You are on page 1of 54





Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both employers
and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature. A satisfactory level of attendance by
employees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targets
by a department. Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work.
It is a major problem faced by almost all employers of today. Employees are absent
from work and thus the work suffers. Absenteeism of employees from work leads to
back logs, piling of work and thus work delay.

Absenteeism is of two types -

1. Innocent absenteeism - Is one in which the employee is absent from work
due to genuine cause or reason. It may be due to his illness or personal
family problem or any other real reason
2. Culpable Absenteeism - is one in which a person is absent from work
without any genuine reason or cause. He may be pretending to be ill or just
wanted a holiday and stay at home.
Many employees will, on occasions, need a few days off work because of illness, however, when
absences become more frequent or long term and reach an unacceptable level, action by
management is necessary. Absence from work can be expensive in both monetary and human
terms. The costs incurred when an employee is absent from work may include:
(i) Replacing the employee or requiring other staff to cover the absence;
(ii) Inability to provide services, or achieve section and departmental objectives;
(iii) Low morale and general dissatisfaction from other staff, particularly if the absence is
perceived as unwarranted

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 1



A study on the “Ways To Reduce Employee Absenteeism With Special Reference To United
Electrical Industries Ltd, Kollam”


The study aims at the causes of absenteeism of employees in United Electrical Industries Ltd. At
present, organizations in India take real interest in controlling absenteeism. Measures to prevent
strikes and lockouts have received far and greater attention. One reason for this situation may be
that strikes and lockouts are more noisy and visible while absenteeism is silent and unnoticeable.
The relevance of the study is that, now the company is facing a major issue of
high rate of absenteeism and hope that the study will reveal the reason for it and thereby the
organization can take effective measures for checking the absenteeism.


1. To find out the various cause for absenteeism

2. To study the various measures adopted by the organization
3. To provide suggestions in the form of solutions to reduce the rate of

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 2


One of the main problems the industrial world faces now is the scarcity of energy. The
demand is more and supply is less. More research is done to find out alternative sources of
energy. The researches are still in its beginning phase. Till some new alternate energy is found
out, the dependence will be on the existing forms. Electrically being the important among them
plays a major role in almost all industries. Apart from industries, it is the basic form of energy
for household purpose also. Production of electricity has become more expensive which
demands careful utilization and accurate measurement. Keeping this in mind analogue
measuring instruments has been replaced by electronic ones by suppliers of electricity.
The share of electricity consumption of large buildings in the commercial sector is
currently of the order of 7 percent of country’s overall consumption, and it is growing at about
12 percent over the last few years. Annual energy consumption in commercial buildings, which
is in excess of 200 Kwh per square meter of floor area, is expected to be brought down to 120-
160 KWh when the standards are implemented. According to Construction Industry
Development Council (CIDC), residential and commercial construction has been growing in
excess of 10 percent per annum, and that accounted for nearly 41 million square meters last year.
With escalating power demand in Southeast Asia, most countries in the region are
demanding novel electricity meters. Moreover, as increasingly more electric utilities install
meters at their customer’s (both small power and large power consumers) site, sales for both
single phase and three phase meters are increasing. Hence, the electricity meters market is
witnessing stable growth. This is likely to further accelerate with the transition of
electromechanical meters to electronic/digital meters.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 3


As electricity metering and billing industry moves ever closer to full automation and
computerization, electronic meters that can ‘communicate’ with each other and with other
electronic systems are expected to become an essential part of the network. Electromechanical
meters merely measures demand and consumption of energy and are quite simple. “However,
with the latest electronic meters one can implement the tariff at which the utilities sell the
electricity”, cites the analyst of this research service. “Therefore, power distribution electric
utilities can sell electricity at a lesser price when the demand is low and kilowatt-hour (KWh)
pricing can be high when the demand is high.”
Manufactures Must Offer Additional and More Advanced Technology Features To stand
Apart from Competition.
The Southeast Asian electrically meters market is highly active, with several public and
private utilities, smaller municipalities and electronic cooperative. There is intense competition
in the electricity meters market attributed by the presence of Chinese and other foreign
manufacturers and suppliers in Southeast Asia. One of the main concerns that affect the local
meters market is the presence of the many meter brands from China. These are typically low
priced and low quality meters, which utilities are sometimes forced to opt for since such meters
would meet their budget especially on household meters segment.
“However, companies that offer high quality meters are likely to find greater demand
with certain utilities in the market and may even increase their profit margins due to the end –
user confidence in their products, “says the analyst, “with several software based and
multifunctional features such as automated remote metering and multicaliberations in demand,
manufacturers will have to incorporate and more applications into their product and offer more
than just the normal measurement of energy flow for billing.”

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 4


The main players in the electricity measuring instrument manufacturing in India are:

• HPL Socomet Pvt, New Delhi

• Anchor Electricals Ltd, Daman

• Naina Powers Pvt. Ltd, Hyderabad

• ECE industries, Hyderabad

• TTL Ltd, Noida

• Avener Power industries, Hyderabad.

• County meters, New Delhi

• Hemant Industries, Hyderabad

• ECIL, Hyderabad

• Avon Meters Pvt. Ltd, Chandigarh

• Bentec Electricals and Electronics, Kolkata

• Holy Meters India Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad

• Capital power System,Noida

• Himachal Energy Pvt. Ltd., Solan

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 5




United Electrical Industries Ltd., Kollam was incorporated in the year 1950 in the private
sector. It is the first factory in India to manufacture Electricity House Service Meters. It is
located at 3 km south of Kollam. The Company started its manufacturing activity in technical
collaboration with a world-renowned measuring instrument manufacturer M/s. Aron Meters Ltd.,
England. It initially started with the assembly of single-phase meters with imported components
for subassemblies. The company owes its origin to Shri. K.P.S. Nair, the chief electrical engineer
or Travancore-cochin State and Shri. Abraham Pothen, an eminent industrialist. Major shares of
the company were taken over by the Kerala Government in 1957 and reconstituted as a Public
Limited Company.
As usual most industries, this company also had to face certain troubles like inadequate
working capital, labour unrest etc. The company gradually overcome this and started
establishing steady market for the product. In 1956, a plan of diversification was initiated and
manufacturing of Motor Control Gear was started with technical collaboration from Mysore
Electrical Industries Limited, Bangalore. In the same year, production of poly phase meters
commenced. The company entered into a technical collaboration with General Electrically of
India Ltd.. Calcutta, for manufacturing of oil and air break circuit breaker up to 22 Kv rating.
The Company manufactures Electricity House Service Energy Meters of both electro-
mechanical and static types, Motor Starters and contractors. At present the company is mainly
concentrating on the production of Static type Energy Meters and motor Starters. The annual
turnover of this organization is about Rs.16 crores and more than 90% of the Company’s
turnover is from the sales of Energy Meters to KSEB, its employee strength is 140.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 6


The major shareholder is Government of Kerala and is holding 99% of the total share
value. The Board of Directors of the Company comprises government nominees, usually from
the Industries Department and General Manager of the Company and also from among other

The company has been running in profit consistently since 1988 and maintains a positive
net worth and negligible debt equality ratio. The Company has been maintaining excellent
industrial relations and there is no instance of production loss due to labour unrest for the past 30
The mission, vision and quality policy of United Electrical Industries Ltd are stated as
follows :


“To become the number one supplier of electricity meters and to grab two digit share
in the transformer & water meter markets in India by ensuring customer satisfaction of its
products and services and continuous improvement”
“To become the pioneers through operational effectiveness and customer satisfaction”
Quality Policy:
“UEI and its employees are committed to develop, manufacture and marketing of house
service energy meters and motor control gears, ensuring customer satisfaction of its products
and services through continual improvement of the effectiveness of its QMS achieved by
setting and reviewing quality objectives.”

Quality Objectives:

UEI shall establish Quality Objectives at relevant functional levels which will bring
continual improvement in the functions and thereby in the organization. The Quality Objectives
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 7

focus on strategic advantage to the department as well as performance improvement. The

Quality Objectives established are realistic, quantifiable, and measurable. MPRM shall suitably
review the achievement of Quality Objectives and shall set suitable action plans. Also the
management will assign responsibilities to the concerned managers for achieving the objectives
as targeted in the MPRM.


The main products of United Electrical Industries Ltd. are:

1. Energy meter
2. Oil immersed Ac motor starter
3. Air breaking switches
4. Water meters
1. Energy Meters
Two types of energy meters produced in this firm are:

a. High quality Electro-Mechanical Energy meters

Type KVI-M magnetic suspension bearing meters are designed and manufactured to
satisfy the highest standards of accuracy and reliability of energy measurement in Single Phase
AC Circuits. These are designed for tropical climate and fully complies with IS 13010 (2002)
and its latest amendments.

b. Electronic Energy Meters (Single Phase & Three Phase)

Type UEM static meter is designed and manufactured to satisfy the

highest standard of accuracy and reliability of energy measurement in single phase and three
phase circuits. The meter is designed for tropical climate and fully complies with ISI
3779.(1999) REC specification.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 8



Four types of AC Motor starters produced in this firm are:

a. Oil immersed Star Delta Starter Type “NSD”

These control gears are available in the range of 10 HP to 200 Hp. Correct sequence
device incorporated in the unit ensures proper sequence of operation so that the Starter is first
put into the Star position for starting before a quick changeover is possible to the delta position
for running. Manual tripping is provided by a lever on the side of the Starter.
Oil dashpot type overload relays are calibrated from full load to double full load and are
easily adjustable. Under voltage relays open the circuit in case of abnormally low voltage.
b. Oil Immersed Auto Transformer Starter Type “ATS”
These starters are designed to provide control for A.C. Squirrel Cage Induction
Motors up to 200 H.P. where it is found necessary to minimize the starting current and attain a
higher starting torque. These starters embody an auto-transformer and reduce the current taken
by the motor while starting. These starters are a floor mountain type and facilities are provided
for mounting a pedestal type Ammeter.
c. Oil Immersed Slip ring Motor Starter Type 1& Type 11 ‘OSR’
These starters are available in the range of 10 H.P to 150 H.P to
150 H.P. They have electrical interlock between the staor and rotor circuits. So that it is not
possible to start the motor unless all the rotor resistance are in circuits. The starter is fool-proof
as the motor can only be started from the full off position, Rotor resistance are of high grade
resistance wires.

d. Fully automatic auto transformer starter type ‘FAATS’

The salient feature of this starter is its automatic switch over to full rated
voltage. These starting current is minimized to attain higher starting torque with the help of an
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 9

auto transformer. Tippling is provided for 40% 60% and 80% of the voltage to be supplied. The
panel consists of a Thermal Overload Relay. Star Contactor with timer (0.30 Sec), a Main
Contactor and a Run Contactor. The starting time can be set by the user depending upon the
application. The temperature of the transformer is set to safe limit using a thermostat.
Air break switches is isolate 11 KV lines from transformers.
• The contact ends are Tin coated.
• The fixed contact element are made of excursed electrolytic grade copper flat with
flexible ends.
• The leakage current passes to earth and not between terminals of the poll or between
• Switch is permitted to pad locking in both open and close position.
Water meters are inferential. Multijet, dry dial. Magnetic type. They have both pointer &
cyclometric reading counters and are duly sealed against tampering. The conform to IS
specification no. IS: 779-1994 Class B (latest amendment) Equivalent to international standard


The company follows a functional organizational structure. There are the
functions or activities the company performs to carry on its activities. It is created by grouping
the activities on the basis of functions required for the achievement or organizational objectives.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 10


For this purpose, all the functions required are classified into basic, secondary, and supporting
function according to their nature and importance. The basic or major functions are those which
are essential for the organization. In a manufacturing organization like United Electrical
Industries, basic functions are production and marketing. If a manager feels that his span of
management is too wide to manage effectively, which invariably happens in large organization,
several department are created on the basis of dividing a basic function into sub-function. For
example, marketing may be subdivided into marketing research, advertising, sale and so on.
Thus the process of functional differentiation may continue through successive levels in the
Apart from basic and secondary functions, departments are also created to take
advantages of specialization and to support basic and secondary activities. Such department may
be finance accounting personnel, industrial relations etc. These departments may be created and
placed according to their role in the organization.
A BOD constituted by the Governement of Kerala manages the company. The management of
the company is vested with the Secretary of Taxes, Government of Kerala as its chairman. The
other members on board are:
• Chairman of KSEB
• Deputy Secretary, Planning and Economic affairs of Government of Kerala.
• Development Commission of the Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation.
Unless otherwise determined by the Government. According to the instruction from the
Government the no. of directors should not be less than 2 and not more than 9. The government
appoints all the directors including the full time Director. However the Directions need not be
share holders. The Government and the full time appointed MD will select one among the
Director for this purpose.
Govt. &BOARD
Govt. DNominee
& D)

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 11



Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 12


Money is the lifeblood of any organization as it required to purchase raw

materials and machine, to pay wages and salaries etc. the financial statement of the company is
prepared under the convention accrual basis as a going concern. Complying with the accounting
standards prescribed under Companies Act 1956. Documents for original entry are prepared
directly in the computer and a copy is send to the appropriate authority for further verification
and approval. If any entry is to be rectified it can only be done through an adjustment document.
These ensure security of documentation against any accidental errors or manifestation.

UNILEC has a separate marketing department for the
marketing of new products. It is the duty of this department to explore new markets for the
company products. Within one year the company will start production of transformers. UEIL
launched water meters on July 2008. The UEIL has already healed discussion with the 14 Kerala
Water Authority (KWA) cooperative e societies for a tie up to market the product.

Production department is the department which looks after the production of the
The various products of UEI are:
1. Energy Meters
2. Oil Immersed AC Motor Starters.
3. Air break Switches.
4. Water Meters.


This department is intended to control the Research and development of new products:
modifications in the design of the existing products and to maintain equipments and devices in
inspection measuring and testing to demonstrate calibration status and to maintain records of
calibration flow charts. Drawings and bill of materials etc.
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 13


This department is concerned with ensuring the quality of the products. At each and every stage
of production the quality of the product is checked and while it becomes the final product it
should be cross checked. Senior Manager (works) is in over all charges of quality control

Quality Policy

UEI and its employees are committed to develop manufacture and marketing of house
service energy meters. Air break switches. AC motor starter, water meters etc. ensuring
customer satisfaction of its products and service through continual improvement of the
Quality Systems Standards
ISO: International Organization for Standardization
ISO series of Standards: ISO 9000, ISO 9001, ISO9001:2000
ISO 9001
• Covers management responsibility control review, control of design purchase
documents production testing storage etc.
• All Units of UEL are ISO 9001 certified. Certification Agency BVQI (by Bureau
VERITAS Quality International.
• Internal Audit once in Six Months.

6. Human Resource Department:

Human Resource department is one of the most crucial departments in the company. It
constitutes the key to the managerial actions and its success. Personnel manager comprises those
activities that have aligned by a separate Personnel Department under charge of a staff and
service manager known as personnel manager. For effective HRM, UNILEC formed separate
Personnel Department headed by Personnel Manager.
The main functions are:

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 14


 Manpower planning
 Recruitment, training and Development
 Compensation
 Performance Appraisal
• The primary objective is to ensure availability of competent and willing work force to the
• To maintain good relationship between employer and employee.

• To assist employees in achieving their individual goals so as to enhance individual

contribution to the organization.

• To maintain good industrial relations.

• To select right type and number of employees.

• To help individuals development.

Following is the structure of Human Resource Department

Officer & Time

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 15


1. Manpower Planning
One essential requirement of every manager is his ability to plan because
responsibility for planning extends to every function. It follows that planning for manpower
resources is a major managerial responsibility to ensure adequate supply of personnel at the right
time both in terms of their quality and aptitude and effective utilization these personnel.
Manpower planning involves two stages. The first stage is concerned with the detailed of
planning manpower requirements for all types and levels of employees throughout the period of

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 16


the plan and the second stage is concerned with planning of manpower supplies to provide the
organization with the right types of people from all sources to meet the planned requirements
But for last some year demand for the product is steady because of Government policy.
To reduce the loss, the company followed a “lean structure policy”. It decreased the size of the
company by adopting a “Voluntary Retirement Scheme”.
.2. Recruitment, Training and Development:
The UNILEC is a Government company, It has to adhere to the Government policies in
recruitment and selection. While vacancies through internal sources can be filled up either
through promotion or transfer, recruiters tend to focus their attention on outside sources. In
UNILEC, public employment agencies are utilized for filling up different positions.
Apart from these, apprenticeship trainees are also there. These people are recruited with
the help of Related Insertion Centre (for ITI diploma holders), Supervisory Development Board
(for Diploma and B. Tech people).
For the development of the employees the UNILEC provide various training and
developmental activities.
Training plays the following roles in an organization:
1. Increase the efficiency
2. Increase the morale of employees
3. Better human relations
4. Reduced supervision
5. Increased organizational viability and flexibility.
The company follows executive development programs as well as workers training. The
concerned manager or supervisor informs the personal department if there arise a need for
training & development. If the program can be conducted with the internal faculty, it is thus
organized and if there need more expert training and development, exteternal faculties are used.
It is decided by the HR department. The duration is also decided as per the report of manager or
supervisor. The external training is given with the help of Kerala State Productivity Council &
Workers Education Centre. The evaluation is done on the basis of feedback from the trainers.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 17


Also, a shop floor evaluation is also done. If the training results are not satisfactory, retraining
programs are conducted


Designation Number On deputation /long Total

Manager 4 - 4
Officers office 6 - 6
Officers factory 7 - 7
Staff office 14 1on deputation/1 on 16
long leave
Staff factory 7 - 7
CH/INSP 7 - 7
A Grade 48 3 0n dept/1 0n long 52
B Grade 12 - 12
C Grade 3 - 3
Lascars 26 - 26
Total 134 4 on dept/2 on long 140

3. Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal refers to the systematic evaluation of the individual with
respect to his performance on the job and his potential for development. Performance appraisal
is concerned with determining the differences among he employees working in the organization.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 18


In UNILEC, the concerned supervisor or manager continuously appraise the

performance of the employees under him/her. The company follows a confidential report
method. In this method, each employee is rated confidentially by one or more senior officers for
his performance. A confidential report by immediate supervisor is still a major determinant of
the subordinate’s promotion or transfer. This report deals with the year’s work and general
opinion of the rater towards the employee. The main problem with this method is that it is not
data based and the appraisal is done on the basis of impressions
4. Compensation
The remuneration, incentives and other compensation packages are fixed on the basis of
a long term agreement made between the company and employees. In every four years, a
meeting of trade union representatives, labour commission representatives and management is
called upon to decide on the package.
Objectives of wage and salary administration:
1. Attract and retain the services of desirable employees.
2. Get improved employee moral and productivity.
3. Pay employees according to the importance and difficulty of the job.
4. Incorporate legal requirements.
5. Simplify collective bargaining.
6. Reward employees according to the effect and merit.
The pay package includes, Basic Pay, DA and other allowance.

5. Fringe Benefits
The fridge benefits are primarily the means in the direction of ensuing, maintaining
and increasing the income of the employees. These fringe benefits can be monetary as well as in
non monetary sense and are given to the employees during and post employment period which
are connected with the employment but not the employee’s contributions to the organization. The
following are the type of fringe benefits offered by the company.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 19


The Fringe benefits includes: Bonus, Anniversary awards, Public holidays, Medical leave with
Pay, ESI scheme, Canteens, Gratuity etc.


i. Absents constitutes a single day of missed work(Martocchio & Jimeno 2003)

ii. Absence occurs whenever a person chooses to allocate time to activities that compete
with scheduled work either to satisfy the waxing and warning of underlying
motivational rhythms(Fichman 1984) or to maximise personal utility(Chelius 1981)

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 20


iii. An individuals lack of physical presence at a given location and time when there is a
social expectation for him or her to be there. (Martocchio & Harrison, 1993)

iv. Absenteeism refers to Non-attendance of employee for sheduled work( Gibson, 1966
john, 1978)

v. Absenteeism is defined as a failure of an employee to report to work when he or she is

sheduled to do so

There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach.

1. Innocent Absenteeism
Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control; like
sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless. In a
labour relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary

2. Culpable Absenteeism
Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons
which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave even though
he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable

Cou nse ll ing I nn ocen t Ab sen tee is m

Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is not justified. It is
obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his/her control. Absenteeism,
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 21

no matter what the cause, imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault. The damage
suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee's right to be sick. There is a
point at which the employer's right to expect the employee to attend regularly and fulfill the
employment contract will outweigh the employee's right to be sick. At such a point the
termination of the employee may be justified, as will be discussed.
The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows:
Initial counselling(s)
Written counselling(s)
Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification

Initial Counselling
Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally and have already
identified an employee as a problem, you will have met with him or her as part of your
attendance program and you should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on his or
her attendance.
If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work. If
absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status
of his/her condition. (Indicate your willingness to assist.)
You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will enable
you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular attendance
in future. Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the employee is
taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal warnings are given
should be given as appropriate and documented. If no improvement occurs written warning may
be necessary.

Written Counselling

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 22


If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee

formally and provide him/her with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist
then the employee should be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting.
This letter would be stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance
improves, termination may be necessary.

Reduction(s) of hours and or job reclassification

In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her
hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily accepted by
the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a reduction in pay
and therefore can be looked upon as discipline.
If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to fulfill the requirements
of his/her job, but could for example benefit from modified work, counsel the employee to bid
on jobs of such type if they become available.

Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been
done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator would
consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case.
Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work?
Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i.e. counselling, support, time off.)
Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their
Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable position
(if available) or a reduction of hours?

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 23


Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery?
Has the employer treated the employee prejudicially in any way?
As is evident, a great deal of time and effort must elapse before dismissal can take place.
These points would be used to substantiate or disprove the following two fold test.
The absences must be shown to be clearly excessive.
It must be proven that the employee will be unable to attend work on a regular basis in the

Cor re ctiv e Actio n f or C ul pab le Abs ent ee is m

As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be demonstrated
that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance. Presuming you
have communicated attendance expectations generally, have identified the employee as a
problem, have met with him/her as part of your attendance program, made your concerns on his
specific absenteeism known and have offered counselling as appropriate, with no improvement
despite your positive efforts, disciplinary procedures may be appropriate.
The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally the
same as for other progressive discipline problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any
way. The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counselling memorandum]
Initial Warning(s)
Written Warning(s)

Verbal Warning
Formally meet with the employee and explain that income
protection is to be used only when an employee is legitimately ill. Advise the employee that
his/her attendance record must improve and be maintained at an improved level or further
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 24

disciplinary action will result. Offer any counselling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further
verbal warnings as required. Review the employee's income protection records at regular
intervals. Where a marked improvement has been shown, commend the employee. Where there
is no improvement a written warning should be issued.

Written Warning
Interview the employee again. Show him/her the statistics
and point out that there has been no noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen to the
employee to see if there is a valid reason and offer any assistance you can. If no satisfactory
explanation is given, advise the employee that he/she will be given a written warning. Be
specific in your discussion with him/her and in the counselling memorandum as to the type of
action to be taken and when it will be taken if the record does not improve. As soon as possible
after this meeting provide the employee personally with the written warning and place a copy of
his/her file. The written warning should identify any noticeable pattern
If the amount and/or pattern continues, the next step in progressive discipline may be a second,
stronger written warning. Your decision to provide a second written warning as an alternative to
proceeding to a higher level of discipline (i.e. suspension) will depend on a number of factors.
Such factors are, the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee's explanations, the
employee's general work performance and length of service.

Suspension [only after consultation with the appropriate superiors]

If the problem of culpable
absenteeism persists, following the next interview period and immediately following an absence,
the employee should be interviewed and advised that he/she is to be suspended. The length of the
suspension will depend again on the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee's
explanation, the employee's general work performance and length of service. Subsequent
suspensions are optional depending on the above condition.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 25


Dismissal [only after consultation with the appropriate superiors]

Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above

conditions and procedures have been met. The employee, upon displaying no satisfactory
improvement, would be dismissed on the grounds of his/her unwillingness to correct his/her
absence record.

Absence behaviour is discussed in terms of theories on absences such as the notion of the
informal contract, perceived inequity, and withdrawal from stressful work situations, dynamic
conflict, social exchange, withdrawal, non-attendance, organizationally excused vs.
organizationally unexcused, involuntary vs. voluntary and lastly a four-category taxonomy.

Informal Contract
Gibsson (1966) attempted to explain some of the main features of absence
behaviour by means of the notion of an informal contract. The contract is viewed as being made
between the individual and the organisation. Gibsson (1966) was especially interested in absences
that were not long enough to activate formal legitimising (certification) procedures. He used the
concept of valence, referring to a person’s positive or negative relationships to a work situation
and pointed out that if the combined valences of a work situation are weak, it will be easier for

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 26


people to legitimise their absences to themselves.

Gibsson (1966) remarks that a plausible idea relating to the size of the
organisation influences absence rates; in larger organisations, since there is greater division of
labour, there is also more concealment of the contributions of individuals, thus permitting latitude
for absence from work. He also mentions the importance of the employee’s identification with
the organisation, as in the case of longer-service employees, and argues for the importance of the
“authenticity” of the work contract (Gibsson, 1966). In other words, the organisation should be
seen to offer a fair deal to the individual, whose feelings of obligation would thus be

In this research Gibsson’s (1966) concept of valence, referring to an individual’s

positive and negative relationship toward a work situation has relevance, as the aim of this
research is to determine whether work-related attitudes (Job Involvement and Organisational
Commitment) predict employee absenteeism. It is hypothesised that employees with low job
involvement and organizational commitment (negative relationship to the work situations) will
have higher levels of absenteeism.

Resolving Perceived Inequity

Adams (1965), Hill and Trist (1953) and Patchen (1960) have made
notable theoretical contributions towards the study of absenteeism. No recent literature has been
identified which has built on this perspective. Adams (1965) suggested that absences may be a
means of resolving perceived inequity; the probability of absence behaviour will increase with the
magnitude of inequity and if other means of reducing inequity are not available. Patchen (1960)
had tested this kind of hypothesis; producing evidence of a relationship between absences and

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 27


perceived fairness of pay, that is, employees’ feelings about how fairly they had been treated in
regard to their pay levels and promotions.

Withdrawal from the Stress of Work Situations

In their study on absence, Hill and Trist (1953; 1962) contributed a

theory of absence as being the withdrawal from the stress of work situations. Withdrawal is the
central explanatory concept; thus, individuals experiencing conflicts of satisfaction and
obligations tend to express them through labour turnover, accidents, and unsanctioned absences
(this is, absences without formal permission). In addition to the views of Hill and Trist (1962),
Hanisch and Hulin (1991) theorised that absenteeism and other withdrawal behaviours reflect
invisible attitudes such as job dissatisfaction, low level of organisational commitment, or an
intention to quit. According to this view, an employee who is absent from work is consciously or
unconsciously expressing negative attachment to the organisation.

Dynamic Conflict
The ‘withdrawal’ explanation offered by Hill and Trist (1962) had
some subsequent influence on theoretical discussions by Ås (1962) and Knox (1961). Gadourek
(1965) described the latter as ‘dynamic conflict’ theories. The conflict is located within the
individual, and whether a person stays or withdraws is the result of a complex in incentives and

Social Exchange
Chadwick-Jones(1982) presented a case for the theory of
absenteeism that is social, not individual in emphasis. As a first step Chadwick-Jones (1982)
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 28

assumed the interdependency of members of work organisations. It seems obvious that

individuals do have some mutual obligations to peers, subordinates, and superiors (as well as
other relationships outside the work situation). In this context the rights and duties of individuals
are both subject to, and representative of, a set of rules about activities in the work situation. What
individuals do is therefore likely to be in answer to, on behalf of, in defence of, as well as
achieving a compromise with the rules of the group.

The second assumption made by Chadwick-Jones (1982), is that under the

employment contract, some form of social exchange is taking place between employers and
employees. Whatever they exchange in this situation – whether it be their time, effort, or skill or
money, security, congenial friends, or anything else- it will be only what is possible for employees
in the organisation. Exchanges may be conceived as between individuals and work groups, or
between work groups and management, but it would not be realistic to conceive of the exchange
between ‘the individual’ and ‘the organisation’ while disregarding the social conditions and rules.
Chadwick-Jones think of social exchange between employees
and employers as developing in, or as revealed by, a pattern of behaviour in the work situation
that includes absences with all the other factors that constitute the contract, formal and informal,
between employers and employees. Formal factors include pay, hours, disciplinary rules, job
duties, and promotion lines. Informal ones include supervisory styles, peer group relations, and –
salient to their analysis – absence from work. Chadwick-Jones (1982) however, do point out that
absences may not enter into the exchange at all, insofar as some employees or employee groups,
especially those with higher status – supervisors in factories, managers in banks – are absent very
little or hardly at all. It is quite possible, however, that managers possess greater control over the
allocation of their working time and may take periods of ‘time out’ that are not recorded.


Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 29


According to Chadwick-Jones (1982), absence from work, where work is

defined by the employee’s presence at a particular location (office or workshop) for a fixed period
each day, can be interpreted as an individual act of choice between alternative activities; as
withdrawal or escape from surveillance; as individual or group resistance to an inflexible system.
Thus, absence may also be viewed as a stratagem in inter-group relations, as a defensive or
aggressive act in inter-group conflict (Chadwick-Jones et al., 1982). For the purpose of this
research this theory has relevance, as the reasons for absence behaviour could be related to a
choice of alternative activities instead of attending work.

Another definition of absenteeism refers to the non-attendance of
employees for scheduled work (Gibons, 1966; Johns, 1978; Jones, 1971). The definition
distinguishes absenteeism from other forms of non-attendance that are arranged in advanced (e.g.
vacations) and specifically avoids judgements of legitimacy associated with absent events that are
implied by as sick leave. This definitional emphasis seeks to focus on the key organisational
consequences of unscheduled non-attendance – instability in the supply of labour to the
organisation resulting in the disruption of scheduled work processes and the loss of under
utilisation of productive capacity (Allen, 1981; Jones, 1971, Nicholson, 1977). For this research
this definition will be applicable, as the researcher will not take into account absences due to
vacation leave and sick leave taken over more than three days.

Organisationally excused vs. organisationally unexcused

In terms of distinguishing among types of absence, one simple distinction
that previous studies (Blau, 1985; Cheloha & Farr, 1980; Firzgibbons & Moch, 1980) made is
between organisationally excused versus organisationally unexcused absences. Based on these
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 30

studies, it seems that organisations operationalise excused absence to include (within defined
limits) categories such as personal sickness, jury duty, religious holidays, funeral leave, and

transportation problems. However, as Johns and Nicholson (1982) noted, absence behaviour can
have a variety of meanings for individuals. This research will focus on the organisationally
unexcused type of absenteeism.

Involuntary vs. voluntary

March and Simon (1958) on the other hand, distinguished between
two basic types of absences: involuntary (e.g. certified sickness, funeral attendance) and
voluntary (e.g. vocation, uncertified sickness). Voluntary absences are under the direct control of
the employee and are frequently utilised for personal aims. Conversely, involuntary absences are
beyond the employee’s immediate control. Hence, voluntary rather than involuntary absences
from work may reflect job dissatisfaction and lack of commitment to the organization.

A four-category taxonomy
Blau and Boal (1987) presented a four-category taxonomy describing the
meanings of absence. These categories are medical, career enhancing, normative and calculative.
In the medical category , absence is viewed as a response to various infrequent and uncontrollable
events (illness, injury, fatigue, and family demands). If such an absence (medical) occurred, it
probably would be operationalised as a sporadically occurring excused absence (Blau & Boal,
1987). In the career-enhancing category , absence is depicted as a mechanism that gives the
employee a further choice to pursue task- and career-related goals.

For the normative category , absence is viewed less as a motivated behaviour and
more as a habitual response to the norms of the work group (organisation) regarding absence
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 31

(Blau & Boal, 1987). As such, this type of absence probably would operationalise as a
consistently occurring excused absence. More importantly, rather than absenteeism appearing as
a random walk, as with the medical category, definite patterns will emerge. Thus, for this group,
it would be expected not only to predict frequency, but also when absenteeism will happen.

Finally the calculative absence is viewed as a coin of exchange (Blau and Boal,
1987; Johns & Nicholson, 1982) in either fulfilling or modifying the implicit social contract
between the employee and employer, and as a time allocation strategy for enhancing non-work
outcomes. This type of absence would be operationalised in terms of the employee using a
certain number of excused and unexcused absences permitted by the organisation, depending on
how much the employee felt he or she should modify the implicit social contract. It could be
predicted that an extremely apathetic employee (low job involvement and organisational
commitment) would take full advantage by using both kinds of absence. Thus, the absolute
frequency and total number of days absent should be greatest for workers who are the most
Following are the drawbacks of excessive absenteeism


Absenteeism in industry stops machines, disrupts processes, creates production bottle-necks,

hampers smooth flow or continuity of work, upsets production targets, result in production
losses, increases direct overhead costs , increase work load of the inexperienced , less
experienced or sub standard workers as substitutes, this in turn creating problems of recruitment
, training, job adjustments, morale and attitudes of the employees.

1. Absenteeism reduces workers earnings and adds to his indebtedness, decrease his
purchasing power. Makes it difficult for him to meet necessities of life, leading to

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 32


personal problems, and in many cases loss of employment and resultant disaster for his
2. It affects both quantity and quality of production. If more number of workers are absent
the total output is affected. If alternative arrangement is made by employing casual
workers who do not posses adequate experience the quality of goods produced is
3. It affects the efficiency of workers. The workers who joins after a long period of absence
would normally be much less efficient.
4. It affects the discipline of the workers adversely. The worker who is attending to his work
irregularly may not care much about the discipline.

Peculiar Features of absenteeism

On the basis of micro studies undertaken in different parts of the country, certain observations
may be made.
a. The rate of absenteeism is the lowest on pay day, it increases considerably on the days
following the payments of wages and bonus.
b. Absenteeism is generally high among workers below 15 years of age and those above
40.The younger employees are not regular and punctual, presumably because of the
employment of a large number of newcomers among the younger age groups.While the
older people are not able to withstand the strenuous nature of the work.
c. The rate of absenteeism varies from department to department within a unit. As the size
of the group increases, the rate of absenteeism goes up. This difference in the rate of
absenteeism is believed to be due to the peculiar style and practices of management, the
composition of the laboue force and the culture of the organization.
d. The percentage of absenteeism is generally higher in the day shifts.
e. The percentege of abasenteeism is much higher in coal ans mining industries than in
organized industries.
f. Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character.
g. It is the highest during March-April-may, when a land has to be prepared for monsoon
saving, and also in the harvest season, when the rate goes as high as 40 percent.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 33


Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It deals with the
objective of a research study, the method of defining the research problem, the type of
hypothesis formulated, the type of data collected, method used for data collecting and analyzing
the data etc. The methodology includes collection of primary and secondary data.


The study follows descriptive research method. Descriptive studies aims at portraying
accurately the characteristics of a particular group or situation. Descriptive research is concerned
with describing the characteristics of a particular individual or a group. Here the researcher
attempts to present the existing facts by collecting data.


A research design is a basis of framework, which provides guidelines for the rest of
research process. It is the map of blueprint according to which, the research is to be conducted.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 34


The research design specifies the method of study. Research design is prepared after formulating
the research problem.


Data are the raw materials in which marketing research works. The task of data collection begins
after research problem has been defined and research design chalked out. Data collected are
classified into primary data and secondary data


Questionnaires were used for collecting primary data

Secondary data were collected from the company’s annual publications, memorandums
of settlements, newspapers, journals, websites, and from library books


Sampling technique used in this study is ‘Random sampling’. The selected sample size is
The sample size taken for this study is 60.
Percentage analysis is used


➢ Due to time constraints and busy schedules of the nurses it was difficult to
interact with them completely.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 35


➢ The sample size was limited to 60

➢ The responses may be influenced by personal bias.
➢ Generally do not provide in-depth understanding of underlying issues,
reasons or behavior patterns.
➢ Incorrectly designed surveys may produce invalid and misleading results.

1. Age

No: of
Parameters Percentage
20-30 9 15
30-40 18 30
40-50 18 30
More than 50 15 25
Total 60 100


Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 36


It has been inferred that 30% of the employees who participated in the survey are of age
group between 30-40 , 30% again come under the category between 40-50 age group and
the rest of them belong to more than 50 (25%) and 20-30(15%) types.

2. SEX

No: of
Parameters Percentage
Male 42 70

Female 18 30

Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 70% of the employees participated in the survey are male and the
remaining come under the female category.


Parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Single 9 15

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 37


Married 42 70
Divorced 3 5
Separated 0 0
Widow(er) 6 10
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 70% of the employees who participated in the survey are married
and 15% of respondents are bachelors. Rest of them are categorized under the category of
widow and divorce cases.
4 Employee able to communicate their feelings for others

Parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Always 6 10
Very often 15 25
Often 20 33.33
Rarely 10 16.67
Never 9 15
Total 60 100

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 38

It has been inferred that 33% of employees have an opinion that they can communicate
their feelings to others often, 25% feels it very often. Also we can infer that 17% of the
employees’ rate it as rarely and 15% of them never had any such feelings, but 10% of them
feel always free enough to communicate with others.
5. Employees - forthright, frank and willingness to stand up for his

Parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Always 12 20
Frequently 27 45
Occasionally 13 21.67
Rarely 5 8.33
Never 3 5
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 45% of respondents frequently stand up for their rights, 21%
stands for it occasionally. Also we can infer that 20% of the employees always stand up
for their rights and 8% of them are rare, but 5% of them ignore such views.

6. Employee satisfaction at work

Parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Highly Satisfied 4 6.67

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 39


Satisfied 12 20
Neutral 23 38.33
Dissatisfied 18 30
Highly Dissatisfied 3 5
Total 60 100


It has been inferred that 38% of employees have neutral opinion on job satisfaction, 30%
are dissatisfied. Also we can infer that 20% of the employees are satisfied and 7% of them
are highly satisfied, but 5% of them experience high level of dissatisfaction.

7. Stress part of work life for employees.

Parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Strongly Agree 10 16.67
Agree 30 50
Neutral 14 23.33
Disagree 5 8.33
Strongly Disagree 1 1.67
Total 60 100


Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 40


It has been inferred that 50% of respondents agree that stress is part of their work life,
23% of them view it to be neutral. Also we can infer that, 16% of the employees strongly
agree and 8% of them disagree but 2% of them strongly disagree.

8. Work is heavy and tiresome.

Parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Strongly Agree 16 26.67
Agree 26 43.33
Neutral 12 20
Disagree 5 8.33
Strongly Disagree 1 1.67
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that, 43.33% feel that their work is heavy and tiresome and 26.67%
strongly agree that their work is heavy or tiresome, 20% of their view is neutral,8%
disagree and 2% strongly disagree.
9. Loneliness while working with others

parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

always 7 11.67
Frequently 23 38.33
Sometimes 19 31.67
Rarely 9 15
Never 2 3.33
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 41

Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 38% of respondents frequently feel lonesome while working with
others, 32% feel it sometimes and also we can infer that 15% of them feel it rarely,
12%always and 3% never felt so.

10. Boredom in their routine work

parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Strongly Agree 9 15
Agree 23 38.33
Neutral 16 26.67
Disagree 10 16.67
Strongly Disagree 2 3.33
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 38% of respondents agree that they feel bored when engaged in
their routine work, 27% of their view is neutral and also we can infer that 17% disagree,
15%strongly agree and 3% strongly disagree.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 42


11. Satisfaction with the existing working conditions

parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Highly Satisfied 2 3.33
Satisfied 21 35
Neutral 21 35
Dissatisfied 10 16.67
Highly Dissatisfied 6 10
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 35% of respondents are satisfied with the existing working
condition, 35% seems to be neutral. Also we can infer that 17% are dissatisfied and 10%
are highly dissatisfied. Only 3% are highly satisfied employees.

12 Time for personal activities

Parameters No: of Respondents Percentage

Always 6 10
Frequently 18 30
Sometimes 11 18.33
Rarely 12 20
Never 13 21.67
Total 60 100

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 43


It has been inferred that 30% of respondents frequently get time to do things that are
really important for them, 22% don’t agree with this. Also we can infer that 20% who
agree are rare cases and 18% only sometimes. 10% have enough time to deviate for their
personal activities.
13. Satisfied with the welfare measures

Parameter No: of Respondents Percentage

Highly Satisfied 3 5
Satisfied 15 25
Neutral 13 21.67
Dissatisfied 24 40
Highly Dissatisfied 5 8.33
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 40% of respondents are dissatisfied with the welfare measures
adopted by the company, 25% are satisfied and also we can infer that 22% seems to be
neutral, 8% are highly dissatisfied and 5% are highly satisfied.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 44


14. Health problems leading to absenteeism?

Parameter No: of Respondents Percentage

Very Often 3 5
Sometimes 18 30
Rarely 31 51.67
No 8 13.33
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 52% of respondent have the opinion that sickness makes them
absent from work rarely, 30% says from time to time and also we can infer that 22% says
sickness alone does not make them absent from work. 5% very often are absent due to
health problems.
15 Impact of political or social engagement force them to be absent from

Parameter No: of Respondents Percentage

Very Often 3 5
Sometimes 16 26.67
Rarely 17 28.33
No 24 40
Total 60 100

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 45


It has been inferred that 40% of respondents have an opinion that the political or social
engagement force did not make them absent from work, 28% feel it to be rare and also we
can infer that 27% are satisfied and 5% very often keep themselves absent due to political
or social engagements.

16. Habit of alcohol consumption makes them absent

Parameter No: of Respondents Percentage

Often 2 3.33
Very Often 6 10
Sometimes 21 35
Rarely 9 15
No 22 36.67
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 37% of respondents have an opinion that the habit of alcoholism
did not make them absent from work. 35% says sometimes they are absent for work and
also we can infer that 15 % come under rare cases, 10% are very often and 3% are often
absent from work due to this bad habit.
17. Helping hand from the colleagues

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 46


Parameter No: of Respondents Percentage

Yes 6 10
No 36 60
To Some Extent 18 30
Total 60 100

It has been inferred that 60% of respondents have an opinion that their colleagues did not
help them in case of personal problems, 30% says to some extent they had received some
help and also we can infer that 10% agree that their colleagues help them in case of any
personal problems.

18. Any occupational hazards which prompt the employees to take leave

Parameter No: of Respondents Percentage

Yes 8 13.33

No 52 86.67

Total 60 100

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 47


It has been inferred that 87% of respondents have an opinion that they are not afraid of
any occupational hazards which prompts them to take leave, 13% show some kind of fear
towards occupational hazards which prompt them to take leave.


 On analysing the response it is found that, 35% of the employees are dissatisfied
with their work.
 50% of the employees have an opinion that stress is part of their work life.
 43% agree and 27% strongly agree that their work is heavy. From this, it can be
interpreted that the employees are having a hectic work schedule.
 A total of 70% of the employees feel lonely while working with others.
 39% of workers feel bored in their routine work.
 42% don’t have time for their personal activities.
 40% of the workers are not satisfied with the welfare measures adopted by the
 Health problems seem to be one of the causes of absenteeism for the work.
 It is also found that 35% of the employees are satisfied with working condition.
 It has been found that 40% of the respondents have an opinion that politics have no
impact on the employee absenteeism.
 60% of the employees feel that their colleagues did not help them in case of personal

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 48


 The management must intervene in the day to day activities of the employees. They
should provide full-fledged support, guidance and encouragement.

 The management must provide training programme to the employees at a frequent

basis. This will help them to enhance their skill and improve their existing
performance. The management must further, scrutinize the response of the
employees after the implementation of the training programme.

 Overloaded workaholic atmosphere must be avoided, as it may create a lot of stress-

related problems.

 Employees must be encouraged for their creativity and innovative outlook towards
their job assigned.

 Welfare measures of the employees should be improved so as to make the employees

feel more satisfied and contended. A satisfied employee will be more committed to
the organization.

 Medi-claim policies, weekly or monthly medical checkups etc should be provided to

the employees’ in order to make them physically fit for the job.
Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 49

 The employees should either be provided with transportation facility or housing

facility so that they would have ample time for recreation in substitute for the time
they spend in traveling.

 The management should take necessary action to strengthen the relationship

between the employees.


United Electrical Industries Ltd. being one of the reputed electronic meter manufacturing
companies in India is also a victim of absenteeism, as one of the curse their organization is
facing at present. The study tries to reveal the factors influencing the absenteeism of employees
with some suggestions which will be of immense aid for the employees as well as the
organization to reduce the absenteeism level. I earnestly desire that, the study might bring some
descend in the number of absentees in the organization, if taken into consideration practically.
To conclude, employees’ dissatisfaction towards job & welfare measures, hectic
work schedule, stress, health problems are some of the major causes of absenteeism. This can be
reduced by the management by implementing various employee satisfactory changes in the
organization. People are the major assets of any organization and taking care of their welfare and
satisfaction is their duty as a whole apart from earning profit. As work environment is becoming

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 50


more challenging and complex, the management must also see through it that, it is capable of
managing and bringing in changes at the same pace so as to survive in this competitive scenario.


K.ASWATHAPPA, Human resource and Personnel Management, Tata Mc Graw Hilll, 2003.

REDDY P.N and GULSHAN S.S, Principles Business Organizational Management, Eurasia
Publishing House 1990.

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 51


NAME : …………………………………………………………………………

1. Age

20-30 30-40 40-50 More Than

2. Sex :

Male Female

3. Marital status

Single Married Divorced Separated

Living together Widow(er)

4. I am able to communicate my feelings to others?

Always Very often Often Rarely

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 52


5. I am forthright, frank and willing to stand up for my rights

Always Frequently Occasionally
Rarely Never
6. How satisfied I am with my works?
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied
Highly Dissatisfied
7. Stress is a part of my work life
Strongly agree Agree Neutral
Disagree Strongly Disagree
8. Do you feel your work is heavy or tiresome?
Strongly agree Agree Neutral
Disagree Strongly Disagree
9. Do you feel lonesome while working with others?
Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never
10. Do you feel boredom in your routine work?
Strongly agree Agree Neutral
Disagree Strongly Disagree
11. Are you satisfied with the existing working condition?
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied
Highly Dissatisfied
12. Do you have time to do things that are really important for you?
Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never
13. Are you satisfied with the welfare measures adopted by the company?
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 53


Highly Dissatisfied
14. Does sickness makes you absent from work?
Very often sometimes very seldom No
15. Does any of the political or social engagement force make you absent from work?
Very often sometimes very seldom No
16. Does the habit of alcoholism make you absent from work?
Often Very often Sometimes Very seldom No
17. Do your colleagues help in case of personal problem?
Yes No To some extent
18. Are you afraid of any occupational hazards which prompt you to take leave?
Yes No
19. How do you take your eligible leave?
With prior sanction without prior sanction
20. Do you take leave for any other reason, specify?

Dept. of Management Science MESCE Page 54