permits construction of the arch of the tunnel in full-face excavation. The system is economical in timber. but depends on relatively low ground pressures. Development of the heading then allowed additional bars to be erected around the perimeter of the face with boards between each pair to exclude the ground. and is tolerant of a wide variety of ground conditions. the forward ends propped within the central heading.

. so was the timbering propped against each length to maintain stability. The timbering for full-face excavation was then heavily braced against the central headings. As the lining advanced.• The Austrian (cross-bar) method required a strongly constructed central bottom heading upon which a crown heading was constructed. with longitudinal poling boards built on timber bars carried on each frame of timbering. The method was capable of withstanding high ground pressures but had high demand for timber.

The system was only practicable where rock loads were not heavy. was a forerunner to the German system described above. The method depends on the central dumpling being able to resists without excessive movement pressure transmitted from the side walls. based on the use of successive headings to construct sections of the arch starting from the footing. which was extended by under.pinning. • The Belgian system (underpinning or flying arch method) started from the construction of a top heading. where the method of construction. This heading was then extended to each side to permit construction of the upper part of the arch. • The first sizeable tunnel in soft ground was the Tronquoy tunnel on the St Quentin canal in France in 1803. thus a forerunner of the system of multiple drifts. in providing support to the top 'key' heading prior to completion of the arch and to ensuring stability while the invert arch is extended in sections. . working from side headings.• The German method (core-leaving method) provided a series of box headings within which the successive sections of the side walls of the tunnel were built from the footing upwards. propped approximately to the level of the springing of the arch for a horseshoe tunnel.

The Rove Tunnel near Marseille measured 22 x 15. and was excavated with multiple drifts.40 m. .

Classical multiple face excavation .

Mechanical Drilling and Cutting Crushing Strength of rock - .

Roadheaders .

Cut and Cover Method .

with the least disturbance during the construction period. .• The principal problem to be solved in connection with this construction method is to how to maintain surface traffic. • Another way of supporting the sidewalls of open trenches is to substitute sheet-pile walls by concrete curtain walls cast under bentonite slurry (ICOS method). One method is to restrict traffic to a reduced street width. and using steel struts. This is especially a requisite in narrower streets trimmed with old sensitive buildings with their foundation plane well above the bottom level of the pit. another to direct traffic to a bypassing street. This type of trench wall becomes a requirement for maintenance of surface traffic due to the anticipation of vibration effects potentially harmful to the stability of buildings with foundations lying on cohesionless soils.

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