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FORM 1 – FORM 3 POEMS
FORM FORM1 FORM 2 FORM 3
POEM THE RIVER BY VALERIE BLOOM MR NOBODY (AUTHOR UNKNOWN) I WONDER BY JEANNIE KIRBY HEIR CONDITIONING BY M.SHANMUGHALINGAM A FIGHTER’S LINES BY MARZUKI ALI LEISURE BY WILLIAM HENRY DAVIES PMR TIPS
1. Poems: - open ended questions - 2 questions 3 marks 2. Students must learn and understand the elements of: - the persona / the poet - the meaning of every difficult word or phrase - the meaning of every line - themes - moral values / lessons / messages - the expressions used - tone and mood 3. Answer could be lifted from the extract or could be paraphrased. 4. For “YES / NO” question, marks are given for a relevant reason which is related to the poem. For Example: Do you enjoy reading the stanzas? Give a reason. (The River, 2 marks) Answer: Yes, I enjoy reading the stanzas. (1 mark) The river is personified like a man. (1 mark) 5. There may be a personal response question. You have to give your opinion or feelings about the issued raised in the poems. For example: If you were the grandfather, what would you say to the grandchild? (Heir Conditioning, 2 marks) Answer: I would tell him life was happier during my time. (1 mark) I was contented with the basic necessities in life. (1 mark)
POEM FORM 3: LEISURE (Poet = William Henry Davies) SUMMARY
1. The poem tells us that: a) we rush through life and have no time for leisure. b) we are too busy with our worries and responsibility so we have no time to enjoy the beauty of nature. c) observing the beauty of nature is a good thing. d) we have no time to see simple things in nature like the animals, plants and rainbows. 2. Life is meaningless if we do not take time to admire and enjoy the beauty of nature. 3. Our working bodies is like a motor which needs rest to reduce stress and to work efficiently. 4. We need time to rest and reflect. 5. The best way is to slow down and make time to observed and enjoy the simple things in nature. 1. Setting of Place: in a village (or in the countryside) 2. Setting of Time: the present time. 1. The persona is possibly the poet himself. 2. The persona is a reflective and perceptive person. 3. The persona mentions that in today’s hectic life, we forget to take a break to simply enjoy life and nature. 1. The importance of leisure. 2. The beauty of nature. 3. Appreciation of nature. 4. Working without rest. 1. We must rest and relax to work better. 2. We must observe and enjoy the beauty of nature. 3. We must appreciate nature. 4. We should not work all the time with no rest. 1. People should make time to relax and enjoy life. 2. Maintaining a balance in life.
SETTING PERSONA / POET
THEME / MORAL VALUE
POEM FORM 3: LEISURE (Poet = William Henry Davies)
STANZA / COUPLET
COUPLET 1 What is this life if, full of care,
What is the purpose of life if full of worry (because too busy with work & problems)
We have no time to stand and stare.
What it means (maksud) by ‘full of care’? It means our life is full of worries and responsibility. We do not have time to pause and admire the nature around us. Busy people do not have time to stand under the trees The word ‘boughs’ refer to branches of trees Just like sheep and cows which graze in the fields. They just stand and stare at their surroundings.
No time to stand beneath the boughs
And stare as long as sheep or cows.
No time to see, when woods we pass, Where squirrels hide their nuts in grass.
What cows and sheep do in the field? They are grazing. Busy people do not see squirrels hide their nuts in grass when they pass through the forests.
What does the word ‘wood’ refer to? (Apa yg. dimaksudkan dgn. perkataan wood?) The woods refer to the forest or the jungle. What do squirrels feed on? Nuts. Where do squirrels hide their nuts? They hide their nuts in grass. Busy people do not have time to see the rivers sparkle in the sunlight. Why do you think the streams look like stars at night? Because the water catches the sunlight and sparkles like the stars twinkling in the sky.
No time to see, in broad daylight,
Streams full of stars, like stars at night.
In the day, the rivers look like stars at night.
Explain in your own words the line ‘Streams full of stars, like stars at night’. The rivers are sparkling like stars shining at night. When we can see “streams full of stars”? We can see “streams full of stars” in broad daylight. Nature is personified as a beautiful woman who is glancing and dancing.
No time to turn at Beauty’s glance,
And watch her feet, how they can dance.
What is nature compared to (dibandingkan kepada apa?) Nature is compared to a beautiful woman who is dancing. Busy people do not have time to admire the changes (movement) of nature. When a woman glance or dance, she will move parts of her body. When nature changes, it is like a beautiful dancer.
No time to wait til her mouth can Enrich that smile her eyes began.
What does the persona means when he says ‘And watch her feet, how they can dance’? People are too busy to admire the changes of nature. Busy people do not have time to watch the changes in nature. When nature changes, it is like a woman’s smile that starts from the eyes and spreads slowly to the mouth. It is a sad life / Life is meaningless
A poor life this if, full of care,
We have no time to stand and stare.
Which phrase (frasa manakah) in the poem means ‘life is meaningless’? The phrase ‘A poor life’. If we do not have leisure time.
Give two benefits (kelebihan/kebaikan) of taking the time to stand and stare. (TERENGGANU 2013) a) Rest and relaxation. b) Enjoy the beauty of nature. c) Release stress
1. What does the ‘woods’ in Stanza 3 refer to? (SBP 2012 , CAKNA 3 KELANTAN) Forest. 2. Which phrase is repeated all over the poem? No time OR No time to stand and stare 3. In your own words, give two reasons why you think the phrase is repeated? a) To emphasize on humans have no time b) To emphasize that human lack leisure activities 4. List two activities of leisure mentioned in the poem. a) Stand beneath the boughs. b) Watch the squirrels c) Enjoy the beautiful stars at night. d) Enjoy nature. (SBP 2012)
5. What word in the poem means branches of trees? (Melaka 2012 , Melaka 2013) Boughs. 6. Why are streams full of stars in broad daylight? (Melaka 2012) This is because of the reflection of the sunlight in the streams. 7. State two themes that you found from this poem. Pick any two themes from the notes given above. 8. What is the poem mainly about? The poem is mainly about asking us how to be too busy in our life until we do not have time to admire nature. 9. What can the persona see while in the woods? Squirrels hiding their nuts in the grass. 10. What does the persona mean when he says ‘a poor life this if, full of care’? We should be living a miserable life if our life is filled with worries and responsibilities. 11. Give two suggestions how we can find the time for leisure? a) Take breaks on weekends and evenings b) Arrange time for leisure during the holidays. 12. What it means by leisure? Leisure means free time when we do not worry about our duties.
13. Which word in Couplet 1 means anxiety? The word ‘care’ 14. Have you ever stopped to smell the flowers? Why? Yes, because smelling flowers makes me relaxed. OR No, because I have no time as I have so many things to do. 15. What does the poet remind people to do? He wants people to relax and enjoy life and nature. OR He reminds people to stop worrying and enjoy the nature around us. 16. Name two natural elements mentioned in the poem? a) Streams b) Stars 17. In Couplet 5, what does the word Beauty represent? Nature. 18. In Couplet 5, what does the word Beauty compared to? A graceful dancer. 19. Do you enjoy the environment around you? Why? Yes, I do because I am surrounded with lush greeneries that are soothing to the eyes and relaxing to the mind. 20. Name two things that the persona says people have ‘no time’ to do. OR According to the poem, what are the things people cannot do because they are busy? (PAHANG 2013) a) To relax under the tree. b) To notice simple things. c) To see the changes in nature. 21. Why does the persona urges people to relax and enjoying nature? So their life will not be meaningless. 22. What does the phrase stand and stare in Couplet 1 mean? Relax and observe nature. 23. Why do people find it hard to stand and stare? They are too busy in their work. They cannot take time to relax.
24. What do you think the persona means when he said that we would lead a poor life? We are so busy with work that we have no time to admire nature. This shows that we are missing out on something in life. 25. Explain in your own words what is meant in the first two lines of the poem? We are too busy with life that we have no time to relax and do leisure things. 26. What does the persona keep asking us to do? The persona keeps asking us to take time to appreciate our surrounding. 27. Why is it important to have leisure in life? So that we are not too stressed out in our life. 28. Suggest one way that you can do when you have your leisure time. OR Suggest one activity that you would like to do during your leisure time. a) Reading b) Surfing the Internet c) Listening to music d) Playing computer games e) Helping parents f) Walking in the park as it is quiet and I am able to reflect my life in silence. 29. State two leisure time activities found in the poem. a) to stand beneath the boughs b) watch the squirrels c) enjoy nature d) enjoy looking at streams reflecting sunlight (CAKNA 3 KELANTAN)
POEM FORM 3: A FIGHTER’S LINES (Poet = Marzuki Ali) SUMMARY 1. This poem is a monologue. 2. As a freedom fighter, the persona fought for his country’s independence. 3. He sacrificed his life for freedom. 4. He was wounded and wheelchair-bound. 5. He is old, tired and weak. 6. His country is facing many challenges and threats like corruption. 7. He cannot fight anymore because he is old. 8. Nobody will listen to him. 9. He thinks the young people are easily misled and he is disappointed with their attitude. 1. Setting of Place: most probably in a village. 2. Setting of Time: the present time. 1. The persona is a former freedom fighter. 2. The poem is written in the first person. 1. Patriotism. 2. The importance of unity. 3. Duty towards country. 4. Sacrifice for independence. 5. Courage. 1. We must be patriotic and show our love to the country. 2. We should be united to be strong. 3. We should do our duty to our country. 4. We must sacrifice to fight for our country’s independence. 5. We must have the courage to speak up against deceit. 1. Life is full of challenges. 2. Society must be free of corruption. 3. People should be united and fight for justice.
SETTING PERSONA / POET THEME / MORAL VALUE
POEM FORM 3: A FIGHTER’S LINES (Poet = Marzuki Ali)
STANZA / COUPLET
STANZA 1 I am old and worn
I am old and tired.
Who is I in this line? “I” in the line is an ex-soldier / a former soldier / a former freedom fighter / a war hero. Based on the first stanza, who do you think the persona was? He was a former soldier who fought for the independence of his country. Why is I tired? He had fought really hard for his country’s independence Why is the persona ‘old and worn’? He is tired as he has fought for independence. I am weak
and have lost all my strength
Why is the persona weak? The persona is weak because – he is old and tired – he was badly injured from the war – he became disabled from the war Why do you think the persona has lost all his strength? Because he is old and tired. I had suffered a lot of difficulties when I fought for the country’s independence. The persona explains that the war for independence sacrificed many lives.
and the history of the fight for independence have forced sacrifices that know no name or life
What were the sacrifices that the persona had to make? The persona had to sacrifice his youth, strength, soul, energy and was separated from his loved ones.
and the history of the fight for independence have forced sacrifices that know no name or life from the wheelchair of the rest of my days
Give the line from the poem which tells us that ‘freedom has a price’. (Nyatakan baris drpd. puisi yg. memberitahu kita bahawa setiap kebebasan mempunyai harga) The line is ‘have forced sacrifices that know no name or life’. What happened to all those people who had fought for independence? They had lost their lives.
‘wheelchair’ = the persona is weak and crippled.
What does the word ‘wheelchair’ tell us about the persona? He is a disabled person. What does the word ‘wheelchair’ symbolises? The word ‘wheelchair’ symbolises the persona’s disability. Which line shows the physical condition of the persona? The line ‘from the wheelchair of the rest of my days’. I am weak and crippled. I do not have energy and strength to contribute to the country as much as I want to.
I, body and energy crushed see and cannot do much
these times are too big a challenge
Give 2 phrases to indicate that the persona is old and weak. a) ‘I, body and energy crushed’ b) ‘and have lost all my strength’ c) ‘I have no more voice’ The persona realises that the threats faced by his country are now a different nature.
What kind of challenge did the persona face when he was young? – He had to fight for his country’s freedom from the coloniser like the British, the Japanese army and the Communists.
What kind of threats or challenges does our country face today? – Corruption / The abuse of power / Moral decay / Hedonism
Why do you think the persona said ‘these times are too big a challenge’? He is old and unable to do much.
for the remnants of my crippled years
Even though the persona is worried about the challenges faced by his country, he is too old and weak to do anything.
the net of deceit spread everywhere disturbs me
What it means by ‘for the remnants of my crippled years’? It means that the persona does not have much time left. The net of deceit disturbs and worries the persona.
What does the phrase ‘the net of deceit’ refer to? It refers to corruption / abuse of power (salah guna kuasa/rasuah) / bribery (rasuah) / dishonesty (ketidakjujuran) / lie (penipuan) / betrayal (pengkhianatan) What disturbs the persona now? Dishonesty and corruption. The younger generation must be unite and brave in order to defend the nation from enemy and threats. Younger generation must stand up for justice and freedom that they have inherited.
In the name of justice Wake up and form ranks sons of our ancestors Be brave And erect a wall of people Stand up heirs of our freedom
Based on the last two stanzas, who do you think the persona ask to ‘wake up’? The young people / The younger generation. What is means by ‘And erect a wall of people’? It means that everyone in a nation needs to be united.
‘I have no more voice'
I am old and weak. I do not have the energy to speak. The younger generation must speak for their rights.
It is you now who should speak!
What does the line ‘It is you now who should speak!’ refer to? It refers to the younger generation/ It refer to the young people.
1. Explain one value that you have learned in this poem. (Wilayah Persekutuan – Trial) The persona appeals the young people to be brave and stand united. In doing so, they can fight what they want. 2. Identify one phrase that indicates the persona is tired and weak in the poem. (Wilayah Persekutuan – Trial) The phrase ‘and have lost all my strength’. 3. What did the persona fight for? (Perlis, Pahang and Penang – Trial) The persona fights for his nation’s independence. 4. What lesson have you learnt from this poem? State two (nyatakan dua). (Perlis – Trial) a) We must be patriotic to our country. b) We must be loyal to our country. c) We should be united to be strong. d) We should carry out our duties to our country. e) We must be brave and courageous to fight for the country’s independence or freedom. f) We must maintain/uphold peace. g) We must maintain/uphold freedom. h) We must maintain/uphold harmony. i) We must fight for our rights. j) We must be courageous to do what is right. k) We must fight against corruption. l) We must speak up against injustice. 5. State two themes that you found from this poem. (Pick any two themes from the notes given above). 6. Suggest two ways to show your love for the country? (Pahang and Penang – Trial) a) Fight for the country. b) Buy Malaysian product. c) Respect the flags (Hormat bendera) d) Raise the flags during celebration of Independence Day.
e) Celebrate Independence Day. f) Sing the National Anthem (Lagu Negaraku). g) Stand still when the National Anthem is palying. 7. Who are the ‘sons of our ancestors’? (Selangor – Trial) The younger generation / Youth / The young people / Present generation. 8. How did the persona loss ‘all my strength’ in Stanza 1? (Selangor – Trial) By fighting for independence/fighting for freedom. 9. What does the word ‘you’ in the last line refer to? (Terengganu – Trial) The younger generation / Youth / The young people / Present generation. 10. Why does the persone feel helpless? (Terengganu – Trial) a) He is disabled. b) He is old and worn. c) He lost all his strength. d) He is weak. 11. From stanza 1, we could say that the persona is now a weak and ___________ person. (Negeri Sembilan – Trial) Old. 12. From stanza 3, state two things that the persona wants the younger generation to do. (Negeri Sembilan – Trial) a) be alert / be patriotic / be united b) be brave / be confident / be just and fair 13. What does the title ‘A Fighter’s Lines’ speak of? Patriotism towards one’s country. 14. The persona has not lost his spirit despite his age and condition. Why? The persona has made a lot of sacrifices. He would not want the sacrifices go to waste. 15. Give one thing that the persona had to do when he was young? When he was young, he fight in the war. 16. Based on the first stanza, who do you think the persona was? He was a former freedom fighter who fought for the independence of his country. 17. From the second stanza, give a reason why the persona cannot do much? He cannot do much because he is crippled and too weak. 18. In stanza two, which words show that the persona is alert and aware of current social problems? The words ‘disturbs me’.
19. Use a sentence or phrase and summarise the persona’s wish in Stanza 3. Stay united and fight for justice. 20. How does the persona feels about the younger generation today? They need to be aware of the deceit around them. 21. Give two messages that the persona wants to convey. a) We should love for our country. b) We should be brave and united. 22. What would you do if you were the persona facing such a challenge? I will not give up but continue to face the challenge until I had succeeded. 23. Which line in the poem tells you the persona has sacrificed his youth and strength to fight for his country? ‘have forced sacrifices that know no name or life’ 24. State one phrase in the poem that shows the persona is helpless? a) ‘I have no more voice' b) ‘I, body and energy crushed’ c) ‘and have lost all my strength’ 25. Based on the poem, what one appeal is made by the persona? He appeals to young people to fight for justice. 26. Give a reason why he makes the appeal. It is because the net of deceit spreads everywhere. 27. State two things the persona asks his listeners to do. The persona asks his listeners to show their courage and speaks up for the sake of justice. 28. Give the line that shows the persona is wheelchair-bound till he dies? The line ‘from the wheelchair of the rest of my days’. 29. Based on the poem, what do you think was the persona’s previous occupation? The persona’s previous occupation is soldier / freedom fighter. 30. Why does the persona want the younger generation to carry on his fight? a) He is too old and he is crippled. b) He has no more voice.
POEM FORM 2: HEIR CONDITIONING (Poet = M SHANmughalingam) SUMMARY 1. This poem is in the form of dialogue between a grandchild and his/her grandparent. 2. This poem compares: a) the olden time and the modern time. b) the older generation and the younger generation. 3. In the first stanza, the grandchild: a) asking how is life in the olden days. b) wonders how the older generation lived without modern inventions like air conditioning and faxes. c) thinks life is easier now than before. 4. In the second stanza, the grandparent replies that: a) life was simpler in the olden days with no modern gadgets. b) people feared God and they did not destroy nature and environment. c) life was hard but people were happier. d) they did not have environmental problems like pollution and traffic jams. e) people in modern generation are greedy and materialistic. They are not afraid of God. f) people in modern generation destroy nature and environment. d) people in modern generation have easier life but unhappy and stressed. 1. Setting of Place: the grandparent’s home or the grandchild’s home. 2. Setting of Time: modern times (the present time).
PERSONA / POET
THEME / MORAL VALUE
1. In Stanza 1: - The persona is the grandchild. - He/she asks his / her grandparent simple questions about life. 2. In Stanza 2: - The persona is the grandparent (either grandfather or grandmother). - The grandparent answers the grandchild’s questions. 1. Being materialistic. 2. Man and nature. 3. Greed 4. Being contented. 1. We must not be materialistic. 2. We must value and care for nature such as trees and rivers. 3. We must not be greedy. Greed brings problems. 4. We must be contented with what we have. 1. Progress comes with a price. 2. Our heirs will inherit a bleak world if we continue with our current ways.
POEM FORM 2: HEIR CONDITIONING (Poet = M SHANmughalingam)
Grand dad did you breathe before air cons were invented
In this verse, the grandchild is talking to the grandparents. The child asks the grandfather how he was able to live during his time without modern inventions like the air conditioner. The child is puzzled how it must have been very difficult to live without modern things. The child also asks her grandmother if she felt tired with fanning herself to keep herself cool. Flustered = irritated / annoyed / frustrated Fluttered = fanned The grandchild then goes on to wonder how they communicated without modern gadgets like faxes and telephones, which are now basic necessities. In the second stanza, the grandparents respond to the grandchild’s questions. The grandparents tell the child that they lived before he/she was born.
was it hard staying alive without modern inventions? Grandma weren’t you flustered as you fluttered with paper fans?
Could you communicate before faxes and long distance calls became basic necessities? Grandchild we lived before your age. Because
of our ignorance, we did not know pollution, stress, traffic jams destruction of forests, streams and hills we fear God and nature now nature fears you and money is your new God
The grandparents say that by having not much knowledge, they lived without pollution, stress, traffic jams, deforestation and destruction of streams or river. The grandparents also emphasize that during their time, they fear God and Nature. They lived in harmony with Nature and took care of it. In present day, modern man no longer shares the same respect for nature and is slowly destroying the environment. Some human beings have lost their traditional values and money has now become their greatest love. What is the meaning of the phrase “money is your new God” in the second stanza? Because money is important / Because money can buy everything / People will do anything for money.
Possible Questions 1. Look at the first line from the first stanza, where the grandchild says ‘did you breathe …’ This shows that the grandchild thinks that (TERENGGANU 2013) Ans: It is difficult to breathe in a hot environment. 2. What are the lessons learn from the poem? (TERENGGANU 2013) Ans: We must appreciate nature / spend wisely / be thankful for what we have / must not be materialistic (or pick up from the notes above). 3. Which word in the poem means “annoyed”? Ans: flustered (CAKNA 5 KELANTAN 2013)
4. State two effects of modern inventions found in the poem. (CAKNA 5 KELANTAN) Ans: Pollution / stress / traffic jams / destruction of forests / destruction of streams / destruction of hills (choose any two answers). 5. What are the things that the grandchild considers as things that you must have in life? Ans: faxes and long distance calls. 6. What is the persona asking in the first two lines of the poem? Ans: He asks if it was possible for people in the past to breathe when they did not have air cons. 7. What did the grandparents fear? Ans: They fear God and nature. 8. Why does nature fear the present generation? Give reasons for your answer. Ans: I think nature fears the present generation because they are destroying nature through their modern technology. 9. Why do you think the grandparent says that nature fears the grandchild? Ans: because people destroy the environment. 10. How many personas are there in the poem? Ans: There are three personas in the poem; the grandchild, the grandfather and the grandmother. 11. Do you think the grandparents had trouble communicating without modern technology? Give a reason for your answer. Ans: I think communication during the grandparents’ day was not so fast and efficient but they could still communicate through letters and telegrams.
POEM FORM 1: THE RIVER (Poet = Valerie Bloom) SUMMARY 1. The river is always moving from one place to another through valleys and hills. 2. When it twists and turns, it looks like it is dancing along. 3. The river makes bubbling and musical sounds, which echoes in the village. 4. The river keeps many things on its bed. 5. The river can be dangerous where it may cause soil erosion and floods. When it floods, people drown. 1. Setting of Place: in the countryside where there is a river. 2. Setting of Time: the present time. 1. The persona or speaker is probably a teenager or a young adult. 2. The persona is an observant person. 3. The persona compares the flow of river at different stretches with different types of people he/she knows. 1. Man and nature. 2. Nature can be beneficial and destructive. 3. Challenges in life 1. We must appreciate nature for example rivers. 2. We must remember that nature, like the river, can be useful and it can also destroy. 3. We should face problems in life positively. 1. Stability is important in life.
PERSONA / POET
THEME / MORAL VALUE LESSON
POEM FORM 1: MR NOBODY (Poet = Author Unknown) SUMMARY 1. The poem is about a common situation in the house. 2. When anything goes wrong, we blame others. 3. Nobody admits to doing them and nobody knows who did them. So, we say, “Mr Nobody did it!”. 4. Mr Nobody is an imaginary person who is strange and quiet. 5. He walks in and out of the house silently doing all the mischievous things but is never caught. 6. Nobody admits to it and nobody takes responsibility for it. The culprit remains silent. 7. When chores have to be done in the house, nobody wants to do them. 8. We just wait for somebody else to do it. 1. Setting of Place: in a house. Things are broken, dirtied, misplaced and thrown about. 2. Setting of Time: across time – can be in the past or in the present. 1. The persona is probably a parent or any other person who is used to handle all the daily chores in the house. 2. The persona is a practical person. 3. The persona notices the happenings in the house. 1. Responsibility. 2. Honesty. 3. Family life. 1. We must be responsible for what we do. 2. We must always tell the truth. 3. We must do our jobs or chores responsibly. 1. We must have the courage to admit our wrongdoings. 2. Only cowards do not have moral strength to admit their mistakes.
PERSONA / POET
THEME / MORAL VALUE LESSON
POEM FORM 2: I WONDER (Poet = Jeannie Kirby) SUMMARY
1. The persona admires nature and its beauty which is all created by God. 2. The persona wants to know the answers to a lot of questions such as why the grass is green and how the birds build their nests. 3. The persona’s father does not answer the questions. 4. Perhaps the persona’s father does not know the answers of the questions. 5. Like the persona, we too should stop and look at the wonders of nature around us. 1. Setting of Place: in the outdoors where the persona observes nature in its many forms. 2. Setting of Time: starts with a bright day, continues through a clear night, then during a storm and ends after the storm. 1. The persona is a young child who is intelligent , observant and curious about nature. 2. The young child is amazed by the wonders of nature and asks questions of things about nature. 3. The child is puzzled why adults will not answer his/her questions. 1. The wonders of nature. 2. Learning by observing and asking questions. 3. Thirst of knowledge. 4. Belief in God. 1. 2. 3. 4. We must appreciate the wonders of nature. We can learn many things by observing and asking questions. We must hunger for knowledge just like children do. We should be grateful that God has created nature and natural phenomena. 1. Learn to observe and to appreciate nature. 2. Be thankful to the one who is responsible for such beauty.
PERSONA / POET
THEME / MORAL VALUE
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