PEDICULOSIS

INTRODUCTION
Infectious disease results from the interplay between those few pathogens and the defenses of the hosts they infect. Pediculosis is one of the infection diseases which commonly effected on women and child. This disease caused by the host, louse infestation which live on the body.

Humans can be infested with three kinds of lice: Pediculus capitis (head lice). Lice feed on human blood and deposit their eggs (nits) on the hair shafts (head lice and pubic lice) and along the seams of clothing (body lice).Pediculosis is an infestation of lice. lice). . Pediculus corporis (body lice). and Phthirus pubis (pubic. or crab.

INVOLVE 3 DIFFERENT PARASITES :  PEDICULOSIS HUMANUS CAPITIS (HEAD LOUSE/LICE)  PEDICULOSIS HUMANUS CORPORIS (BODY LOUSE/LICE)  PHTHIRUS PUBIS (PUBIC @ CRAB LOUSE) .ETIOLOGY 1. INFESTATION BY LICE. PEDICULOSIS.

HEAD LICE • Infest people of all ages but commonly on preschool & children. • Adapted to life on human hair and the scalp. . • Head lice are not a sign of poor hygiene because all socioeconomic groups are infected. Less commonly lice can also be found on eyes brows and eye lashes.

getting on the infested person’s skin to feed only at intervals. • Body lice hide in the seams of clothing. .BODY LICE • Generally found only in human populations with extremely poor hygiene. • Example : waist. • Generally in areas of the body where clothing is in close proximity to the body. arm pits. thighs and groin.

• Itching of the genital area is a common symptom. Hence the term “crab” are frequently refer to an infestation. . • Crab lice are usually found at coarsely haired parts such as axilla & genital parts (man & woman).CRAB LICE • Pubic lice resemble small crabs which live in the ocean. • All age groups can be infested but more prevalent in sexually active adults.

• Lice most often spread by close @ sexual contact. • Lice require human blood to survive. so it buries its head inside the skin and excretes substance into the skin that causes itching. • Female lay eggs known as nits that hatch every 10 days. . • Girls are affected more than boys.ADDICTION INFO • The disease is frequently seen in children. • Lice feed on human blood every 3-6 hours.

• Both types lay eggs on the hair shafts & remain firmly adherent.PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • The PEDICULOSIS & PHTHIRUS organisms look similar & interbreed freely. Conversely. • Both are associated with crowded conditions & poor personal hygiene. • Pediculosis moves well & easily passed to another person. resisting both mechanical and chemical removal. . phthirius are slow moving & cannot be passed unless cilia is brought into close proximity with infested cilia.

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especially around the waist and armpits.CLINICAL MANIFESTATION P. pubis Itchiness and visible Itchiness in pubic bite marks on the body areas and armpits and pruritis. pruritis. capitis Symptoms that may appear are itchiness of the neck. There may also be crusting and redness due to secondary bacterial infections . corporis P. scalp and ears. as well as puss in affected areas (bites) P.

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Careful and thorough combing can also be done to search for nits and lice P. P. The adult louse may hard to identify because they move quickly across the body and clothes.DIAGNOSTIC TEST P. capitis Identification of louse and nits. Identification of the adult may be difficult because of its translucense . pubis Identification of louse or nits in the pubic and armpit areas. This can be aided with the use of a fluorescent Underwood light. corporis Identification of louse or nits on clothing.

.NURSING DIAGNOSE • potential impaired skin integrity related to insect bites. scratching.

Medical Treatment Over-the-counter medications Prescription medications .

4) Should not be used by persons who are allergic to chrysanthemums or ragweed. 5) Use on children 2 years of age and older.Over-the-counter medication • Pyrethrins combine with piperonyl butoxide : 1) Brand name products: A-200*. Pronto*. 2) Naturally occurring pyrethroid extracts from the chrysanthemum flower. Rid*. Triple X*. . R&C*. 3) Safe and effective when used as directed.

4) Kill newly hatched lice for several days after treatment. 2) Synthetic pyrethroid similar to naturally occurring pyrethrins. 3) Safe and effective when used as directed. . 5) Use on children 2 months of age and older.• Permethrin lotion 1% 1) Brand name product: Nix*.

5) Use on persons 6 years of age and older.Prescription Medications • Malathion lotion 0. . including hair dryers. 3) Safe and effective when used as directed. 2) Is an organophosphate. and curling or flat irons. 7) Flammable : do not smoke or use electrical heat sources. contact with the eyes should be avoided. curlers.5% 1) Brand name product: Ovide*. when applying malathion lotion and while the hair is wet. 4) Pediculicidal (kills live lice) and partially ovicidal (kills some lice eggs). 6) Can be irritating to the skin and scalp.

• Benzyl alcohol lotion (5%) 1) Brand name product: Ulesfia lotion*. 4) Can be irritating to the skin and eyes. 3) Use on persons who are 6 months of age and older. contact with the eyes should be avoided. 2) Is an aromatic alcohol and a white topical lotion . .

2) Not recommended as a first-line therapy. the elderly. 3) Overuse. infants.• Lindane shampoo 1% 1) Is an organochloride. misuse. . persons who have very irritated skin or sores where the lindane will be applied. 4) Should not be used to treat premature infants. persons with HIV. and persons who weigh less than 110 pounds. or accidentally swallowing lindane can be toxic to the brain and other parts of the nervous system. children. women who are pregnant or breast-feeding. a seizure disorder.

pediculicide shampoo or rinse. Apply. . or teach family to apply.Stress importance of second application of pediculicide or shampoo. Contact community agencies for suggestions for reducing epidemics Don’t use hair dryer NURSING INTERVENTION Use plastic drape to prevent drug getting on other body parts.

NURSING DIOGNOSES Body image disturbance related to infestation .

cleanliness. coats. hats. and socioeconomic level. scarves. or other items used on or near the hair. Treat family member with evidence of infestation Explain or reinforce explanation of the condition and its mode of transmission.NURSING INTERVENTION Caution children against sharing combs. Allay child’s feelings of shame and embarrassment Reassure family that anyone can get pediculosis with no association with age. caps. .

. • Difficulties in management have returned scabies and pediculosis to the limelight. contagious. including bullous scabies or localised crusted scabies. • Specific forms of pediculosis. and debilitating parasitic dermatoses. • Definitive parasitic diagnosis can be difficult to obtain. • They have been known since antiquity and are distributed worldwide. may be misdiagnosed. and the value of new techniques remains to be confirmed.CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION • Pediculosis are ubiquitous.

• Physicians also should take an active role in the treatment of this infestations by being available to confirm active cases and being knowledgeable about first. .and second-line treatment options in their communities.

 It can disturb the normal daily life and can cause disturbance of normal growth. Pediculosis is a major health problem in many parts of the world including both developed and underdeveloped countries.  This infestation is associated with substandard hygienic practices. living with more than five people at home. .  The study shows that poor countries recorded high rates of pediculosis disease.  Pediculosis is the most prevalent condition in schooland preschool-aged groups and faced by the girls more than the boys. the length of hair and socioeconomic and cultural condition.

 These measures. along with curing infected students and possible cases within the family. . particularly with regard to the importance of early detection and effective management strategies. It can easily be prevented with simple steps such as practicing good hygiene improvements in socioeconomic and cultural status.  A lower prevalence can be achieved through health education programs for students and parents. will decrease the rate of infestation and lead to greatly improved control.

blogspot.com/artic/body_lice_dp d.REFERENCES • http://medicalstudy. Hargrove-Huttel • http://www.com/2011/10/pedicul osis-phthiriasis.drugswell.rightdiagnosis.medscape.html • Hargrove-Huttel. /Ray A.4th ed.htm • http://emedicine.com/article/225013overview .php • http://www.com/wow/index. Medical. Ray A.Surgical nursing.

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