KUMPULAN CONTOH JURNAL BAHASA INGGRIS TERBARU

Label: COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING CONTEXTUAL COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING CONTEXTUAL

In 1983, there has been discussion among experts that only education in the United States on how to achieve good teaching and student abilities is higher. The discussion came to the surface due to report the National Commission on Excellent in Education which states that the ability of students in the field math, reading, and science in the U.S. is always measured with standard measuring devices (standardized tests). Presumably it bothers expert career and technical education. In addition, global economic factors, demands of an increasingly competitive marketplace, technology is growing, and changing world of work is often considered as factors that influence change in curriculum Career and Technical Education (CTE). Moreover, changes in demographic character of students, and growing knowledge about how to learn and teach whatever is causing it to be effective, leading to a career and technical education experts review the basic principles and methodology of engineering education and careers. LEARN TO SPEAK IN CONTEXT: THOUGHT VYGOTSKY Has long Lev Semenovich Vygotsky (1978: 118) states that his The best method to teach reading and writing is not through formal teaching in the classroom, but through the game situation. In addition, Vygotsky expressed his belief that writing and speaking skills will flourish when students immersed in language usage when students are in play situations. Thoughts expressed by Vygotsky suggests that learning language skills will be easy and exciting when students brought into the world of play that has unwittingly encourage students to using the language he had learned naturally. When the play and language That there has been a real learning process. It was said, because at the time that children are faced with the use of whole language, relate directly to the needs of the child (relevant), it faces is a functional language, the

and at the same time he built and improve psycholinguistic strategies used in language learning. the authentic (authentic speech or literary event). a common thread that describes the relationship intact between the facts with facts from which it originates environment. and meaning significant for users of the language itself. In civilized society. if in the event an authentic language (natural) are the events that have personal meaning. a reader will constantly do problem solving. because in process of learning the language a child is dipped into the crater of culture that takes into introduce children to the use of language. In the text there is unity meaning by the context. whether oral or written. Transactions between the text and the reader is based on opinion of the concept of text Halliday and Hasan (1976:293-295) who argue that the text is a unit of interaction semantics of a language. Moreover. impression for himself. both verbal and written.child face to face with the real purpose of speaking activities. Vygotsky saw language learning as a cultural activity of the complex (a complex cultural activity). Why does the world play so meaningful for the language learning process of children? According Edelsky (1986). It was said. School is a new environment that the child should continue the role of the original environment. This is where teachers can be a cold-handed mediator capable of making children feel at home in school. Through this transaction readable text that serves as an intermediary for the development of reading and writing language learners. schools should able to develop and expand the process of immersion of children into achieving literacy skills (immersion in literacy). because school transformed the atmosphere into the crater of literacy immersion richer and more appeal to children. children are familiar with an environment full of printouts. Schools can make an environment that is in it as a richer literacy environment of the home environment of children before. . Furthermore. and with the use of natural language is the child control the usage of the language. In the environment the children interact and play with the printed matter long before he entered the school. When the transaction took place. Language in school activities is conditioned as a world filled with the atmosphere of speaking. there will be a transaction between reader and text reading.

planned. and scientific. neighbors child's age. seniors who play a role as a supervisor is the perpetrator transactions that encourages growth and development of language proficiency of students in the event the transaction. both in school and outside school. bench friends. because learning outside the classroom is to learn spontaneously. relatives. The second strength lies in the need to communicate with others who were then able to direct the growth of children's language to fit with language or language family in the neighborhood children. Goodman and Goodman (in Moll. and also from the responses given by participant transaction. classroom teacher attendance. Thus. As for school. First. the language is growing in self-testing of children facing land. linguistic schemata are grown. parenting helper huge role in encouraging the growth of language development in children through the transaction process. Schemata of experience and growth that then grow a personal understanding of the functions and rules of language. If that be our choice. 1993: 229) argues that learning in within and outside the classroom should not be different. which is through the understanding or misunderstanding interacting parties. so that learners with different conditions were the same. the inner strength that encouraged children to express him. Factor mentioned is that learners taught through the experiences of Indo language. classmates. while learning in the classroom is learning an orderly. then we belong to the class who think that science concepts can be learned in the classroom environment must be substantively different from what can be learned outside the classroom. In the transaction. and grown language skills. Rules of language and social rules of their use was found by children . The development of language skills in the child is formed by two forces. Children do not imitate language of adults and children had never learned the rules of language out of context its use. The establishment of these language skills can take place due to the "language of two-way transactions" (language myriad transactions) among children with other community members. There are factors that bind to both. also grew well as an understanding of a child on the influence of the surrounding environment to the process of language learning.STUDY IN THE CONTEXT OF DYEING LITERACY A first question to be answered is whether learning outside class different from learning in the classroom? Perhaps one answer is different. the presence of parents.

and with the creation of conditions that would be realized so that mutual respect. that teachers must begin to realize the power of the transactions in the classroom. "One teacher's key to success is building an atmosphere of mutual respect in Their cooperative learning classroom. Therefore. help the Learners to value themselves and each other. the incident was a reflection of learning a language event happen. and he was present there because he . these Become social communities where teachers value each learner. 1985). Climate is expected to learn the meaning of linking content lessons in the context of student life. as emphasized by Vygotsky (Weltsch. and win the respect of Their students. BUILDING A CLIMATE IN COLLABORATIVE LEARNING LANGUAGES CONTEXTUAL The critically important thing to do is create a climate of learning the students. That is. " Changes in teacher attitudes as mentioned above can not be interpreted as reduce the authority and responsibilities of teachers. in the classroom contextual language learning. teachers must plan well these transactions. teachers and students are transactions reciprocal. as revealed by Berns and Erickson (2001). This is similar to the statement of Goodman and Goodman (in Moll. including by building mutual respect between teachers and students. Berns and Erickson (2001) asserts that the creation of an environment that encourage self-regulated learning is the realization of the basic requirements contextual learning.on in the community: Teachers appreciate the efforts made by the students. Contextual language learning requires changes in teacher attitudes. Desired change of attitude toward teachers is that teachers lead their students with the knowledge that he was present at environment of students with more experience and knowledge that many of them. 1993: 235) which states that. guiding students to be able to assess itself and mutually respectful of each other.individually in the context of language use. It was here. and in turn these rules by the children adapted to the social norms when he learns to use the language being learned is. traditional attitudes of teachers who stated that every teaching conducted by the teacher can fully control the learning is considered too simplify the learning problem. that the connecting content with context is an Important Part of Bringing meaning to the learning process.

teacher is present in the midst of their students to encourage interaction. 1993). As a mediator. Teachers as decision initiatives A good teacher is one who is full of initiative. Student teacher as observer A good teacher should be skilled at observing students. teachers must take the initiative in encouraging spirit of his students to learn to solve problems. teachers should be in between student and text. As a mediator in reading and writing lessons. or there Whether or not the . both when child care was work or play. without clamping. and create an atmosphere of creative learning (learning atmosphere). when present among students. Therefore. To build a learning climate in the language classroom. and discover their needs\ 2. According to Vygotsky (Goodman and Goodman. teachers can change the role in accordance with the desired climate. teachers will try to understand his students. without damaging. 3. Teacher to class with a contextual approach is a teacher who has worked with students. Teachers can ask questions whose answers will guide students to the problems inherent in the text.respects the rights of their students. invites students to more carefully observe certain parts of the text. and teachers ready to provide encouragement and facilities needed by students. Teacher in class with this contextual approach to the development of skills students need to know. directs students' attention to things that are strange. Among the things to be done by teachers is to create creative learning context. teachers should try to know the Zone of Proximal Development of each student. to know whether students experiencing learning or not. without giving pressure. or blocking the realization of learning. Teachers as mediators Redefinition of the term learning requires a redefinition of the term of teaching. That way the teacher did not be passive. 4. helping students with the concept or scheme that can expand the horizons of student thinking. There are 4 kinds of roles that can be run by teachers: 1. Optimal learning requires teaching skills that can support and facilitate learning. Teacher as a liberator The difference between the teacher's role as mediator and teacher intervenes located the presence or absence of the freedom given by the teacher to student. giving provocation. In addition. identify.

and thoughts that can be utilized to learn. In addition. so that treatment inhibit the growth of the teacher students' self confidence. giving guidance signs are very curb the learning process. teaching and learning strategies chosen and used well by teachers can encourage students to actively pursue learning activities in class (Oxford. the students can express opinions and to a student who was appointed as group leader can take the initiative to conclude the discussion. Paolo Freire (1970) distinguish between the views education as a treat students like someone to save money in the "bank" and treat students as "liberators". a teacher who put the knowledge into the head students little by little. because with these strategies teachers can create learning conditions that support the achievement of learning objectives.) Cooperative learning strategy does not justify allowing a student teacher is . Strategy teaching and learning such characteristics is a cooperative strategy Learning. Shepardson (1997: 10-10) mentions several characteristics of Cooperative Learning (cooperative learning) as follows: 1. both individually and in groups. The teacher should place students as beings who are naturally have the experience. The strategy chosen by teachers is a strategy that can make students have a belief that himself capable of learning. Teachers should always strive for interaction between students who are in a group (student-tostudent interaction. which can exploit the potential of students to its fullest. In the discussion group. 1990: 1) The selection of teaching and learning strategies should be based on consideration of placing students as learning subjects that are not just passively accept what is delivered by the teacher. Cooperative Learning is a kind of group learning that involves four to six students. so that students feel empowered. students work together other students under teacher supervision to resolve the issue provided by the teacher. knowledge. if the teacher as a liberator. desires.pressure exerted by teachers against students. COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN CLASS LEARNING LANGUAGES CONTEXTUAL Teaching and learning strategies are important in learning activities teaching in the classroom. and students do not perform any power. By contrast. he gave freedom to the students. Intervention happen if the teacher controls the class with strict controls. Within this group. If the student as a bank.

Distribution Group . or as a transmitter of the discussion. The ability of each member of the group counted fairly (individual accountability). Teachers need to explain to group that each member should familiarize themselves with the good opinion of listening to other members. 1997. Therefore. (2) division of duties. 1992). Teachers should create a positive interdependence among group members. Johnson et al. Therefore. Members of this cooperative learning groups should not be too big. or gradually be encouraged to participate actively in the learning process group (Shepardson. may request assistance to other members. 5. With a group that is not too large. Group of this size provides the possibility for members to exchange ideas. Teachers must be can create conditions that can provide equal opportunity to each member of the group for opinions. This strategy teaches students to exchange information. (4) implementation of a class discussion. The process of reaching an agreement this group practiced and grown during the discussion in progress. In the cooperative learning groups of no participants expressed the opinion that allowed a voluntary basis. and must learn to accept others' opinions if what other people think it's better than the opinion itself. maintained. In addition. shy. each group member must be pursued involved in this study. 4. each group member will express an opinion. teachers can make students force themselves played a part in the group. Teachers have an obligation to control the course of this group learning activities. submit a summary. or even provide a way out if the discussion is experiencing congestion. 2. the turn. or lack of initiative. a member of the group will receive a hostess duties of teachers.. teach each other group members that have not been able to. (3) the implementation of group discussion. Under the deal that has been made previously.too dominated the discussion. students who are good at can help another friend to chip in mind. students who have a mental barrier. Stages of Implementation of Cooperative Learning Stages that can be taken on the use of cooperative learning strategies in the classroom with a contextual approach include: (1) division of the group. and mutually menghar gai opinion of its members. 3. That is. as the framers of the discussions. moving from 4 to 6 people. The strategy emphasizes cooperative learning on achievement of common goals (group process skills). By way of giving a prearranged turn. such as group leader. teachers are also easy to oversee the process of learning that emphasizes the cooperation among the members of this group.

2001). After dividing the class into groups. In other words. on the next round of duties as chairman. among other duties as registrar. In addition to setting the group members based on the capability. and willing to reach out to help group members to the group successfully completed the task of each group. Division of Duties At the beginning of a discussion group. The task is a task group that intended by the teacher prepared for discussion by the students in a group. Members of the group have different capabilities as far as possible with the intention that the group members are enabled to increase its ability to lower after interacting with members of the higher-capable. and conveys the results of the discussion can be exchanged to other members. appreciate the opinions of others. or completion of a task given by the teacher to the group. so that the valuable experience gained was not only brilliant student who usually dominate the opportunity within the group. The very need to get the attention of teachers at the turn of the task is that the rotation is intended to familiarize a student get the same heavy duty. group division is based on the heterogeneity of students. namely. teachers try to realize the nine steps of learning called by Nunan (1992: 17-24) as a negotiation like this continuum. messenger discussions. grouping students through cooperative learning has advanced so that students with higher ability have a positive effect on the lower. the teacher re-emphasize the importance of principles of cooperative learning. More important than that. Cooperative Study groups should try to get the number of members in a group are not too large. To maintain that the students do not depend on other students.In accordance with one of the principles of cooperative learning. that sink or swim together (Johnson and Johnson. In this discussion. the next step is to assign tasks to these groups. The effort is in accordance with the statement that was popularized by Johnson and Johnson (2001). that each group member must have the same feelings. the distribution of group members also noticed the large number of members in a group. ranging between 4-5 people. One who gets appointed as the coordinator responsibilities shared duties to members of his group. and answering questions for other groups. Through this principle. which swim or sink together. so that learning is intensive interaction among members groups and teachers are easier to control. is expected to grow awareness of each member of the group to share knowledge and experience they have. . The tasks that have been given to each each member is only valid for one round. registrar.

members of the the other group gave approval to the conclusion of his friend.. The involvement of teachers allowed to keep only the first stage of this discussion group do not get stuck or jammed. teachers should ensure that students remain entitled to decide for themselves what they think is right. throw an idea. students are given opportunity to formulate their conclusions. then the cooperative learning has reached the fourth step. They Had access to the knowledge I wanted. the teacher let the exchange of ideas occurred. students are allowed to discuss according to the catchment understanding and improve skills they possess respectively. Finally. If assistance had to be given. and the only way I Could get That knowledge was for Them to write to me . Return of learning the principles of cooperative learning are reminded to heed together.. Furthermore. However. If a group were active and successful. Help teachers they consider to be one of the alternatives that they can develop further. first of all explore students' understanding of the goals they wish to achieve together. In this activity. with their understanding of that. opinion. it needs to be where the position of teachers in this stage: teachers only serves as an alternative provider. thoughts. At the very least. that teachers should "Encourage learner choice and allow Learners to Generate Their own task ". and other students are encouraged to comment on the conclusions peer group. In the third step. This needs to be done that the students used to think systematically and coherently. namely to keep the confidence of each member of the group continues to grow.. students are encouraged to express his conclusions.. and building a data bank of information .. the eighth step. each group moves to start a discussion . Furthermore. Cooperative learning will materialize if group members are better able to willing to donate their ability so that other group members "Do not drown". This is in line with the sixth step and Seven of Nunan (1992: 22). to work together as a community of ethnographers. collecting. ie to synchronize records of each member of the group for later put together to be a group report. and the decision remains inside the group decision. on the ninth step students are given the opportunity to apply as a researcher. At this stage. The fifth step is to help students identify ideas. throw mind they have done in the discussion. interpreting. This is in line with the opinions of Heath cited by Nunan (1994: 23) that "Students were asked .in this small group. or any comment that could be list of identification mind more can be well understood. teacher. . Each group must realize that learning could occur if each member of the group was convinced that he capable of. the teacher is only acting as an observer ( observer). With teacher guidance. If such a situation is created.

provide support for the opinion expressed by members of the group. and the remainder to convey the results of the discussion. so that the responsibility of each member of the group are good. ask questions. A group members should try to stick to the guidelines that among each member of the group needs to have a positive interdependence (positive interdependence) which can be revealed in deeds such as sharing learning resources that support. In addition. each group is placed in a position to sit in a circle and close together. By way of sitting like this a lot of cooperative effort that can be achieved. In strategy cooperative learning. teachers should emphasize that the students tried to create a partnership with members of the group. after the group in where members and their duties."The report is used as the basis for The next stage. The division of tasks thus not necessarily be realized perfectly. trying to interact socially. in the distribution of this task. Group discussions with Cooperative Learning Strategies To complete the task with a good group. in accordance with conditions of each class. and lending to each other information . Two groups of The same critic's poems brought together in a discussion between groups. The division of the group with members that are not too big aims to create interaction face to face so they know each other more closely. the four basic elements of cooperative learning to another. or answering questions from other groups. Each member of the group. and always involved in a group must always be kept in process of task completion for each group. ie respect for individual donations (individual accountability). check answers in the book. a becomes registrar. This can be done by changing the way students not to sit together with their habit everyday is sitting in a row and not face to face. for example. Therefore. the inner relationship between students plays an important role for cooperation between group members can be realized. classroom teachers with strategies cooperative learning to manage the distribution phase of this task well. individual accountability and group accountability can be applied in stages. tried to argue in the building of positive interactions (face-to-face promotive interaction). and celebrate with the group's success in completing the task group. teachers establish the working mechanism group. so they look more familiar. Therefore. which brought together a group with other groups which discusses the same poem with the same approach. namely a chairman. For that. has the task that has been established since the beginning (predetermined). according to Johnson and Johnson (2000). asking the meaning of a word or expression. at the beginning of exercise. one or more members of a resource.

students are given the freedom to choose place. In short. answering questions does not concern the substance of the content of the task. and should also be aware that other members in group also have the same understanding. Even sometimes one member of the group told his friends to ask something to the teacher mentor. In the conduct focus group discussions. Once the task is distributed to each group. not awkward or afraid when I express opinions. and interpretations arise from thinking individuals in the group. If teachers are forced to answer questions that lead to answers questions. Each member of the group sought to remind each other to always pay attention to the questions to be answered together. (1990: 71-72 1. or any of the results of discussions among group members. in the classroom or outside the classroom. or any other method that appears in the discussion in progress. In the process of observing. 3. Inter-group cooperation among members should be extended in several ways. The presence of teachers in groups of no more to monitor the discussion. Implementation of group discussions attempted to walk naturally. such as asking questions or interpretations of the meaning of a word or array in the poem. Each group members must be sure that he understands what must be answered in the study group. The teacher circulates from group to group to motivate. and ultimately. For example. The influence of teachers sought as little as possible.sources that are not owned by a member of the group. adding thoughts opinion on a group of friends that have been made previously. teachers could play a role as a facilitator. That is. 2. and drive mechanisms for collaboration in the study group with cooperative learning strategies. provide direction if students encounter problems can not be completed by all members of the group. teachers strive to pay attention to five things that are emphasized by Johnson et al. Positive efforts are then transmitted to other groups so that the level attained by a cooperative group can also be perceived by other groups. and other technical matters concerning the implementation of group discussions in order to run optimally. Teachers record all group efforts that lead to cooperation between group members. a group trying to understand overall meaning of . teachers let students make their own decisions. so they are more relaxed. teachers can advance students' knowledge of fishing. or the conclusion of an individual or a group after they were argue. provide possible answers that can come out of the question. the teacher recalls aspects of what should be resolved cooperatively. facilitating. 3.

listeners can find not meaning contained in the poem. two groups of problems critic The same mutually irreconcilable. The techniques work together within each group are considered good note by the teacher. and (3) differences / diversity of knowledge and experience possessed.the poem by reading the poem turns into task group. Discussions Between the Same Group In the discussion among the same group. In the next round. members of the who had been appointed previously requested submit results of their discussion on the future the class. With silent reading. Group 3 presented to the Group 4. On this occasion. Group 1 was presented to Group 2. terms. new techniques were tested and the observed effectiveness. terminology. Later. However. a poem can be understood by better. Furthermore. Of discussion among this group to learn the new results obtained for experience sharing with other groups. This action certainly change the atmosphere of a mind that is calm. through the guidance of teachers of all obstacles that could addressed and the interpretation of students still recognized as an original interpretation. selection of colors sound. expression faces. expanded learning environment. 5. pressure. Its purpose is to see the difference in results between the two groups in question. Group 5 presented to the Group 6 and Group 7 Group 8 is faced with. In meetings between groups of discuss this same issue. For example. Inner relationships between group members who have united to try reunited with the other groups. because by reading the right way. The group that had finished answering the questions made by the teacher as leading questions assigned to write the results of their discussion. the level of cooperative students not only be on small group cooperation. the techniques discussed at the first pause in the a meeting attended by two groups that analyze the poem with the same technique. Discussions between the groups could account for any difference between the interpretation of results caused by (1) lack of accuracy of understanding the tasks / questions. (2) the difference perception of concepts. but cooperation in a group that is greater. efforts required certain that intergroup competition does not appear. and movements of poetry readers when reading a big impact to the understanding of poetry. because this meeting could lead to . 4.

She stressed the importance dictum Cooperative Learning Strategies. Second. and deep. Third. Fifth. cooperative learning in the classroom has contextual characteristics the following. the teacher gives credit to all efforts to work together.efforts to maintain the results of group discussions. so that students do not mind sharing their knowledge and skills have. Thus. the acquisition of student learning increasingly rich. first set that the two groups that discuss the same issues rolled into one group. Teacher re explained the importance of working together and learning together. Fourth. Meanwhile. broad. the students have gained understanding and experience of others from the previous understanding. learning atmosphere groups seem more fun because the burden is not borne difficulties by individual students. led each group member perform tasks for the benefit of the group. Work with both so that tasks can be solved by both groups and with better results of the results achieved by one group. Prior to class discussion. It is intended to foster individual responsibility and group all at once. students also encouraged to involve members of the group in an effort to understand the task or conclusions of the results of their discussions. class discussion followed by the four groups. right to ask or refute remain on each individual. practicing respect for the opinion of other group members. and encouraged to create a sense of confident members of the group: that he could donate his mind to interests of the group task completion. Thus. cooperative learning can improve learning outcomes is more optimal because of the opinions and conclusions that came out was opinions and conclusions of the group. . the results of previous study also remained an important document for further discussion. namely Swim or Sink together. The results of two group discussions were presented in the class discussion. and initiative participants who previously seemed passive. cooperative learning can reduce the urge to compete. The next step is a discussion class. Concrete outcome of discussions between groups is the increased ability. Class Discussion Based on discussions between groups the same. cooperative learning can increase the frequency of cooperation among group members. First. Despite being a member of the group. Therefore. Sixth. Class discussion is intended to obtain another input of different groups. This study group. In summary. cooperative learning helps improve the ability to work together in teams. courage. is not realized by the students.

all members are expected have the same feeling: the success or failure are the property of the group. 2. because individual persons are not revealed an error in this learning strategy. 5. Cooperative learning strategies can also show that learning in groups small. the enlarged group meeting this gradually attitude led to study with as below. that there is the result of learning together. For students who are relatively more capable. Encouragement from members of the group was able to cultivate a sense of confidence students. This strategy can also be shown that the ability of each student who rarely occurs when learning in the classical style was gradually boldly displayed through the encouragement of the group. 4. cohesive and willing to work together to encourage students to dare to try an opinion. With attitudes like this. 1.cooperative learning provides a useful experience that doing things together and mutual respect from the other one will give better results. . and dare to take action that is "risky one". offer solutions to problems facing the group. that he is able to contribute ideas that are useful for solving task group. successful co-operative Learning Strategies reduce the tendency to compete. 3. Another attitude that successfully grown in this group of students is the emergence of encouragement to help members other groups to understand the problems and complete tasks that become the responsibility of the group. CONCLUSION In conclusion. Cooperative learning can reduce distrust a person who feels less able.

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