Lathe Tool Sharpening

What are typical rake and clearance (relief) angles for HSS tool bits? See Figure A–1 and Table A–1.
Cutting Edge Face Nose Front Cutting Edge Angle Nose Angle Body

Side Cutting Edge Angle Back Rake Angle Side Rake Angle

Side Clearance Angle

End Clearance Angle

Figure A–1. Tool bit nomenclature. Material Aluminum Brass Bronze Cast Iron Copper Machine Steel Tool Steel (unhardened) Stainless Steel Side Clearance 12 10 10 10 12 10–12 10 10 Front Clearance 8 8 8 8 10 8 8 8 Side Rake 16 5 to −4 5 to −4 12 20 12–18 12 15–20 Back Rake 35 0 0 5 16 8–15 8 8

Table A–1. Clearance and rake angles in degrees for common metals.

© 2008 Metal Arts Press Extracted from Machine Shop Essentials: Q & A

Grinding Wheel Tool Rest p To 8° To p o f Tool 1 Set Tool Rest Angle on Grinding Wheel 2 Move Tool Side to Side Across Wheel 3 Side Cutting Edge Complete To p 5 Front Cutting Edge Complete 4 Move Tool Side to Side Across Wheel 6 Break Point to 1/64" Radius 8 Cutter Complete 7 Apply Back Rake Do Not Remove This Edge When Grinding Rake Figure A–2.What is the procedure for sharpening HSS general-purpose lathe tools? Begin by dressing the grinding wheel. Any discoloration on the bit indicates it may no longer be hardened. Dip the tool in coolant frequently to keep it from overheating and annealing. consider starting over again from the beginning. If this happens. and then follow the steps in Figure A–2. Next. look up the typical angles for the workpiece material. Steps for sharpening HSS tool bits © 2008 Metal Arts Press Extracted from Machine Shop Essentials: Q & A . Tool bit angles are not critical and most tools will cut material satisfactorily. just less effectively.