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Slug is typically used to push mud in the drill string down therefore pipe will dry while pulling out of hole. Dry pipe while pulling out has some advantages as minimizing crew to expose to drilling mud when breaking a connection, reducing time to handle the drill string, etc. Sometimes, even you already pump slug but you still have wet pipe instead of dry pipe. You may wonder why the slug does not work very well. The following reasons why the slug does not do its job are as follows:

• Slug volume is not enough to slug the pipe. Recommended volume is around 25- 40 bbl. • You should chase slug by pumping mud at least surface volume from mud pump to a rotary table. Otherwise, you will not get desired slug volume in the drillstring because it is still left in the surface volume. • Weight of slug is not sufficient. As a normal practice, the slug weight should have at least 2 ppg over your current mud weight. • There is something inside the drill string so the slug could not push mud in the drill string down.

If you want to learn more about slug, please read the following articles: What is slug mud? How much volume and weight of slug mud should be? Barrels of slug required for desired length of dry pipe

**How To Determine Hole Size By Fluid Caliper
**

This article will demonstrate you how to determine hole size by fluid caliper. First of all, you need to know what is the fluid caliper is. The fluid caliper is one simple way to calculate hole diameter. The concept is based on hole volume, annular capacity, and inner capacity. You pump any substance and when you seen it on surface, you back calculate the hole size based on strokes pumped. It is quite tricky to explain so I would like you to see the example below which it will make you clear about what I say.

Assumption for the calculation: No losses 7” casing shoe is set at 5000’MD/4500’TVD 7” casing 23 ppf, ID 6.33 inch 4” drill pipe is used to drill the well and its ID is 3.34 inch. 4-3/4” drill collar is used as BHA and its ID is 2.5 inch. The length of drill collar is 500 ft. This hole section is used water based mud and the bit size is 6-1/8” Drill to section TD at 10,000’MD/9,000’TVD then drop carbide once TD is reached. Pump output is 0.1 bbl/stroke. Surface line from pumps to rig floor is 20 bbl. Carbide is detected by a gas sensor on surface after 4,000 strokes pump. With the given information, determine what is the hole size of the open hole section. The basic drilling formulas that you need to know are inner capacity and annular capacity calculation. 1st step – Determine Inner Capacity and Annular Capacity of All Parts Inner capacity of 4”DP nner capacity of 4”DP = 0.01084 bbl/ft Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC

Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC = 0.00607 bbl/ft Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing

Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing = 0.02383 bbl/ft I assign “d” is the open hole diameter. Annular capacity between 4” DP and open hole

Annular capacity between 4 3/4” DP and open hole

2nd step – Determine Volume of All Parts Volume in 4”DP = Inner capacity of 4”DP x length of 4” DP Volume in 4”DP = 0.01084 x 9,500 = 103 bbl Volume in 4-3/4”DC = Inner capacity of 4-3/4”DC x length of 4-3/4”DC Volume in 4-3/4”DC = 0.00607 x 500 = 3 bbl Volume between 4”DP and 7” Casing = Annular capacity between 4” DP and 7” Casing x length of 4” DP inside 7” casing Volume between 4”DP and 7” Casing = 0.02383 x 5,000 = 119 bbl Volume between 4”DP and open hole = Annular capacity between 4” DP and open hole x length of 4” DP inside open hole

Volume between 4-3/4”DC and open hole = Annular capacity between 4-3/4”DC and open hole x length of 4-3/4”DC inside open hole

3rd step – determine hole size. The total volume pump is equal to total volume in the system. With the pump output of 0.1 bbl/stroke, 4000 strokes equate to 400 bbl. In the following equation, I account for the surface volume from the pump to the rig floor.

Solve the equation to get d, d is equal to 6.97”. Answer: You will get the hole size based on the fluid caliper of 6.97 inch. I wish this article will give you idea on how to calculate hole size based on the fluid caliper.

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