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at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: The Iliad of Homer Author: Homer Release Date: September 2006 [Ebook 6130] Language: English


The Iliad of Homer

Translated by Alexander Pope, with notes by the Rev. Theodore Alois Buckley, M.A., F.S.A. and Flaxman's Designs. 1899

INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER BOOK I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK V. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK VIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK IX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XVIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XIX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOOK XXIV. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCLUDING NOTE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix xlv 3 41 85 111 137 181 209 233 261 295 319 355 377 415 441 473 513 545 575 593 615 641 667 707 747

HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. . . . . . . . . . . . . MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. . THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE APOTHEOSIS OF HOMER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEPTUNE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, DISGUISED, INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. . . . . . . . VENUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map, titled "Graeciae Antiquae". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Map of the Plain of Troy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VENUS, WOUNDED IN THE HAND, CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. . DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. . . . . . . . JUNO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE MEETING OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. . 6 13 16 23 27 32 35 38 39 43 66 103 105 108 109 113 135 154 155 175 178 198 201


The Iliad of Homer

BOWS AND BOW CASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 IRIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS.221 GREEK AMPHORA—WINE VESSELS. . . . . . . . . . 231 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 PLUTO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 GREEK GALLEY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 PROSERPINE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 ACHILLES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . 359 GREEK ALTAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375 NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . 380 GREEK EARRINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 SLEEP ESCAPING FROM THE WRATH OF JUPITER. . 427 GREEK SHIELD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 BACCHUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. . . . . . . . . 470 CASTOR AND POLLUX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Buckles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 DIANA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 ÆSCULAPIUS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . 525 VULCAN FROM AN ANTIQUE GEM. . . . . . . . . . . 543

ix THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JUNO COMMANDING THE SUN TO SET. . . . . . . TRIPOD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THETIS AND EURYNOME RECEIVING THE INFANT VULCAN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VULCAN AND CHARIS RECEIVING THETIS. . . . . THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. . HERCULES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE. . . . . . . . CENTAUR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. . . . THE BATH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANDROMACHE FAINTING ON THE WALL. . . . . . THE FUNERAL PILE OF PATROCLUS. . . . . . . . . CERES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HECTOR'S BODY AT THE CAR OF ACHILLES. . . . THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IRIS ADVISES PRIAM TO OBTAIN THE BODY OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FUNERAL OF HECTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 552 . 556 . 561 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562 564 577 592 597 614 628 662 663 677 705 709 710

. 715 . 744


Scepticism is as much the result of knowledge, as knowledge is of scepticism. To be content with what we at present know, is, for the most part, to shut our ears against conviction; since, from the very gradual character of our education, we must continually forget, and emancipate ourselves from, knowledge previously acquired; we must set aside old notions and embrace fresh ones; and, as we learn, we must be daily unlearning something which it has cost us no small labour and anxiety to acquire. And this difficulty attaches itself more closely to an age in which progress has gained a strong ascendency over prejudice, and in which persons and things are, day by day, finding their real level, in lieu of their conventional value. The same principles which have swept away traditional abuses, and which are making rapid havoc among the revenues of sinecurists, and stripping the thin, tawdry veil from attractive superstitions, are working as actively in literature as in society. The credulity of one writer, or the partiality of another, finds as powerful a touchstone and as wholesome a chastisement in the healthy scepticism of a temperate class of antagonists, as the dreams of conservatism, or the impostures of pluralist sinecures in the Church. History and tradition, whether of ancient or comparatively recent times, are subjected to very different handling from that which the indulgence or credulity of former ages could allow. Mere statements are jealously watched, and the motives of the writer form as important an ingredient in the analysis of his history, as the facts he records. Probability is a powerful and troublesome


The Iliad of Homer


test; and it is by this troublesome standard that a large portion of historical evidence is sifted. Consistency is no less pertinacious and exacting in its demands. In brief, to write a history, we must know more than mere facts. Human nature, viewed under an induction of extended experience, is the best help to the criticism of human history. Historical characters can only be estimated by the standard which human experience, whether actual or traditionary, has furnished. To form correct views of individuals we must regard them as forming parts of a great whole—we must measure them by their relation to the mass of beings by whom they are surrounded, and, in contemplating the incidents in their lives or condition which tradition has handed down to us, we must rather consider the general bearing of the whole narrative, than the respective probability of its details. It is unfortunate for us, that, of some of the greatest men, we know least, and talk most. Homer, Socrates, and Shakespere1
1 "What," says Archdeacon Wilberforce, "is the natural root of loyalty as distinguished from such mere selfish desire of personal security as is apt to take its place in civilized times, but that consciousness of a natural bond among the families of men which gives a fellow-feeling to whole clans and nations, and thus enlists their affections in behalf of those time-honoured representatives of their ancient blood, in whose success they feel a personal interest? Hence the delight when we recognize an act of nobility or justice in our hereditary princes

"'Tuque prior, tu parce genus qui ducis Olympo, Projice tela manu sanguis meus' "So strong is this feeling, that it regains an engrafted influence even when history witnesses that vast convulsions have rent and weakened it and the Celtic feeling towards the Stuarts has been rekindled in our own days towards the grand daughter of George the Third of Hanover. "Somewhat similar may be seen in the disposition to idolize those great lawgivers of man's race, who have given expression, in the immortal language of song, to the deeper inspirations of our nature. The thoughts of Homer or of Shakespere are the universal inheritance of the human race. In this mutual ground every man meets his brother, they have been bet forth by the providence of God to vindicate for all of us what nature could effect, and that, in these representatives of our race, we might recognize our common benefactors.'—Doctrine of the Incarnation, pp. 9, 10.



have, perhaps, contributed more to the intellectual enlightenment of mankind than any other three writers who could be named, and yet the history of all three has given rise to a boundless ocean of discussion, which has left us little save the option of choosing which theory or theories we will follow. The personality of Shakespere is, perhaps, the only thing in which critics will allow us to believe without controversy; but upon everything else, even down to the authorship of plays, there is more or less of doubt and uncertainty. Of Socrates we know as little as the contradictions of Plato and Xenophon will allow us to know. He was one of the dramatis personae in two dramas as unlike in principles as in style. He appears as the enunciator of opinions as different in their tone as those of the writers who have handed them down. When we have read Plato or Xenophon, we think we know something of Socrates; when we have fairly read and examined both, we feel convinced that we are something worse than ignorant. It has been an easy, and a popular expedient, of late years, to deny the personal or real existence of men and things whose life and condition were too much for our belief. This system—which has often comforted the religious sceptic, and substituted the consolations of Strauss for those of the New Testament—has been of incalculable value to the historical theorists of the last and present centuries. To question the existence of Alexander the Great, would be a more excusable act, than to believe in that of Romulus. To deny a fact related in Herodotus, because it is inconsistent with a theory developed from an Assyrian inscription which no two scholars read in the same way, is more pardonable, than to believe in the good-natured old king whom the elegant pen of Florian has idealized—Numa Pompilius. Scepticism has attained its culminating point with respect to Homer, and the state of our Homeric knowledge may be described as a free permission to believe any theory, provided we throw overboard all written tradition, concerning the author



The Iliad of Homer

or authors of the Iliad and Odyssey. What few authorities exist on the subject, are summarily dismissed, although the arguments appear to run in a circle. "This cannot be true, because it is not true; and, that is not true, because it cannot be true." Such seems to be the style, in which testimony upon testimony, statement upon statement, is consigned to denial and oblivion. It is, however, unfortunate that the professed biographies of Homer are partly forgeries, partly freaks of ingenuity and imagination, in which truth is the requisite most wanting. Before taking a brief review of the Homeric theory in its present conditions, some notice must be taken of the treatise on the Life of Homer which has been attributed to Herodotus. According to this document, the city of Cumae in Æolia, was, at an early period, the seat of frequent immigrations from various parts of Greece. Among the immigrants was Menapolus, the son of Ithagenes. Although poor, he married, and the result of the union was a girl named Critheis. The girl was left an orphan at an early age, under the guardianship of Cleanax, of Argos. It is to the indiscretion of this maiden that we "are indebted for so much happiness." Homer was the first fruit of her juvenile frailty, and received the name of Melesigenes, from having been born near the river Meles, in Boeotia, whither Critheis had been transported in order to save her reputation. "At this time," continues our narrative, "there lived at Smyrna a man named Phemius, a teacher of literature and music, who, not being married, engaged Critheis to manage his household, and spin the flax he received as the price of his scholastic labours. So satisfactory was her performance of this task, and so modest her conduct, that he made proposals of marriage, declaring himself, as a further inducement, willing to adopt her son, who, he asserted, would become a clever man, if he were carefully brought up." They were married; careful cultivation ripened the talents which nature had bestowed, and Melesigenes soon surpassed



his schoolfellows in every attainment, and, when older, rivalled his preceptor in wisdom. Phemius died, leaving him sole heir to his property, and his mother soon followed. Melesigenes carried on his adopted father's school with great success, exciting the admiration not only of the inhabitants of Smyrna, but also of the strangers whom the trade carried on there, especially in the exportation of corn, attracted to that city. Among these visitors, one Mentes, from Leucadia, the modern Santa Maura, who evinced a knowledge and intelligence rarely found in those times, persuaded Melesigenes to close his school, and accompany him on his travels. He promised not only to pay his expenses, but to furnish him with a further stipend, urging, that, "While he was yet young, it was fitting that he should see with his own eyes the countries and cities which might hereafter be the subjects of his discourses." Melesigenes consented, and set out with his patron, "examining all the curiosities of the countries they visited, and informing himself of everything by interrogating those whom he met." We may also suppose, that he wrote memoirs of all that he deemed worthy of preservation2 Having set sail from Tyrrhenia and Iberia, they reached Ithaca. Here Melesigenes, who had already suffered in his eyes, became much worse, and Mentes, who was about to leave for Leucadia, left him to the medical superintendence of a friend of his, named Mentor, the son of Alcinor. Under his hospitable and intelligent host, Melesigenes rapidly became acquainted with the legends respecting Ulysses, which afterwards formed the subject of the Odyssey. The inhabitants of Ithaca assert, that it was here that Melesigenes became blind, but the Colophomans make their city the seat of
Eikos de min aen kai mnaemoruna panton grapherthai. Vit. Hom. in Schweigh Herodot t. iv. p. 299, sq. Section 6. I may observe that this Life has been paraphrased in English by my learned young friend Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie, and appended to my prose translation of the Odyssey. The present abridgement however, will contain all that is of use to the reader, for the biographical value of the treatise is most insignificant.



The Iliad of Homer

that misfortune. He then returned to Smyrna, where he applied himself to the study of poetry.3 But poverty soon drove him to Cumae. Having passed over the Hermaean plain, he arrived at Neon Teichos, the New Wall, a colony of Cumae. Here his misfortunes and poetical talent gained him the friendship of one Tychias, an armourer. "And up to my time," continued the author, "the inhabitants showed the place where he used to sit when giving a recitation of his verses, and they greatly honoured the spot. Here also a poplar grew, which they said had sprung up ever since Melesigenes arrived".4 But poverty still drove him on, and he went by way of Larissa, as being the most convenient road. Here, the Cumans say, he composed an epitaph on Gordius, king of Phrygia, which has however, and with greater probability, been attributed to
—I.e. both of composing and reciting verses for as Blair observes, "The first poets sang their own verses." Sextus Empir. adv. Mus. p. 360 ed. Fabric. Ou hamelei ge toi kai oi poiaetai melopoioi legontai, kai ta Omaerou epae to palai pros lyran aedeto. "The voice," observes Heeren, "was always accompanied by some instrument. The bard was provided with a harp on which he played a prelude, to elevate and inspire his mind, and with which he accompanied the song when begun. His voice probably preserved a medium between singing and recitation; the words, and not the melody were regarded by the listeners, hence it was necessary for him to remain intelligible to all. In countries where nothing similar is found, it is difficult to represent such scenes to the mind; but whoever has had an opportunity of listening to the improvisation of Italy, can easily form an idea of Demodocus and Phemius."—Ancient Greece, p. 94. 4 "Should it not be, since my arrival? asks Mackenzie, observing that "poplars can hardly live so long". But setting aside the fact that we must not expect consistency in a mere romance, the ancients had a superstitious belief in the great age of trees which grew near places consecrated by the presence of gods and great men. See Cicero de Legg II I, sub init., where he speaks of the plane tree under which Socrates used to walk and of the tree at Delos, where Latona gave birth to Apollo. This passage is referred to by Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. N. T. p. 490, ed. de Pinedo. I omit quoting any of the dull epigrams ascribed

" "From this circumstance."7 With a love of economy. Vit. if they would allow him a public maintenance. by Diogenes Laert. p. Hom. At Phocoea. 311. Vit. Coleridge. Casaub. 5 It is quoted as the work of Cleobulus. Metrop. p. they would be encumbered with a multitude of useless people. Justice Talfourd rightly observes. on condition of the verses of the poet passing in his name. xvii Cleobulus of Lindus. ed. The greater part of the assembly seemed favourable to the poet's demand. Encouraged by this favourable reception. l. from which they are taken. he retired. Homer was destined to experience another literary distress. he declared that. 38 in Encycl. and procured him an audience in the council. with the purport of which our author has forgotten to acquaint us. Epische Cyclus. he frequented the converzationes6 of the old men. "Melesigenes acquired the name of Homer. 127." Lit of Greece. and left them to debate respecting the answer to be given to his proposal. 6 I trust I am justified in employing this as an equivalent for the Greek leschai. Cf. for the Cumans call blind men Homers. 7 Os ei tous. and allowed him a pittance. p. One Thestorides. They avowed their willingness to support him in the measure he proposed. the pension was denied. and delighted all by the charms of his poetry. The etymology has been condemned by recent scholars. but one man observed that "if they were to feed Homers. 62. and Mackenzie's note. who aimed at the reputation of poetical genius. Having made the speech. as Mr. xiv. omilon pollon te kai achreoin exousin. p. p. kept Homer in his own house. 317. Cleob. See Welcker. Homerous doxei trephein autois." says the writer. Having to Homer for. which shows how similar the world has always been in its treatment of literary men. enteuthen de kai tounoma Homeros epekrataese to Melaesigenei apo taes symphoraes oi gar Kumaioi tous tuphlous Homerous legousin. c. Classic Poets. he would render their city most gloriously renowned. and the poet vented his disappointment in a wish that Cumoea might never produce a poet capable of giving it renown and glory. pp.INTRODUCTION.5 Arrived at Cumae. [xiii] . "The authenticity of these fragments depends upon that of the pseudo Herodotean Life of Homer.

and prayed that he might be able to expose the imposture of Thestorides. of Lit. 284. 315. until some Chian merchants. had drawn down the wrath of Jove the Hospitable. No vessel happened then to be setting sail thither. Having embarked. vi. reached the little hamlet of Pithys. attracted by the cries of some goats that were pasturing. Glaucus (for that was the name of the goat-herd) heard his voice. after some difficulty. This at once determined him to set out for Chios. Ibid. sq. vol. by his breach of hospitality. sqq. 132. "Having set out from Pithys. Thestorides. For or some time he stood wondering how a blind man should have reached such a place alone. Section 3. Homer is said to have composed the Little Iliad. like some would-be-literary publishers. At Erythrae.xviii The Iliad of Homer [xiv] collected sufficient poetry to be profitable. ran up quickly.. ouden aphrastoteron peletai noou anthropoisin. Gr. by whose assistance he at length. of the many things hidden from the knowledge of man. pp. which faces that island. which we will continue in the words of our author. Lit. Welcker. 358. Homer went on. called off his dogs. and he cried out. 272. and he prevailed upon the seamen to allow him to accompany them."8 Homer continued his career of difficulty and distress. acquainted him with the fact that Thestorides was pursuing a profitable livelihood by the recital of the very same poems. Here he met with an adventure. Homer fortunately met with a person who had known him in Phocoea. a town of Ionia. 8 . p. and what could be his design in coming. and the Phocoeid. c. he invoked a favourable wind. He then Thestorides. Homer is said to have observed: "O Thestorides. ii. During his stay at Phocoea. and drove them away from Homer. but he found one ready to Start for Erythrae. l. and Mure. The dogs barked on his approach. See Muller's Hist. and left him. At his departure. struck by the similarity of the verses they heard him recite. thnetoisin anoiston poleon per. who. nothing is more unintelligible than the human heart. neglected the man whose brains he had sucked. p..

This is so pretty a picture of early manners and hospitality. However. A common metaphor. but on the following morning. 374. and inquired who he was. logois gar estia. 522 A. since. and how he had come to desolate places and untrodden spots. p. 168. that it is almost a pity to find that it is obviously a copy from the Odyssey. and he took him. 851. Gr. xix went up to him.INTRODUCTION. Bibl. P. or estiatores. my friend. instead of eating. by recounting to him the whole history of his misfortunes. a place near the farm. he left Homer at home. Themist. bade him sup. promising to return quickly. and xvi. In fact. Having left the goats in charge of a fellow-servant. First give the dogs their supper at the doors of the hut: for so it is better. and in eliciting from them the germs of something like a personal narrative. he told him the whole story respecting Homer and his journey. viii. he showed some tact in identifying Homer with certain events described in his poems. Orat. Homer. Whereupon Homer addressed Glaucus thus: O Glaucus. and having lit a fire. A 9 . p. At length they retired to rest. Glaucus was pleased with the advice. Homer narrating his wanderings. they banqueted10 afresh on conversation. and of what he stood in need. nor thief nor wild beast will approach the fold. vi. Having finished supper. prythee attend to my behest. T.9 "The dogs. Athenaeus vii p 275. p. Having arrived at Bolissus. whilst they watch. and telling of the cities he had visited. Petav So diaegaemasi sophois omou kai terpnois aedio taen Thoinaen tois hestiomenois epoiei. and blamed Glaucus for his stupidity in taking in and feeding maimed and enfeebled persons. So Plato calls the parties conversing daitumones. Glaucus resolved to go to his master. and finding his mate. He paid little attention to what he said. he bade him bring the stranger to him. Tim. i. kept barking at the stranger. whoever was the author of this fictitious biography. and led him to his cot. according to their usual habit. See the fourteenth book. and acquaint him with his meeting with Homer. moved him with compassion. Choricius in Fabric. 10 Dia logon estionto. ed. Cf. and marvelled at its author.

" 11 . vol. p. northward. the School of Homer. Je ne crois cependant pas avoir trop a me plaindre d'elle en cette occasion. and to undertake the charge of his children. The following passage betrays the same tendency to connect the personages of the poems with the history of the poet. the head and an arm wanting. Homer enjoyed considerable success as a teacher. Conversation soon showed that the stranger was a man of much cleverness and general knowledge. and had two daughters. et je fus oblige de m'en fier a ma memoire. and bade him follow him.11 Besides the satisfaction of driving the impostor Thestorides from the island. 12 Chandler.xx The Iliad of Homer [xv] Glaucus told Homer what had taken place." So successful was this school. car etant alle seul pour l'examiner je perdis mon crayon. i. 61.12 "the most curious remain is that which has been named. assuring him that good fortune would be the result. that Homer realised a considerable fortune. The area is bounded by a low rim. as usual. without reason." says Chandler. The whole is hewn out of the mountain. The shape is oval. and the Chian persuaded him to remain. or Battle of the Frogs and Mice. the other married a Chian. the Epicichlidia. and about five yards over. In the town of Chios he established a school where he taught the precepts of poetry. "To this day. and on the back. She is represented. 92. formed on the top of a rock. and some other minor works. He married. referred to in the Voyage Pittoresque dans la Grece. indistinct. It is on the coast. P. and probably of the most remote antiquity. which has already been mentioned:— "In his poetical compositions Homer displays great gratitude It was at Bolissus. one of whom died single. and appears to have been an open temple of Cybele. i. and in the centre is the image of the goddess. at some distance from the city. that Homer is said to have written the Batrachomyomachia. vol. where a view of the spot is given of which the author candidly says. sitting.— "Je ne puis repondre d'une exactitude scrupuleuse dans la vue generale que j'en donne. The chair has a lion carved on each side. or seat. is rude. and in the house of this Chian citizen. Travels.

Alleg. 531-5.INTRODUCTION. not to vouch for their reasonableness 13 A more probable reason for this companionship. The classical reader may compare Plutarch. who had met with him in Chios. Hom. where he fell extremely ill. Compare Mackenzie's note. It is said that his death arose from vexation. p. now Ino. patient. p. 14 Vit. He also testifies his gratitude to Phemius." His celebrity continued to increase. and so broad are the evidences of its historical worthlessness. visiting the houses of the rich. that it is scarcely necessary to point them out in detail.15 Such is. whose name he has inserted in his poem as the companion of Ulysses. ii. the substance of the earliest life of Homer we possess. Section 28. . Halic. and invited to join in celebrating the Apaturian festival. Xyland. and by singing the Eiresione at the New Moon festivals. Let us now consider some of the opinions to which a persevering. In doing so. which gave great satisfaction. In the spring he sailed for Athens.14 he sent out for Samos. xxi towards Mentor of Ithaca. he was handsomely received. viz. Heraclid. Hom. He recited some verses. Having. c. and died. in brief. t. and many persons advised him to visit Greece. is given by the allegorists.13 in return for the care taken of him when afflicted with blindness. de Hom. it is said. made some additions to his poems calculated to please the vanity of the Athenians. 880. Here being recognized by a Samian. he earned a subsistence. xxx.: the assumption of Mentor's form by the guardian deity of the wise Ulysses. Opp. Pont. Minerva. with whose children he was very popular. I profess to bring forward statements. Poes. who had given him both sustenance and instruction. and for the character of Mentor itself. Mythol. 15 The riddle is given in Section 35. of whose city he had hitherto made no mention. s. f. p. Dionys. 15. and learned—but by no means consistent—series of investigations has led. de Deo Socrat. of Gale's Opusc. in the Odyssey. at not having been able to unravel an enigma proposed by some fishermen's children. whither his reputation had now extended. Apul. and arrived at the island of Ios.

The majestic stream of his song. because they are.xxii The Iliad of Homer [xvi] or probability. we should not expect in it perfect light. Bulwer's Caxtons v. Was Homer an individual?17 or were the Iliad and Odyssey the result of an ingenious arrangement of fragments by earlier poets? Well has Landor remarked: "Some tell us there were twenty Homers. The creations of genius always seem like miracles. some deny that there was ever one. i. L. our composure. 4. 96. in order to let them settle at last. in all essential points. created far out of the reach of observation. and. because they rose amidst darkness. let us pass on to the main question at issue. "Homer appeared. which shows as much insight into the depths of human nature as into the minute wire-drawings of scholastic investigation. If we were in possession of all the historical testimonies." Such are the words in which one of the most judicious German critics has eloquently described the uncertainty in which the whole of the Homeric question is involved. like the sources of the Nile. The history of this poet and his works is lost in doubtful obscurity. . we never could wholly explain the origin of the Iliad and the Odyssey. p. p. our devotion to superior power." 16 From this criticism. for their origin. It were idle and foolish to shake the contents of a vase. through many lands and nations. blessing and fertilizing. flows like the Nile. We are perpetually labouring to destroy our delights. must have remained the secret of the poet. as is the history of many of the first minds who have done honour to humanity. With no less truth and feeling he proceeds:— "It seems here of chief importance to expect no more than the nature of things makes possible. Compare Sir E. Of all the animals 16 17 Heeren's Ancient Greece. If the period of tradition in history is the region of twilight. for the most part. its fountains will ever remain concealed.

or they to whole The body's harmony. nor is it injustice to assert. that what is best for us is our admiration of good. Brodie or Sir Astley Cooper. The most exquisite anatomist may be no judge of the symmetry of the human frame: and we would take the opinion of Chantrey or Westmacott on the proportions and general beauty of a form. and to entreat our reader. entering into particulars respecting the question of this unity of the Homeric poems. greatly as we admire the generous enthusiasm which rests contented with the poetry on which its best impulses had been nurtured and fostered. the poetic age of Greece. however. Works. without seeking to destroy the vividness of first impressions by minute analysis—our editorial office compels us to give some attention to the doubts and difficulties with which the Homeric question is beset..) I must express my sympathy with the sentiments expressed in the following remarks:— "We cannot but think the universal admiration of its unity by the better. Letter lxxxiv. It was not till the age of the grammarians that its primitive integrity was called in question. that the minute and analytical spirit of a grammarian is not the best qualification for the profound feeling. "There is some truth.INTRODUCTION. and to condescend to dry details. (at least of the Iliad. No man living venerates Homer more than I do. though some malicious exaggeration. the beaming soul." 18 But. for a brief period. My opinion is. Before.— "'The critic eye—that microscope of wit Sees hairs and pores. 18 [xvii] Pericles and Aspasia. 387. How parts relate to parts. . rather than that of Mr. examines bit by bit. vol ii. in the lines of Pope. p. the comprehensive conception of an harmonious whole. xxiii on earth we least know what is good for us. almost conclusive testimony to its original composition. to prefer his judgment to his imagination.

the following beautiful passage. as any of the hypotheses hitherto put forth. rather than in advocating 21 . shall see.21 and. Burmann. Longin. when some stranger from the sea. they consist in an attempt to blend those hypotheses into something like consistency. Viz. oo dixa taes sphodrotaetos paramenei to megethos 22 See Tatian. no suspicion of the personal non-existence of Homer ever arose. ix. v.'" See Thucyd. p. At the end of the seventeenth century. lxxxvii. the voice of antiquity seems to be in favour of our early ideas on the subject. doubts had begun to awaken on the subject. So far. Section 26. His own views are moderate. 20 19 "Origias. quoted in Fabric. The grave and cautious Thucydides quoted without hesitation the Hymn to Apollo.xxiv The Iliad of Homer Are things which Kuster. of all the bards you boast. in an oft quoted passage. 147. and delights you most Oh! answer all. A hapless wanderer.. vol. 286. Mr. Bibl. may your isle explore. Othen en tae Odysseia pareikasai tis an kataduomeno ton Omaeron haelio. de Sublim.—'A blind old man and poor Sweetest he sings—and dwells on Chios' rocky shore. which deserve to be consulted.. and perhaps as satisfactory. 99. maid. When man's whole frame is obvious to a flea.. Longinus. and 221.. let us now see what are the discoveries to which more modern investigations lay claim. 104. whose very names22 it would be tedious to detail. pp. p. Mackenzie has given three brief but elaborate papers on the different writers on the subject.'"19 Long was the time which elapsed before any one dreamt of questioning the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems. See Notes and Queries.20 the authenticity of which has been already disclaimed by modern critics. No. II t. and we find Bentley remarking that Quarterly Review. among a mass of ancient authors. Classic Poets. for the translation of which I am indebted to Coleridge. And ask you. v. merely expressed an opinion touching the comparative inferiority of the Odyssey to the Iliad. Who sings the sweetest. iii. 171. In fact. ii. Gr. farewell! and oh! remember me Hereafter. Wasse. on the whole.

and with the following bold hypothesis. it is with the Wolfian theory that we have chiefly to deal. 191. to be sung by himself. that we first meet with the germ of the theory. of Greece. in the form of an epic poem. Lips. These loose songs were not collected together. nor. A. about five hundred years after. was thus one of the points in Wolf's case against the primitive integrity of the Iliad and any individual theory. A considerable part of that dissertation (though by no means the whole) is employed in vindicating the position. which had then been recently published."23 Two French writers—Hedelin and Perrault—avowed a similar scepticism on the subject. ii. turning to account the Venetian Scholia. and that without writing. p. subsequently defended by Wolf with so much learning and acuteness. xxv "Homer wrote a sequel of songs and rhapsodies. neither the perfect symmetry of so complicated a work could have been originally conceived by any poet. sqq. vol. 24 Hist. among the early Greeks. 23 Letters to Phileleuth. to which their composition is referred. first opened philosophical discussion as to the history of the Homeric text. The absence of easy and convenient writing. till about Peisistratus' time. but it is in the "Scienza Nuova" of Battista Vico. until the days of Peisistratus. transmitted with assurance to posterity. Wolf. the acute and valuable Prolegomena of F. which we will detail in the words of Grote24 — "Half a century ago. that the separate constituent portions of the Iliad and Odyssey had not been cemented together into any compact body and unchangeable order. previously announced by Bentley. As a step towards that conclusion. Wolf maintained that no written copies of either poem could be shown to have existed during the earlier times. for small comings and good cheer. at festivals and other days of merriment. [xviii] . in the sixth century before Christ.INTRODUCTION. Indeed. amongst others. such as must be indispensably supposed for long manuscripts. if realized by him.

Few things.xxvi The Iliad of Homer Odyssey. Simonides of Amorgus. Kallinus. We have no remaining inscription earlier than the fortieth Olympiad. opposed as he is to the Wolfian hypothesis. is in the famous ordinance of Solon. or at what time the practice of doing so became familiar. But much would undoubtedly be gained towards that view of the question. with regard to the rhapsodies at the Panathenaea: but for what length of time previously manuscripts had existed. "To me it appears. are nowise admissible. can be more improbable. in order to controvert it. and the early inscriptions are rude and unskilfully executed. nor yet upon the existing habits of society with regard to poetry—for they admit generally that the Iliad and Odyssey were not read. Payne Knight. that. Tyrtaeus. if it could be shown. in my opinion. we were driven to the necessity of admitting long written poems.—but upon the supposed necessity that there must have been manuscripts to ensure the preservation of the poems—the unassisted memory of reciters . the connection of the one with the other seems to have been accepted as he originally put it. nor can we even assure ourselves whether Archilochus. not upon positive proofs. are exceedingly trifling. rest their case. By Nitzsch. committed their compositions to writing. and the other early elegiac and lyric poets. in reference to the Homeric poems. and other leading opponents of Wolf. even in the seventh century before the Christian aera. in the ninth century before the Christian aera. Xanthus. that the architectonic functions ascribed by Wolf to Peisistratus and his associates. but recited and heard. admits this no less than Wolf himself. and it has been considered incumbent on those who defended the ancient aggregate character of the Iliad and Odyssey. "Those who maintain the Homeric poems to have been written from the beginning. and Mr. The traces of writing in Greece. The first positive ground which authorizes us to presume the existence of a manuscript of Homer. to maintain that they were written poems from the beginning. we are unable to say.

and when even suitable instruments and materials for the process are not obvious. we might refer to that of any first rate actor. who had learned to repeat the whole Gierusalemme of Tasso. or from the eighth line to the first. To take an ordinary case. that it could produce it under any form. the memory. Our informant went on to state that this singular being was proceeding to learn the Orlando Furioso in the same manner. who must be prepared. xxvii being neither sufficient nor trustworthy. could never have described a blind man as attaining the utmost perfection in his art. Moreover. But even this instance is less wonderful than one as to which we may appeal to any of our readers that happened some twenty years ago to visit the town of Stirling. would amount to an immense number of lines. whom Thucydides.INTRODUCTION. as from that of the blind bard of Chios. which seemed to cling to the words much more than to the sense. alternately the odd and even lines—in short. Visiting at Naples a gentleman of the highest intellectual attainments. at a very short warning. The author of that hymn. 25 is far less astonishing than that of long manuscripts. after a few minutes consideration any verse required from any part of the Bible—even the obscurest and most unimportant enumeration of mere 25 [xix] . whatever the passage required.' night after night. there is a strong positive reason for believing that the bard was under no necessity of refreshing his memory by consulting a manuscript. he informed us that the day before he had passed much time in examining a man. blindness would have been a disqualification for the profession. not highly educated. No such person can have forgotten the poor. which we know that it was not. in the Hymn to the Delian Apollo. to 'rhapsodize. parts which when laid together. indeed not easy to calculate the height to which the memory may be cultivated. identifies with Homer himself. But here we only escape a smaller difficulty by running into a greater. and who held a distinguished rank among the men of letters in the last century. But all this is nothing to two instances of our own day. in an age essentially non-reading and non-writing. uneducated man Blind Jamie who could actually repeat. for if such had been the fact. either forwards or backwards. be he who he may. for the existence of trained bards. as well as the general tenor of Grecian legend. gifted with extraordinary memory. as well from the example of Demodokus. but also to repeat those stanzas in utter defiance of the sense. in the Odyssey. in Scotland. if he had It is. not only to recite it consecutively. had it at such perfect command.

sqq. noble original. What were the purposes which." continues Grote. are we. the question a once suggests itself. but also interwoven with the feelings. as much as it stands beneath them in merit. c. must be matter of conjecture. in that state of society. it could only have come down to us in a softened form. . observing that. in these days of multifarious reading. for with them it was not only planted in the memory. p. or indeed any other Greek poems. but facts they are. 100. "At what period. Now it is certainly difficult to suppose that the Homeric poems could have suffered by this change. first began to be written. and yet it exists only in the memory of a people which is not unacquainted with writing. though there is ground for assurance that it was before the time of Solon. If Chaucer's poetry. that crux of critics.. quaint. l. than the rough. in the absence of evidence. If. that the pronunciation of the Greek language had undergone a considerable change. 143. But the songs of a nation are probably the last things which are committed to writing. "The Dschungariade of the Calmucks is said to surpass the poems of Homer in length. for instance.xxviii The Iliad of Homer [xx] been conscious that the memory of the bard was only maintained by constant reference to the manuscript in his chest. We do not mention these facts as touching the more difficult part of the question before us. we may venture upon naming any more determinate period. a manuscript at its first commencement must have been intended to answer? For whom was a written Iliad necessary? Not for the rhapsodes. for the very reason that they are remembered. had not been written. and if we find so much difficulty in calculating the extent to which the mere memory may be cultivated. and among a more single minded people?—Quarterly Review. that quicksand upon which even the acumen of Bentley was shipwrecked. seems to prove beyond a doubt. "these poems. Heeren steers between the two opinions. more like the effeminate version of Dryden. and of countless distracting affairs. and conceived in conjunction with all those flexions and proper names not excepted. had written copies been preserved."— Ancient Greece." The loss of the digamma. fair judges of the perfection to which the invention and the memory combined may attain in a simpler age. p.

we should be able to make a guess at the time when the old epic poems were first committed to writing. realize in their imaginations a sensible portion of the impression communicated by the reciter. there is in all early societies. Simonides of Amorgus. Archilochus. Not for the general public—they were accustomed to receive it with its rhapsodic delivery. pauses. is the middle of the seventh century before the Christian aera (B. Incredible as the statement may seem in an age like the present. and with its accompaniments of a solemn and crowded festival.INTRODUCTION. the age of Terpander. and competent to criticize. Kallinus. a class of readers capable of analyzing the complicated emotions which they had experienced as hearers in the crowd. from their own individual point of view. and the men who stood forward in it. 630). If we could discover at what time such a class first began to be formed. a time when no such reading class existed. Such a change was important at a time when poetry was the only known mode of publication (to use a modern phrase not altogether suitable. &c. The only persons for whom the written Iliad would be suitable would be a select few. may well be considered as desirous to study. the written words of the . and there was in early Greece. on perusing the written words. xxix intonations of voice. and which the naked manuscript could never reproduce. Now the period which may with the greatest probability be fixed upon as having first witnessed the formation even of the narrowest reading class in Greece. studious and curious men. and poetical compositions having been transferred from the epical past to the affairs of present and real life.C. and who would.C. and other oral artifices which were required for emphatic delivery. It argued a new way of looking at the old epical treasures of the people as well as a thirst for new poetical effect. I ground this supposition on the change then operated in the character and tendencies of Grecian poetry and music—the elegiac and the iambic measures having been introduced as rivals to the primitive hexameter. 660 to B. yet the nearest approaching to the sense).

II p. in our opinion. to connect. 198.C. There seems. alas! we have inherited little more than the fame. to harmonize. that stronger marks of Athenian manufacture should not remain. and the faint echo. A reading class. If the great poets. so much must have been done to arrange. though still comparatively few. when once formed. so that before the time of Solon. but very narrow class). therefore. might have attained a certain recognized authority. and we cannot help feeling the force of the following observations— "There are several incidental circumstances which. which took place about the same period. and Simonides were employed in the noble task of compiling the Iliad and Odyssey. that the Iliad was cast into its present stately and harmonious form by the directions of the Athenian ruler. if Stesichorus. manuscripts of the Homeric poems and other old epics. fifty years afterwards. . ground for conjecturing that (for the use of this newly-formed and important. that it is almost incredible. who flourished at the bright period of Grecian song.—the Thebais and the Cypria. throw some suspicion over the whole history of the Peisistratid compilation. of which. and the opening of Egypt to Grecian commerce. and formed a tribunal of reference against the carelessness of individual rhapsodes. Anacreon. at least over the theory. Whatever occasional anomalies may be detected. both readers and manuscripts. sqq. as well as the Iliad and the Odyssey. 1). just as we are told that Kallinus both noticed and eulogized the Thebais as the production of Homer. would doubtless slowly The Iliad of Homer [xxi] Homeric rhapsodies. would furnish increased facilities for obtaining the requisite papyrus to write upon. anomalies which no doubt arise out of our own ignorance of the language of the 26 Vol."26 But even Peisistratus has not been suffered to remain in possession of the credit. and the number of manuscripts along with it.—began to be compiled towards the middle of the seventh century (B.

should not more clearly betray the incongruity between the more ancient and modern forms of expression. "If. or. Even the few passages which relate to their ancestors. But. the chieftain of Thessaly. Knight may have failed in reducing the Homeric language to its primitive form. a Theseid would have been much more likely to have emanated from an Athenian synod of compilers of xxxi [xxii] . however Mr. and connecting parts. finally. may have been the most important ally of the Peloponnesian sovereign. that in its leading outline. of far inferior sublimity and popularity. Mr. the preeminent value of the ancient poetry on the Trojan war may thus have forced the national feeling of the Athenians to yield to their taste. It is not quite in character with such a period to imitate an antique style. particularly in the joinings and transitions. the total absence of Athenian national feeling is perhaps no less worthy of observation. the Iliad may be true to historic fact. from his valour and the number of his forces. Homeric age. that in the great maritime expedition of western Greece against the rival and half-kindred empire of the Laomedontiadae. It is possible. in order to piece out an imperfect poem in the character of the original. and it may fairly be suspected in earlier times. however. however the irregular use of the digamma may have perplexed our Bentleys. as Sir Walter Scott has done in his continuation of Sir Tristram.INTRODUCTION. Knight suspects to be interpolations. The songs which spoke of their own great ancestor were. the Athenians were more than ordinarily jealous of the fame of their ancestors. to whom the name of Helen is said to have caused as much disquiet and distress as the fair one herself among the heroes of her age. no doubt. indeed. the Attic dialect may not have assumed all its more marked and distinguishing characteristics—still it is difficult to suppose that the language. In later. however. amid all the traditions of the glories of early Greece embodied in the Iliad. the Athenians play a most subordinate and insignificant part. not even such faint and indistinct traces of Athenian compilation are discoverable in the language of the poems. at first sight.

"27 To return to the Wolfian theory. that throughout the whole poem the callida junctura should never betray the workmanship of an Athenian hand. 131 sq. He divides the first twenty-two books of the Iliad into sixteen different songs. chief of the Euboeans. 1841. but it explains nothing else. Notes and Queries. See Grote. "explains the gaps and contradictions in the narrative. we cannot help discovering that they have failed to enlighten us as to any substantial point. were so far superior to the rest of the poetic cycle. 204.xxxii The Iliad of Homer ancient song. than an Achilleid or an Olysseid." Moreover. v. While it is to be confessed. and treats as ridiculous the belief that their amalgamation into one regular poem belongs to a period earlier than the age of Peisistratus. the French. 28 27 . as Grote observes. however. Nor is Lachmann's28 modification of his theory any better. and the so-called sixteen poets concur in getting rid of the following leading men in the first battle after the secession of Achilles: Elphenor. the Homeric ballads. This. Betrachtungen uber die Ilias. Odius. and that the national spirit of a race. Quarterly Review.—it is still surprising. as to admit no rivalry. If. Tancred would have been the hero of the Jerusalem. should submit with lofty self denial to the almost total exclusion of their own ancestors—or. and that the difficulties with which the whole subject is beset. p. as they are sometimes called. Berol. of the Rhodians. vol. which related the wrath of Achilles. 221. p. Could France have given birth to a Tasso. Pandarus. of the Lycians. we find no contradictions warranting this belief. who have at a later period not inaptly been compared to our self admiring neighbours. l. at least. if we admit his hypothesis.. c. Tlepolemus. to the questionable dignity of only having produced a leader tolerably skilled in the military tactics of his age. with all its direful consequences. p. are rather augmented than otherwise. that Wolf's objections to the primitive integrity of the Iliad and Odyssey have never been wholly got over.

There is nothing. of the Thracians. the Amphiktyonic convocations. this was either wanting. Pirous and Acamas. that. and we think with equal success. the close military array. the improved construction of ships. either in the Iliad or Odyssey. in the Greek language. "the whole tenor of the poems themselves confirms what is here remarked. the despotisms and republican governments." The friends or literary employes of Peisistratus must have found an Iliad that was already ancient. by which Pylaemenes. familiar to the latter epoch. or. can only be regarded as the result of an interpolation. without recognising the age of Peisistratus as the period of its first compilation. the unison of these parts by Peisistratus..INTRODUCTION. who is represented as dead in the fifth book. which savours of modernism. the coined money. These alterations Onomakritus. weeps at his son's funeral in the thirteenth. supposing that impossible. the Oriental and Egyptian veins of religion. among the numerous manuscripts they examined. and we can but agree with Colonel Mure. [xxiii] . None of these heroes again make their appearance. that "it seems strange that any number of independent poets should have so harmoniously dispensed with the services of all six in the sequel." he continues. "a man may believe the Iliad to have been put together out of pre-existing songs. that the two questions relative to the primitive unity of these poems. and not before his time. or thought unworthy of attention. and of Lachmann's modifications with the character of Peisistratus. Grote. But he has also shown. although not very distinct in stating his own opinions on the subject. has done much to clearly show the incongruity of the Wolfian theory. &c. the mutual frequentation of religious festivals. "Moreover. applying that term to the age of Peisistratus—nothing which brings to our view the alterations brought about by two centuries." goes far to prove. are essentially distinct." The discrepancy. and the silence of the Alexandrine critics respecting the Peisistratic "recension. xxxiii of the Halizonians. In short. the habits of writing and reading.

34. could hardly have failed to notice.. on the best grounds. iii. 214 sqq. 31 "Who. who is said first to have disposed the books of Homer in the 30 29 .C. so it is also the most important attribute of the Homeric poems. for the first time. let it be added." says Cicero. "was more learned in that age. enable us to judge. Vol. even the interpolations (or those passages which. &c. and to seize instructive contrasts between their former and their later condition. for they thus afford us an insight into the anti-historical character of the Greeks. our first trustworthy mark of Grecian time. both in substance and in language. de Orat. p.. I am rather persuaded that the fine taste and elegant mind of that Athenian31 would lead Prolegg. was the work of Peisistratus. and this ancient date. Indeed. ii. belongs to an age two or three centuries earlier than Peisistratus. xxxvi. Everything in the two great Homeric poems. had they then.. in their present form. I am inclined to believe."30 On the whole. that the labours of Peisistratus were wholly of an editorial character. xxxii. are pronounced to be such) betray no trace of the sixth century before Christ. although. and may well have been heard by Archilochus and Kallinus—in some cases even by Arktinus and Hesiod—as genuine Homeric matter29 As far as the evidences on the case. considered in reference to Grecian history. enabling us to trace the subsequent forward march of the nation. as it is the best-authenticated fact.xxxiv The Iliad of Homer and the other literary friends of Peisistratus. At the same time. that I can lay down nothing respecting the extent of his labours. even without design. I must confess. so far from believing that the composition or primary arrangement of these poems. or whose eloquence is reported to have been more perfected by literature than that of Peisistratus. as well internal as external. we seem warranted in believing that the Iliad and Odyssey were recited substantially as they now stand (always allowing for paitial divergences of text and interpolations) in 776 B. pp. undertaken the task of piecing together many self existent epics into one large aggregate.

the less satisfied we are upon either subject. however. while its historical probability must be measured by that of many others relating to the Spartan Confucius. with an intonation. Ballads at first. were merely recitations. Many of these. but most probably the former. besides which. Then followed a species of recitative. probably with an intoned burden. a retentive memory was deemed a virtue of the first water. that the story which attributes the preservation of these poems to Lycurgus. He saw that these order in which we now have them?" Compare Wolf's Prolegomena. I will not repeat the many discussions respecting whether the poems were written or not. and allusive to events passing around them. and was cultivated accordingly in those ancient times. as the mystical legends of former times had done. or whether the art of writing was known in the time of their reputed author. made by an ingenious friend. Tune next followed. I will conclude this sketch of the Homeric theories. is little else than a version of the same story as that of Peisistratus. that a poet flourished of the name of Melesigenes. were extemporaneous. But what was passing around them? The grand events of a spirit-stirring war. as it aided the memory considerably. upon their memory. rather than to patch and re-construct them according to a fanciful hypothesis.INTRODUCTION. xxxv him to preserve an ancient and traditional order of the poems. like the common sailors of some fifty years ago. occurrences likely to impress themselves. I cannot. some one qualified to 'discourse in excellent music' among them. that the more we read. and down to the beginning of the war with Troy. like those of the negroes in the United States. It is as follows:— "No doubt the common soldiers of that age had. with an attempt. Section 33 [xxiv] . Suffice it to say. help thinking. "It was at this period. about four hundred years after the war. to unite them into something like consistency. or Moeonides.

together with the eighth. R. as a collection. connecting them by a tale of his own. p. he published these lays. and restored the works of Melesigenes Homeros to their original integrity in a great measure. Unity of design. Solon first. and then Peisistratus. Melesigenes knew that the poem was destined to be a lasting one.' "While employed on the wild legend of Odysseus.' The author. he met with a ballad. than of his mere drudging arrangement of other people's ideas. 'a great poet might have re-cast pre-existing separate songs into one comprehensive whole. 235 33 K. He therefore called it the poem of Homeros. then properly an Achilleis. ii."—Grote. and the Achilleis32 grew under his hand. revised the poems.xxxvi The Iliad of Homer ballads might be made of great utility to his purpose of writing a poem on the social position of Hellas."33 32 "The first book. p. by the people who took to singing them in the streets. great part of it. but. was. first. for. However. assemblies. and agoras. named the Iliad. which. [xxv] . Notes and Queries. however. arguing for the unity of authorship. into a chronicle history. like those relating to the Cid. in which tongue the ballads were found by him. His noble mind seized the hint that there presented itself. but this is rather a proof of his modesty and talent. remodelled from the archaic dialect of Crete. and afterwards Aristoteles and others. and so it has proved. caused him to publish the poem under the same pseudonyme as his former work: and the disjointed lays of the ancient bards were joined together. vol. 222 sqq. in fact. did not affix his own name to the poem. but no mere arrangers or compilers would be competent to do so. Mackenzie. however. This poem now exists. recording the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. and the books from the eleventh to the twenty-second inclusive. or the Collector. under the title of the 'Odyssea. as Grote has finely observed. seems to form the primary organization of the poem. and. the poems were destined to undergo many vicissitudes and corruptions. H.

INTRODUCTION. calculated to substantially improve the poetry of a passage. xxxvii Having thus given some general notion of the strange theories which have developed themselves respecting this most interesting subject. he would probably have adopted. . Three parts of the emendations made upon poets are mere alterations. although a mass of remarks. I feel conscious that. if we would either understand or enjoy these poems. To deny that many corruptions and interpolations disfigure them. The minutiae of verbal criticism I am far from seeking to despise. considering the character of some of my own books. and that which springs from the deepest and most immediate impulse of the soul. while the whole weight of historical evidence is against the hypothesis which would assign these great works to a plurality of authors. those who are most exact in laying down rules of verbal criticism and interpretation. are often least competent to carry out their own precepts. had they been suggested to the author by his Maecenas or Africanus. from Herodotus down to Loewe. Grammarians are not poets by profession. be he Homer or Melesigenes. without which our Greek knowledge would be gloomy and jejune. the most powerful internal evidence. but it is to a higher criticism that we must appeal. Indeed. But. some of which. but may be so per accidens. have given us the history of a thousand minute points. quocunque nomine vocari eum jus fasque sit. In maintaining the authenticity and personality of their one author. would be an absurd and captious assumption. also speaks eloquently to the contrary. while I appreciate its importance in a philological view. I must still express my conviction as to the unity of the authorship of the Homeric poems. such an attempt would be gross inconsistency. I do not at this moment remember two emendations on Homer. I am inclined to set little store on its aesthetic value. Moreover. and that the intrusive hand of the poetasters may here and there have inflicted a wound more serious than the negligence of the copyist. especially in poetry.

xxxviii The Iliad of Homer [xxvi] But it is not on words only that grammarians. till the author is reduced to a collection of fragments. Father Hardouin astonished the world with the startling announcement that the Æneid of Virgil. they proceed to use the axe and the pruning knife by wholesale. and others. 4to. I will venture to assert. to produce not only these. in an ultra-refined and consistent abandonment of good taste. Justus Lipsius. Wolf.. or till those. but not least. 1728. .34 Now. One cuts a supposed knot by expunging what another would explain by omitting something else. and inconsistent in everything but their wish to make out a case of unlawful affiliation. that the tragedies attributed to Seneca are by four different authors. If we compare the theories of Knight. that few writers of the present day would question the capabilities of the same gentleman. they cut out book after book. without wishing to say 34 See his Epistle to Raphelingius. Lachmann. Binding down an heroic or dramatic poet to the block upon which they have previously dissected his words and sentences. One rejects what another considers the turning-point of his theory. a scholar of no ordinary skill. find that they have been put off with a vile counterfeit got up at second hand. who fancied they possessed the works of some great man. be he Seneca or not. in Schroeder's edition. seems to revel in the imaginary discovery. not only in their borrowed phraseology—a phraseology with which writers like Boethius and Saxo Grammaticus were more charmed than ourselves—in their freedom from real poetry. passage after passage. and the satires of Horace. Nor is this morbid species of sagacity by any means to be looked upon as a literary novelty. mere grammarians. and last. we shall feel better satisfied of the utter uncertainty of criticism than of the apocryphal position of Homer. but a great many more equally bad. were literary deceptions. With equal sagacity. will exercise their elaborate and often tiresome ingenuity. Delphis. Now. that these tragedies are so uniform.

is to degrade the powers of human invention. after all. and there seems no more reason why corrupt and imperfect editions of Homer may not have been abroad in his day. than that the poems of Valerius Flaccus and Tibullus should have given so much trouble to Poggio. like Wolf. I look upon the belief in Homer as one that has nature herself for its mainspring. I have already expressed my belief that the labours of Peisistratus were of a purely editorial character. but as yet nobody has taught us a better. so to speak. and to forget the ocean in the contemplation of a polypus. the main fault in all the Homeric theories is. while I can join with old Ennius in believing in Homer as the ghost. to elevate analytical judgment at the expense of the most ennobling impulses of the soul. hovers round the bed of the poet. Nor can I help thinking. But. the refined acuteness—which scholars. There is a catholicity. The ingenuity which has sought to rob us of the name and existence of Homer.—still I am far from wishing to deny that the . Our faith in the author of the Iliad may be a mistaken one. which makes our whole soul yearn with love and admiration for the blind bard of Chios. have bestowed upon this subject. who. that many of our modern Homeric theories will become matter for the surprise and entertainment. that they demand too great a sacrifice of those feelings to which poetry most powerfully appeals. in the very name of Homer. While. and others. does too much violence to that inward emotion. however. I must express my fears. rather than the instruction. and which are its most fitting judges. like some patron saint. of posterity. and even bestows rare gifts from that wealth of imagination which a host of imitators could not exhaust.INTRODUCTION. Scaliger. that the literary history of more recent times will account for many points of difficulty in the transmission of the Iliad and Odyssey to a period so remote from that of their first creation. To believe the author of the Iliad a mere compiler. xxxix one word of disrespect against the industry and learning—nay.

But it is one thing to use existing romances in the embellishment of a poem. even his own thoughts are a kind of secondary agents which support and feed the impulses of imagination. another to patch up the poem itself from such materials. are features perfectly consistent with poetical originality. the most original writer is still drawing upon outward impressions—nay. a well-stocked mythical storehouse from whence he might derive both subject and embellishment.xl The Iliad of Homer [xxvii] author of these great poems found a rich fund of tradition. and it . But unless there be some grand pervading principle—some invisible. But we are too well taught the contrary lesson. and a free use of the songs of other bards. a poem like the Iliad can never come to the birth. except the power to create a grand whole. and aware as I must be of the weighty grounds there are for opposing my belief. but. which will require little acuteness to detect. What consistency of style and execution can be hoped for from such an attempt? or. to which these shall be but as details and embellishments. to compass the powers by which the greatest blessings of life have been placed at our disposal. we shall have nought but a scrap-book. or reveal themselves in more substantial forms to the mind of the poet. rather. In fact. Were faith no virtue. yet most distinctly stamped archetypus of the great whole. may crowd in one mighty vision. what bad taste and tedium will not be the infallible result? A blending of popular legends. it still seems to me that the Homeric question is one that is reserved for a higher criticism than it has often obtained. Traditions the most picturesque. a parterre filled with flowers and weeds strangling each other in their wild redundancy: we shall have a cento of rags and tatters. be present. still less. We are not by nature intended to know all things. then we might indeed wonder why God willed our ignorance on any matter. episodes the most pathetic. Sensible as I am of the difficulty of disproving a negative. local associations teeming with the thoughts of gods and great men.

and sages have formed the character of other nations.INTRODUCTION. as a poet. we in imagination must fight over the same battles. the work of the poet had already been accomplished. xli seems as though our faith should be especially tried touching the men and the events which have wrought most influence upon the condition of humanity. too deeply wrapped in admiration of the whole. woo the same loves. or rather. if we read in a right spirit and with a heartfelt appreciation. Prophets. Long and habitual reading of Homer appears to familiarize our thoughts even to his incongruities. No poet has ever. lawgivers. exercised a similar influence over his countrymen. When lawgivers and sages appeared in Greece. Heeren. in which they were to behold the world of gods and heroes no [xxviii] . And if we can but attain this degree of enthusiasm (and less enthusiasm will scarcely suffice for the reading of Homer). as an Achilles or a Hector. who is evidently little disposed in favour of modern theories. This is a feature in their character which was not wholly erased even in the period of their degeneracy. In reading an heroic poem we must transform ourselves into heroes of the time being. but of the greatest writer that ever touched the hearts of men by the power of song. finely observes:— "It was Homer who formed the character of the Greek nation. we are too much dazzled. it was reserved to a poet to form that of the Greeks. and measure the giants of intellect by an homeopathic dynameter. And there is a kind of sacredness attached to the memory of the great and the good. we shall feel that the poems of Homer are not only the work of one writer. to dwell upon the minute spots which mere analysis can discover. which seems to bid us repulse the scepticism which would allegorize their existence into a pleasing apologue. and they paid homage to his superior genius. And it was this supposed unity of authorship which gave these poems their powerful influence over the minds of the men of old. burn with the same sense of injury. He held up before his nation the mirror.

are not included in Pope's translation.—the more rooted becomes the conviction that the Father of Poetry gave us this rich inheritance. on which the "Apotheosis of Homer"36 is depictured. and some other poems usually ascribed to Homer. if it is permitted to him to view the vast assemblage of grand. how much that appeals most forcibly and most distinctly to our minds. wherever his immortal spirit may reside. If it is granted to his immortal spirit. the love of glory. whose wildness is only equalled by their inconsistency with each other. than seek to make it a mere centre around which to drive a series of theories. this alone would suffice to complete his happiness. His songs were poured forth from a breast which sympathized with all the feelings of man. whole and entire. let us rather be thankful for the treasury of taste and eloquence thus laid open to our use. and the more we think—think as becomes the readers of Homer. Whatever were the means of its preservation. The best description of this monument will be found in Vaux's "Antiquities of the British Museum. is lost by the admittance of any theory but our old tradition? The more we read. to look down on his race. 198 sq. and therefore they enter. which had been called into being by means of his songs. every breast which cherishes the same sympathies. I will content Ancient Greece. p. As the hymns. and not feel how much of pleasing association. 123) is well known. The monument itself (Towneley Sculptures. of glorious productions. and to behold them reflected with purity and truth. 101. to see the nations from the fields of Asia to the forests of Hercynia. from another heaven than any of which he dreamed on earth. on that passion which outweighs all others. and country. 36 35 . His poems are founded on the first feeling of human nature. and will continue to enter."35 Can we contemplate that ancient monument. wife.xlii The Iliad of Homer less than of feeble mortals. performing pilgrimages to the fountain which his magic wand caused to flow. on the love of children. No." p. of elevated.

mentioned above. and is obviously disturbed and corrupt to a great degree. 5. "is a short mock-heroic of ancient date. for aught we can see. "writing tablet." which. so little did the Greeks. the author of which was uncertain. the objection would still remain. 58. The text varies in different editions. know or care about that department of criticism employed in determining the genuineness of ancient writings. that to suppose a work of mere burlesque to be the primary effort of poetry in a simple age. and of many in Asia. p. before the age of the Ptolemies. As to this little poem being a youthful prolusion of Homer. is a strong inducement to believe that none of them were of the Homeric age. . which the history of every other people in Europe. it is commonly said to have been a juvenile essay of Homer's genius. Knight infers from the usage of the word deltos." instead of diphthera. and even. according to Herod. "skin. has almost ascertained to be a law of the human mind. xliii myself with a brief account of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice. that any popularity would attend such a ridicule of war and the gods as is contained in this poem. others have attributed it to the same Pigrees. that this poem was another 37 [xxix] Coleridge. but of the numerous passages of the Iliad itself. 276. and whose reputation for humour seems to have invited the appropriation of any piece of ancient wit. it seems sufficient to say that from the beginning to the end it is a plain and palpable parody." says Coleridge. from the pen of a writer who has done it full justice37 :— "This poem. and the fact of there having existed three other poems of the same kind attributed.INTRODUCTION. it is in a state of society much more refined and permanent than that described in the Iliad. with as much reason to Homer. Classic Poets. not only of the general spirit. was the material employed by the Asiatic Greeks for that purpose. if no such intention to parody were discernible in it. seems to reverse that order in the development of national taste.

that once was our most cherished companion. We must be content to look at it as a most delightful work in itself. what is called literal translation was less cultivated than at present. if the charms of metrical cadence and a pleasing fluency could be made consistent with a fair interpretation of the poet's meaning. 191) is a strong argument against so ancient a date for its composition. Hence his whole work is to be looked upon rather as an elegant paraphrase than a translation. to test Pope's translation by our own advancing knowledge of the original text. and his earliest acquaintance with the poet was through the version of Ogilby. Loewe. and on my own purpose in the present edition. but it is probable that these examinations were the result rather of the contradictory versions already existing." [xxx] Having thus given a brief account of the poems comprised in Pope's design. than of a desire to make a perfect transcript of the original. It would be absurd. We must not be torn from our kindly associations with the old Iliad. I will now proceed to make a few remarks on his translation. Pope was not a Grecian. and . whose classical attainments were sounder than his own. It is not too much to say that his whole work bears the impress of a disposition to be satisfied with the general sense. rather than to dive deeply into the minute and delicate features of language. during the undertaking. His whole education had been irregular. and those who could read so good a poem as Pope's Iliad had fair reason to be satisfied.—a work which is as much a part of English literature as Homer himself is of Greek. therefore. And in those days. or our most looked-for prize. to be sure. and generally that the familiar mention of the cock (v. merely because Buttmann. If something like the general sense could be decorated with the easy gracefulness of a practised poet. certain conventional anecdotes. which prove that Pope consulted various friends.xliv The Iliad of Homer offspring of Attic ingenuity. his words were less jealously sought for. There are.

Milton. But we can still dismiss Pope's Iliad to the hands of our readers. and to give a few parallel passages from our English Homer. I shall consider my wishes satisfactorily accomplished. bold. THEODORE ALOIS BUCKLEY. at least. but I trust that my other annotations. To write a commentary on Homer is not my present aim. especially when we think of Chapman's fine.INTRODUCTION. xlv Liddell have made us so much more accurate as to amphikupellon being an adjective. with the consciousness that they must have read a very great number of books before they have read its fellow. Having some little time since translated all the works of Homer for another publisher. and mainly with the view of helping the general reader. while utterly disclaiming high scholastic views. they are drawn up without pretension. As to the Notes accompanying the present volume. In the latter task I cannot pretend to novelty.—far be it from. but if I have made Pope's translation a little more entertaining and instructive to a mass of miscellaneous readers. will be found to convey as much as is wanted. . and not a substantive. sometimes of a critical character. as far as the necessary limits of these volumes could be expected to admit. and my purpose was to touch briefly on antiquarian or mythological allusions. Far be it from us to defend the faults of Pope. rough old English. Christ Church. us to hold up his translation as what a translation of Homer might be. I might have brought a large amount of accumulated matter. But Pope's version was no field for such a display. to bear upon the text. to notice occasionally some departures from the original.


therefore. distinguishes all great geniuses: the utmost stretch of human study. It furnishes art with all her materials. it is only because the number of them is infinitely greater. learning. and others may have their pretensions as to particular excellences. perhaps. the reason why common critics are inclined to prefer a judicious and methodical genius to a great and fruitful one. but his invention remains yet unrivalled. in different degrees. It is like a . more entertained with. than to comprehend the vast and various extent of nature. where. and such a figure.[xxxi] POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER Homer is universally allowed to have had the greatest invention of any writer whatever. if we cannot see all the beauties so distinctly as in an ordered garden. And. and industry. Our author's work is a wild paradise. which masters everything besides. It is the invention that. is. art can only reduce beauties of nature to more regularity. there is not even a single beauty in them to which the invention must not contribute: as in the most regular gardens. The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested with him. and without it judgment itself can at best but "steal wisely:" for art is only like a prudent steward that lives on managing the riches of nature. which the common eye may better take in. Nor is it a wonder if he has ever been acknowledged the greatest of poets. who most excelled in that which is the very foundation of poetry. Whatever praises may be given to works of judgment. can never attain to this. and is. because they find it easier for themselves to pursue their observations through a uniform and bounded walk of art.

is not discovered immediately at the beginning of his poem in its fullest splendour: it grows in the progress both upon himself and others. this can overpower criticism. If a council be called. remarkable. which is everywhere vigorous. to cultivate and beautify. till we see nothing but its own splendour. out of which those who followed him have but selected some particular plants." It is. like a chariot-wheel. that his fancy. just thought. If some things are too luxuriant it is owing to the richness of the soil. it brightens all the rubbish about it. or a battle fought." in a very few. and is put in action. in another to a spectator. Nay. however. this "vivida vis animi. Exact disposition. but discerned as through a glass. though attended with absurdities. every thing lives. It is to the strength of this amazing invention we are to attribute that unequalled fire and rapture which is so forcible in Homer. "They pour along like a fire that sweeps the whole earth before it. where this appears. which contains the seeds and first productions of every kind. Hoid' ar' isan hosei te puri chthon pasa nemoito. but this poetic fire. and if others are not arrived to perfection or maturity. that no man of a true poetical spirit is master of himself while he reads him. you are not coldly informed of what was said or done as from a third person. by its own rapidity. each according to his fancy. reflected from Homer. The course of his verses resembles that of the army he describes.xlviii The Iliad of Homer [xxxii] copious nursery. and turns in one place to a hearer. This fire is discerned in Virgil. Even in works where all those are imperfect or neglected. and make us admire even while we disapprove. the reader is hurried out of himself by the force of the poet's imagination. polished numbers. every thing moves. What he writes is of the most animated nature imaginable. more . and becomes on fire. correct elocution. it is only because they are overrun and oppressed by those of a stronger nature. may have been found in a thousand.

it burns everywhere clearly and everywhere irresistibly. and I speak of it both as it means the design of a poem. "The return of Ulysses. yet might." the most short and single subject that ever was chosen by any poet. Of this sort is the main story of an epic poem. That which Aristotle calls "the soul of poetry. and interrupted flashes: In Milton it glows like a furnace kept up to an uncommon ardour by the force of art: in Shakspeare it strikes before we are aware. I shall here endeavour to show how this vast invention exerts itself in a manner superior to that of any poet through all the main constituent parts of his work: as it is the great and peculiar characteristic which distinguishes him from all other authors. in the common course of nature. became fables by the additional episodes and manner of telling them. but everywhere equal and constant: in Lucan and Statius it bursts out in sudden. the allegorical. The probable fable is the recital of such actions as." or the like. as it is naturally the first. drew all things within its vortex. This strong and ruling faculty was like a powerful star. the settlement of the Trojans in Italy. That of the Iliad is the "anger of Achilles. in the violence of its course. and in him only. I shall begin with considering him in his part. and crowded with a greater number of councils. and the whole compass of nature. short. to furnish his characters: and all the outward forms and images of things for his descriptions: but wanting yet an ampler sphere to expatiate in. [xxxiii] . which. though they did." was first breathed into it by Homer. and created a world for himself in the invention of fable.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER xlix shining than fierce. to supply his maxims and reflections. and the marvellous. and episodes of all kinds. or of such as. like an accidental fire from heaven: but in Homer. speeches. and as it is taken for fiction. Yet this he has supplied with a vaster variety of incidents and events. all the inward passions and affections of mankind. It seemed not enough to have taken in the whole circle of arts. though they did not happen. he opened a new and boundless walk for his imagination. Fable may be divided into the probable. battles.

and its whole duration employs not so much as fifty days. so is Æneas by Dido. those secrets of nature and physical philosophy which Homer is generally supposed to have wrapped up in his allegories. and Statius (rather than omit them) destroys the unity of his actions for those of Archemorus. supplied the want from other Greek authors. they all draw up their forces in the same order. If he has funeral games for Patroclus. for want of so warm a genius. as well as a greater length of time. aided himself by taking in a more extensive subject. Virgil. and contracting the design of both Homer's poems into one. where he had not led the way. destroy the unity of action. If Ulysses visit the shades. If Achilles be absent from the army on the score of a quarrel through half the poem.l The Iliad of Homer than are to be found even in those poems whose schemes are of the utmost latitude and irregularity. Virgil has not only observed this close imitation of Homer. and the taking of Troy. the Æneas of Virgil and Scipio of Silius are sent after him. Rinaldo must absent himself just as long on the like account. Thus the story of Sinon. Virgil has the same for Anchises. what a new and ample scene of wonder may . and several others in the same manner. which is yet but a fourth part as large as his. The action is hurried on with the most vehement spirit. was copied (says Macrobius) almost word for word from Pisander. and Rinaldo by Armida. The other epic poets have used the same practice. as the loves of Dido and Æneas are taken from those of Medea and Jason in Apollonius. If he gives his hero a suit of celestial armour. but generally carried it so far as to superinduce a multiplicity of fables. Virgil and Tasso make the same present to theirs. and lose their readers in an unreasonable length of time. If he has given a regular catalogue of an army. If he be detained from his return by the allurements of Calypso. Nor is it only in the main design that they have been unable to add to his invention. but. but they have followed him in every episode and part of story. To proceed to the allegorical fable—If we reflect upon those innumerable knowledges.

We come now to the characters of his persons. that there was not in his time that demand upon him of so great an invention as might be capable of furnishing all those allegorical parts of a poem. the virtues and vices. constantly laying their accusation against Homer as the chief support of it.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER li this consideration afford us! How fertile will that imagination appear. and such a one as makes its greatest importance and dignity: for we find those authors who have been offended at the literal notion of the gods. but for their judgment in having contracted it. and here we shall find no author has ever drawn so many. his gods continue to this day the gods of poetry. are by no means for their invention in having enlarged his circle. But whatever cause there might be to blame his machines in a philosophical or religious view. And perhaps it was no unhappy circumstance for Virgil. he seems the first who brought them into a system of machinery for poetry. and science was delivered in a plainer manner. with so visible and surprising a variety. If Homer was not the first who introduced the deities (as Herodotus imagines) into the religion of Greece. it then became as reasonable in the more modern poets to lay it aside. in forms and persons. the qualifications of the mind. or given us such lively and affecting [xxxiv] . as it was in Homer to make use of it. that mankind have been ever since contented to follow them: none have been able to enlarge the sphere of poetry beyond the limits he has set: every attempt of this nature has proved unsuccessful. For when the mode of learning changed in the following ages. The marvellous fable includes whatever is supernatural. which as able to clothe all the properties of elements. and whatever commendations have been allowed them on this head. they are so perfect in the poetic. and to introduce them into actions agreeable to the nature of the things they shadowed! This is a field in which no succeeding poets could dispute with Homer. and after all the various changes of times and religions. and especially the machines of the gods.

Cloanthus. They have a parity . characters of courage. Tydeus. The characters of Virgil are far from striking us in this open manner. But they have. Hippomedon. Nor is this judicious and astonishing diversity to be found only in the principal quality which constitutes the main of each character. and. in a superior degree. that of Menelaus mixed with softness and tenderness for his people: we find in Idomeneus a plain direct soldier. and this quality also takes a different turn in each from the difference of his prudence. as it is. In like manner it may be remarked of Statius's heroes. That of Achilles is furious and intractable. of Hector. for one in the war depends still upon caution. where they are marked most evidently affect us not in proportion to those of Homer. that the wisdom of one is artificial and various. besides. and subject to command. in Sarpedon a gallant and generous one. and regular. of the other natural. active and vigilant: the courage of Agamemnon is inspirited by love of empire and ambition. The single quality of courage is wonderfully diversified in the several characters of the Iliad. hidden and undistinguished. Nothing can be more exact than the distinctions he has observed in the different degrees of virtues and vices. than the poet has by their manners. the same horrid and savage courage appears in his Capaneus. that of Diomede forward. &c. yet listening to advice. in a great degree. open. that an air of impetuosity runs through them all. and they are distinct in this. that no painter could have distinguished them more by their features. or the rest. but even in the under parts of it. His characters of valour are much alike. and we see nothing that differences the courage of Mnestheus from that of Sergestus. they lie. even that of Turnus seems no way peculiar. but. to which he takes care to give a tincture of that principal one. Every one has something so singularly his own. It would be endless to produce instances of these kinds.lii The Iliad of Homer impressions of them. For example: the main characters of Ulysses and Nestor consist in wisdom. the other upon experience. that of Ajax is heavy and self-confiding.

in a work of such length. how small a number of lines are employed in narration. all which are the effects of a colder invention. he will be convinced how infinitely superior. he has not so many that are sublime and noble. and the speeches often consist of general reflections or thoughts. that if Virgil has not so many thoughts that are low and vulgar. we take a view of the sentiments. the same presiding faculty is eminent in the sublimity and spirit of his thoughts. The speeches are to be considered as they flow from the characters. "Everything in it has manner" (as Aristotle expresses it). than in any other poem. has collected innumerable instances of this sort. It is hardly credible. As there is more variety of characters in the Iliad.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER liii of character. in his Gnomologia Homerica. in this point. And it is with justice an excellent modern writer allows. and that the Roman author seldom rises into very astonishing sentiments where he is not fired by the Iliad. Longinus has given his opinion. and Virgil leaves us readers. that is. If. We oftener think of the author himself when we read Virgil. which makes them seem brothers of one family. is. than when we are engaged in Homer. As many of his persons have no apparent characters. the invention of Homer was to that of all others. that interests us less in the action described. of those who utter them. which might be equally just in any person's mouth upon the same occasion. What were alone sufficient to prove the grandeur and excellence of his sentiments in general. that they have so remarkable a parity with those of the Scripture. so many of his speeches escape being applied and judged by the rule of propriety. I believe when the reader is led into this tract of reflection. if he will pursue it through the epic and tragic writers. in the next place. Homer makes us hearers. so there is of speeches. being perfect or defective as they agree or disagree with the manners. that it was in this part Homer principally excelled. [xxxv] . everything is acted or spoken. In Virgil the dramatic part is less in proportion to the narrative. Duport.

and the like. and had their impressions taken off to perfection at a heat? Nay. It is certain there is not near that number of images and descriptions in any epic poet. the first who taught that "language of the gods" to men. and such a profusion of noble ideas. images. indeed.liv The Iliad of Homer If we observe his descriptions. but justly great in proportion to it. in their various views presented themselves in an instant. the strongest and most glowing imaginable." there are in him more daring figures and metaphors than in any good author whatever. unobserved by any painter but Homer. he was the only poet who had found out "living words. It is. that no one bears a likeness to another. We acknowledge him the father of poetical diction. a weapon "thirsts" to drink the blood of an enemy. and similes. though every one has assisted himself with a great quantity out of him. If we descend from hence to the expression. which discovers itself to be laid on boldly. and executed with rapidity. which take up no less than half the Iliad. we see the bright imagination of Homer shining out in the most enlivened forms of it. we shall find the invention still predominant. such different kinds of deaths. that every battle rises above the last in greatness. which [xxxvi] . and it is evident of Virgil especially. summoned together by the extent and fecundity of his imagination to which all things. and touched with the greatest spirit. where we see each circumstance of art. that he has scarce any comparisons which are not drawn from his master. An arrow is "impatient" to be on the wing. horror. yet his expression is never too big for the sense. he not only gives us the full prospects of things. and individual of nature. His expression is like the colouring of some great masters. Nothing is so surprising as the descriptions of his battles. To what else can we ascribe that vast comprehension of images of every sort. that no two heroes are wounded in the same manner. It is the sentiment that swells and fills out the diction. and are supplied with so vast a variety of incidents. and confusion. but several unexpected peculiarities and side views. Aristotle had reason to say.

we shall be sensible what a share of praise is due to his invention in that also. from its never using contractions. so as to make the words open themselves with a more spreading and sonorous fluency. On this last consideration I cannot but attribute these also to the fruitfulness of his invention. To throw his language more out of prose. What he most affected was the Ionic. We see the motion of Hector's plumes in the epithet Korythaiolos. and refines to a greater clearness. and from its custom of resolving the diphthongs into two syllables. and so of others. which grows to a greater magnitude. as that is more strong. which has a peculiar sweetness. and accordingly employed them as the verse required either a greater smoothness or strength.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lv rises with it. only as the breath within is more powerful. the landscape of Mount Neritus in that of Einosiphyllos. With . He was not satisfied with his language as he found it settled in any one part of Greece. and likewise conduced in some measure to thicken the images. Lastly. and the heat more intense. but searched through its different dialects with this particular view. Homer seems to have affected the compound epithets. and forms itself about it. which particular images could not have been insisted upon so long as to express them in a description (though but of a single line) without diverting the reader too much from the principal action or figure. As a metaphor is a short simile. to beautify and perfect his numbers he considered these as they had a greater mixture of vowels or consonants. but as it assisted and filled the numbers with greater sound and pomp. This was a sort of composition peculiarly proper to poetry. an expression will be brighter. not only as it heightened the diction. if we consider his versification. since (as he has managed them) they are a sort of supernumerary pictures of the persons or things to which they were joined. this will become more perspicuous. for in the same degree that a thought is warmer. like glass in the furnace. one of these epithets is a short description.

instead of being fetters to his sense. Virgil was very sensible of this. and the turn and cadence of its verse. that they awaken and raise us like the sound of a trumpet. and the feebler Æolic. Dionysius of Halicarnassus has pointed out many of our author's beauties in this kind. in particular. in his treatise of the Composition of Words. that they flow with so much ease. as to make one imagine Homer had no other care than to transcribe as fast as the Muses dictated. at the same time. and. but the finest ear in the world. and used the utmost diligence in working up a more intractable language to whatsoever graces it was capable of. variety. If the Grecian poet has not been so frequently celebrated on this account as the Roman. This is so great a truth. though they are so just as to ascribe it to the nature of the Latin tongue: indeed the Greek has some advantages both from the natural sound of its words. that fewer critics have understood one language than the other. It suffices at present to observe of his numbers. than in any other language of poetry. Out of all these he has derived that harmony which makes us confess he had not only the richest head. and majesty of sound. The beauty of his numbers is allowed by the critics to be copied but faintly by Virgil himself. were always in readiness to run along with the warmth of his rapture. with so much force and inspiriting vigour. and. the broader Doric. in the correspondence of their sounds to what they signified. always in motion. They roll along as a plentiful river.lvi The Iliad of Homer [xxxvii] this he mingled the Attic contractions. and even to give a further representation of his notions. and completed this variety by altering some letters with the licence of poetry. the only reason is. Thus his measures. and always full. never failed to bring the sound of his line to a beautiful agreement with its sense. while we . even without understanding them (with the same sort of diligence as we daily see practised in the case of Italian operas). that whoever will but consult the tune of his verses. which agree with the genius of no other language. or takes off its accent. will find more sweetness. which often rejects its aspirate.

and yet the most smooth imaginable. and in proportion to his degree in that we are to admire him. Virgil bestows with a careful magnificence. Virgil the better artist. and as Homer has done this in invention. because Virgil had it in a more eminent degree. his speeches more affecting and transported. in what has been said of Virgil. and are only said to have less in comparison with one another. the most rapid. what principally strikes us is his invention. his images and descriptions more full and animated. I have no way derogated from his character. in the other the work. Virgil leads us with an attractive majesty. Not that we are to think that Homer wanted judgment. We ought to have a certain knowledge of the principal character and distinguishing excellence of each: it is in that we are to consider him. Homer. his manners more lively and strongly marked. Homer hurries and transports us with a commanding impetuosity. Nothing is more absurd or endless. with regard to any of these heads. his sentiments more warm and sublime. In one we most admire the man. each of these great authors had more of both than perhaps any man besides. and his numbers more rapid and various. Virgil. It is that which forms the character of each part of his work. like a river in its banks. Homer was the greater genius. pours out his riches with a boundless overflow. because Homer possessed a larger share of it. like the Nile.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lvii are borne away by a tide of verse. No author or man ever excelled all the world in more than one faculty. When we behold their battles. methinks the two poets resemble the heroes [xxxviii] . or that Virgil wanted invention. Virgil has in judgment. Homer scatters with a generous profusion. his expression more raised and daring. and accordingly we find it to have made his fable more extensive and copious than any other. with a gentle and constant stream. than the common method of comparing eminent writers by an opposition of particular passages in them. Thus on whatever side we contemplate Homer. and forming a judgment from thence of their merit upon the whole. I hope.

and firing the heavens: Virgil. laying plans for empires. that his similes have been thought too exuberant and full of circumstances. and regularly ordering his whole creation. like the same power in his benevolence. Perhaps it may be with great and superior souls. as with great virtues. than in its inability to confine itself to that single circumstance upon which the comparison is grounded: it runs out into embellishments of . Among these we may reckon some of his marvellous fictions. so may a great invention to redundancy or wildness. and. Virgil. counselling with the gods. as with gigantic bodies. and conquers with tranquillity. amidst a series of glorious and inimitable performances. exerting themselves with unusual strength. we shall perceive the chief objections against him to proceed from so noble a cause as the excess of this faculty. Homer. Thus Homer has his "speaking horses. like Æneas. as surpassing all the bounds of probability. shaking Olympus.lviii The Iliad of Homer they celebrate. to become miracles in the whole." where the latter has not so much as contrived the easy intervention of a deity to save the probability. The force of this faculty is seen in nothing more. they naturally border on some imperfection." and Virgil his "myrtles distilling blood. and as magnanimity may run up to profusion or extravagance. As prudence may sometimes sink to suspicion. so may a great judgment decline to coldness. Homer seems like his own Jupiter in his terrors. boundless and resistless as Achilles. which. and shines more and more as the tumult increases. like the old heroes of that make. And when we look upon their machines. upon which so much criticism has been spent. commit something near extravagance. exceed what is commonly thought the due proportion of parts. bears all before him. and it is often hard to distinguish exactly where the virtue ends. scattering the lightnings. But after all. disposes all about him. If we look upon Homer in this view. appears undisturbed in the midst of the action. It is owing to the same vast invention. calmly daring. or the fault begins. it is with great parts.

I would not be so delicate as those modern critics. where the principal figure has not only its proportion given agreeable to the original. both by the censurers and defenders of Homer. are so managed as not to overpower the main one. joined with the practice of rapine and robbery. to think with Madame Dacier. as they are more contrary to ours. The same will account for his manner of heaping a number of comparisons together in one breath. and the vicious and imperfect manners of his heroes. but is also set off with occasional ornaments and prospects. which. Such are his grosser representations of the gods. as it is a point generally carried into extremes. and princesses drawing water from the springs. reigned through the world: when no mercy was shown but for the sake of lucre. when the greatest princes were put to the sword. His similes are like pictures. when his fancy suggested to him at once so many various and correspondent images. who are shocked at the servile offices and mean employments in which we sometimes see the heroes of Homer engaged. The reader will easily extend this observation to more objections of the same kind. those seeming defects will be found upon examination to proceed wholly from the nature of the times he lived in. princes tending their flocks. If there are others which seem rather to charge him with a defect or narrowness of genius. however. and their wives and daughters made slaves and concubines? On the other side.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lix additional images. we ought to 38 [xxxix] Preface to her Homer. in opposition to the luxury of succeeding ages: in beholding monarchs without their guards. .38 "that those times and manners are so much the more excellent. when a spirit of revenge and cruelty." Who can be so prejudiced in their favour as to magnify the felicity of those ages. It must be a strange partiality to antiquity. When we read Homer. but I must here speak a word of the latter. There is a pleasure in taking a view of that simplicity. than an excess of it.

. and which it was an irreverence to omit. Homer. By this means alone their greatest obstacles will vanish. or the like: as Alexander the son of Philip. complying with the custom of his country. has placed a fourth age. such as the "far-darting Phoebus. dividing the world into its different ages. and repeated as such. As for the epithets of great men. If yet this be thought to account better for the propriety than for the repetition. profession. either naming his parents expressly. and tediously repeated." the "blue-eyed Pallas. will become a satisfaction. And. Diogenes the Cynic. used such distinctive additions as better agreed with poetry. or his place of birth. between the brazen and . which some have censured as impertinent. indeed. and entertaining themselves with a clear and surprising vision of things nowhere else to be found. Edmund Ironside. and those who consider him in this light. therefore. that they are stepping almost three thousand years back into the remotest antiquity.lx The Iliad of Homer reflect that we are reading the most ancient author in the heathen world." &c. Edward Longshanks. Edward the Black Prince." the "swift-footed Achilles. and had contracted a weight and veneration from the rites and solemn devotions in which they were used: they were a sort of attributes with which it was a matter of religion to salute them on all occasions. that they were in the nature of surnames. Let them think they are growing acquainted with nations and people that are now no more. &c. Hesiod. This consideration may further serve to answer for the constant use of the same epithets to his gods and heroes. we have something parallel to these in modern times. and what usually creates their dislike. were obliged to add some other distinction of each person. the only true mirror of that ancient world. Boileau is of opinion. for the Greeks having no names derived from their fathers. I shall add a further conjecture. such as the names of Harold Harefoot. Those of the gods depended upon the powers and offices then believed to belong to them. Herodotus of Halicarnassus. &c. Mons. will double their pleasure in the perusal of him.

a divine race who fought at Thebes and Troy. are such as hardly deserve a reply. which is much the same. are called demi-gods. Many have been occasioned by an injudicious endeavour to exalt Virgil. there are others. for the same reasons which might set the Odyssey above the Æneis. Others quarrel with what they take for low and mean expressions. sometimes through a false delicacy and refinement. Lastly. and then triumph in the awkwardness of their own translations: this is the conduct of Perrault in his Parallels. Some accuse him for the same things which they overlook or praise in the other. What other cavils have been raised against Homer. they might have this also in common with the gods. as that the hero is a wiser man. oftener from an ignorance of the graces of the original. and live by the care of Jupiter in the islands of the blessed. actions or qualities." Now among the divine honours which were paid them. Others select those particular passages of Homer which are not so laboured as some that Virgil drew out of them: this is the whole management of Scaliger in his Poetics. pretending to a fairer proceeding. as if one should think to raise the superstructure by undermining the foundation: one would imagine. as because Achilles is not as good and perfect a prince as Æneas. when the very moral of his poem required a contrary character: it is thus that Rapin judges in his comparison of Homer and Virgil. by the whole course of their parallels. a consideration which whoever compares these two poets ought to have always in his eye.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxi [xl] the iron one. that these critics never so much as heard of Homer's having written first. but will yet be taken notice of as they occur in the course of the work. who. of "heroes distinct from other men. or else they blame him for not doing what he never designed. distinguish between the personal merit of . not to be mentioned without the solemnity of an epithet. and the action of the one more beneficial to his country than that of the other. and such as might be acceptable to them by celebrating their families. as when they prefer the fable and moral of the Æneis to those of the Iliad.

This is the method of Mons. have only said that a few branches which run luxuriant through 39 [xli] Hesiod. or any great author whose general character will infallibly raise many casual additions to their reputation. and that he may be said in his sense to be the master even of those who surpassed him. and if he has failed in some of his flights. . Opp. What he has done admitted no increase. they found it upon the ignorance of his times. it was but because he attempted everything. He showed all the stretch of fancy at once. and the prejudice of those that followed: and in pursuance of this principle.39 In all these objections we see nothing that contradicts his title to the honour of the chief invention: and as long as this (which is indeed the characteristic of poetry itself) remains unequalled by his followers. and produces the finest fruit: nature and art conspire to raise it. &c. and be more approved in the eyes of one sort of critics: but that warmth of fancy will carry the loudest and most universal applauses which holds the heart of a reader under the strongest enchantment. flourishes. Homer not only appears the inventor of poetry.) to be the causes of his fame. I. The same might as well be said of Virgil. but excels all the inventors of other arts. he still continues superior to them. et Dier. in this. vers. which were in reality the consequences of his merit. is improved with industry. de la Mott. 155. which rises from the most vigorous seed. who yet confesses upon the whole that in whatever age Homer had lived. and that of his work. A work of this kind seems like a mighty tree. pleasure and profit join to make it valuable: and they who find the justest faults. that he has swallowed up the honour of those who succeeded him. Lib. &c. A cooler judgment may commit fewer faults.lxii The Iliad of Homer Homer. they make those accidents (such as the contention of the cities. he must have been the greatest poet of his nation. it only left room for contraction or regulation. but when they come to assign the causes of the great reputation of the Iliad.

such as the fable. As it also breaks out in every particular image. no translator can prejudice it but by wilful omissions or contractions. might be lopped into form to give it a more regular appearance. It is the first grand duty of an interpreter to give his author entire and unmaimed. in any particular place. It is certain no literal translation can be just to an excellent original in a superior language: but it is a great mistake to imagine (as many have done) that a rash paraphrase can make amends for this general defect. It should then be considered what methods may afford some equivalent in our language for the graces of these in the Greek. by deviating into the modern manners of expression. takes off from this chief character.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxiii a richness of nature. and simile. insolent hope of raising and improving their author. and for the rest. but those which are necessary to transfusing the spirit of the original. As far as that is seen in the main parts of the poem. it remains to treat of the translation. dull adherence to the letter. the diction and versification only are his proper province. If there be sometimes a darkness. which nothing better preserves than a version almost literal. which is no less in danger to lose the spirit of an ancient. It is a great secret in writing. It is not to be doubted. that the fire of the poem is what a translator should principally regard. but the others he is to take as he finds them. and sentiments. manners. Having now spoken of the beauties and defects of the original. than have been deluded in ours by a chimerical. since these must be his own. and . there have not been more men misled in former times by a servile. and supporting the poetical style of the translation: and I will venture to say. whoever lessens or too much softens those. description. I know no liberties one ought to take. as it is most likely to expire in his managing: however. it is his safest way to be content with preserving this to his utmost in the whole. without endeavouring to be more than he finds his author is. with the same view to the chief characteristic. there is often a light in antiquity. to know when to be plain.

and the rest of the world will call dulness. but where his is plain and humble. to give in to several of those general phrases and manners of expression. which differ as much from each other as the air of a plain man from that of a sloven: it is one thing to be tricked up. others slowly and servilely creeping in his train. Methinks I see these different followers of Homer. as Homer is the author nearest to those. as well as a bold and sordid one. if we will but follow modestly in his footsteps. as he may gain by that character of style. that the Divine Spirit made use of no other words but what were intelligible and common to men at that time.lxiv The Iliad of Homer [xlii] when poetical and figurative. There is a graceful and dignified simplicity. methinks. let us raise ours as high as we can. induce a translator. with all respect to the inspired writings. Where his diction is bold and lofty. which have . One may affirm. in a cold and timorous notion of simplicity. we ought not to be deterred from imitating him by the fear of incurring the censure of a mere English critic. others sunk into flatness. which his friends must agree together to call simplicity. and in that part of the world. no author is to be envied for such commendations. This pure and noble simplicity is nowhere in such perfection as in the Scripture and our author. Simplicity is the mean between ostentation and rusticity. This consideration (together with what has been observed of the parity of some of his thoughts) may. while the poet himself is all the time proceeding with an unaffected and equal majesty before them. some sweating and straining after him by violent leaps and bounds (the certain signs of false mettle). and another not to be dressed at all. and. Nothing that belongs to Homer seems to have been more commonly mistaken than the just pitch of his style: some of his translators having swelled into fustian in a proud confidence of the sublime. and it is what Homer will teach us. on the one hand. his style must of course bear a greater resemblance to the sacred books than that of any other writer. However. of the two extremes one could sooner pardon frenzy than frigidity.

such as "platoon. in that unadorned gravity and shortness with which they are delivered: a grace which would be utterly lost by endeavouring to give them what we call a more ingenious (that is. to avoid those which have been appropriated to the Divinity. without violence to the ear or to the received rules of composition. I speak of his compound epithets. on the other. a more modern) turn in the paraphrase. For a further preservation of this air of simplicity. and in a manner consigned to mystery and religion. which most of any other seems to require a venerable. as well as those which have received a sanction from the authority of our best poets. They have something venerable. Many of the former cannot be done literally into English without destroying the purity of our language. Perhaps the mixture of some Graecisms and old words after the manner of Milton. those only excepted without which it is impossible to treat the subjects in any living language. campaign. seemed pleased with them as beauties.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxv attained a veneration even in our language from being used in the Old Testament. if done without too much affectation. I believe such should be retained as slide easily of themselves into an English compound. and as I may say. and those who are." &c. such as "the cloud-compelling Jove. As for the rest. antique cast. a particular care should be taken to express with all plainness those moral sentences and proverbial speeches which are so numerous in this poet. (into which some of his translators have fallen) cannot be allowable. and of his repetitions. as. those who are not his greatest admirers look upon them as defects. But certainly the use of modern terms of war and government. There are two peculiarities in Homer's diction. whenever any can be as fully and [xliii] . and are become familiar through their use of them. might not have an ill effect in a version of this particular work." or the like. which are a sort of marks or moles by which every common eye distinguishes him at first sight. junto. oracular.

in the solemn forms of prayers. as to preserve their full image by one or two words. For example. Upon the whole. the ensigns of that god. the epithet of Apollo. I would make choice of the latter. As for Homer's repetitions. one literal. where the dignity of the speaker renders it a sort of insolence to alter his words. as the epithet einosiphyllos to a mountain. where they derive an additional beauty from the occasions on which they are employed. in respect of the darts and bow. in such places where Apollo is represented as a god in person. and which. I would use the former interpretation." is capable of two explications." but affords a majestic idea in the periphrasis: "the lofty mountain shakes his waving woods." Others that admit of different significations. and of one verse or hemistitch. of single sentences. or where the ceremonial of religion seems to require it. therefore. I hope it is not impossible to have such a regard to these.lxvi The Iliad of Homer significantly expressed in a single word as in a compounded one. with regard to the rays of the sun. may receive an advantage from a judicious variation. a translator may at once show his fancy and his judgment. would appear little or ridiculous translated literally "leaf-shaking. as neither to lose so known a mark of the author on the one hand. though it might be accommodated (as has been already shown) to the ear of those times. The repetition is not ungraceful in those speeches. the other allegorical. and in doing this properly. we may divide them into three sorts: of whole narrations and speeches. nor to offend the reader too much on the other. hekaebolos or "far-shooting. . it will be necessary to avoid that perpetual repetition of the same epithets which we find in Homer. and where the effects of the sun are described. or from higher powers to inferiors in concerns of state. as in the messages from gods to men. the course to be taken is obvious. may have justice done them by circumlocution. is by no means so to ours: but one may wait for opportunities of placing them. Some that cannot be so turned. according to the occasions on which they are introduced.

POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxvii oaths. at which the repetitions are placed in the original: when they follow too close. or the like. His expression is involved [xliv] . I believe the best rule is. 312. Few readers have the ear to be judges of it: but those who have. one may vary the expression. Chapman has taken the advantage of an immeasurable length of verse. Upon the whole. a poem of the mysteries he had revealed in Homer. It only remains to speak of the versification. and Ogilby. He is often mistaken in so bold a manner. or distance. I am sensible it is what may sometimes happen by chance. ver. This is indeed one of the most exquisite beauties of poetry. where he has spun twenty verses out of two. and Virgil in the Latin. and fully possessed of his image: however. in his rhyming preface. Homer (as has been said) is perpetually applying the sound to the sense. and I remember one in the thirteenth book of the Odyssey. I must confess myself utterly incapable of doing justice to Homer. that one might think he deviated on purpose. but it is a question. Hobbes. whether a professed translator be authorized to omit any: if they be tedious. when a writer is warm. I attempt him in no other hope but that which one may entertain without much vanity. there is scarce any paraphrase more loose and rambling than his. We have only those of Chapman. He appears to have had a strong affectation of extracting new meanings out of his author. and attainable by very few: I only know of Homer eminent for it in the Greek. of giving a more tolerable copy of him than any entire translation in verse has yet done. He has frequent interpolations of four or six lines. in whose verse it so manifestly appears in a superior degree to all others. In other cases. and perhaps he endeavoured to strain the obvious sense to this end. the author is to answer for it. notwithstanding which. insomuch as to promise. to be guided by the nearness. if he did not in other places of his notes insist so much upon verbal trifles. and varying it on every new subject. it may reasonably be believed they designed this. will see I have endeavoured at this beauty.

which is something like what one might imagine Homer himself would have writ before he arrived at years of discretion. It is a great loss to the poetical world that Mr. He seems to have had too much regard to Chapman. whose words he sometimes copies. to have been of an arrogant turn. and which very much contributed to cover his defects. and often omits the most beautiful. Dryden did not live to translate the Iliad. or preserved the antiquities. He sometimes omits whole similes and sentences. which proceeds not from his following the original line by line. But that which is to be allowed him. &c. Hobbes has given us a correct explanation of the sense in general. and has unhappily followed him in passages where he wanders from the original. into which no writer of his learning could have fallen. I doubt not many have been led into that error by the shortness of it. as in the tragedy of Bussy d'Amboise. of having finished half the Iliad in less than fifteen weeks. and a small part of the sixth. is a daring fiery spirit that animates his translation. in which if he has in some places not truly interpreted the sense. However. had he translated the whole work. and is now and then guilty of mistakes. is too mean for criticism. I would no more have attempted Homer after him than Virgil: his version of whom (notwithstanding some human errors) is the most noble and spirited translation I know in any language. it ought to be excused on account of the haste he was obliged to write in.lxviii The Iliad of Homer [xlv] in fustian. for he appears. and an enthusiast in poetry. but from the contractions above mentioned. but through carelessness. He has left us only the first book. In a word. His own boast. a fault for which he was remarkable in his original writings. But the fate of great geniuses is like that of great ministers: though they are confessedly the first in the . His poetry. but for particulars and circumstances he continually lops them. from his preface and remarks. as well as Ogilby's. the nature of the man may account for his whole performance. shows with what negligence his version was performed. As for its being esteemed a close translation.

neither to omit nor confound any rites or customs of antiquity: perhaps too he ought to include the whole in a shorter compass than has hitherto been done by any translator who has tolerably preserved either the sense or poetry. and competent learning. as most agreeing with that character. a warmth and elevation. to copy him in all the variations of his style. or with whatever happiness he may perform such a work. in the speeches. But after all. That which. a plainness and solemnity. how learned soever. in the more sedate or narrative. than from any commentaries. to follow the strongest and most poetical.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER lxix commonwealth of letters. nor sometimes the very cast of the periods. not to neglect even the little figures and turns on the words. to preserve. in my opinion. where the sense can bear any doubt. or whatever figure they may make in the estimation of the world. is not in the nature of this undertaking. from whose . and the different modulations of his numbers. the Archbishop of Cambray's Telemachus may give him the truest idea of the spirit and turn of our author. and a pedant nothing that is not Greek. a fulness and perspicuity. and Bossu's admirable Treatise of the Epic Poem the justest notion of his design and conduct. to consider him attentively in comparison with Virgil above all the ancients. a shortness and gravity. with whatever judgment and study a man may proceed. is above all things to keep alive that spirit and fire which makes his chief character: in particular places. in the more active or descriptive parts. ought to be the endeavour of any one who translates Homer. What I have done is submitted to the public. For to satisfy such a want either. What I would further recommend to him is. to study his author rather from his own text. in the sentences. and with Milton above all the moderns. they must be envied and calumniated only for being at the head of it. he must hope to please but a few. Next these. those only who have at once a taste of poetry. since a mere modern wit can like nothing that is not modern.

the many friendly offices. and Dr. while the first names of the age appear as my subscribers. For all books else appear so mean. so complete a praise: "Read Homer once. whatever they shall please to say. of Mr. I was obliged to Sir Richard Steele for a very early recommendation of my undertaking to the public. Verse will seem prose: but still persist to read. that the strongest antipathy in the world is that of fools to men of wit. I must add the names of Mr. As for the worst. Addison was the first whose advice determined me to undertake this task. Swift promoted my interest with that warmth with which he always serves his friend. But what can I say of the honour so many of the great have done me. though I fear no judges so little as our best poets. The favour of these gentlemen is not entirely undeserved by one who bears them so true an affection. who had led me the way in translating some parts of Homer. if an old observation be true.lxx The Iliad of Homer [xlvi] opinions I am prepared to learn. . I must also acknowledge. who was pleased to write to me upon that occasion in such terms as I cannot repeat without vanity. is no less extensive than his learning. and you can read no more. that my highest obligations are to such who have done most honour to the name of poet: that his grace the Duke of Buckingham was not displeased I should undertake the author to whom he has given (in his excellent Essay). so poor. Mr. and the most distinguished patrons and ornaments of learning as my chief encouragers? Among these it is a particular pleasure to me to find. though I shall take a further opportunity of doing justice to the last. with infinite pleasure. who are most sensible of the weight of this task. Congreve. they may give me some concern as they are unhappy men. Rowe. Parnell. whose good nature (to give it a great panegyric). Dr. The humanity and frankness of Sir Samuel Garth are what I never knew wanting on any occasion. and by persons for whom they can have no kindness. but none as they are malignant writers. I was guided in this translation by judgments very different from theirs. as well as sincere criticisms.

and I am satisfied I can no way better oblige men of their turn than by my silence.POPE'S PREFACE TO THE ILIAD OF HOMER And Homer will be all the books you need. when I reflect on the enjoyment of so many agreeable obligations. Mr. and easy friendships. In short. He would have thought himself happy to have met the same favour at Athens that has been shown me by its learned rival. Harcourt (the son of the late Lord Chancellor) gave me a proof how much I am honoured in a share of his friendship. Stanhope. I must attribute to the same motive that of several others of my friends: to whom all acknowledgments are rendered unnecessary by the privileges of a familiar correspondence. And I can hardly envy him those pompous honours he received after death. will pardon my desire of having it known that he was pleased to promote this affair. the University of Oxford. the present secretary of state. I cannot deny myself the pride of confessing. and the patron of their writer: and that the noble author of the tragedy of "Heroic Love" has continued his partiality to me. I could say a great deal of the pleasure of being distinguished by the Earl of Carnarvon. as it is shown to one whose pen has never gratified the prejudices of particular parties. but their correction of several particulars of this translation. not more distinguished in the great scenes of business. I have found more patrons than ever Homer wanted. The particular zeal of Mr. or the vanities of . of whom it is hard to say whether the advancement of the polite arts is more owing to his generosity or his example: that such a genius as my Lord Bolingbroke. which make the satisfaction of life. that I have had the advantage not only of their advice for the conduct in general. This distinction is the more to be acknowledged. from my writing pastorals to my attempting the Iliad. but it is almost absurd to particularize any one generous action in a person whose whole life is a continued series of them. than in all the useful and entertaining parts of learning." lxxi That the Earl of Halifax was one of the first to favour me. has not refused to be the critic of these sheets.

Whatever the success may prove.lxxii The Iliad of Homer particular men. . I shall never repent of an undertaking in which I have experienced the candour and friendship of so many persons of merit. nor disagreeable to myself. after a manner neither wholly unuseful to others. and in which I hope to pass some of those years of youth that are generally lost in a circle of follies.

.[001] THE ILIAD.


deputes the principal officers of his army to the incensed hero. He lends his armour to his friend. he receives from a divinity new armour. entreats for vengeance from his god. and for permission to go to the war in his stead. upon the successful termination of which the honour of their country depends. Chryseis and Briseis. because he reserves to himself the honour of that combat. persists in his animosity. and because he also fears for his friend's life. the father of Chryseis. with commission to make compensation for the injury. Chryses. comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her. and priest of Apollo. retires to his tent. and asks for the hero's arms. which for nine years has been occupied in a great enterprise. the army is again defeated. who inflicts a pestilence on the Greeks. the neatest summary that has ever been drawn up:—"A hero. with which the action of the poem opens. allotted the first to Agamemnon. victory abandons the army. The eloquence of friendship prevails more than the intercession of the ambassadors or the gifts of the general. During this interval. and encourages Chalcas to The following argument of the Iliad. and for a season withdraws himself and his troops from the war. is translated from Bitaube. The priest being refused. and insolently dismissed by Agamemnon. The prohibition is forgotten.BOOK I. given up to the most lively despair. 40 . this friend weeps before him. Then the hero. according to the proud obstinacy of his character. and is on the verge of entire destruction. ARGUMENT. The general.40 THE CONTENTION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. but commands him not to engage with the chief of the enemy's army. corrected in a few particulars. and taken from thence two beautiful captives. perhaps. injured by his general. the friend listens to nothing but his courage. prepares to fight. at length opening his eyes to the fault which he had committed. and the last to Achilles. and the hero's arms become the prize of the conqueror. Achilles calls a council. The hero. This inexorable man has a friend. and animated with a noble resentment. and is. the Greeks having sacked some of the neighbouring towns. In the war of Troy. in the tenth year of the siege. his corpse is brought back to the hero. and to tender magnificent presents.

The king. and exercises a cruel vengeance on the body of his destroyer. and twelve for Jupiter's stay with the Æthiopians. slays the enemy's chief. Whose limbs unburied on the naked shore. till they are reconciled by the address of Vulcan. for Homer writes "a prey to dogs and to all kinds of birds. heavenly goddess. during the whole time of their striving the will of Jove was being gradually accomplished.41 Since great Achilles and Atrides strove. restores to the old man the corpse of his son. and complaining to Thetis. he seizes on Briseis in revenge. enters into a furious contest with Achilles. [002] . incenses Juno: between whom the debate runs high. sing! That wrath which hurl'd to Pluto's gloomy reign The souls of mighty chiefs untimely slain.'—Coleridge. however. by giving victory to the Trojans. who attributes it to the refusal of Chryseis.e. which he buries with due solemnities. p. But all kinds of birds are not carnivorous. 41 Vultures: Pope is more accurate than the poet he translates. and lastly to Olympus. one in the council and quarrel of the princes. 42 —i. Achilles' wrath. recovers the victory. granting her suit. she supplicates Jupiter to render them sensible of the wrong done to her son. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. then changes to Chrysa. and such the will of Jove!42 is reconciled with his general and. sqq. The time of two-and-twenty days is taken up in this book: nine during the plague. to Greece the direful spring Of woes unnumber'd. but finally appeased by the tears and prayers of the father of the slain warrior. which Nestor pacifies. Achilles in discontent withdraws himself and his forces from the rest of the Greeks. as he had the absolute command of the army. Jupiter. enacts prodigies of valour. honours his friend with superb funeral rites. Such was the sovereign doom. at whose return Thetis prefers her petition. being obliged to send back his captive. Devouring dogs and hungry vultures tore.4 The Iliad of Homer declare the cause of it. thirsting for glory and revenge. 177.

but chief implored for grace The brother-kings. And dread avenging Phoebus. of Atreus' royal race46 "Ye kings and warriors! may your vows be crown'd.45 And for the king's offence the people died. May Jove restore you when your toils are o'er Safe to the pleasures of your native shore. that on the secret top Of Horeb. If mercy fail. didst inspire That shepherd.e. son of Jove. Declare. oh! relieve a wretched parent's pain." 44 45 46 —Latona's son: i. or of Sinai. The king of men his reverent priest defied.44 And heap'd the camp with mountains of the dead. and lowly bending down. Extends the sceptre and the laurel crown He sued to all. 6 "Sing. from what offended power Latona's son a dire contagion spread. heavenly Muse. O Muse! in what ill-fated hour43 Sprung the fierce strife. Suppliant the venerable father stands. For Chryses sought with costly gifts to gain His captive daughter from the victor's chain. Apollo's awful ensigns grace his hands By these he begs. And give Chryseis to these arms again. . But.BOOK I. And Troy's proud walls lie level with the ground. Apollo. —Brother kings: Menelaus and Agamemnon. yet let my presents move." 43 5 Compare Milton's "Paradise Lost" i. —King of men: Agamemnon.

Till time shall rifle every youthful grace. Nor ask. to Argos shall the maid retire. and golden rod. with thy laurel crown. Mine is thy daughter. shall plead in vain. and bribes. with kingly pride. The priest to reverence. Far from her native soil and weeping sire. and tears." [003] HOMER INVOKING THE MUSE. and fly these hostile plains. priest. he. And prayers. what the king detains Hence. Not so Atrides. And age dismiss her from my cold embrace. Nor trust too far those ensigns of thy god. presumptuous. Or doom'd to deck the bed she once enjoy'd Hence then. and release the fair. . and shall remain. Repulsed the sacred sire. and thus replied: "Hence on thy life. In daily labours of the loom employ'd.6 The Iliad of Homer The Greeks in shouts their joint assent declare.

and that. 49 A mistake. to his god he prays. "History of Greece. safe at distance. 68. where they should not be attacked by the original inhabitants of the land. If e'er with wreaths I hung thy sacred fane. In fulfilment of the oracle. The god who darts around the world his rays. 47 "If e'er I roofed thy graceful fane. Avenge thy servant. The trembling priest along the shore return'd. was applied to Apollo for having put an end to a plague of mice which had harassed that territory. 7 "O Smintheus! sprung from fair Latona's line. however. a number of field-mice came and gnawed away the leathern straps of their baggage. And in the anguish of a father mourn'd." [004] —Smintheus an epithet taken from sminthos. not daring to complain. and the Greeks destroy.BOOK I." for the custom of decorating temples with garlands was of later date. Strabo. Till.48 Thou source of light! whom Tenedos adores. the Phrygian name for a mouse. slain by OEnomaus." 48 —Cilla. and thongs of their armour. they were told by an oracle to settle in that place. that when the Teucri were migrating from Crete. a town of Troas near Thebe. It should be. and raised a temple to Sminthean Apollo. having halted for the night. says. Disconsolate. in various parts of the Troad and its neighboring territory. God of the silver bow! thy shafts employ. Grote. they settled on the spot. ." i.47 Thou guardian power of Cilla the divine. Silent he wander'd by the sounding main.49 Or fed the flames with fat of oxen slain. remarks that the "worship of Sminthean Apollo. a sister of Hippodamia. dates before the earliest period of Aeolian colonization. p. so called from Cillus. And whose bright presence gilds thy Chrysa's shores.

For much the goddess mourn'd her heroes slain. For nine long nights.51 And last. thick-flaming. and that Homer had this fact in mind. The pyres. the fate of the young child or promising adult.8 The Iliad of Homer Thus Chryses pray'd. the vengeful arrows fix'd in man. vol. 478. Breathing revenge. p 92. The oracular functions of the god rose naturally out of the above fundamental attributes. Of any connection between Apollo and the Sun. through all the dusky air. his silver shafts resound. Thetis' godlike son Convened to council all the Grecian train.50 Fierce as he moved. symbols of sudden death in every age. 51 It has frequently been observed. But ere the tenth revolving day was run.52 —Bent was his bow "The Apollo of Homer. cut off in the germ of infancy or flower of youth. i. or of the reckless sinner suddenly checked in his career of crime. a sudden night he spread. Inspired by Juno. the Grecian hearts to wound. there is no trace in either Iliad or Odyssey. Throughout both poems. ii. are ascribed to the arrows of Apollo or Diana. "It is an assembly for talk. And gloomy darkness roll'd about his head. no less naturally procured him that of god of archery. all deaths from unforeseen or invisible causes. he twang'd his deadly bow. The fleet in view. 50 . it must be borne in mind. p. whatever may have existed in the more esoteric doctrine of the Greek sanctuaries. sq.—the favouring power attends. "History of Greek Literature. is a different character from the deity of the same name in the later classical pantheon. while the arrows with which he and his sister were armed. And from Olympus' lofty tops descends."—Mure. The public assembly in the heroic times is well characterized by Grote. 52 —Convened to council. And hissing fly the feather'd fates below. the ravages of pestilence. that most pestilences begin with animals. for who could more appropriately impart to mortals what little foreknowledge Fate permitted of her decrees than the agent of her most awful dispensations? The close union of the arts of prophecy and song explains his additional office of god of music. shot a dismal glare. On mules and dogs the infection first began. Bent was his bow. of the old man dropping peacefully into the grave." vol.

whose comprehensive view. and sat: when Chalcas thus replied. And Phoebus dart his burning shafts no more. Explore the cause of great Apollo's rage." 53 Old Jacob Duport. the Grecian priest and guide." [005] He said. Chalcas the wise.BOOK I. 'Tis time to save the few remains of war. atoned. Achilles thus the king of men address'd: 9 "Why leave we not the fatal Trojan shore. or some sacred sage. The past. Or learn the wasteful vengeance to remove By mystic dreams. whose "Gnomologia Homerica" is full of curious and useful things. shall dying Greece restore.53 If broken vows this heavy curse have laid. and sometimes for quarrel—but here its ostensible purposes end. in maintenance of the belief that dreams had a divine origin and an import in which men were interested. of the people as listeners and sympathizers—often for eloquence. The assembly seated. and the future knew: Uprising slow. in which reference is made to these words of Homer. So Heaven. rising o'er the rest. and hecatombs be paid. for dreams descend from Jove. . But let some prophet. the present. That sacred seer. quotes several passages of the ancients. the venerable sage Thus spoke the prudence and the fears of age: Communication and discussion to a certain extent by the chiefs in person. And measure back the seas we cross'd before? The plague destroying whom the sword would spare. Let altars smoke.

by thy power and sword: For I must speak what wisdom would conceal. No daring Greek." See the German critics quoted by Arnold. the blameless man replies: "Nor vows unpaid. Long as Achilles breathes this vital air. Not e'en the chief by whom our hosts are led. our chief. with added sacrifice and prayer. But he. and the god may spare. To her own Chrysa send the black-eyed maid. provoked the raging pest. of all the numerous band." Encouraged thus. reveal. Achilles! would'st thou know Why angry Phoebus bends his fatal bow? First give thy faith. invidious to the great. The priest may pardon. And truths.10 The Iliad of Homer "Beloved of Jove. Apollo's vengeance for his injured priest. Instruct a monarch where his error lies. E'en by that god I swear who rules the day. 'Tis sure the mighty will revenge at last. shall touch that sacred head. grown too wise. and funeral fires increase. For though we deem the short-lived fury past. Till the great king. But plagues shall spread. "bright-eyed. without a ransom paid. Bold is the task.54 Perhaps. and plight a prince's word Of sure protection. And whose bless'd oracles thy lips declare. nor slighted sacrifice. Nor will the god's awaken'd fury cease. . The king of kings." To whom Pelides:—"From thy inmost soul Speak what thou know'st. and speak without control." 54 Rather. Against his priest shall lift an impious hand. To whom thy hands the vows of Greece convey. when subjects.

and crown'd with every grace. Is heaven offended. Black choler fill'd his breast that boil'd with ire. and a priest profaned. but fonder of the prize! Would'st thou the Greeks their lawful prey should yield. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living fire: "Augur accursed! denouncing mischief still. Because my prize. Yet. But since for common good I yield the fair. And still thy priestly pride provoke thy king? For this are Phoebus' oracles explored. if the gods demand her. rather than my people fall. And suffer. my beauteous maid. The prophet spoke: when with a gloomy frown The monarch started from his shining throne. When first her blooming beauties bless'd my arms. let her sail. and so justly mine. So dearly valued. To teach the Greeks to murmur at their lord? For this with falsehood is my honour stain'd. for ever boding ill! Still must that tongue some wounding message bring. Fond of the power. Our cares are only for the public weal: Let me be deem'd the hateful cause of all. I will resign. That he alone has fought and bled in vain." "Insatiate king (Achilles thus replies). Nor unrewarded let your prince complain. The prize. Not half so dear were Clytaemnestra's charms. Prophet of plagues. My private loss let grateful Greece repair. And heavenly charms prefer to proffer'd gold? A maid. unmatch'd in manners as in face.BOOK I. The due reward of many a well-fought field? 11 [006] . the beauteous prize. Skill'd in each art. I hold.

Whene'er. 55 [007] . and let it be A treasure worthy her. The man who suffers. our conquering powers Shall humble to the dust her lofty towers. Yet if our chief for plunder only fight. and like a god in fight. if our royal pleasure shall ordain. And rage he may. or even thy own. and thou possess'd of thine? Great as thou art. Or. And some deputed prince the charge attend: This Creta's king. and worthy me. The spoils of Ilion shall thy loss requite. Or wise Ulysses see perform'd our will. Or grant me this. be mine. loudly may complain. by Jove's decree. the daughter of Cycnus. or with a monarch's claim This hand shall seize some other captive dame. And waft the sacrifice to Chrysa's shores. The mighty Ajax shall his prize resign. Think not to rob me of a soldier's right. We share with justice.12 The Iliad of Homer The spoils of cities razed and warriors slain. But to resume whate'er thy avarice craves (That trick of tyrants) may be borne by slaves.55 Ulysses' spoils. The prize given to Ajax was Tecmessa. But this when time requires." Then thus the king: "Shall I my prize resign With tame content.—It now remains We launch a bark to plough the watery plains. as with toil we gain. With chosen pilots. Such as a king might ask. or Ajax shall fulfil. while Ulysses received Laodice. and with labouring oars. At thy demand shall I restore the maid? First let the just equivalent be paid. Soon shall the fair the sable ship ascend. but he shall rage in vain.

Rich in her fruits. not a public wrong: What else to Troy the assembled nations draws. Far hence removed. and the pest assuage. frowning stern. secure my native reign. Achilles' self conduct her o'er the main.BOOK I. At this. And walls of rocks. obedient to thy word. unworthy of a royal mind! What generous Greek." 13 MARS. To avenge a private. Whose fruitful soil luxuriant harvests grace. and in her martial race. dreadful in his rage. Hither we sail'd. Let fierce Achilles. arm'd with insolence and pride! Inglorious slave to interest. ever join'd With fraud. the hoarse-resounding main. or shall lift the sword? What cause have I to war at thy decree? The distant Trojans never injured me. . The god propitiate. Shall form an ambush. replied: "O tyrant. a voluntary throng. To Phthia's realms no hostile troops they led: Safe in her vales my warlike coursers fed. Pelides.

I heed thee not. Thy aid we need not. threat thy earth-born Myrmidons:—but here56 The Myrmidons dwelt on the southern borders of Thessaly. and thy brother's cause? Is this the pay our blood and toils deserve. mighty warrior! fly. 'twas Heaven that strength bestow'd. but prize at equal rate Thy short-lived friendship. But know. And wars and horrors are thy savage joy. Go. As thy own actions if compared to mine. My fleet shall waft me to Thessalia's shore: Left by Achilles on the Trojan plain. launch thy vessels. I'm thy slave no more. For know. ungrateful. shall Atrides gain?" To this the king: "Fly. son of Jupiter and Eurymedusa. Disgraced and injured by the man we serve? And darest thou threat to snatch my prize away. O tyrant! match'd with thine. and thy threats defy. and thy groundless hate. Of all the kings (the god's distinguish'd care) To power superior none such hatred bear: Strife and debate thy restless soul employ. an ant. proud monarch. And Jove himself shall guard a monarch's right. fly with speed away. If thou hast strength. what conquests. Some trivial present to my ships I bear: Or barren praises pay the wounds of war.14 The Iliad of Homer [008] But thine. What spoils. "because they imitated the 56 . It is fancifully supposed that the name was derived from myrmaex. Though mine the sweat and danger of the day. Thine in each conquest is the wealthy prey. Rule thy own realms with arbitrary sway. and took their origin from Myrmido. Due to the deeds of many a dreadful day? A prize as small. Haste. There want not chiefs in such a cause to fight. vain man! thy valour is from God.

and only gratify it by withdrawing his services. having no other retreats but dens and the cavities of trees. to all our hosts it shall be known. and pierce their haughty lord. Fierce as thou art." . unseen by the rest.BOOK I. as if the appearance of Minerva to Achilles.57 15 [009] diligence of the ants. at first they commonly resided in the open fields. Just as in anguish of suspense he stay'd. prince. to yield thy captive fair: Even in thy tent I'll seize the blooming prize. and labour'd in his breast. That kings are subject to the gods alone. continually employed in cultivating the earth. The same idea is rather cleverly worked out by Apuleius. This whispers soft his vengeance to control. allegorizes this apparition. Force through the Greeks. imperious prince! prepare." Achilles heard. until Ithacus brought them together. in that instead of inhabiting towns or villages. and settled them in more secure and comfortable habitations. His heart swell'd high. Know. My bark shall waft her to her native land. While half unsheathed appear'd the glittering blade. 'Tis mine to threaten. with grief and rage oppress'd. and now by reason cool'd: That prompts his hand to draw the deadly sword. which resembles that of the ant: they bore a further resemblance to these little animals. But then prepare. Thy loved Briseis with the radiant eyes. and curse the hour Thou stood'st a rival of imperial power. if the god the beauteous dame demand. and like them were indefatigable. after Heraclides Ponticus and others. and thine to fear. Distracting thoughts by turns his bosom ruled."—Anthon's "Lempriere. was intended to point out the sudden recollection that he would gain nothing by intemperate wrath. And calm the rising tempest of his soul. Now fired by wrath. Hence shalt thou prove my might. the change from ants to men is founded merely on the equivocation of their name." 57 Eustathius. and that it were best to restrain his anger. "De Deo Socratis. And hence.

and sudden to the goddess cries. Behind she stood. He sees. and by the golden hair Achilles seized. "Descends Minerva." . behold the vengeance too. Known by the flames that sparkle from her eyes: MINERVA REPRESSING THE FURY OF ACHILLES. in her guardian care. Sent by the sister and the wife of Jove (For both the princes claim'd her equal care).16 The Iliad of Homer Minerva swift descended from above. A sable cloud conceal'd her from the rest. to him alone confess'd. A heavenly witness of the wrongs I bear From Atreus' son?—Then let those eyes that view The daring crime.

The king and you are both the care of heaven. and bid the valiant die: So much 'tis safer through the camp to go. the chance of fighting fields to try. to the gods resign'd. thy revenging steel. "Forbear (the progeny of Jove replies) To calm thy fury I forsake the skies: Let great Achilles. Thine to look on. 'Tis just. obedient. Then let revenge no longer bear the sway. Which thus redoubling on Atrides broke: "O monster! mix'd of insolence and fear. but in heart a deer! When wert thou known in ambush'd fights to dare. And rob a subject. When the proud monarch shall thy arms implores And bribe thy friendship with a boundless store. Hard as it is. 17 [010] . And joins the sacred senate of the skies. The goddess swift to high Olympus flies. For I pronounce (and trust a heavenly power) Thy injured honour has its fated hour. observant of the blue-eyed maid.BOOK I." To her Pelides:—"With regardful ear. O goddess! I thy dictates hear. But sheathe. my vengeance I suppress: Those who revere the gods the gods will bless. Then in the sheath return'd the shining blade. and the gods obey. than despoil a foe. Nor yet the rage his boiling breast forsook. Or nobly face the horrid front of war? 'Tis ours. Thou dog in forehead. By awful Juno this command is given." He said. To reason yield the empire o'er his mind. Command thy passions. The force of keen reproaches let him feel.

from his lips distill'd:58 58 Compare Milton." bk. By this I swear:—when bleeding Greece again Shall call Achilles. Words.—or this had been thy last. she shall call in vain. form'd by temper'd steel to prove An ensign of the delegates of Jove. "Paradise Lost. violent and base! Sent in Jove's anger on a slavish race. With like disdain The raging king return'd his frowns again. Then shall thou mourn the affront thy madness gave. and furious hurl'd against the ground His sceptre starr'd with golden studs around: Then sternly silent sat. flush'd with slaughter. ii: "Though his tongue Dropp'd manna." So Proverbs v." He spoke. lost to sense of generous freedom past. Which sever'd from the trunk (as I from thee) On the bare mountains left its parent tree. Now by this sacred sceptre hear me swear. 3. Forced to deplore when impotent to save: Then rage in bitterness of soul to know This act has made the bravest Greek thy foe. Experienced Nestor. sweet as honey. This sceptre. "For the lips of a strange woman drop as an honey-comb. From whom the power of laws and justice springs (Tremendous oath! inviolate to kings). Slow from his seat arose the Pylian sage.18 The Iliad of Homer Scourge of thy people. Who. in persuasion skill'd. When. Are tamed to wrongs. Which never more shall leaves or blossoms bear. Hector comes to spread The purpled shore with mountains of the dead." . To calm their passion with the words of age.

seize not on the beauteous slave. the bravest. they listen'd and obey'd. That prize the Greeks by common suffrage gave: Nor thou. this youthful heat restrain. 19 [011] . Do you. Or Polyphemus. or Ceneus' deathless name. Theseus. and the friends of Troy! That adverse gods commit to stern debate The best. and happy by his sway. Dryas the bold. And from their hills the shaggy Centaurs tore: Yet these with soft persuasive arts I sway'd.BOOK I. Wise by his rules. like the gods in fight? With these of old. they pierced the mountain boar. treat our prince with pride. When Nestor spoke. Nor think your Nestor's years and wisdom vain. If in my youth. what woe is this to Greece! what joy To Troy's proud monarch. Let kings be just. Two ages o'er his native realm he reign'd. Atrides. And smit with love of honourable deeds. Ranged the wild deserts red with monsters' gore. Young as ye are. Two generations now had pass'd away. Strongest of men. Such as no more these aged eyes shall view! Lives there a chief to match Pirithous' fame. A godlike race of heroes once I knew. even these esteem'd me wise. Who thus with mild benevolence began:— "What shame. endued with more than mortal might. of the Grecian state. young warriors. Fired with the thirst which virtuous envy breeds. to toils of battle bred. In early youth my hardy days I led. All view'd with awe the venerable man. and sovereign power preside. And now the example of the third remain'd. Achilles. hear my age advise.

I well deserved thy galling chain. the first honours of the war adorn. no respect control. that unconquer'd soul. So shall authority with strength be join'd. But that imperious. and interrupting spoke: "Tyrant. Rule thou thyself. as more advanced in age. O king! to calm Achilles' rage. Let both unite with well-consenting mind. Has foul reproach a privilege from heaven?" [012] Here on the monarch's speech Achilles broke. he ceased. The king of men replies: "Thy years are awful. thus. Like gods in strength. No laws can limit. ourself obey? What king can bear a rival in his sway? Grant that the gods his matchless force have given. And seize secure. whom the Grecians doom'd My prize of war. but command not me. no more Achilles draws His conquering sword in any woman's cause. Him. Seize on Briseis. Should I submit to each unjust decree:— Command thy vassals. our chiefs. and bulwark of our host. And furious. and still to serve in vain. Leave me. gods! Achilles should be lost. yet tamely see resumed. and thy words are wise. Before his pride must his superiors fall. The pride of Greece. To live thy slave. His word the law. awful majesty exalts above The powers of earth.20 The Iliad of Homer Thee." This said. and he the lord of all? Him must our hosts. and sceptred sons of Jove. Forbid it. The gods command me to forgive the past: But let this first invasion be the last: . and of a goddess born.

The sable fumes in curling spires arise. Thence bear Briseis as our royal prize: Submit he must. Then swiftly sailing. when next thou darest invade. salt was thrown into the fresh water to be used for the lustration. The army thus in sacred rites engaged. For know. p. the pious train59 Are cleansed. in Clem. cut the liquid road. Atrides still with deep resentment raged. and with solemn prayers." 21 59 Salt water was chiefly used in lustrations. Along the shore whole hecatombs were laid.713. And bulls and goats to Phoebus' altars paid. thy blood. embalon alas. Menander. And sage Ulysses with the conduct graced: Safe in her sides the hecatomb they stow'd. from its being supposed to possess certain fiery particles. Achilles with Patroclus took his way Where near his tents his hollow vessels lay. phakois. "Haste to the fierce Achilles' tent (he cries). Shall stream in vengeance on my reeking blade. and cast the ablutions in the main. Talthybius and Eurybates the good. Ourself in arms shall tear her from his heart. The host to expiate next the king prepares." At this they ceased: the stern debate expired: The chiefs in sullen majesty retired. . if sea-water could not be obtained. or if they will not part. And waft their grateful odours to the skies. With pure lustrations. Alex. Wash'd by the briny wave.BOOK I. To wait his will two sacred heralds stood. hydati perriranai. Hence. Meantime Atrides launch'd with numerous oars A well-rigg'd ship for Chrysa's sacred shores: High on the deck was fair Chryseis placed. vii.

to your prince declare (That lawless tyrant whose commands you bear). but your imperious lord I blame. the hero in his tent they find. Loth to advance. the fair Briseis bring. At awful distance long they silent stand. Decent confusion! This the godlike man Perceived. p. and thus with accent mild began: "With leave and honour enter our abodes. Not you. by constraint you came. and proclaim my vow. With gloomy aspect on his arm reclined. The office was generally given to old men. Conduct my captive to the haughty king. haste. and useless to his host. Pensive they walk along the barren sands: Arrived. and they were believed to be under the especial protection of Jove and Mercury. and men below! But first. Patroclus. But witness. and loudest. heralds. Ye sacred ministers of men and gods!60 I know your message. Witness to gods above. Blind to himself. viii. Unskill'd to judge the future by the past. Pollux. Unmoved as death Achilles shall remain. and they were at liberty to travel whither they would without fear of molestation. Onom. . and speak their hard command. 159. Though prostrate Greece shall bleed at every vein: The raging chief in frantic passion lost.22 The Iliad of Homer [013] The unwilling heralds act their lord's commands. In blood and slaughter shall repent at last." 60 The persons of heralds were held inviolable.

BOOK I. But sad. succeeded in obtaining her hand. and in pensive thought. And of look'd back. retiring to the sounding shore. and Achilles would have shared the same fate had not his father rescued him. however. and Peleus. with the exception of that part of the heel by which she held him. Not so his loss the fierce Achilles bore. That kindred deep from whence his mother sprung:61 There bathed in tears of anger and disdain. 23 THE DEPARTURE OF BRISEIS FROM THE TENT OF ACHILLES. as the heralds held her hand. who was courted by Neptune and Jupiter. Her children were all destroyed by fire through her attempts to see whether they were immortal. in soft sorrows. Hygin. it was known that the son to whom she would give birth must prove greater than his father. When. 54 . Pass'd silent. slow-moving o'er the strand. Thetis. Fab. She. with great difficulty. She afterwards rendered him invulnerable by plunging him into the waters of the Styx. Thus loud lamented to the stormy main: 61 [014] His mother. as she eluded him by assuming various forms. O'er the wild margin of the deep he hung. it was determined to wed her to a mortal. the daughter of Nereus and Doris. Patroclus now the unwilling beauty brought.

" Far from the deep recesses of the main. And thus the sorrows of his soul explores. to the general's bed. The waves divide. With treasure loaded and triumphant spoils. and resumes my prize. But bright Chryseis. The goddess-mother heard. "Why grieves my son? Thy anguish let me share. lowly bending down. From Thebe. Intreating all. Obscures my glories. 62 Thebe was a city of Mysia. And like a mist she rose above the tide. heavenly prize! was led. Reveal the cause. Great Jove in justice should this span adorn: Honour and fame at least the thunderer owed. Where aged Ocean holds his watery reign. north of Adramyttium. Sure to so short a race of glory born. sacred to Apollo's name62 (Aetion's realm). Held forth the sceptre and the laurel crown. but chief implored for grace The brother-kings of Atreus' royal race: The generous Greeks their joint consent declare. And ill he pays the promise of a god. and trust a parent's care.24 The Iliad of Homer "O parent goddess! since in early bloom Thy son must fall. and. . by too severe a doom. By vote selected. Beheld him mourning on the naked shores. If yon proud monarch thus thy son defies. The fleet he reach'd. The priest of Phoebus sought by gifts to gain His beauteous daughter from the victor's chain. Whose just division crown'd the soldier's toils. our conquering army came." He deeply sighing said: "To tell my woe Is but to mention what too well you know.

call'd by thee.63 And service. A prophet then. . goddess! thou thy suppliant son attend. and release the fair. and justice. and monarch of the main. When bold rebellion shook the realms above. But now he seized Briseis' heavenly charms. To high Olympus' shining court ascend. The sire insulted. Incensed he threaten'd. and thence derives the woes: Myself the first the assembled chiefs incline To avert the vengeance of the power divine. faith. Then rising in his wrath. defrauds me of the prize allotted me by their votes. And of my valour's prize defrauds my arms. Urge all the ties to former service owed. Then. But. the monster Titan came 63 25 [015] That is. by mad ambition driven. Durst threat with chains the omnipotence of Heaven. And sue for vengeance to the thundering god. The traitor-gods.BOOK I. the monarch storm'd. The undaunted guard of cloud-compelling Jove: When the bright partner of his awful reign. Not so Atrides: he. inspired by heaven. and his threats perform'd: The fair Chryseis to her sire was sent. and pierce the Grecian hearts. Oft hast thou triumph'd in the glorious boast. With offer'd gifts to make the god relent. And points the crime. with wonted pride. Defrauds the votes of all the Grecian train. and his gifts denied: The insulted sire (his god's peculiar care) To Phoebus pray'd. The warlike maid. arose. and Phoebus heard the prayer: A dreadful plague ensues: the avenging darts Incessant fly. The priest to reverence. That thou stood'st forth of all the ethereal host. plead in vain.

—To Fates averse. trembled. compared with infinitude. Conjure him far to drive the Grecian train. they are on an equal footing with himself. at his tribunal fall. p.64 This. 58. the fetters of Almighty Jove She loosed"—Dyce's "Calaber. this to his remembrance call. Let Agamemnon lift his haughty head O'er all his wide dominion of the dead. To Fates averse. And mourn in blood that e'er he durst disgrace The boldest warrior of the Grecian race. and from which even the gods are not exempt." "Unhappy son! (fair Thetis thus replies. Schlegel well observes. men Ægeon name). Not he that shakes the solid earth so strong: With giant-pride at Jove's high throne he stands. Embrace his knees. They dropp'd the fetters. Through wondering skies enormous stalk'd along. and nursed for future woes?65 So short a space the light of heaven to view! So short a space! and fill'd with sorrow too! 64 Quintus Calaber goes still further in his account of the service rendered to Jove by Thetis: "Nay more. And brandish'd round him all his hundred hands: The affrighted gods confess'd their awful lord. and bring The Greeks to know the curse of such a king." s. 65 ."—'Lectures on the Drama' v. "This power extends also to the world of gods— for the Grecian gods are mere powers of nature—and although immeasurably higher than mortal man.26 [016] The Iliad of Homer (Whom gods Briareus. yet. To heap the shores with copious death. goddess. Of the gloomy destiny reigning throughout the Homeric poems. 67. and adored. To hurl them headlong to their fleet and main. While tears celestial trickle from her eyes) Why have I borne thee with a mother's throes.

far from Ilion should thy vessels sail. from camps remote. serves to show the Ethiopian origin of Thebes. Far. O might a parent's careful wish prevail. Meantime. from far Behold the field. not mingle in the war. On the warm limits of the farthest main. 27 THETIS CALLING BRIAREUS TO THE ASSISTANCE OF JUPITER. after quoting a passage from Diodorus about the holy ship. and the return of the deity from Ethiopia after some days' absence. "I think. the danger shun Which now. Now mix with mortals.66 It has been observed that the annual procession of the sacred ship so often represented on Egyptian monuments. The sacred ship 66 [017] . and of the worship of Jupiter Ammon. "that this procession is represented in one of the great sculptured reliefs on the temple of Karnak. And thou. Yet (what I can) to move thy suit I'll go To great Olympus crown'd with fleecy snow. alas! too nearly threats my son.BOOK I. secure within thy ships." says Heeren. The sire of gods and all the ethereal train. nor disdain to grace The feasts of Æthiopia's blameless race.

vol. which we will spare the reader. 1 p. 67 —Atoned. p. since. thus returning from the furrow'd main. 98.110. In wild resentment for the fair he lost. sq."—Long. It is therefore on its voyage. "Egyptian Antiquities" vol. Atoned by sacrifice. .e. This is the proper and most natural meaning of the word. (ed. of my edition." The goddess spoke: the rolling waves unclose. And dropp'd their anchors. they lash the mast aside. Ulysses led to Phoebus' sacred fane. and move The high tribunal of immortal Jove. and the pinnace tied. 96. Next on the shore their hecatomb they land. Then down the steep she plunged from whence she rose. Basil) gives this interpretation. reverend priest! to Phoebus' awful dome A suppliant I from great Atrides come: Unransom'd. Her. and likewise an allegorical one. as the maid He gave to Chryses. reconciled. desist to wound. Then will I mount the brazen dome. This must have been one of the most celebrated festivals. Returning with the twelfth revolving light. thus the hero said: "Hail. as may be seen from Taylor's remarks in Calmet's Dictionary. here receive the spotless fair. Homer alludes to it when he speaks of Jupiter's visit to the Ethiopians. Accept the hecatomb the Greeks prepare. 1 p. Eustathius. And left him sorrowing on the lonely coast. Where at his solemn altar."67 of Ammon is on the shore with its whole equipment. even according to the interpretation of antiquity. Chryseis last descending on the strand. and is towed along by another boat.28 The Iliad of Homer Twelve days the powers indulge the genial rite. And may thy god who scatters darts around. In Chrysa's port now sage Ulysses rode. and his twelve days' absence. Beneath the deck the destined victims stow'd: The sails they furl'd. i.

" So Chryses pray'd. the throat was bent upwards towards heaven. With water purify their hands. some portion out the spoil. Whose power incircles Cilla the divine." Dryden's "Virgil. At this. And smile propitious. Between their horns the salted barley threw. the victims slew:68 29 [018] 68 That is. While thus with arms devoutly raised in air. And gilds fair Chrysa with distinguish'd rays! If. Apollo heard his prayer: And now the Greeks their hecatomb prepare. The quarry share. or infernal deities. drawing back their necks while they cut their throats. So sadly lost. Whose sacred eye thy Tenedos surveys. And." i. and unbend thy bow. in the caldrons boil. Disposed in rank their hecatomb they bring. And solemn voice. Some on the fire the reeking entrails broil. unmindful of the past." vol i. the sire embraced the maid again. the priest directs his prayer: "God of the silver bow. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake."— "Elgin Marbles.81. . Thy direful darts inflict the raging pest: Once more attend! avert the wasteful woe. Stretch'd on the grassy turf. p. "The jolly crew. The limbs yet trembling. thy ear incline. it was killed with its throat toward the ground. with their heads to heaven. at ease they dine.BOOK I. but if made to the heroes. "If the sacrifice was in honour of the celestial gods. Then near the altar of the darting king. Some strip the skin. fired to vengeance at thy priest's request. their plenteous dinner haste. so lately sought in vain. 293. and cheer their souls with wine. Restore their strength with meat.

the grateful notes prolong.30 The Iliad of Homer The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide. where stretch'd along the winding bay. When now the rage of hunger was repress'd. The youths with wine the copious goblets crown'd. pleased. selected to the gods.) Then part. The milk-white canvas bellying as they blow. Supplied by Phoebus. Till now the Grecian camp appear'd in view.69 With hymns divine the joyous banquet ends. 'Twas night. The custom of adorning goblets with flowers was of later date. Till rosy morn had purpled o'er the sky: Then launch. dispense the flowing bowls around. and entrails dress'd. Far on the beach they haul their bark to land. The youth with instruments surround the fire: The thighs thus sacrificed. transfix. Apollo listens. and sees the flames aspire. —Crown'd. The choicest morsels lay from every part. (The crooked keel divides the yellow sand. in double cauls involved with art. With pure libations they conclude the feast. The parted ocean foams and roars below: Above the bounding billows swift they flew. restored. The thighs. divide: On these. Each takes his seat. and roast the rest: Then spread the tables. and approves the song. fill the swelling sails. The priest himself before his altar stands. filled to the brim. and each receives his share. The paeans lengthen'd till the sun descends: The Greeks. And. Pours the black wine. the repast prepare. And burns the offering with his holy hands. and hoist the mast: indulgent gales. 69 . i. The assistants part. the chiefs beside their vessel lie.e.

BOOK I. first ascending from the watery bowers. Twelve days were past. and the Trojans rise. The thunderer sat. Leads the long order of ethereal powers. like the morning-mist in early day. far apart. where old Olympus shrouds His hundred heads in heaven. There. The ships and tents in mingled prospect lay. Avenge this wrong. And scenes of blood rise dreadful in his soul. O father of the gods! (she said) My words could please thee. O ever just and wise! Let Greece be humbled. But wasting cares lay heavy on his mind: In his black thoughts revenge and slaughter roll. Fame is at least by heavenly promise due To life so short. Some marks of honour on my son bestow. or my actions aid. and one his knees embraced. Suppliant the goddess stood: one hand she placed Beneath his beard." [019] . And pay in glory what in life you owe. Till the proud king and all the Achaian race Shall heap with honours him they now disgrace. When. and high above the rest. nor in council join'd. Rose from the flood the daughter of the sea: And to the seats divine her flight address'd. stedfast in his hate. and now dishonour'd too. 31 But raging still. and now the dawning light The gods had summon'd to the Olympian height: Jove. Nor mix'd in combat. "If e'er. and props the clouds. amidst his navy sat The stern Achilles.

for what has Jove to fear? Or oh! declare. but Jove in silence held The sacred counsels of his breast conceal'd. "O sire of gods and men! thy suppliant hear. or grant. and. Who rolls the thunder o'er the vaulted skies: . of all the powers above. Is wretched Thetis least the care of Jove?" She said. and urged the dear request. Still grasp'd his knees. the goddess closer press'd. Not so repulsed. Thus Thetis spoke. thus the god replies. sighing.32 The Iliad of Homer THETIS ENTREATING JUPITER TO HONOUR ACHILLES. Refuse.

The gods' complaints. The nod that ratifies the will divine. 33 70 —He spoke. and gives the nod. This seals thy suit. xii p. too partial. and by an oath. And all Olympus to the centre shook.BOOK I.124. . and awful bends his sable brows. "What hast thou ask'd? ah.70 Shakes his ambrosial curls. The stamp of fate and sanction of the god: High heaven with trembling the dread signal took. and Juno's fierce alarms.71 Swift to the seas profound the goddess flies. confirm'd." vol. &c. lest the haughty partner of my sway With jealous eyes thy close access survey. 71 "So was his will Pronounced among the gods. wrapp'd in holy fear. The faithful." "Paradise Lost" ii. and this fulfils thy vows—" He spoke. or whether Phidias had been carried thither to contemplate the god. secure thy prayer is sped: Witness the sacred honours of our head. That shook heav'n's whole circumference. Those who beheld this statue are said to have been so struck with it as to have asked whether Jupiter had descended from heaven to show himself to Phidias. The shining synod of the immortals wait The coming god. 351. he is said to have answered by repeating the lines of the first Iliad in which the poet represents the majesty of the god in the most sublime terms. why should Jove engage In foreign contests and domestic rage. aid the Trojan arms? Go. While I."— "Elgin Marbles. Jove to his starry mansions in the skies. irrevocable sign. fix'd. But part in peace. "When a friend inquired of Phidias what pattern he had formed his Olympian Jupiter. thereby signifying that the genius of Homer had inspired him with it. and from their thrones of state Arising silent.

From whence this wrath. Trembling they stand. The first of gods above. say. shall search the thoughts that roll Deep in the close recesses of my soul. But 'tis for Greece I fear: for late was seen. Which Jove in prudence from his consort hides?" To this the thunderer: "Seek not thou to find The sacred counsels of almighty mind: Involved in darkness likes the great decree. and men below. What favourite goddess then those cares divides. What fits thy knowledge." [021] . All. but the god's imperious queen alone: Late had she view'd the silver-footed dame. Nor can the depths of fate be pierced by thee. And all thy counsels take the destined course. nor they. And all her passions kindled into flame. But thou. And thus return'd:—"Austere Saturnius. artful manager of heaven (she cries). remains in force. What fatal favour has the goddess won. inexorable son? Perhaps in Grecian blood to drench the plain. And glut his vengeance with my people slain." Full on the sire the goddess of the skies Roll'd the large orbs of her majestic eyes. or who controls thy sway? Thy boundless will. In close consult.34 The Iliad of Homer Before the majesty of heaven appear. the silver-footed queen. while Jove assumes the throne. thou the first shalt know. "Say. for me. To grace her fierce. Who now partakes the secrets of the skies? Thy Juno knows not the decrees of fate. Jove to his Thetis nothing could deny. Nor was the signal vain that shook the sky. In vain the partner of imperial state.

Vain is the search. and odious to thy lord. Then thus the god: "O restless fate of pride. presumptuous and abhorr'd.BOOK I. Goddess. that ought to be. submit. But dread the power of this avenging hand: The united strength of all the gods above In vain resists the omnipotence of Jove. Anxious to thee." 35 VULCAN. . That strives to learn what heaven resolves to hide. nor dare our will withstand. Let this suffice: the immutable decree No force can shake: what is.

if Jove his arm extend. Hurl'd headlong down from the ethereal height. unable to defend What god so daring in your aid to move.36 The Iliad of Homer [022] The thunderer spoke. in eternal peace and constant joy. The gracious power is willing to be pleased. Peace at his heart. i. A reverent horror silenced all the sky. With hideous ruin and combustion" 72 . with our sire comply.e.73 —A double bowl. roused to rage. and pleasure his design.72 Which held to Juno in a cheerful way. be patient and obey. 44. Thus interposed the architect divine: "The wretched quarrels of the mortal state Are far unworthy. Or lift his hand against the force of Jove? Once in your cause I felt his matchless might. Lexic. with sorrow Vulcan saw His mother menaced. Thou. Dear as you are. p. goddess-mother. something like the measures by which a halfpenny or pennyworth of nuts is sold. The double bowl with sparkling nectar crown'd. I can but grieve. If you submit. See Buttmann. a vessel with a cup at both ends. gods! of your debate: Let men their days in senseless strife employ." Thus Vulcan spoke: and rising with a bound. 93 sq. Launch the red lightning. Nor break the sacred union of the sky: Lest. "Him th' Almighty power Hurl'd headlong flaming from th ethereal sky. We. and dethrone the gods. the thunderer stands appeased. 73 "Paradise Lost. The feast disturb'd." i. and the gods in awe. nor durst the queen reply. "Goddess (he cried). he shake the bless'd abodes.

its public meetings in the agora of Olympus. The allegorists have gone mad in finding deep explanations for this amusing fiction.75 Apollo tuned the lyre. and its multitudinous banquets or festivals. and to her hands the goblet heaved. 37 [023] of ranks and duties. Toss'd all the day in rapid circles round. The Sinthians raised me on the Lemnian coast. and celestial song. to the rest he fill'd. ed Gale. they fabled." 74 The occasion on which Vulcan incurred Jove's displeasure was this—After Hercules. Jove. 'Ponticus. and Vulcan. to prevent him aiding his son. fastened iron anvils to her feet. Each to his lips applied the nectar'd urn. the white-arm'd queen received Then. and how he fell From heaven. and in his turn. the Muses round With voice alternate aid the silver sound. In feasts ambrosial. The story is told by Homer himself in Book xv. was kicked down from Olympus in the manner described. from noon to dewy eve. with a smile. its contentions for power and occasional revolutions. And unextinguish'd laughter shakes the skies. Vulcan with awkward grace his office plies." p. in giddy motion lost. and in Ausonian land Men call'd him Mulciber.74 He said. having previously cast Jove into a sleep. Nor till the sun descended touch'd the ground. the ancient inhabitants of Lemnos which island was ever after sacred to Vulcan. attempting to relieve her. 463 sq.BOOK I. A summer's day and with the setting sun Dropp'd from the zenith like a falling star . Juno raised a storm. which drove him to the island of Cos. See Heraclides. Thus the blest gods the genial day prolong. in revenge. Breathless I fell. thrown by angry Jove Sheer o'er the crystal battlements from morn To noon he fell. The Sinthians were a race of robbers. "Nor was his name unheard or unadored In ancient Greece. Which.. had taken and pillaged Troy. and hung her from the sky.

that "The gods formed a sort of political community of their own which had its hierarchy." "Paradise Lost. roll'd down the rapid light: Then to their starry domes the gods depart. 463. 738 It is ingeniously observed by Grote." i. [024] On Lemnos. th' Aegean isle thus they relate. The shining monuments of Vulcan's art: Jove on his couch reclined his awful head. vol i p. And Juno slumber'd on the golden bed.38 The Iliad of Homer Meantime the radiant sun to mortal sight Descending swift. its distribution 75 . JUPITER.



persuading him to lead the army to battle. and that they should put a stop to them if the proposal was embraced. as well as by the length of time. Jupiter. and in a large catalogue. The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day. contrives to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem. ARGUMENT. and run to prepare the ships. who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy without his assistance. The assembly is recalled. several speeches made on the occasion. that he would propose a return to the soldiers. but fears the army was discouraged by his absence. and the late plague. and to divide them into their several nations. in order to make the Greeks sensible of their want of Achilles. who chastises the insolence of Thersites. This gives occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and Trojans. before they proceeded to battle. . and upon the sea-shore. They are detained by the management of Ulysses. which was to make a general muster of the troops. and upon moving for a return to Greece. they unanimously agree to it. Then he assembles the whole host. The scene lies in the Grecian camp. and at length the advice of Nestor followed. AND CATALOGUE OF THE FORCES. THE TRIAL OF THE ARMY. sends a deceitful vision to Agamemnon.[025] BOOK II. The general. towards the end it removes to Troy. in pursuance of the request of Thetis. He first communicates his design to the princes in council.

being. Section 22. And thus commands the vision of the night. Lead all his Grecians to the dusty plain.76 To honour Thetis' son he bends his care. See Anthon and others. 646: [026] "And roseate dews disposed All but the unsleeping eyes of God to rest. e'en now 'tis given him to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. p. deluding Dream! and light as air. Bid him in arms draw forth the embattled train. p. the bane of her and Troy. by Minerva sent. 77 . Declare. but the ever-wakeful eyes of Jove." 76 Plato. Stretch'd in the tents the Grecian leaders lie: The immortals slumber'd on their thrones above. iii. 437.10. "When. a fraudful Dream Rush'd from the skies. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. For now no more the gods with fate contend. Rep. All. and at his other attacks on the character of the gods. 154." —Dream ought to be spelt with a capital letter. (See Minucius Felix. evidently personified as the god of dreams. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. that the supreme father of gods and men had a full right to employ a lying spirit to work out his ultimate will. was so scandalized at this deception of Jupiter's. well observes. And plunge the Greeks in all the woes of war: Then bids an empty phantom rise to sight. I think.) Coleridge.42 The Iliad of Homer Now pleasing sleep had seal'd each mortal eye. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end." v. Introd." Dyce's "Select Translations from Quintus Calaber.77 To Agamemnon's ample tent repair." p. that he would fain sentence him to an honourable banishment. Compare "Paradise Lost. "Fly hence.

And thus the flattering dream deceives the king. .BOOK II. and in war presides. To whom its safety a whole people owes. 43 JUPITER SENDING THE EVIL DREAM TO AGAMEMNON. Renown'd for wisdom. what sleep can close Thy eye-lids?" —"Paradise Lost. Descends. 673. Clothed in the figure of the Pylian sage. and hovers o'er Atrides' head. O Atreus' son! canst thou indulge the rest?78 Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. companion dear. 78 "Sleep'st thou. Swift as the word the vain illusion fled. with all a monarch's cares oppress'd. Directs in council. and revered for age: Around his temples spreads his golden wing." v. "Canst thou.

Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall. The starry falchion glitter'd at his side. The embroider'd sandals on his feet were tied. For now no more the gods with fate contend." . and mixes with the night. And last. and thy glory. but waking this advice approve. and numbers of the slain! Eager he rises. and in fancy hears The voice celestial murmuring in his ears. In just array draw forth the embattled train. A thousand schemes the monarch's mind employ. Resolves to air. Silius neatly translates it. and to the future blind. What scenes of grief. What mighty toils to either host remain. 79 "Turpe duci totam somno consumere noctem. O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. First on his limbs a slender vest he drew. Thou. Nor saw what Jove and secret fate design'd.79 Monarch. his arm the massy sceptre loads. claim his heavenly care. Around him next the regal mantle threw. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end.44 The Iliad of Homer [027] To waste long nights in indolent repose. Awake. This truly military sentiment has been echoed by the approving voice of many a general and statesman of antiquity. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. Lead all thy Grecians to the dusty plain. See Pliny's Panegyric on Trajan. then vanish'd from his sight. And trust the vision that descends from Jove. E'en now. Elate in thought he sacks untaken Troy: Vain as he was." The phantom said.

" Dryden's Virgil. The king despatch'd his heralds with commands To range the camp and summon all the bands: The gathering hosts the monarch's word obey. His former youthful mien and shape he wears. 45 Now rosy Morn ascends the court of Jove. 80 [028] —The same in habit. Late as I slumber'd in the shades of night. Whose visionary form like Nestor came. immortal. and the gift of gods.80 The heavenly phantom hover'd o'er my head. dost thou sleep. &c. In his black ship the Pylian prince he found. Unstain'd. iv.BOOK II. . A dream divine appear'd before my sight. 803. Lifts up her light. The same in habit. Directs in council. and opens day above. To waste long nights in indolent repose. "Friends and confederates! with attentive ear Receive my words. and credit what you hear. To whom its safety a whole people owes. While to the fleet Atrides bends his way. and in mien the same. O Atreus' son? (he said) Ill fits a chief who mighty nations guides. and in war presides. 'And. the king of men express'd The counsels labouring in his artful breast. "To whom once more the winged god appears. There calls a senate of the peers around: The assembly placed.

O king! 'tis given thee to destroy The lofty towers of wide-extended Troy. and rouse the sons of Greece to arms. Thou and thy glory claim his heavenly care. rising said. Now." . Nor doubt the vision of the powers divine. and the gods obey!' The vision spoke. Destruction hangs o'er yon devoted wall.46 The Iliad of Homer Monarch. E'en now. And lead the Grecians to the dusty plain. (Nestor. and sat: when Nestor. And nodding Ilion waits the impending fall. In just array draw forth the embattled train. whom Pylos' sandy realms obey'd. This hear observant.) "Princes of Greece. try what yet they dare. For now no more the gods with fate contend. And join to rouse the sons of Greece to arms. with caution. To move the troops to measure back the main. awake! 'tis Jove's command I bear. your faithful ears incline. valiant chiefs! since heaven itself alarms. Forbid it. Sent by great Jove to him who rules the host. Worn with nine years of unsuccessful war. obey the god's alarms. and yours the province to detain. At Juno's suit the heavenly factions end. Be mine. But first. heaven! this warning should be lost! Then let us haste. and pass'd in air away. Unite." He spoke.

a close embodied crowd. Xviii. Beneath their footsteps groans the trembling ground.81 So. Pour'd forth by thousands. ii. the following host.BOOK II. and wide o'ershades the plain: Along the region runs a deafening sound. Nine sacred heralds now. p. Fame flies before the messenger of Jove. With deeper murmurs and more hoarse alarms. Thus spoke the sage: the kings without delay Dissolve the council. or on the smoothed plank. from the tents and ships. 138). The king of kings his awful figure raised: 81 47 [029] "As bees in spring-time. they among fresh dews and flowers Fly to and fro. expatiate and confer Their state affairs. suspend the listening crowd. So thick the very crowd Swarm'd and were straiten'd. 91. and their chief obey: The sceptred rulers lead. when The sun with Taurus rides. is also the forerunner of mischief ('Odyssey. note. The suburb of this straw-built citadel. Rolling and blackening. to which men came elevated by wine. proclaiming loud82 The monarch's will. Dusky they spread. 246) an evening agora. "A standing agora is a symptom of manifest terror (II. Soon as the throngs in order ranged appear."—"Paradise Lost" i. and claps her wings above. . Pour forth their populous youth about the hive In clusters. 768. And shining soars. New-nibb'd with balm. darkens all the coast. As from some rocky cleft the shepherd sees Clustering in heaps on heaps the driving bees. And o'er the vale descends the living cloud.' iii. And fainter murmurs died upon the ear. a lengthen'd train Spreads all the beach. swarms succeeding swarms. 82 It was the herald's duty to make the people sit down."—Grote.

he being the wealth giving god. and controls the main. And heavenly oracles believed in vain A safe return was promised to our toils. of celestial flame. i. and enrich'd with spoils. Then pledged the chief in a capacious cup. 9. Compare Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Selections." . who gave it next To Ericthonius Tros received it then. To rich Thyestes next the prize descends. p. Golden.48 The Iliad of Homer High in his hand the golden sceptre blazed. our treasure. And artful thus pronounced the speech design'd: "Ye sons of Mars. is a type of the supreme and far-spread dominion of the house of the Atrides. Subjects all Argos. whose blessing is most efficacious in furthering the process of acquisition. 83 This sceptre. And now the mark of Agamemnon's reign. when he espoused The Queen of Love). and our glory lost. To Pelops he the immortal gift resign'd. with his wealth. "It is traced through the hands of Hermes. Now shameful flight alone can save the host. and framed by art divine (a gift Which to Almighty Jove lame Vulcan brought Upon his nuptial day. p. See Thucydides i.83 On this bright sceptre now the king reclined. Our blood. And left it. to be possess'd By Ilus he to great Laomedon Gave it. triumphant. The golden sceptre. like that of Judah (Genesis xlix. Renown'd. By Vulcan form'd. from Jove to Hermes came. "Thus the monarch spoke. partake your leader's care. and brothers of the war! Of partial Jove with justice I complain. 43). The immortal gift great Pelops left behind."—Grote. 10). In Atreus' hand. which not with Atreus ends. the sire of gods bestow'd The cup on Dardanus. 212. Heroes of Greece. and last to Priam's lot it fell.

Grecians. and nature we obey. duty. safety.000 men. 84 . Repulsed and baffled by a feeble foe. decay'd our vessels lie. Our shatter'd barks may yet transport us o'er. Now nine long years of mighty Jove are run. resistless lord of all! At whose command whole empires rise or fall: He shakes the feeble props of human trust. Haste. the hosts approve Atrides' speech. fly. And towns and armies humbles to the dust What shame to Greece a fruitful war to wage. The mighty numbers move. And scarce insure the wretched power to fly. p. our tender children call: Love. that if wars were ceased. the common scorn we grow. Burst their dark mansions in the clouds. whole decades when they dine Must want a Trojan slave to pour the wine. Nichols makes a total of 135. And dream no more of heaven-defended Troy. So small their number. to our native shore. Fly. i. 'Tis nature's voice.84 But other forces have our hopes o'erthrown.000. for ever leave the Trojan wall! Our weeping wives. And Troy prevails by armies not her own. summon us away. lasting shame in every future age! Once great in arms. So Jove decrees.BOOK II." His deep design unknown. Safe and inglorious. And Greece triumphant held a general feast. Oh. 393. All rank'd by tens. and sweep 49 [030] Grote. then. From east and south when winds begin to roar. So roll the billows to the Icarian shore. Since first the labours of this war begun: Our cordage torn. your sails and oars employ. states the number of the Grecian forces at upwards of 100.

They toil. which way the wind Sways them. Nor let one sail be hoisted on the main.50 The Iliad of Homer The whitening surface of the ruffled deep. With long-resounding cries they urge the train To fit the ships. in Helen's quarrel slain. and thicken to the fleet. And sighing thus bespoke the blue-eyed maid: [031] "Shall then the Grecians fly! O dire disgrace! And leave unpunish'd this perfidious race? Shall Troy. Haste. goddess. But Jove's imperial queen their flight survey'd. haste! the flying host detain. Lie unrevenged on yon detested plain? No: let my Greeks. . 980. their trampling feet Beat the loose sands." iv." 85 "As thick as when a field Of Ceres. thick clouds of dust arise. sqq. In peace enjoy the fruits of broken vows? And bravest chiefs. and the adulterous spouse. With nodding plumes and groves of waving spears. ripe for harvest. waving bends His bearded grove of ears. they sweat. shall Priam. and launch into the main. And as on corn when western gusts descend. The gathering murmur spreads.85 Before the blast the lofty harvests bend: Thus o'er the field the moving host appears. Once more refulgent shine in brazen arms. And fate decreed the fall of Troy in vain. unmoved by vain alarms. The doubling clamours echo to the skies."—Paradise Lost. E'en then the Greeks had left the hostile plain.

and from Olympus' height Swift to the ships precipitates her flight. Beware! for dreadful is the wrath of kings. nor uninspired obey'd: Then meeting first Atrides. Thus fly the Greeks (the martial maid begun). By brave examples should confirm the rest. For prudent counsel like the gods renown'd: Oppress'd with generous grief the hero stood. Still unrevenged. And to the immortals trust the fall of Troy. He tries our courage. Not thus the king in secret council spoke. Ulysses. with strength and wisdom bless'd. he flies through all the Grecian train. The monarch's will not yet reveal'd appears. Pallas obeys. The unwary Greeks his fury may provoke.BOOK II. Thus to their country bear their own disgrace. generous Ithacus! prevent the shame. And fame eternal leave to Priam's race? Shall beauteous Helen still remain unfreed. divine Laertes' son. Nor drew his sable vessels to the flood. or with persuasion moved. or chief in arms approved. Thus graced. He fired with praise. He runs. "And is it thus. Each prince of name. Jove loves our chief. Recall your armies." 51 . she found. from his hand Received the imperial sceptre of command." The voice divine confess'd the warlike maid. but resents our fears. a thousand heroes bleed! Haste. Your own resistless eloquence employ. attention and respect to gain. first in public cares. "Warriors like you. and your chiefs reclaim. from Jove his honour springs. Ulysses heard.

we find the maxim propounded by Creon in the Antigone of Sophocles. who abused it into a pretext for unlimited usurpation of power. in an extended form. 105. vi. The groaning banks are burst with bellowing sound. and pour upon the plain. "Be still. Caligula. And heaves huge surges to the trembling shores. Desert the ships. "Ancient Greece. 86 [032] . Thersites only clamour'd in the throng.52 The Iliad of Homer But if a clamorous vile plebeian rose. in reproaches bold: With witty malice studious to defame. The loudest silenced. and turbulent of tongue: Awed by no shame. And a still silence lulls the camp to peace. and to thy betters yield. wretch. Back to the assembly roll the thronging train. Murmuring they move." ch. Dion. His are the laws. Scorn all his joy. Loquacious. In scandal busy. thou slave. Unknown alike in council and in field! Ye gods. Be silent. and monarchs to revile. and think not here allow'd That worst of tyrants. This sentiment used to be a popular one with some of the greatest tyrants. and."86 With words like these the troops Ulysses ruled. At length the tumult sinks. and him let all obey. as when old ocean roars. and the fiercest cool'd. by no respect controll'd. The rocks remurmur and the deeps rebound. and laughter all his aim:— But chief he gloried with licentious style To lash the great. the lumber of a land. the noises cease. and Domitian were particularly fond of it. To one sole monarch Jove commits the sway. what dastards would our host command! Swept to the war. an usurping crowd. p. Him with reproof he check'd or tamed with blows. loud. See some important remarks of Heeren.

or punish'd for his lust. Sharp was his voice. wouldst thou seize some valiant leader's prize? Or. Some captive fair. What moves the great Atrides to complain? 'Tis thine whate'er the warrior's breast inflames. Thus at full ease in heaps of riches roll'd. and let him waste his store In loves and pleasures on the Phrygian shore. Long had he lived the scorn of every Greek. and one leg was lame: His mountain shoulders half his breast o'erspread. What grieves the monarch? Is it thirst of gold? Say. His figure such as might his soul proclaim. men no more! Hence let us fly. Say. "Amidst the glories of so bright a reign. With all the wealth our wars and blood bestow. And bring the race of royal bastards here. to bless thy kingly bed? Whate'er our master craves submit we must. For Troy to ransom at a price too dear? But safer plunder thy own host supplies. The golden spoil. And much he hated all. shall we march with our unconquer'd powers (The Greeks and I) to Ilion's hostile towers. One eye was blinking. Spleen to mankind his envious heart possess'd. Oh women of Achaia. and thine the lovely dames.BOOK II. which in the shrillest tone. 53 . Thus with injurious taunts attack'd the throne. if thy heart to generous love be led. but most the best: Ulysses or Achilles still his theme. Thin hairs bestrew'd his long misshapen head. But royal scandal his delight supreme. yet still they heard him speak. Plagued with his pride. Thy tents are crowded and thy chests o'erflow. Vex'd when he spoke.

so Homer's heroes advance. The man who acts the least. Of the gradual and individual development of Homer's heroes. born to vex the state. With indignation sparkling in his eyes. Have we not known thee. but follow one another. 75. the fierce. while we advance. the fearless. This mighty tyrant were no tyrant long. one by one. serves admirably to develop the disposition of Ulysses in a new light. and the brave: And durst he.54 [033] The Iliad of Homer We may be wanted on some busy day. in succession before us. "In bas-relief the figures are usually in profile. such as vases.87 In generous vengeance of the king of kings. From him. sacrificial processions. they are not grouped together. And singly mad. either from before or behind. that the character of Thersites. by the curvature. and may be continued ad infinitum. resent that wrong. and hence they also exhibit bas-reliefs on curved surfaces."—"Dramatic Literature. It may be remarked. Schlegel well observes. Reading Homer is very much like such a circuit. as he ought. and do not concern ourselves about what is to follow. 87 . on which account the ancients preferred for it such subjects as admitted of an indefinite extension. the two ends are withdrawn from our sight. factious monster. or the frieze of a rotunda. and in the epos all are characterized in the simplest manner in relief. we lose sight of what precedes. and sternly thus replies: "Peace. one object appears as another disappears. slave! of all our host. It has been remarked that the Iliad is not definitively closed. in which mere cunning is less prominent. and where. nor rashly vain. but that we are left to suppose something both to precede and to follow it. the present object alone arresting our attention. With wrangling talents form'd for foul debate: Curb that impetuous tongue. where. The bas-relief is equally without limit. and lines of combatants." p. When Hector comes: so great Achilles may: From him he forced the prize we jointly gave. asperse the sovereign reign. He views the wretch." Fierce from his seat at this Ulysses springs. dances. upbraids the most? Think not the Greeks to shameful flight to bring. revolting and contemptible as it is.

Expel the council where our princes meet. than by the chastisement of Odysseus he is lame. of misshapen head. Be that their care. While to his neighbour each express'd his thought: [034] "There cannot be a clearer indication than this description —so graphic in the original poem—of the true character of the Homeric agora. Nor let those lips profane the name of king. And let these eyes behold my son no more. The weighty sceptre on his bank descends. The fate which awaits a presumptuous critic.BOOK II. not often hesitating." 55 He said. crook-backed. 88 . From his vile visage wiped the scalding tears. to fight like men be ours. vol. bald. But grant the host with wealth the general load. Trembling he sat. even where his virulent reproaches are substantially well-founded. p. For our return we trust the heavenly powers. could those spoils be thine? Gods! let me perish on this hateful shore. and squinting vision.88 On the round bunch the bloody tumours rise: The tears spring starting from his haggard eyes. Art thou that hero. and shrunk in abject fears. i."—Grote. If. The multitude who compose it are listening and acquiescent. this hand forbear To strip those arms thou ill deserv'st to wear. on thy next offence. and cowering as the dastard bends. 97. And send thee scourged and howling through the fleet. what hast thou bestow'd? Suppose some hero should his spoils resign. Except detraction. while the unpopularity of such a character is attested even more by the excessive pains which Homer takes to heap upon him repulsive personal deformities. is plainly set forth in the treatment of Thersites. and never refractory to the chief.

rising. And. When the ship tosses. His silence thus the prudent hero broke: "Unhappy monarch! whom the Grecian race With shame deserting. Who. Behold them weeping for their native shore.) bade the crowds attend. Generous he rises in the crown's defence. endure the wintry main? Few leagues removed. (In form a herald. but ah! forgotten now: Ne'er to return." 'Twas thus the general voice the hero praised. Not for their grief the Grecian host I blame. . glorious in the field. high the imperial sceptre raised: The blue-eyed Pallas. eternal shame! Expect the time to Troy's destruction given. The tedious length of nine revolving years. The expecting crowds in still attention hung. we wish our peaceful seat. his celestial friend. Till Troy's proud structures should in ashes lie. To curb the factious tongue of insolence. Such just examples on offenders shown. But vanquish'd! baffled! oh. What could their wives or helpless children more? What heart but melts to leave the tender train. heap with vile disgrace. and the tempests beat: Then well may this long stay provoke their tears. and assert the throne. Sedition silence. one short month. was then the common cry. pausing ere he spoke. Then deeply thoughtful. To hear the wisdom of his heavenly tongue.56 The Iliad of Homer "Ye gods! what wonders has Ulysses wrought! What fruits his conduct and his courage yield! Great in the council. Not such at Argos was their generous vow: Once all their voice.

Herself the ninth. and from the crumbling ground A mighty dragon shot. The altars heaved. 57 [035] According to Pausanias. Beside a fountain's sacred brink we raised Our verdant altars. The topmost branch a mother-bird possess'd. and hence we dare Trust in his omen. and support the war.BOOK II. Nor long survived: to marble turn'd. iii. "The god" would be more simple and emphatic. the serpent. Full of his god. And try the faith of Chalcas and of heaven.e. he stands A lasting prodigy on Aulis' sands. as he hung. filled with the prophetic spirit. i. 89 ." vol. And curl'd around in many a winding fold. sqq.89 And all who live to breathe this Phrygian air.. The tragedians. Compare Dryden's "Æneid. the monster slew. From Jove himself the dreadful sign was sent. Lucretius and others. 90 —Full of his god.90 'Ye Grecian warriors! lay your fears aside. Seized by the beating wing. The drooping mother wail'd her children gone. the reverend Chalcas cried. and seem to have found the sacrifice of Iphigena better suited to form the subject of a tragedy. Apollo. For while around we gazed with wondering eyes. Eight callow infants fill'd the mossy nest. Straight to the tree his sanguine spires he roll'd. While hovering near. What pass'd at Aulis. and the victims blazed: 'Twas where the plane-tree spread its shades around. of dire portent. both the sprig and the remains of the tree were exhibited in his time. Greece can witness bear. This wondrous signal Jove himself displays. Such was the will of Jove. with miserable moan. And trembling sought the powers with sacrifice. The mother last. adopted a different fable to account for the stoppage at Aulis. as round the nest she flew. Stretch'd his black jaws and crush'd the crying young.

your engagements past? Vow'd with libations and with victims then. So many years the toils of Greece remain. . for Ilion's fall decreed:' Thus spoke the prophet.58 The Iliad of Homer [036] Of long. On that great day. Before that day. long labours. Rise. Jove. No wonder Troy so long resists our powers. Stand forth that Greek! and hoist his sail to fly. Where now are all your high resolves at last? Your leagues concluded. The hollow ships each deafening shout rebound. plough'd the main. if thou direct the way. And thunder rolling shook the firmament. when first the martial train." He said: the shores with loud applauses sound. Encouraged hence. As many birds as by the snake were slain. Now vanish'd like their smoke: the faith of men! While useless words consume the unactive hours. We march to war. Till Helen's woes at full revenged appear. not like heroes dare. on the right. thus the Fates succeed. Nor let your flight avert the Trojan fate. if any Greek invite His country's troops to base. And view with envy our successful wars. Obey. maintain the glorious strife. Then Nestor thus—"These vain debates forbear. But wait the tenth. Till every soldier grasp a Phrygian wife. And Troy's proud matrons render tear for tear. But leave the few that dare resist thy laws. but eternal praise. a prosperous signal sent. The mean deserters of the Grecian cause. ye Grecians! with submission wait. Big with the fate of Ilion. Ye talk like children. To grudge the conquests mighty Jove prepares. inglorious flight. great Atrides! and with courage sway.

should have paid more attention to these lines. let not mine be vain. and all encourage all. Let all excite the fiery steeds of war. If fate resists. What chief. who plunges those he hates In fierce contention and in vain debates: Now great Achilles from our aid withdraws. or soldier. And die the dastard first. Such wisdom soon should Priam's force destroy. and heavy will the vengeance fall! But now. By me provoked. If gods above prevent. to bloody conflict haste. decree But ten such sages as they grant in thee. which form a most natural introduction to their enumeration. or men below. Each strengthen each. And soon should fall the haughty towers of Troy! But Jove forbids. thou thyself despise. and in speaking well! O would the gods. O monarch! all thy chiefs advise:91 Nor what they offer. ye warriors. well refresh'd.BOOK II. who dreads to die. Or bravely fights. shall soon be known And what the cause of Ilion not o'erthrown. of the numerous band. a captive maid the cause: If e'er as friends we join. Among those counsels. or if our arms are slow. In tribes and nations to divide thy train: His separate troops let every leader call. His sharpen'd spear let every Grecian wield. the Trojan wall Must shake. take a short repast. or ill obeys command. 91 . And. 59 Those critics who have maintained that the "Catalogue of Ships" is an interpolation. in love to Greece." To him the king: "How much thy years excel In arts of counsel. But now. And every Grecian fix his brazen shield. When thus distinct they war.

To Jupiter.92 To Jove's high altars Agamemnon led: There bade the noblest of the Grecian peers. A black bull. Loud as the surges when the tempest blows. this dreadful day. 92 . And each spent courser at the chariot blow. in his ships to stay. It was to be perfect in every limb. were offerings for Neptune. An ox of five years old was considered especially acceptable to Jupiter. and fed. The birds shall mangle. and pray. The infernal and evil deities were to be appeased with black victims. and to Venus the dove was consecrated. That wretch. No rest. inglorious. And foam and thunder on the stony shore. and without blemish. consecrated to particular deities. or a boar pig. To avert the dangers of the doubtful day. The goat to Bacchus. A steer of five years' age. Who dares to tremble on this signal day. which had never borne the yoke. With the huge shield each brawny arm depress'd. Apollo. no respite. large limb'd. That dash'd on broken rocks tumultuous roar. The following observation will be useful to Homeric readers: "Particular animals were. Straight to the tents the troops dispersing bend. Each aching nerve refuse the lance to throw. because he fed on vines. Ceres. or till death. too mean to fall by martial power.60 The Iliad of Homer [037] And all for combat fit the rattling car. Till bathed in sweat be every manly breast. or a sheep. and the smokes ascend. shall cover all: Let the war bleed. Juno. a ram. and Bacchus victims of advanced age might be offered. p. This day. and let the mighty fall. The fires are kindled. 78. healthy. The most acceptable of all sacrifices was the heifer of a year old. till the shades descend. Diana was propitiated with a stag. Till darkness. as an enemy to corn. at a later time. To Ceres a sow was sacrificed. Who dares."—"Elgin Marbles. A heifer. and the dogs devour. for Minerva. and straight a murmur rose." vol." The monarch spoke. With hasty feasts they sacrifice. i. let each contend.

and doubled woes on woes.BOOK II. the son of Oileus. Ajax. and Ajax Telamon.e. and alone! Hear! and before the burning sun descends. And Menelaus came. son of Deucalion. and take The sacred offering of the salted cake: When thus the king prefers his solemn prayer. 61 93 —Idomeneus. appears to need no explanation. Supreme of gods! unbounded. "Sympos. And slaughter'd heroes groan around their lord!" Thus prayed the chief: his unavailing prayer Great Jove refused.93 and Tydeus' son.95 Then wise Ulysses in his rank was placed. Having vowed. during a tempest. the last. In Hector's breast be plunged this shining sword." p. was king of Crete. Next came Idomeneus. who was king of Salamis. 94 —Tydeus' son. Low in the dust be laid yon hostile spires. Their prayers perform'd the chiefs the rite pursue. in this line. 96 A great deal of nonsense has been written to account for the word unbid. Diomed. his son fell a victim to his rash vow. 95 That is. as most advanced in years. on his return from Troy. unbid. Even Plato. Be Priam's palace sunk in Grecian fires. Before the night her gloomy veil extends. Prepared new toils. "O thou! whose thunder rends the clouded air. has found some curious meaning in what. 315. Who in the heaven of heavens hast fixed thy throne.94 Ajax the less. Was there any heroic rule of etiquette which prevented one brother-king visiting another without a formal invitation? . And Nestor first. a Locrian. to sacrifice to Neptune the first creature that should present itself to his eye on the Cretan shore.96 The chiefs surround the destined beast. He must be distinguished from the other. i. and toss'd in empty air: The God averse. while yet the fumes arose. to us.

now the troops survey. and roast the rest. From the cleft wood the crackling flames aspire While the fat victims feed the sacred fire. Soon as the rage of hunger was suppress'd. Swells their bold hearts. The limbs they sever from the inclosing hide.62 [038] The Iliad of Homer The barley sprinkled. Jove's immortal shield. Form'd the bright fringe. In tribes and nations rank'd on either side. The choicest morsels lie from every part. High in the midst the blue-eyed virgin flies. Then spread the tables. The generous Nestor thus the prince address'd. "Now bid thy heralds sound the loud alarms. divide. Blazed on her arm. And call the squadrons sheathed in brazen arms. And lead to war when heaven directs the way. The dreadful aegis. Straight the loud heralds call the gathering bands The chiefs inclose their king. . and entrails dress'd The assistants part. the repast prepare. Each takes his seat. and for the combat burn. the hosts divide. selected to the gods. The thighs thus sacrificed." He said. and strings their nervous arms. and the victim slew. transfix. On these. in double cauls involved with art. But breathe revenge. No more they sigh. With this each Grecian's manly breast she warms. and seem'd to burn in gold. the monarch issued his commands. From rank to rank she darts her ardent eyes. and lighten'd all the field: Round the vast orb a hundred serpents roll'd. and each receives his share. to return. The thighs. inglorious. Now seize the occasion.

were found in great numbers about the Asian Marsh. And thundering footsteps shake the sounding shore. through the lofty grove.BOOK II. Homer's Troy is supposed to have stood: this river. The legions crowd Scamander's flowery side. a fenny tract of country in Lydia. bathed there before they appeared before Paris to obtain the golden apple: the name Xanthus. still applicable to the Mendere. A gleamy splendour flash'd along the fields. according to Strabo. as the winds arise. o'er the windings of Cayster's springs. "Georgics. as Wood. and falling into the sea at Sigaeum. 63 [039] 97 Fresh water fowl. i. formed by the river Cayster. the Mendere is 40 miles long. everything tends to identify it with Mendere. Shoot their long beams. extending wide. hence the three goddesses. 98 —Scamander. Now light with noise. The fires expanding. Along the river's level meads they stand. 383." vol. the yellow colour of whose waters attracts the attention of travellers. Rennell. or Scamandros. Now tower aloft. "yellow. deep in the time of flood.98 With rushing troops the plains are cover'd o'er. As on some mountain. Scamander by men. Between the Scamander and Simois. receives the Simois in its course. and blaze above. Thus numerous and confused. and brazen shields. Not less their number than the embodied cranes. towards its mouth it is very muddy. and kindle half the skies: So from the polish'd arms. Juno. Or milk-white swans in Asius' watery plains. and traces the source of the river to the highest mountain in the chain of Ida. on the highest part of Mount Ida. according to Homer. Minerva. The waters of the Scamander had the singular property of giving a beautiful colour to the hair or wool of such animals as bathed in them. in the same hill with the Granicus and the OEdipus. . especially swans. sq. now Kusdaghy. was a river of Troas. rising. near its mouth. and clap their rustling wings. and Venus. from the peculiar colour of its waters. 300 feet broad. with noise the field resounds. and course in airy rounds." was given to the Scamander. Clarke successfully combats the opinion of those who make the Scamander to have arisen from the springs of Bounabarshy. and flows through marshes. See Virgil. and others maintain.97 Stretch their long necks. nearly dry in the summer. was called Xanthus by the gods. The crackling flames ascend. Dr. That.

19. e di quai parti: Tu 'l sai. Musa. Say. Great as the gods. Each leader now his scatter'd force conjoins In close array." The torso of Neptune. virgins. come i primi danni Mandassero a Cristiani. the monarch of the meads. Or leaves the trees. . the Grecian squadrons stood In radiant arms. seated round the throne divine. or thick as insects play. for heav'n hides nothing from thy view. His strength like Neptune. glittering in the sun. p. The wandering nation of a summer's day: That. Not with more ease the skilful shepherd-swain Collects his flocks from thousands on the plain. in the "Elgin Marbles. In gather'd swarms surround the rural bowers. ma di tant' opra a noi si lunge Debil aura di fama appena giunge. Towers o'er his armies." No. and forms the deepening lines.) is remarkable for its breadth and massiveness of development. All-knowing goddesses! immortal nine!100 99 It should be "his chest like Neptune. drawn by milky steams. Like some proud bull." —"Gier. ii. majestically tall." i. And dawning conquest played around his head. 103. 27. and thirst for Trojan blood. (vol." —"Paradise Lost. So throng'd. 100 "Say first. and like Mars his mien. From pail to pail with busy murmur run The gilded legions.99 Jove o'er his eyes celestial glories spread." iv. and outshines them all. "Ma di' tu. that round the pastures leads His subject herds. Lib. 26. so close. the exalted chief was seen. The king of kings. at evening hours.64 The Iliad of Homer Thick as in spring the flowers adorn the land.

) O say what heroes. p. suggest itself to the mind of a poet. several of which could hardly be of traditional notoriety. Leitus. It were impossible otherwise to account for the harmony observable in the recurrence of so vast a number of proper names. What crowded armies. perhaps. i. the portion of the poem in favour of which a claim to separate authorship has been most plausibly urged. demands a thousand tongues." vol. To count them all. A throat of brass. . led: 101 "The Catalogue is. And hell's abyss. a common practice in epic poems descriptive of great warlike adventures. Penelius.BOOK II. and not a few altogether fictitious: or of so many geographical and genealogical details as are condensed in these few hundred lines. 263. and adamantine lungs. nor perhaps such as would. and incidentally scattered over the thousands which follow: equally inexplicable were the pointed allusions occurring in this episode to events narrated in the previous and subsequent text. Daughters of Jove. from what climes they bring. Their names. wretched mortals! lost in doubts below.101 65 [040] The hardy warriors whom Boeotia bred. and but boast we know. Prothoenor. Although the example of Homer has since rendered some such formal enumeration of the forces engaged. Since earth's wide regions. hide nothing from your sight."—Mure. assist! inspired by you The mighty labour dauntless I pursue. "Language and Literature of Greece. with the remainder of the work. to Troy's destruction came. fired by thirst of fame. The composition of the Catalogue. whensoever it may have taken place. Or urged by wrongs. in ordinary cases. their numbers. but through the medium of the Iliad. heaven's umneasur'd height. still so minute a statistical detail can neither be considered as imperatively required. THE CATALOGUE OF THE SHIPS. (We. necessarily presumes its author's acquaintance with a previously existing Iliad. But guess by rumour. and their chiefs I sing. most of them historically unimportant. Yet there is scarcely any portion of the Iliad where both historical and internal evidence are more clearly in favour of a connection from the remotest period.

.66 The Iliad of Homer NEPTUNE.

Bryant. many of which are considerably larger than the largest scale assigned to those of the Greeks. And Anthedon. Neptune's celebrated groves. In short. And Eteon's hills. The average would be eighty-five. Equal in arms. and equal in command. thinks it so large as to prove the entire falsehood of the whole story. Glissa for the vine. with purple harvests crown'd. and Ocalea low. Scholos. besides the chiefs. Or Harma where Apollo's prophet fell. Heleon and Hyle. famed for silver doves. And they whom Thebe's well-built walls inclose. Copae. For flocks Erythrae. and Hyrie's watery fields. carrying fifty each. And Schoenos. will be about a hundred and two thousand men. and each conveys Twice sixty warriors through the foaming seas. upon the foregoing average.BOOK II. the amount of the army. Where Myde. and Nysa the divine. Eutresis. And Arne rich. 102 . Those who in Peteon or Ilesion dwell. Or Thespia sacred to the god of day: Onchestus. and Thucydides supposes the troops to have rowed and navigated themselves. comparing it with the allied army at Platae. although in point of fact there are only eleven hundred and eightysix in the Catalogue.102 67 [041] —Twice Sixty: "Thucydides observes that the Boeotian vessels. and Thisbe. according to Thucydides. rose. the smallest. The historian considers this a small force as representing all Greece. Full fifty ships they send. Graea near the main. went as mere passengers or landsmen. Corone. which carried one hundred and twenty men each. And Mycalessia's ample piny plain. we have in the Homeric descriptions the complete picture of an Indian or African war canoe. These head the troops that rocky Aulis yields. Boeotia's utmost bound. and those of Philoctetes. And Medeon lofty. were probably meant to be the largest in the fleet. which the springs o'erflow. Platea green. If the total number of the Greek ships be taken at twelve hundred. and that very few. Or in the meads of Haliartus stray. With these Arcesilaus and Clonius stand.

Opus. And those who dwell where pleasing Augia stands. as their chief. . And where Boagrius floats the lowly lands. From Panopea. Swift in pursuit. Whose virgin charms subdued the god of war: (In Actor's court as she retired to rest. Skill'd to direct the flying dart aright. Or in fair Tarphe's sylvan seats reside: In forty vessels cut the yielding tide. Calliarus. and rich Cynos send. The strength of Mars the blushing maid compress'd) Their troops in thirty sable vessels sweep. Fierce Ajax led the Locrian squadrons on. and Scarphe's bands.68 The Iliad of Homer To these succeed Aspledon's martial train. Which Bessa. on the left. Cyparissus stood. Who plough the spacious Orchomenian plain. Thronus. These. Ialmen and Ascalaphus the strong: Sons of Astyoche. the bold Boeotians' side. the hoarse-resounding deep. And fair Lilaea views the rising flood. Close. Epistrophus and Schedius head the war: From those rich regions where Cephisus leads His silver current through the flowery meads. Him. and active in the fight. Where Pytho. Oileus' valiant son. the chosen troops attend. ranged in order on the floating tide. With equal oars. Daulis. Where Anemoria's stately turrets shine. The Phocians next in forty barks repair. Chrysa the divine. Two valiant brothers rule the undaunted throng. Ajax the less. the heavenly fair.

Adored with sacrifice and oxen slain. And sends the brave Abantes to the wars: Breathing revenge. p. Menestheus! Greece could yield. The mighty offspring of the foodful earth. sq. Where. in arms they take their way From Chalcis' walls. Their hands dismiss not the long lance in air. That owed his nurture to the blue-eyed maid. But with protended spears in fighting fields Pierce the tough corslets and the brazen shields. The Isteian fields for generous vines renown'd. where great Erectheus sway'd. Which bold Elphenor. Or close the embodied host in firm array. Where Dios from her towers o'erlooks the plain. Full fifty more from Athens stem the main. 211. Led by Menestheus through the liquid plain. And high Cerinthus views the neighbouring main. . Twice twenty ships transport the warlike bands. (Athens the fair. and strong Eretria. and the Styrian ground. for their curiosity. improved by length of days. Him Pallas placed amidst her wealthy fane. fierce in arms. The fair Caristos. and his reasonings and calculations are. 69 Euboea next her martial sons prepares. Down their broad shoulders falls a length of hair. as the years revolve.) No chief like thee. For martial conduct bore an equal praise. her altars blaze. Nestor alone.BOOK II. But from the teeming furrow took his birth. The extended wings of battle to display."—Coleridge. And all the tribes resound the goddess' praise. well worth a careful perusal. To marshal armies in the dusty field. commands.

In twelve black ships to Troy they steer their course. Great Sthenelus. And Ægion. And Gonoessa's spires salute the sky. as that city was called Ephyre before its capture by the Dorians. And crowded nations wait his dread command.103 Fair Araethyrea. The proud Mycene arms her martial powers.70 The Iliad of Homer With these appear the Salaminian bands. i. But Velleius. p. with imperial towers. Cleone. Corinth. And his refulgent arms in triumph wears. And fair Ægina circled by the main: Whom strong Tyrinthe's lofty walls surround. Ornia's fruitful plain. These by the brave Euryalus were led. Proud of his host. And where Pellene yields her fleecy store. [043] . Next move to war the generous Argive train. and Adrastus' ancient reign. High on the deck the king of men appears. Whom the gigantic Telamon commands. that the poet would naturally speak of various towns and cities by the names by which they were known in his own time. And those who dwell along the sandy shore. and Maseta's plain. And with the great Athenians join their force. Where Helice and Hyperesia lie. 3. A hundred vessels in long order stand. But chief Tydides bore the sovereign sway: In fourscore barks they plough the watery way. and ample bay below. Great Agamemnon rules the numerous band. vol. well observes. unrivall'd in his reign. From high Troezene. and greater Diomed. And Epidaure with viny harvests crown'd: And where fair Asinen and Hermoin show Their cliffs above. 103 The mention of Corinth is an anachronism.

famed for Thamyris' disgrace. in fancy oft he hears The fair one's grief. Nestor the sage conducts his chosen host: From Amphigenia's ever-fruitful land. and those Whom Lacedaemon's lofty hills inclose. Superior once of all the tuneful race. 71 .BOOK II. His brother follows. vain of mortals' empty praise. Helen's cause. he strove To match the seed of cloud-compelling Jove! Too daring bard! whose unsuccessful pride The immortal Muses in their art defied. And those whom OEtylos' low walls contain. o'er the bending ocean. Where Æpy high. and little Pteleon stand. Or Messe's towers for silver doves renown'd. and sees her falling tears. In ninety sail. Till. No more his heavenly voice was heard to sing. In sixty ships with Menelaus draws: Eager and loud from man to man he flies. While vainly fond. Augia's happy ground. In silent pomp he moves along the main. and snatch'd his voice away. Where beauteous Arene her structures shows. The avenging Muses of the light of day Deprived his eyes. And Thryon's walls Alpheus' streams inclose: And Dorion. His hand no more awaked the silver string. on the margin of the main: These. Laas. from Pylos' sandy coast. exercised in arms: Phares and Brysia's valiant troops. Revenge and fury flaming in his eyes. Amyclae. and to vengeance warms The hardy Spartans. And Helos.

. and Myrsinus confine. Parrhasia. and Thalpius one. where fair Elis and Buprasium join. Through roaring seas the wondering warriors bear. (Eurytus' this. One was Amphimachus. here. (Ancaeus' son) the mighty squadron led. and where Alisium flows. of force divine. Their ships. Bold Agapenor. And fair Mantinea's ever-pleasing site. But new to all the dangers of the main. From Ripe. Stratie. and that Teatus' son. and Orchomenian downs. And great Polyxenus. Those. The shaded tomb of old Æpytus stood.) Diores sprung from Amarynceus' line. And bounded there. The first to battle on the appointed plain. Where the fat herds in plenteous pasture rove. Whom Hyrmin. In separate squadrons these their train divide. supplied by Agamemnon's care. And Stymphelus with her surrounding grove.72 The Iliad of Homer [044] Where under high Cyllene. Tegea's bordering towns. glorious at their head. And high Enispe shook by wintry wind. In sixty sail the Arcadian bands unite. where o'er the valleys rose The Olenian rock. on her snowy cliffs reclined. crown'd with wood. Beneath four chiefs (a numerous army) came: The strength and glory of the Epean name. Each leads ten vessels through the yielding tide. The Phenean fields.

From Pleuron's walls. 73 Ulysses follow'd through the watery road. and Zacynthus green. With those whom Cephalenia's line inclosed. the beloved of Jove: To strong Dulichium from his sire he fled. And Chalcis. Or where fair Ithaca o'erlooks the floods. Where Ægilipa's rugged sides are seen. . And rough Pylene. And thence to Troy his hardy warriors led. and chalky Calydon. Andraemon's valiant son. Begot by Phyleus. In forty vessels under Meges move. But those who view fair Elis o'er the seas From the blest islands of the Echinades. These in twelve galleys with vermilion prores. and Meleager dead! To Thoas' care now trust the martial train. Or till their fields along the coast opposed. and the Olenian steep. His forty vessels follow through the main. Where high Neritos shakes his waving woods. For now the sons of OEneus were no more! The glories of the mighty race were fled! OEneus himself. Thoas came next. Crocylia rocky. in wisdom equal to a god.BOOK II. A chief. Beneath his conduct sought the Phrygian shores. beaten by the rolling deep. He led the warriors from the Ætolian shore.

Or white Lycastus glitters to the skies. Crete's hundred cities pour forth all her sons. Alcides' uncle. Where mighty towns in ruins spread the plain.74 The Iliad of Homer Next. Or where by Phaestus silver Jardan runs. From Rhodes. His captive mother fierce Alcides bore From Ephyr's walls and Selle's winding shore. [045] Tlepolemus. slew. Increased and prosper'd in their new abodes By mighty Jove. With joy they saw the growing empire rise. constrain'd to quit his native place. Lindus. Led nine swift vessels through the foamy seas. dreadful as the god of war. Lyctus. and Camirus white. and with a numerous train Of willing exiles wander'd o'er the main. beneath thy care. And saw their blooming warriors early slain. many seas and many sufferings past. And shun the vengeance of the Herculean race. the sire of men and gods. For this. Where. . And showers of wealth descending from the skies. the sun of Hercules. when to manly years he grew. Idomeneus. eighty barks the Cretan king commands. And those who dwell where Rhytion's domes arise. Of Gnossus. Jalyssus. The hero. And Merion. old Licymnius. These march'd. with everlasting sunshine bright. and Gortyna's bands. And rules them peaceful in a foreign land. A fleet he built. On happy Rhodes the chief arrived at last: There in three tribes divides his native band.

" iv. Nireus. The noblest spoil from sack'd Lyrnessus borne. though various in their name. The loveliest youth of all the Grecian race. Till great Alcides made the realms obey: These Antiphus and bold Phidippus bring. From Alos. Full fifty ships beneath Achilles' care. 104 75 [046] "Adam. Three ships with Nireus sought the Trojan shore. Nireus. Casus the strong. and Trechin's towers: From Phthia's spacious vales. the fairest of her daughters Eve. They hear the brazen voice of war no more. Thessalians all. whom Aglae to Charopus bore.104 Pelides only match'd his early charms. . 323. With them the youth of Nisyrus repair.BOOK II. Next thirty galleys cleave the liquid plain. Of those Calydnae's sea-girt isles contain.' —"Paradise Lost. Sprung from the god by Thessalus the king. the goodliest man of men since born. stretch'd along the shore. Muse. But few his troops. The Achaians. recount Pelasgic Argos' powers. in faultless shape and blooming grace. Hellenians bear. and small his strength in arms. Alope. and their chief the same. Now. and Hella. and Crapathus the fair. The same their nation. Myrmidons. But now inglorious. Since fair Briseis from his arms was torn. No more the foe they face in dire array: Close in his fleet the angry leader lay. Cos. where Eurypylus possess'd the sway. bless'd With female beauty far beyond the rest. His sons.


The Iliad of Homer

Then, when the chief the Theban walls o'erthrew, And the bold sons of great Evenus slew. There mourn'd Achilles, plunged in depth of care, But soon to rise in slaughter, blood, and war.

To these the youth of Phylace succeed, Itona, famous for her fleecy breed, And grassy Pteleon deck'd with cheerful greens, The bowers of Ceres, and the sylvan scenes. Sweet Pyrrhasus, with blooming flowerets crown'd, And Antron's watery dens, and cavern'd ground. These own'd, as chief, Protesilas the brave, Who now lay silent in the gloomy grave: The first who boldly touch'd the Trojan shore, And dyed a Phrygian lance with Grecian gore; There lies, far distant from his native plain; Unfinish'd his proud palaces remain, And his sad consort beats her breast in vain. His troops in forty ships Podarces led, Iphiclus' son, and brother to the dead; Nor he unworthy to command the host; Yet still they mourn'd their ancient leader lost.

The men who Glaphyra's fair soil partake, Where hills incircle Boebe's lowly lake, Where Phaere hears the neighbouring waters fall, Or proud Iolcus lifts her airy wall, In ten black ships embark'd for Ilion's shore, With bold Eumelus, whom Alceste bore: All Pelias' race Alceste far outshined, The grace and glory of the beauteous kind,

BOOK II. The troops Methone or Thaumacia yields, Olizon's rocks, or Meliboea's fields, With Philoctetes sail'd whose matchless art From the tough bow directs the feather'd dart. Seven were his ships; each vessel fifty row, Skill'd in his science of the dart and bow. But he lay raging on the Lemnian ground, A poisonous hydra gave the burning wound; There groan'd the chief in agonizing pain, Whom Greece at length shall wish, nor wish in vain. His forces Medon led from Lemnos' shore, Oileus' son, whom beauteous Rhena bore. The Œchalian race, in those high towers contain'd Where once Eurytus in proud triumph reign'd, Or where her humbler turrets Tricca rears, Or where Ithome, rough with rocks, appears, In thirty sail the sparkling waves divide, Which Podalirius and Machaon guide. To these his skill their parent-god imparts, Divine professors of the healing arts. The bold Ormenian and Asterian bands In forty barks Eurypylus commands. Where Titan hides his hoary head in snow, And where Hyperia's silver fountains flow. Thy troops, Argissa, Polypoetes leads, And Eleon, shelter'd by Olympus' shades, Gyrtone's warriors; and where Orthe lies, And Oloosson's chalky cliffs arise. Sprung from Pirithous of immortal race, The fruit of fair Hippodame's embrace, (That day, when hurl'd from Pelion's cloudy head, To distant dens the shaggy Centaurs fled)



78 With Polypoetes join'd in equal sway Leonteus leads, and forty ships obey.

The Iliad of Homer

In twenty sail the bold Perrhaebians came From Cyphus, Guneus was their leader's name. With these the Enians join'd, and those who freeze Where cold Dodona lifts her holy trees; Or where the pleasing Titaresius glides, And into Peneus rolls his easy tides; Yet o'er the silvery surface pure they flow, The sacred stream unmix'd with streams below, Sacred and awful! from the dark abodes Styx pours them forth, the dreadful oath of gods! Last, under Prothous the Magnesians stood, (Prothous the swift, of old Tenthredon's blood;) Who dwell where Pelion, crown'd with piny boughs, Obscures the glade, and nods his shaggy brows; Or where through flowery Tempe Peneus stray'd: (The region stretch'd beneath his mighty shade:) In forty sable barks they stemm'd the main; Such were the chiefs, and such the Grecian train. Say next, O Muse! of all Achaia breeds, Who bravest fought, or rein'd the noblest steeds? Eumelus' mares were foremost in the chase, As eagles fleet, and of Pheretian race; Bred where Pieria's fruitful fountains flow, And train'd by him who bears the silver bow. Fierce in the fight their nostrils breathed a flame, Their height, their colour, and their age the same; O'er fields of death they whirl the rapid car, And break the ranks, and thunder through the war. Ajax in arms the first renown acquired, While stern Achilles in his wrath retired:


BOOK II. (His was the strength that mortal might exceeds, And his the unrivall'd race of heavenly steeds:) But Thetis' son now shines in arms no more; His troops, neglected on the sandy shore. In empty air their sportive javelins throw, Or whirl the disk, or bend an idle bow: Unstain'd with blood his cover'd chariots stand; The immortal coursers graze along the strand; But the brave chiefs the inglorious life deplored, And, wandering o'er the camp, required their lord. Now, like a deluge, covering all around, The shining armies sweep along the ground; Swift as a flood of fire, when storms arise, Floats the wild field, and blazes to the skies. Earth groan'd beneath them; as when angry Jove Hurls down the forky lightning from above, On Arime when he the thunder throws, And fires Typhoeus with redoubled blows, Where Typhon, press'd beneath the burning load, Still feels the fury of the avenging god. But various Iris, Jove's commands to bear, Speeds on the wings of winds through liquid air; In Priam's porch the Trojan chiefs she found, The old consulting, and the youths around. Polites' shape, the monarch's son, she chose, Who from Æsetes' tomb observed the foes,105 High on the mound; from whence in prospect lay The fields, the tents, the navy, and the bay. In this dissembled form, she hastes to bring


105 —Æsetes' tomb. Monuments were often built on the sea-coast, and of a considerable height, so as to serve as watch-towers or land marks. See my notes to my prose translations of the "Odyssey," ii. p. 21, or on Eur. "Alcest." vol. i. p. 240.


The Iliad of Homer

The unwelcome message to the Phrygian king. "Cease to consult, the time for action calls; War, horrid war, approaches to your walls! Assembled armies oft have I beheld; But ne'er till now such numbers charged a field: Thick as autumnal leaves or driving sand, The moving squadrons blacken all the strand. Thou, godlike Hector! all thy force employ, Assemble all the united bands of Troy; In just array let every leader call The foreign troops: this day demands them all!" The voice divine the mighty chief alarms; The council breaks, the warriors rush to arms. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train, Nations on nations fill the dusky plain, Men, steeds, and chariots, shake the trembling ground: The tumult thickens, and the skies resound. Amidst the plain, in sight of Ilion, stands A rising mount, the work of human hands; (This for Myrinne's tomb the immortals know, Though call'd Bateia in the world below;) Beneath their chiefs in martial order here, The auxiliar troops and Trojan hosts appear. The godlike Hector, high above the rest, Shakes his huge spear, and nods his plumy crest: In throngs around his native bands repair, And groves of lances glitter in the air.


BOOK II. Divine Æneas brings the Dardan race, Anchises' son, by Venus' stolen embrace, Born in the shades of Ida's secret grove; (A mortal mixing with the queen of love;) Archilochus and Acamas divide The warrior's toils, and combat by his side. Who fair Zeleia's wealthy valleys till,106 Fast by the foot of Ida's sacred hill, Or drink, Æsepus, of thy sable flood, Were led by Pandarus, of royal blood; To whom his art Apollo deign'd to show, Graced with the presents of his shafts and bow. From rich Apaesus and Adrestia's towers, High Teree's summits, and Pityea's bowers; From these the congregated troops obey Young Amphius and Adrastus' equal sway; Old Merops' sons; whom, skill'd in fates to come, The sire forewarn'd, and prophesied their doom: Fate urged them on! the sire forewarn'd in vain, They rush'd to war, and perish'd on the plain. From Practius' stream, Percote's pasture lands, And Sestos and Abydos' neighbouring strands, From great Arisba's walls and Selle's coast, Asius Hyrtacides conducts his host: High on his car he shakes the flowing reins, His fiery coursers thunder o'er the plains.


—Zeleia, another name for Lycia. The inhabitants were greatly devoted to the worship of Apollo. See Muller, "Dorians," vol. i. p. 248.


82 The fierce Pelasgi next, in war renown'd, March from Larissa's ever-fertile ground: In equal arms their brother leaders shine, Hippothous bold, and Pyleus the divine.

The Iliad of Homer

Next Acamas and Pyrous lead their hosts, In dread array, from Thracia's wintry coasts; Round the bleak realms where Hellespontus roars, And Boreas beats the hoarse-resounding shores. With great Euphemus the Ciconians move, Sprung from Troezenian Ceus, loved by Jove. Pyraechmes the Paeonian troops attend, Skill'd in the fight their crooked bows to bend; From Axius' ample bed he leads them on, Axius, that laves the distant Amydon, Axius, that swells with all his neighbouring rills, And wide around the floating region fills. The Paphlagonians Pylaemenes rules, Where rich Henetia breeds her savage mules, Where Erythinus' rising cliffs are seen, Thy groves of box, Cytorus! ever green, And where Ægialus and Cromna lie, And lofty Sesamus invades the sky, And where Parthenius, roll'd through banks of flowers, Reflects her bordering palaces and bowers. Here march'd in arms the Halizonian band, Whom Odius and Epistrophus command, From those far regions where the sun refines The ripening silver in Alybean mines.


BOOK II. There mighty Chromis led the Mysian train, And augur Ennomus, inspired in vain; For stern Achilles lopp'd his sacred head, Roll'd down Scamander with the vulgar dead. Phorcys and brave Ascanius here unite The Ascanian Phrygians, eager for the fight. Of those who round Maeonia's realms reside, Or whom the vales in shades of Tmolus hide, Mestles and Antiphus the charge partake, Born on the banks of Gyges' silent lake. There, from the fields where wild Maeander flows, High Mycale, and Latmos' shady brows, And proud Miletus, came the Carian throngs, With mingled clamours and with barbarous tongues.107 Amphimachus and Naustes guide the train, Naustes the bold, Amphimachus the vain, Who, trick'd with gold, and glittering on his car, Rode like a woman to the field of war. Fool that he was! by fierce Achilles slain, The river swept him to the briny main: There whelm'd with waves the gaudy warrior lies The valiant victor seized the golden prize. The forces last in fair array succeed, Which blameless Glaucus and Sarpedon lead The warlike bands that distant Lycia yields, Where gulfy Xanthus foams along the fields.


—Barbarous tongues. "Various as were the dialects of the Greeks—and these differences existed not only between the several tribes, but even between neighbouring cities—they yet acknowledged in their language that they formed but one nation were but branches of the same family. Homer has 'men of other tongues:' and yet Homer had no general name for the Greek nation."—Heeren, "Ancient Greece," Section vii. p. 107, sq.



ARGUMENT. THE DUEL OF MENELAUS AND PARIS. The armies being ready to engage, a single combat is agreed upon between Menelaus and Paris (by the intervention of Hector) for the determination of the war. Iris is sent to call Helen to behold the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam sat with his counsellers observing the Grecian leaders on the plain below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of them. The kings on either part take the solemn oath for the conditions of the combat. The duel ensues; wherein Paris being overcome, he is snatched away in a cloud by Venus, and transported to his apartment. She then calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers together. Agamemnon, on the part of the Grecians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of the articles. The three-and-twentieth day still continues throughout this book. The scene is sometimes in the fields before Troy, and sometimes in Troy itself. Thus by their leaders' care each martial band Moves into ranks, and stretches o'er the land. With shouts the Trojans, rushing from afar, Proclaim their motions, and provoke the war So when inclement winters vex the plain With piercing frosts, or thick-descending rain, To warmer seas the cranes embodied fly,108


The Iliad of Homer


With noise, and order, through the midway sky; To pigmy nations wounds and death they bring, And all the war descends upon the wing, But silent, breathing rage, resolved and skill'd109 By mutual aids to fix a doubtful field, Swift march the Greeks: the rapid dust around Darkening arises from the labour'd ground. Thus from his flaggy wings when Notus sheds A night of vapours round the mountain heads, Swift-gliding mists the dusky fields invade, To thieves more grateful than the midnight shade; While scarce the swains their feeding flocks survey, Lost and confused amidst the thicken'd day: So wrapp'd in gathering dust, the Grecian train, A moving cloud, swept on, and hid the plain. Now front to front the hostile armies stand, Eager of fight, and only wait command; When, to the van, before the sons of fame Whom Troy sent forth, the beauteous Paris came: In form a god! the panther's speckled hide Flow'd o'er his armour with an easy pride:
The cranes. "Marking the tracts of air, the clamorous cranes Wheel their due flight in varied ranks descried: And each with outstretch'd neck his rank maintains, In marshall'd order through th' ethereal void." Lorenzo de Medici, in Roscoe's Life, Appendix. See Cary's Dante: "Hell," canto v.

Silent, breathing rage. "Thus they, Breathing united force with fixed thought, Moved on in silence." "Paradise Lost," book i. 559.

BOOK III. His bended bow across his shoulders flung, His sword beside him negligently hung; Two pointed spears he shook with gallant grace, And dared the bravest of the Grecian race.


As thus, with glorious air and proud disdain, He boldly stalk'd, the foremost on the plain, Him Menelaus, loved of Mars, espies, With heart elated, and with joyful eyes: So joys a lion, if the branching deer, Or mountain goat, his bulky prize, appear; Eager he seizes and devours the slain, Press'd by bold youths and baying dogs in vain. Thus fond of vengeance, with a furious bound, In clanging arms he leaps upon the ground From his high chariot: him, approaching near, The beauteous champion views with marks of fear, Smit with a conscious sense, retires behind, And shuns the fate he well deserved to find. As when some shepherd, from the rustling trees110 Shot forth to view, a scaly serpent sees, Trembling and pale, he starts with wild affright And all confused precipitates his flight: So from the king the shining warrior flies, And plunged amid the thickest Trojans lies.

"As when some peasant in a bushy brake Has with unwary footing press'd a snake; He starts aside, astonish'd, when he spies His rising crest, blue neck, and rolling eyes" Dryden's Virgil, ii. 510.


The Iliad of Homer


As godlike Hector sees the prince retreat, He thus upbraids him with a generous heat: "Unhappy Paris! but to women brave!111 So fairly form'd, and only to deceive! Oh, hadst thou died when first thou saw'st the light, Or died at least before thy nuptial rite! A better fate than vainly thus to boast, And fly, the scandal of thy Trojan host. Gods! how the scornful Greeks exult to see Their fears of danger undeceived in thee! Thy figure promised with a martial air, But ill thy soul supplies a form so fair. In former days, in all thy gallant pride, When thy tall ships triumphant stemm'd the tide, When Greece beheld thy painted canvas flow, And crowds stood wondering at the passing show, Say, was it thus, with such a baffled mien, You met the approaches of the Spartan queen, Thus from her realm convey'd the beauteous prize, And both her warlike lords outshined in Helen's eyes? This deed, thy foes' delight, thy own disgrace, Thy father's grief, and ruin of thy race; This deed recalls thee to the proffer'd fight; Or hast thou injured whom thou dar'st not right? Soon to thy cost the field would make thee know Thou keep'st the consort of a braver foe. Thy graceful form instilling soft desire, Thy curling tresses, and thy silver lyre, Beauty and youth; in vain to these you trust, When youth and beauty shall be laid in dust: Troy yet may wake, and one avenging blow
Dysparis, i.e. unlucky, ill fated, Paris. This alludes to the evils which resulted from his having been brought up, despite the omens which attended his birth.

BOOK III. Crush the dire author of his country's woe." His silence here, with blushes, Paris breaks: "'Tis just, my brother, what your anger speaks: But who like thee can boast a soul sedate, So firmly proof to all the shocks of fate? Thy force, like steel, a temper'd hardness shows, Still edged to wound, and still untired with blows, Like steel, uplifted by some strenuous swain, With falling woods to strew the wasted plain. Thy gifts I praise; nor thou despise the charms With which a lover golden Venus arms; Soft moving speech, and pleasing outward show, No wish can gain them, but the gods bestow. Yet, would'st thou have the proffer'd combat stand, The Greeks and Trojans seat on either hand; Then let a midway space our hosts divide, And, on that stage of war, the cause be tried: By Paris there the Spartan king be fought, For beauteous Helen and the wealth she brought; And who his rival can in arms subdue, His be the fair, and his the treasure too. Thus with a lasting league your toils may cease, And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace; Thus may the Greeks review their native shore, Much famed for generous steeds, for beauty more." He said. The challenge Hector heard with joy, Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst, athwart; and near the foe Advanced with steps majestically slow: While round his dauntless head the Grecians pour Their stones and arrows in a mingled shower.




The Iliad of Homer

Then thus the monarch, great Atrides, cried: "Forbear, ye warriors! lay the darts aside: A parley Hector asks, a message bears; We know him by the various plume he wears." Awed by his high command the Greeks attend, The tumult silence, and the fight suspend. While from the centre Hector rolls his eyes On either host, and thus to both applies: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What Paris, author of the war, demands. Your shining swords within the sheath restrain, And pitch your lances in the yielding plain. Here in the midst, in either army's sight, He dares the Spartan king to single fight; And wills that Helen and the ravish'd spoil, That caused the contest, shall reward the toil. Let these the brave triumphant victor grace, And different nations part in leagues of peace." He spoke: in still suspense on either side Each army stood: the Spartan chief replied: "Me too, ye warriors, hear, whose fatal right A world engages in the toils of fight. To me the labour of the field resign; Me Paris injured; all the war be mine. Fall he that must, beneath his rival's arms; And live the rest, secure of future harms. Two lambs, devoted by your country's rite, To earth a sable, to the sun a white, Prepare, ye Trojans! while a third we bring Select to Jove, the inviolable king. Let reverend Priam in the truce engage, And add the sanction of considerate age;

BOOK III. His sons are faithless, headlong in debate, And youth itself an empty wavering state; Cool age advances, venerably wise, Turns on all hands its deep-discerning eyes; Sees what befell, and what may yet befall, Concludes from both, and best provides for all. The nations hear with rising hopes possess'd, And peaceful prospects dawn in every breast. Within the lines they drew their steeds around, And from their chariots issued on the ground; Next, all unbuckling the rich mail they wore, Laid their bright arms along the sable shore. On either side the meeting hosts are seen With lances fix'd, and close the space between. Two heralds now, despatch'd to Troy, invite The Phrygian monarch to the peaceful rite. Talthybius hastens to the fleet, to bring The lamb for Jove, the inviolable king. Meantime to beauteous Helen, from the skies The various goddess of the rainbow flies: (Like fair Laodice in form and face, The loveliest nymph of Priam's royal race:) Her in the palace, at her loom she found; The golden web her own sad story crown'd, The Trojan wars she weaved (herself the prize) And the dire triumphs of her fatal eyes. To whom the goddess of the painted bow: "Approach, and view the wondrous scene below!112



The following scene, in which Homer has contrived to introduce so brilliant a sketch of the Grecian warriors, has been imitated by Euripides, who in his "Phoenissae" represents Antigone surveying the opposing champions from a high tower, while the paedagogus describes their insignia and details their histories.


Thy love the motive. and Hicetaon. Panthus. And. once the strong. Clymene and Æthra. Lean'd on the walls and bask'd before the sun: Chiefs." This said. Her handmaids. or lean upon their shields. that send a feeble voice. all that once were dear. So dreadful late. and valiant Trojan knight. Paris alone and Sparta's king advance. and most in Priam's grace. the fate of combat tries. long in council tried. [056] There sat the seniors of the Trojan race: (Old Priam's chiefs. . But wise through time. Rush to her thought. Now rest their spears. and sage Ucalegon. like grasshoppers rejoice. O'er her fair face a snowy veil she threw. Antenor grave.) The king the first. from the loom withdrew. and force a tender tear. In single fight to toss the beamy lance. and narrative with age. In summer days. and wakes her former fires. the wisest of the reverend throng.92 The Iliad of Homer Each hardy Greek. Ceased is the war. Each met in arms. A bloodless race. and thy charms the prize. and silent all the fields. Thymoetes at his side. Lampus and Clytius. the many-coloured maid inspires Her husband's love. who no more in bloody fights engage. wait Her silent footsteps to the Scaean gate. softly sighing. parents. And next. and furious for the fight. Her country.

the cause The gods these armies and this force employ. and almost divine! Though some of larger stature tread the green. What winning graces! what majestic mien! She moves a goddess. "No wonder such celestial charms113 For nine long years have set the world in arms. when the Spartan queen approach'd the tower. convey that fatal face. See on the plain thy Grecian spouse appears. and she looks a queen! Yet hence. And from destruction save the Trojan race. 113 .BOOK III. Zeuxis." 93 The good old Priam welcomed her. and his country's pride. as a motto. iii. But lift thy eyes. and cried. The hostile gods conspire the fate of Troy. my child. &c. and thus the fair replied: —No wonder. what Greek is he (Far as from hence these aged orbs can see) Around whose brow such martial graces shine. These. is said to have appended these lines to his picture of Helen. "Approach. In secret own'd resistless beauty's power: They cried. O Heaven. Valer Max. the celebrated artist. so awful. and grace thy father's side." Thus ceased the king. No crime of thine our present sufferings draws. The friends and kindred of thy former years. and say. 7. So tall. None match his grandeur and exalted mien: He seems a monarch. but Heaven's disposing will. Not thou.

Ah! had I died.94 The Iliad of Homer "Before thy presence. and thus began: "O bless'd Atrides! born to prosperous fate. before my days of shame! And oh! that still he bore a brother's name!" With wonder Priam view'd the godlike man. on the banks of the Sangarius. till grief or dire disease Shall waste the form whose fault it was to please! The king of kings. My brothers. dwelling apart from men. When Priam wishes to illustrate emphatically the most numerous host in which he ever found himself included. and a theme eminently popular with his hearers. With conscious shame and reverential fear. what numbers yet remain! In Phrygia once were gallant armies known. the wives and daughters of the Grecian heroes. When godlike Mygdon led their troops of horse. to Paris only kind! For this I mourn. And I. ere to these walk I fled. for the purpose of resisting the formidable Amazons. friends. When Bellerophon is to be employed in a [057] . and my nuptial bed. indefatigable women. Successful monarch of a mighty state! How vast thy empire! Of your matchless train What numbers lost. when Otreus fill'd the throne. and great in arts of sway: My brother once. permitting only a short temporary intercourse. In ancient time. to join them. I appear. Atrides. raised the Trojan force: Against the manlike Amazons we stood. he tells us that it was assembled in Phrygia. burning out their right breast with a view of enabling themselves to draw the bow freely. A nation of courageous. Extoll'd the happy prince. We find these warlike females constantly reappearing in the ancient poems. and universally accepted as past realities in the Iliad. hardy. or heroines. father. stimulating to the fancy of the poet. False to them all. you survey.114 114 The early epic was largely occupied with the exploits and sufferings of women. Great in the war. this was at once a general type. for the purpose of renovating their numbers. and daughter left behind. False to my country.

and orders all. When Atreus' son harangued the listening train. the Spartan most engaged our view. like Æneas. And strength of numbers. ." Then Helen thus: "Whom your discerning eyes Have singled out. O king! have seen that wondrous man When. The stately ram thus measures o'er the ground. to plead the Grecian cause. in martial grace. 2. Though great Atrides overtops his head. Liv 1. Nor yet appear his care and conduct small. trusting Jove and hospitable laws. and thus began:115 "Myself. he is despatched against the Amazons.) My house was honour'd with each royal guest: I knew their persons. master of the flock. once more he view'd the warrior train. i p. without a fault. is Ithacus the wise. And Sangar's stream ran purple with their blood. and both approved in arts. (Great Menelaus urged the same request. his shoulders larger spread. whose arms lie scatter'd on the plain? Broad is his breast. Just was his sense. Both brave in arms. had always been favourable to the restoration of Helen. greater reverence drew. by those who prudently wished to procure his death. A barren island boasts his glorious birth.BOOK III." Antenor took the word." This said. yet full. To Troy he came. But far inferior those. to this Grecian race. 95 deadly and perilous undertaking. and admired their parts. and his expression plain. And. Erect. His fame for wisdom fills the spacious earth. Ulysses seated. 115 —Antenor. From rank to rank he moves. His words succinct. vol. "What's he. surveys them round. 289.—Grote.

And lofty stature. and yet more loud." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus. with giant strength endued. of course. in thought profound. and sink into the heart! Wondering we hear.116 His modest eyes he fix'd upon the ground. nor stretch'd his sceptred hand. while the chiefs in still attention hung. (the beauteous queen replied.96 The Iliad of Homer [058] He spoke no more than just the thing he ought. Nor lifts the eye. Like thunders rolling from a distant cloud. 116 "His lab'ring heart with sudden rapture seized He paus'd. 117 . Now stronger notes engage the listening crowd. Homer. It. Our ears refute the censure of our eyes. Pours the full tide of eloquence along. Unskill'd and uninspired he seems to stand. Whose brawny shoulders. Nor raised his head. As one unskill'd or dumb. with easy art. and fix'd in deep surprise. "Gnomol. 99. 20. While from his lips the melting torrent flows. nor graceful moves the hand: Then. But when Ulysses rose." 148. Soft as the fleeces of descending snows. he seem'd to stand. well observes that this comparison may also be sarcastically applied to the frigid style of oratory.) Himself a host: the Grecian strength and pride. what elocution flows! Soft as the fleeces of descending snows." The king then ask'd (as yet the camp he view'd) "What chief is that. Louder the accents rise. See! bold Idomeneus superior towers Amid yon circle of his Cretan powers. here merely denotes the ready fluency of Ulysses. and whose swelling chest. Melting they fall. But. when he speaks. Duport. and on the ground in silence gazed.117 The copious accents fall." p. far exceed the rest? "Ajax the great.

118 Wrapt in the cold embraces of the tomb. One bold on foot. the same our native shore. Great as a god! I saw him once before. Perhaps the chiefs. as one mother bore. and one renown'd for horse. Perhaps their swords some nobler quarrel draws. and men of mighty fame. nor knew her brothers' doom. All valiant chiefs. slain during this war. and Sparta's king advance. 32. however. 22. and end the dire debate. Virgil and others. and could in order name. thy joyful people wait To seal the truce. In measured lists to toss the weighty lance. 97 —Her brothers' doom. but sought in vain: Castor and Pollux. Æn. They perished in combat with Lynceus and Idas. For distant Troy refused to sail the seas. Poet Astr. Idaeus' arms the golden goblets press'd. Paris. Yet two are wanting of the numerous train.BOOK III. vi. Adorn'd with honours in their native shore. Ashamed to combat in their sister's cause. thy son. from warlike toils at ease. through the crowded town. With Menelaus on the Spartan shore. Bring the rich wine and destined victims down. O father of the Trojan state! The nations call. The rest I know. 487. And who his rival shall in arms subdue. Meantime the heralds.119 Who thus the venerable king address'd: "Arise. One house contain'd us. 118 . whilst besieging Sparta." So spoke the fair. and heard of wars no more. make them share immortality by turns. first in martial force. See Hygin. Cf. My brothers these. 119 Idreus was the arm-bearer and charioteer of king Priam. Whom long my eyes have sought. Silent they slept.

98 [059] The Iliad of Homer His be the dame. On either side a sacred herald stands.e. Slow they proceed: the sage Ulysses then Arose. and bade the chiefs prepare To join his milk-white coursers to the car. and on each monarch's hands Pour the full urn. then draws the Grecian lord His cutlass sheathed beside his ponderous sword. Who rule the dead. before which she could not expire. the left-hand gates. Thus with a lasting league our toils may cease. 121 120 .121 The heralds part it. and spreads his lifted hands: "O first and greatest power! whom all obey. Who high on Ida's holy mountain sway. Then loudly thus before the attentive bands He calls the gods. and view from pole to pole! Thou mother Earth! and all ye living floods! Infernal furies. and Tartarean gods. Amid the Grecian host and Trojan train. He mounts the seat. and his the treasure too. The gentle steeds through Scaea's gates they guide:120 Next from the car descending on the plain. and the princes share. This was customary in all sacrifices. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings. rather Scaean gates. The wine they mix. and all who falsely swear! —Scaea's gates." With grief he heard. Hence we find Iras descending to cut off the hair of Dido. for beauty more. And Troy possess her fertile fields in peace: So shall the Greeks review their native shore. From the sign'd victims crops the curling hair. Much famed for generous steeds. i. Eternal Jove! and you bright orb that roll From east to west. Antenor at his side. and with him rose the king of men.

mighty Jove! and hear. Which Jove refused. and Mars decide the field. And every age record the signal day. let the chiefs engage. The dame and treasures let the Trojan keep. reverend Priam rose. This if the Phrygians shall refuse to yield." With that the chief the tender victims slew. If. And all their lust be scatter'd as the dust!" Thus either host their imprecations join'd. If by my brother's lance the Trojan bleed. "Hear. Shed like this wine." 99 [060] . Nor view the danger of so dear a son. Arms must revenge. And thus express'd a heart o'ercharged with woes: "Ye Greeks and Trojans. Whose arms shall conquer and what prince shall fall. for heaven disposes all. And Greece returning plough the watery deep. The vital spirit issued at the wound. But spare the weakness of my feeble age: In yonder walls that object let me shun.BOOK III. From the same urn they drink the mingled wine. Be his the wealth and beauteous dame decreed: The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay. and be witness. The rites now finish'd. And add libations to the powers divine. Hear. Heaven only knows. While thus their prayers united mount the sky. And in the dust their bleeding bodies threw. disdain the thirsty ground. by Paris slain. and mingled with the wind. ye gods on high! And may their blood. And left the members quivering on the ground. May all their consorts serve promiscuous lust. who first the league confound. Great Menelaus press the fatal plain.

O give that author of the war to fate And shades eternal! let division cease. Bold Hector and Ulysses now dispose The lists of combat. Antenor at his side. On lofty Ida's holy mount adored! Whoe'er involved us in this dire debate. thine leap'd forth. high Heaven's superior lord. the hoary king no longer stay'd. Who first shall launch his pointed spear in air.100 The Iliad of Homer This said. Both armies sat the combat to survey. by fatal chance Ordain'd the first to whirl the weighty lance. Then. A radiant baldric. o'er his shoulder tied. Braced in and fitted to his softer breast. But on his car the slaughter'd victims laid: Then seized the reins his gentle steeds to guide. In gilded arms magnificently bright: The purple cuishes clasp his thighs around. And drove to Troy. With flowers adorn'd. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: His youthful face a polish'd helm o'erspread. by sacred lots prepare. And words like these are heard through all the bands: "Immortal Jove. with silver buckles bound: Lycaon's corslet his fair body dress'd. and the ground inclose: Next to decide. The people pray with elevated hands. Paris. The beauteous warrior now arrays for fight. . And round the lists the generous coursers neigh." With eyes averted Hector hastes to turn The lots of fight and shakes the brazen urn. And joyful nations join in leagues of peace. Beside each chief his azure armour lay.

Amidst the dreadful vale. but first prefers his prayers: "Give me. The Spartan hero sheathes his limbs in arms. and but barely. flutt'ring. bending from the blow. And glancing downward. the chiefs advance. 122 —Nor pierced. All pale with rage. aid my righteous cause. The waving horse-hair nodded on his head: His figured shield. Avenge the breach of hospitable laws! Let this example future times reclaim. Atrides then his massy lance prepares. and poised in air the javelin sent. seemed to loiter as it flew. His corslet pierces. With equal speed and fired by equal charms. . Just. 742. a shining orb. And faintly tinkled on the brazen shield. but with a bound122 Leap'd from the buckler. his feeble hand a jav'lin threw. The Trojan first his shining javelin threw." Be said. he takes. the Greek and Trojan band. blunted. Which. great Jove! to punish lawless lust. to the mark it held.BOOK III. Through Paris' shield the forceful weapon went. and his garment rends. ii. In act to throw. And lay the Trojan gasping in the dust: Destroy the aggressor. And in his hand a pointed javelin shakes. Nor pierced the brazen orb. The wary Trojan." Dryden's Virgil. on the ground. "This said. 101 [061] Now round the lists the admiring armies stand. With javelins fix'd. and shake the threatening lance. Full on Atrides' ringing shield it flew. near his flank descends. And guard from wrong fair friendship's holy name.

and burst the golden band. The matchless Helen. amidst the Greeks he threw.102 The Iliad of Homer [062] Eludes the death. at his rival's heart. In borrow'd form. The queen of love her favour'd champion shrouds (For gods can all things) in a veil of clouds. With pleasing sweets his fainting sense renews. Raised from the field the panting youth she led. came. But Venus trembled for the prince of Troy: Unseen she came. And all the dome perfumes with heavenly dews. To her. dragg'd the chief along. Meantime the brightest of the female kind. In thirst of vengeance. Heaven success denies. (She seem'd an ancient maid. while the embroider'd thong That tied his helmet. enraged. And left an empty helmet in his hand. well-skill'd to cull . o'er the walls reclined. The dart falls harmless. And gently laid him on the bridal bed. Then had his ruin crown'd Atrides' joy. the laughter-loving dame. Broke short: the fragments glitter'd on the sand. Then. and strook Full on his casque: the crested helmet shook. The Greeks with smiles the polish'd trophy view. The brittle steel. as once more he lifts the deadly dart. The casque. beset with Trojan beauties. and towards the Grecian crew (Seized by the crest) the unhappy warrior drew. Struggling he followed." Furious he said. unfaithful to his hand. and disappoints his foe: But fierce Atrides waved his sword. The raging warrior to the spacious skies Raised his upbraiding voice and angry eyes: "Then is it vain in Jove himself to trust? And is it thus the gods assist the just? When crimes provoke us. and the falchion flies.

and wind the twisted wool. and waits thee on the well-known bed.) The goddess softly shook her silken vest. INVITING HELEN TO THE CHAMBER OF PARIS. He lies. That shed perfumes. Fair as a god. with odours round him spread. Not like a warrior parted from the foe.BOOK III. But some gay dancer in the public show. happy nymph! for thee thy Paris calls. DISGUISED. "Haste." . and whispering thus address'd: 103 VENUS. Safe from the fight. The snowy fleece. in yonder lofty walls.

Too deep my anguish. Fair Venus' neck." 123 [063] Reveal'd the queen. and Helen's secret soul was moved. flowing from her shoulders. but the man she loved. i." Dryden's Virgil. A handmaid goddess at his side to wait. and mount the skies no more.) An odious conquest and a captive wife. For me. And widely spread ambrosial scents around. and detest his bed. or slave. let Venus ease his care. to new nations must I cross the main.104 The Iliad of Homer She spoke. and too wild my woe. And keen reproach. Be fix'd for ever to the Trojan shore. Which. I scorn the coward. reach'd the ground. In length of train descends her sweeping gown. 556. "Thus having said. And. to lawless love no longer led. (victor in the strife. His spouse. the queen of love is known. straight the lively red Forsook her cheek. her eyes that sparkled fire. And breast. Hence let me sail. she turn'd and made appear Her neck refulgent and dishevell'd hair. Else should I merit everlasting shame. reveal'd the queen of soft desire. by her graceful walk. Or carry wars to some soft Asian plain? For whom must Helen break her second vow? What other Paris is thy darling now? Left to Atrides. thus she said: "Then is it still thy pleasure to deceive? And woman's frailty always to believe! Say. from every Phrygian dame: Ill suits it now the joys of love to know. and trembling.123 Struck with her presence. She scorn'd the champion. and if thy Paris bear My absence ill. . Renounce the glories of thy heavenly state.

Cease to provoke me. than their love before. lest I make thee more The world's aversion. the Paphian queen replies: "Obey the power from whom thy glories rise: Should Venus leave thee. of the public rage. every charm must fly. the sad victim. and languish in thy eye.BOOK III." . Now the bright prize for which mankind engage. Then thus incensed. Than. 105 VENUS PRESENTING HELEN TO PARIS. Fade from thy cheek.

divinely fair. Unseen. But let the business of our life be love: These softer moments let delights employ. as he view'd her charms. she turn'd away Her glowing eyes. The maids officious round their mistress wait. Full in her Paris' sight. Where. various tasks attend. and silent. And kind embraces snatch the hasty joy. the fairest of her sex obey'd.106 The Iliad of Homer [064] At this. Not thus I loved thee. who. Nor add reproaches to the wounds I bear. This day the foe prevail'd by Pallas' power: We yet may vanquish in a happier hour: There want not gods to favour us above. Late fled the field. all dispersing. Then. when from Sparta's shore . and renew the fight: Yet Helen bids thee stay. and yet survives his fame? O hadst thou died beneath the righteous sword Of that brave man whom once I call'd my lord! The boaster Paris oft desired the day With Sparta's king to meet in single fray: Go now." The prince replies: "Ah cease. and enter'd at the palace gate. Provoke Atrides. Led by the goddess of the Smiles and Loves. lost to sense of shame. And veil'd her blushes in a silken shade. lest thou unskill'd Shouldst fall an easy conquest on the field. from the train she moves. and thus began to say: "Is this the chief. once more thy rival's rage excite. The queen and goddess to the prince ascend. the queen of love Had placed the beauteous progeny of Jove. Arrived.

the king of kings arose. Cranaus. and all dissolved away!" Thus having spoke. 107 [065] [066] —Cranae's isle. impatient to destroy. Roars through the desert. and demands his prey. ii. And age to age record this signal day. the enamour'd Phrygian boy Rush'd to the bed.e. The stern Atrides rages round the field: So some fell lion whom the woods obey. Then speaking thus." He ceased. The appointed fine let Ilion justly pay." vol. 124 . Let Argive Helen own her lawful lord. Paris he seeks. And the long shout runs echoing through the skies. Him Helen follow'd slow with bashful charms. his army's loud applauses rise. Our brother's arms the just success have found: Be therefore now the Spartan wealth restor'd. impatient for the joy.BOOK III. When first entranced in Cranae's isle I lay. my willing heavenly prize I bore. While these to love's delicious rapture yield. "Ye Trojans. And clasp'd the blooming hero in her arms." and Alberti's "Hesychius. Athens.124 Mix'd with thy soul. all our generous foes! Hear and attest! from Heaven with conquest crown'd. But seeks in vain along the troops of Troy. 338. Even those had yielded to a foe so brave The recreant warrior. p. i. Dardans. See the "Schol. hateful as the grave. This name was derived from one of its early kings. My forced.

108 The Iliad of Homer VENUS. .

.BOOK III. 109 Map. titled "Graeciae Antiquae".


THE BREACH OF THE TRUCE. the powers employ Their careful eyes on long-contended Troy. who is wounded.[067] BOOK IV. and Jupiter sends down Minerva to break the truce. some by praises and others by reproof. Nestor is particularly celebrated for his military discipline. but cured by Machaon. AND THE FIRST BATTLE. and exhorts the leaders. with Jove. . he reviews the troops. fresh with bloom divine. In the meantime some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks. and almost to the end of the seventh book). The gods. ARGUMENT. The gods deliberate in council concerning the Trojan war: they agree upon the continuation of it. The golden goblet crowns with purple wine: While the full bowls flow round. She persuades Pandarus to aim an arrow at Menelaus. The scene is wholly in the field before Troy. The battle joins. assume their thrones of gold: Immortal Hebe. and great numbers are slain on both sides. And now Olympus' shining gates unfold. The same day continues through this as through the last book (as it does also through the two following. Agamemnon is distinguished in all the parts of a good general.

But Juno. "Two powers divine the son of Atreus aid. and with fury spoke: . would the gods for human good provide. Still Priam's walls in peaceful honours grow. enraged. Atrides soon might gain his beauteous bride. and finish all the fates! Shall Heaven by peace the bleeding kingdoms spare. broke Her sullen silence.125 But high in heaven they sit. Each danger wards. and gaze from far. Though great Atrides gain'd the glorious strife." Thus while he spoke. Not thus fair Venus helps her favour'd knight. Then say. their deep designs employ. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. And queen of war. impotent of passion. The tame spectators of his deeds of war. disposed to tempt Saturnia's spleen. The queen of pleasures shares the toils of fight.112 The Iliad of Homer [068] When Jove. Or rouse the furies. ye powers! what signal issue waits To crown this deed. and constant in her care. the queen of heaven. Imperial Juno. and awake the war? Yet. in close consult engaged: Apart they sit. Saves in the moment of the last despair. And meditate the future woes of Troy. and the martial maid. The prudent goddess yet her wrath suppress'd. And through his gates the crowding nations flow. Her act has rescued Paris' forfeit life. Thus waked the fury of his partial queen.

But Jove himself the faithless race defends. I flew from shore to shore." The sire whose thunder shakes the cloudy skies. shook Ilion with alarms. O tyrant of the ethereal reign! My schemes. so called from her temple at Alalcomene in Boeotia. The immortal coursers scarce the labour bore. set two worlds in arms? To spread the war. Assembled nations. the defender.e. "Minerva Alalcomeneis. Not all the gods are partial and unjust. 125 [069] . Sighs from his inmost soul. Loth as thou art to punish lawless lust. and my hopes be vain? Have I. for this." i. In the original. and thus replies: "Oh lasting rancour! oh insatiate hate To Phrygia's monarch. At length ripe vengeance o'er their heads impends.BOOK IV. "Shall then. my labours. 113 THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS. —The martial maid. and the Phrygian state! What high offence has fired the wife of Jove? Can wretched mortals harm the powers above.

None stands so dear to Jove as sacred Troy. and Jove his peace enjoy. and Ilion float with gore: To boundless vengeance the wide realm be given.. Till vast destruction glut the queen of heaven! So let it be. and replies: "Three towns are Juno's on the Grecian plains. and give the vengeance way. Bleed all his sons.114 The Iliad of Homer That Troy. fulfil thy stern desire. Still to our name their hecatombs expire. Argos. 453. and Troy's whole race thou wouldst confound. Met. More dear than all the extended earth contains. And altars blaze with unextinguish'd fire. Mycenae. and she was regarded as the patron deity of that city.127 "Anything for a quiet life!" —Argos. whose guilt demands their fate. Æn. 28. Burst all her gates. 127 126 . vi. For know. Servius on Virg. Which gods have raised. Presume not thou the lifted bolt to stay. Apul. or than Priam's race. and the Spartan wall." At this the goddess rolled her radiant eyes. Remember Troy. and wrap her walls in fire! Let Priam bleed! if yet you thirst for more. No mortals merit more distinguish'd grace Than godlike Priam. And yon fair structures level with the ground! Haste. leave the skies. p. or earth-born men enjoy. But should this arm prepare to wreak our hate On thy loved realms. i.. The worship of Juno at Argos was very celebrated in ancient times. of all the numerous towns that rise Beneath the rolling sun and starry skies. Then on the Thunderer fix'd them.126 When heaven no longer hears the name of Troy.

" . And shot like lightning from Olympus' height. l. but must resent in vain.) 128 115 [070] —A wife and sister. So Apuleius." The sire of men and monarch of the sky The advice approved. And the proud Trojans first infringe the peace. And styled the consort of the thundering Jove. Their sudden friendship by her arts may cease. iii. who walk in awful state above The majesty of heav'n. and all her arts employ To make the breach the faithless act of Troy. As the red comet. Yet some distinction Juno might require. from Saturnius sent To fright the nations with a dire portent. speaks of her as "Jovis germana et conjux.128 Let both consent.BOOK IV. nor I forbid their fall: 'Tis not in me the vengeance to remove. And heaven shall act as we direct the way. "But I. and both by terms comply. So shall the gods our joint decrees obey. to share the realms above. See ready Pallas waits thy high commands To raise in arms the Greek and Phrygian bands. Sprung with thyself from one celestial sire." i. c. Fired with the charge. 70. Dissolve the league. "conjuge me Jovis et sorore. 64. Nor thou a wife and sister's right deny. 3. A goddess born. These thou mayst raze." Dryden's "Virgil. Of power superior why should I complain? Resent I may. and bade Minerva fly. (A fatal sign to armies on the plain. the sister-wife of Jove. Od. Or trembling sailors on the wintry main. The crime's sufficient that they share my love. she headlong urged her flight. and so Horace.

the gods this signal sent.) pass'd disguised along. when vapours fired Impress the air. gleaming through the even On a sunbeam." They said. Who from Antenor traced his high descent. the great arbiter of peace and wars. led from black Æsepus' flood. swift as a shooting star In autumn thwarts the night. couldst thou direct thy dart. to the Spartan's heart? What gifts from Troy. her course she bent.130 With flaming shields in martial circle stood. Jove. rising from Mount Cotyius. Like bold Laodocus. 130 . Thy country's foe. the Grecian glory slain? 129 "Thither came Uriel. The warlike Pandarus. With eyes erect the gazing hosts admire The power descending. and shows the mariner From what point of his compass to beware Impetuous winds. Whose squadrons.116 The Iliad of Homer With sweeping glories glides along in air. from Paris wouldst thou gain. in the southern part of the chain of Ida. and the heavens on fire! "The gods (they cried). Amidst the ranks Lycaon's son she found. And shakes the sparkles from its blazing hair:129 Between both armies thus. for strength renown'd. or bloodier scenes prepares. To him the goddess: "Phrygian! canst thou hear A well-timed counsel with a willing ear? What praise were thine. And fate now labours with some vast event: Jove seals the league. —Æsepus' flood." iv. (In shape a mortal. while Pallas through the Trojan throng." —"Paradise Lost. 555. A river of Mysia. in open sight Shot the bright goddess in a trail of light. Amidst his triumph.

Then seize the occasion. and joins the doubling ends. And sixteen palms his brow's large honours spread: The workmen join'd. 'Twas form'd of horn. the warrior bends. His polish'd bow with hasty rashness seized. and smooth'd with artful toil: A mountain goat resign'd the shining spoil. by the Greeks unseen. Till the barb'd points approach the circling bow. and shaped the bended horns. to speed the shaft. The stately quarry on the cliffs lay dead. . Fits the sharp arrow to the well-strung bow. Who pierced long since beneath his arrows bled. address thy vow To Lycian Phoebus with the silver bow. On Zelia's altars. Now with full force the yielding horn he bends. Close to his breast he strains the nerve below. and cause of future woes. And beaten gold each taper point adorns. and madly at the motion pleased. dare the mighty deed. Screen'd by the shields of his surrounding friends: There meditates the mark. Then offers vows with hecatombs to crown Apollo's altars in his native town. And swear the firstlings of thy flock to pay. Drawn to an arch. Fated to wound. This. and may that aim succeed! But first. Sounds the tough horn. to the god of day. One from a hundred feather'd deaths he chose. and twangs the quivering string.BOOK IV. Aim at his breast. a town of Troas. The impatient weapon whizzes on the wing. at the foot of Ida. 131 117 [071] —Zelia."131 He heard. and couching low.

while all the Greeks around With answering sighs return'd the plaintive sound. With horror seized. Just where his belt with golden buckles join'd. and (weakened in its force) Diverts the weapon from its destined course: So from her babe. With equal lustre various colours vie. [072] "Oh. The watchful mother wafts the envenom'd fly. and the Tyrian dye: So great Atrides! show'd thy sacred blood. Then. Pallas assists. The shining whiteness. and saw the gushing tide: Nor less the Spartan fear'd. . Where linen folds the double corslet lined. Stains the pure ivory with a lively red. The royal brother thus his grief express'd. when slumber seals his eye. nor thy guardian power. and conquer. and drew the purple gore. which. before he found The shining barb appear above the wound. the plaited linen tore. And grasp'd his hand. To fight for Greece.118 The Iliad of Homer But thee. hissing from above. that heaved his manly breast. Pass'd the broad belt. the king of men descried The shaft infix'd. and through the corslet drove. to be slain! The race of Trojans in thy ruin join. a fatal truce to thee! Wert thou exposed to all the hostile train. dear as life! did I for this agree The solemn truce. She turn'd the shaft. As down thy snowy thigh distill'd the streaming flood. Atrides! in that dangerous hour The gods forget not. A nymph in Caria or Maeonia bred. And razed the skin. with a sigh. As when some stately trappings are decreed To grace a monarch on his bounding steed. The folds it pierced.

BOOK IV. that great avenging day. alas! deserv'st a happier fate. Those hands we plighted. And only mourn." He said: a leader's and a brother's fears Possess his soul. When Troy's proud glories in the dust shall lay. Still must I mourn the period of thy days. Troy seized of Helen. O'erwhelm me. But thou. While some proud Trojan thus insulting cries. The feeble dart is guiltless of my fate: 119 . his mighty brother slain.' Oh! ere that dire disgrace shall blast my fame.) 'Such are the trophies Greece from Ilion brings. confirm'd with wine and gore. Not thus our vows. When Priam's powers and Priam's self shall fall. Shall all be vain: when Heaven's revenge is slow. And one prodigious ruin swallow all. which thus the Spartan cheers: "Let not thy words the warmth of Greece abate. and bid the thunder roll. the heartless Greeks no more Shall dream of conquests on the hostile shore. (And spurns the dust where Menelaus lies. from the pole Bare his red arm. and our glory lost. And unrevenged. and those oaths we swore. Thy bones shall moulder on a foreign coast. without my share of praise? Deprived of thee. I see the god. I see the Eternal all his fury shed. Such mighty woes on perjured princes wait. Jove but prepares to strike the fiercer blow. And such the conquest of her king of kings! Lo his proud vessels scatter'd o'er the main. And shake his aegis o'er their guilty head. earth! and hide a monarch's shame. already. And faith is scorn'd by all the perjured line. The day shall come.

And finds Machaon. Pierced by some Lycian or Dardanian bow. My varied belt repell'd the flying wound. Their medical renown was further prolonged in the subsequent poem of Arktinus. a triumph to the foe. Pierced with a winged shaft (the deed of Troy). where sublime he stands132 In arms incircled with his native bands. whither sick and suffering men came to obtain relief—all recognized the god not merely as the object of their common worship.120 The Iliad of Homer Stiff with the rich embroider'd work around. and the Dardan's joy. and extract the dart."—Grote vol. and who principally dwelt near the temples of Asklepius. Herald. It was Podaleirius who first noticed the glaring eyes and disturbed deportment which preceded the suicide of Ajax." 132 —Podaleirius and Machaon are the leeches of the Grecian army. highly prized and consulted by all the wounded chiefs. The Grecian's sorrow. and bid Machaon bring His speedy succour to the Spartan king. called Asklepiads. whose powerful art May stanch the effusion. always thus. Thus. The many families or gentes. wherein the one was represented as unrivalled in surgical operations. Throughout all the historical ages the descendants of Asklepius were numerous and widely diffused. but also as their actual progenitor. "Galen appears uncertain whether Asklepius (as well as Dionysus) was originally a god. p. A grief to us. Then thus: "Machaon. the Iliou Persis. be swift. who devoted themselves to the study and practice of medicine. Through the thick files he darts his searching eyes. but Apollodorus professed to fix the exact date of his apotheosis. [073] . the other as sagacious in detecting and appreciating morbid symptoms. to the king repair. His wounded brother claims thy timely care. i. may Heaven thy life defend! Now seek some skilful hand." With hasty zeal the swift Talthybius flies. or whether he was first a man and then became afterwards a god." To whom the king: "My brother and my friend. 248.

" book 1. and Æsculapius used. and sovereign balm infused. Once more they glitter in refulgent arms. On foot through all the martial ranks he moves And these encourages. The dauntless king yet standing firm he found. with severe delight. "Brave men!" he cries. The fiery coursers snorted at his side. and those reproves. The shaft he drew." "Orlando Furioso.133 Which Chiron gave. At once the blood is stanch'd. the corslet from his breast unbraced. unactive. and stands Tempering the juice between her ivory hands This o'er her breast she sheds with sovereign art And bathes with gentle touch the wounded part The wound such virtue from the juice derives. Where to the steely point the reed was join'd. Then suck'd the blood. No longer with his warlike steeds he stay'd. His beating bosom claim'd the rising fight. Straight the broad belt with gay embroidery graced. Nor had you seen the king of men appear Confused. Or press'd the car with polish'd brass inlaid But left Eurymedon the reins to guide. .BOOK IV. The heavy tidings grieved the godlike man Swift to his succour through the ranks he ran. (to such who boldly dare 133 121 "The plant she bruises with a stone. the youth revives. Once more the fields are fill'd with dire alarms. He loosed. While round the prince the Greeks employ their care. And all the chiefs in deep concern around. But fond of glory. but left the head behind. The Trojans rush tumultuous to the war. or surprised with fear.

Till yon tall vessels blaze with Trojan fire? Or trust ye. he stalk'd with ample strides along. Whose crimes sit heavy on her perjured head. . At this the king his generous joy express'd. And her dead warriors strew the mournful plains. Jove is with Greece. a victim to his fear. heartless. First in the fight and every graceful deed. Or thus the fearful with reproaches fires: "Shame to your country. and raise the warriors' souls. For this.122 The Iliad of Homer [074] Urge their swift steeds to face the coming war). To save a trembling. And clasp'd the warrior to his armed breast. but guilty Troy. To Crete's brave monarch and his martial throng. Still must ye wait the foes. Jove a valiant foe shall chase. And bold Meriones excite the rear. Though all the rest with stated rules we bound. to dread." Thus with new ardour he the brave inspires. and still retire. High at their head he saw the chief appear. the hunted deer Falls as he flies. Prepared for flight. 'Tis not for us. Her sons and matrons Greece shall lead in chains. when the generous bowls Restore our blood. scandal of your kind. but doom'd to fly in vain? Confused and panting thus. dastard race?" This said. and let us trust in Jove. Born to the fate ye well deserve to find! Why stand ye gazing round the dreadful plain. in banquets. "Divine Idomeneus! what thanks we owe To worth like thine! what praise shall we bestow? To thee the foremost honours are decreed. "Your ancient valour on the foes approve.

in every toil I share. . And their brown arms obscured the dusky fields. are thy goblets crown'd. The cloud condensing as the west-wind blows: He dreads the impending storm. Spread in dim streams.BOOK IV. Slow from the main the heavy vapours rise. Be still thyself." To whom the Cretan thus his speech address'd: "Secure of me." 123 Charm'd with this heat. Till black as night the swelling tempest shows. Fix'd to thy side. and sail along the skies. and enlarge thy fame. the king his course pursues. Maintain thy honours. [075] Such. Thus from the lofty promontory's brow A swain surveys the gathering storm below. And next the troops of either Ajax views: In one firm orb the bands were ranged around. and drives his flock To the close covert of an arching rock. To mix in fight is all I ask of Heaven. the embattled squadrons stood. a moving iron wood: A shady light was shot from glimmering shields. With spears erect. unmeasured. Thy firm associate in the day of war. in arms a mighty name. O king! exhort the rest. and so thick. Unmix'd. A cloud of heroes blacken'd all the ground. The field shall prove how perjuries succeed. But let the signal be this moment given. And chains or death avenge the impious deed.

And Troy's proud walls lie smoking on the ground. No strength nor skill. The chiefs advises. and Pelagon the great. a firm embodied train. There reverend Nestor ranks his Pylian bands. Inclosed by both. (Exclaim'd the king). be tried: The charge once made. The middle space suspected troops supply. and glories in his force). (His heart exults. more than loud commands. Soon should our arms with just success be crown'd. With strictest order sets his train in arms. round him wait. nor left the power to fly. no warrior turn the rein. and the soldiers warms. who raise your eager bands With great examples. The foot (the strength of war) he ranged behind.124 The Iliad of Homer "O heroes! worthy such a dauntless train. The horse and chariots to the front assign'd." Then to the next the general bends his course. Haemon. But fight. Chromius. thus preserved their force. Alastor. mount the next in haste. Nor cause confusion. He whom the fortune of the field shall cast From forth his chariot. Our great forefathers held this prudent course. Bias the good. Whose godlike virtue we but urge in vain. but just in time. or fall. . Ah! would the gods but breathe in all the rest Such souls as burn in your exalted breast. He gives command to "curb the fiery steed. And with inspiring eloquence commands. Nor seek unpractised to direct the car. By laws like these immortal conquests made. nor the ranks exceed: Before the rest let none too rashly ride. Thus ruled their ardour. Content with javelins to provoke the war.

the palm of age." Thus to the experienced prince Atrides cried. Such as I was beneath Praeneste's wall— Then when I made the foremost foes retire. But heaven its gifts not all at once bestows. Whom with three lives Feronia did endue. Exhaust thy spirits." Dryden's Virgil. What once thou wert. The solemn council best becomes the old: To you the glorious conflict I resign." 125 So spoke the master of the martial art. These years with wisdom crowns. when Ereuthalion. Such as I was. .BOOK IV. "Would heav'n (said he) my strength and youth recall. with action those: The field of combat fits the young and bold. He shook his hoary locks. Let sage advice. that wither human race. viii. When Herilus in single fight I slew. And set whole heaps of conquer'd shields on fire. be mine. And touch'd with transport great Atrides' heart. oh ever mightst thou be! And age the lot of any chief but thee. "Oh! hadst thou strength to match thy brave desires. and thus replied: "Well might I wish. and thy arms unbrace. And nerves to second what thy soul inspires! But wasting years. fell prostrate on the plain." 134 [076] —Well might I wish. 742. And earth's proud tyrants low in ashes laid. could mortal wish renew134 That strength which once in boiling youth I knew. slain Beneath this arm.

And next Ulysses. And found Menestheus on the dusty shore. the king replies: . skill'd in every art? Why stand you distant. but the last in fight. Then give thy warrior-chief a warrior's due. For this your names are call'd before the rest. chiefs! without a blush survey Whole troops before you labouring in the fray? Say. The tumult late begun. Behold me plunging in the thickest fight. To share the pleasures of the genial feast: And can you. nor heard the sounds of war. If glorious deeds afford thy soul delight. they stood intent To watch the motion. he said: "Take back the unjust reproach! Behold we stand Sheathed in bright arms. The king." Struck with his generous wrath. and commence the war. And fears Ulysses. and the rest expect To mix in combat which yourselves neglect? From you 'twas hoped among the first to dare The shock of armies. With hasty ardour thus the chiefs reproved: "Can Peleus' son forget a warrior's part. and but expect command. nor knew so far The peace infringed. With joy the monarch march'd before.126 The Iliad of Homer He said. with his subject bands. who saw their squadrons yet unmoved. With whom the firm Athenian phalanx stands. Who dares to act whate'er thou dar'st to view. dubious of the event. Remote their forces lay." Ulysses heard: the hero's warmth o'erspread His cheek with blushes: and severe. is it thus those honours you requite? The first in banquets.

He was one of the suitors of Helen. and in council wise! With ours. Sage as thou art. friends. (The warlike Sthenelus attends his side. in arms a mighty name) Canst thou. he sought Mycenae's towers. The gods that make. what wonders they recite. While dreadful comets glaring from afar. Haste to the fight. remote. sent by Greece from where Asopus flows. The same portent has already been mentioned. the mingling hosts descry. Thebes' hostile walls unguarded and alone. whose strength could tame The bounding steed. To this day. 127 —Sthenelus.136 Next. modern nations are not wholly free from this superstition. Nor need I to commend. Who view'd him labouring through the ranks of fight? I saw him once. a son of Capaneus. "O great in action. secure of just amends." He said. nor aught to blame. Still first in front the matchless prince appear'd: What glorious toils. and learn'd in human kind. 136 —Forwarn'd the horrors. His steeds and chariots wedged in firm array.BOOK IV. Armies he ask'd. Not we denied. shall keep the worthy. and armies had been given. he approach'd the foes. thy care and ardour are the same. one of the Epigoni. and is said to have been one of those who entered Troy inside the wooden horse. when gathering martial powers.)135 To whom with stern reproach the monarch cried: "O son of Tydeus! (he. and pass'd where great Tydides lay. A peaceful guest. Forewarn'd the horrors of the Theban war. With hands unactive. 135 . but Jove forbade from heaven. A fearless envoy. Forgive the transport of a martial mind. and a careless eye? Not thus thy sire the fierce encounter fear'd.

128 The Iliad of Homer Dauntless he enters. He spared but one to bear the dreadful tale. For Pallas strung his arm and edged his sword. But heard respectful. which had seven gates. With fewer troops we storm'd the Theban wall. the boaster thus begun: [078] "What needs. Two heroes led the secret squadron on. Such Tydeus was. within the winding way.137 In impious acts the guilty father died. Our glories darken their diminish'd name. Mason the fierce. And happier saw the sevenfold city fall. O monarch! this invidious praise. while our sire you raise? Dare to be just. though our fury less. Those fifty slaughter'd in the gloomy vale. The tyrant feasting with his chiefs he found. Atrides! and confess Our value equal. The sons subdued. and hardy Lycophon. Gods! how the son degenerates from the sire!" No words the godlike Diomed return'd. and demands the throne. and in secret burn'd: Not so fierce Capaneus' undaunted son. for Heaven was on their side. And dared to combat all those chiefs around: Dared. Far more than heirs of all our parents' fame. To bar his passage fifty warriors lay. Stern as his sire. Boeotian Thebes." 137 —Sevenfold city. and subdued before their haughty lord. and such his martial fire. Ourselves to lessen. . Stung with the shame.

and ardent. when a black-brow'd gust begins to rise. So to the fight the thick battalions throng. "Thus. no whisper. Dire was the clang. Let him the Greeks to hardy toils excite. The muddy billow o'er the clouds is thrown. the chief disgrace his own. but the chief's commands. the deeps arise. 'Tis ours to labour in the glorious fight. forbear. As when the winds. 736. Those only heard. Whose cause we follow. by the fury of the storm full blown. . And." Dryden's Virgil. White foam at first on the curl'd ocean fries. Till. with awe the rest obey. with the growing storm. Shields urged on shields. and men drove men along Sedate and silent move the numerous bands. Foam o'er the rocks. were Ilion's towers o'erthrown. on the trembling ground Sprung from his car: his ringing arms resound. vii. and dreadful from afar. No sound. 138 129 —As when the winds. The wave behind rolls on the wave before. ascending by degrees.BOOK IV. Till. To him Tydides thus: "My friend. and thunder to the skies. Not so the Trojans. and the king revere: His high concern may well excuse this rage. and whose war we wage: His the first praise. Of arm'd Tydides rushing to the war. from their host ascends A general shout that all the region rends. Suppress thy passion. if we fail. As if some god had snatch'd their voice away. the billows mount the skies.138 First move the whitening surface of the seas. The billows float in order to the shore. Then roars the main." He spoke.

Pale flight around. These Mars incites.139 The nations bleed. To armour armour. And shrilling shouts and dying groans arise. Now shield with shield. Mix'd was the murmur. and those Minerva fires. and dreadful terror reign. The lambs reply from all the neighbouring hills: Such clamours rose from various nations round. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. The hollow vales incessant bleating fills. 986. The groan still deepens. And discord raging bathes the purple plain. but rising every hour. Host against host with shadowy squadrons drew. with helmet helmet closed. His stature reach'd the sky. Small at her birth. ." —"Paradise Lost. Victors and vanquish'd join'd promiscuous cries." iv. Each host now joins. and wait the milker's hand. lance to lance opposed. and confused the sound.130 The Iliad of Homer [079] As when the fleecy flocks unnumber'd stand In wealthy folds. and shakes the world around. and each a god inspires. While scarce the skies her horrid head can bound. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. 139 "Stood Like Teneriffe or Atlas unremoved. Discord! dire sister of the slaughtering power. where'er her steps she turns. She stalks on earth. and the combat burns. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew.

So sinks a tower. and so their cries rebound. Trojans and Greeks now gather round the slain. and all is blood and rage. Fair Simoisius. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. the warriors bleed again: As o'er their prey rapacious wolves engage. The first who struck a valiant Trojan dead: At great Echepolus the lance arrives. The bold Antilochus the slaughter led. Admits the lance: he falls. Razed his high crest. The war renews.BOOK IV. Him. To seek her parents on his flowery side. Warm'd in the brain the brazen weapon lies. and through his helmet drives. As torrents roll. 140 131 [080] The Abantes seem to have been of Thracian origin. The nerves. increased by numerous rills. With rage impetuous. that long assaults had stood Of force and fire. the bold leader of the Abantian throng. Man dies on man. His flank. The soul comes floating in a tide of gore. its walls besmear'd with blood. Agenor's javelin reach'd the hero's heart. unguarded by his ample shield. and spurns the field. Roar through a thousand channels to the main: The distant shepherd trembling hears the sound. whom his mother bore Amid the flocks on silver Simois' shore: The nymph descending from the hills of Ide. And shades eternal settle o'er his eyes.140 Seized to despoil. and dragg'd the corpse along: But while he strove to tug the inserted dart. unbraced. So mix both hosts. down their echoing hills Rush to the vales. . support his limbs no more. and pour'd along the plain. In blooming youth fair Simoisius fell.

141 With piercing shrieks the youth resigns his breath. In act to throw. Arm'd with his spear. he meditates the wound. A chief stood nigh. left a subject to the wind and rain.) Cut down it lies. smooth. once for all. remark that Homer is most anatomically correct as to the parts of the body in which a wound would be immediately mortal. He drops the corpse of Simoisius slain. Cold through his temples glides the whizzing spear. Short was his date! by dreadful Ajax slain. it withers on the plain Thus pierced by Ajax. who from Abydos came. 141 . Old Priam's son. their common care and joy. (Fell'd by some artist with his shining steel. And thence from Simois named the lovely boy. I may. This saw Ulysses. With all its beauteous honours on its head There. with stately branches crown'd. and thus neglected dies. Strode where the foremost of the foes engaged. And Leucus. Democoon was his name. To shape the circle of the bending wheel. At Ajax. loved by wise Ulysses. tall. The pointed lance with erring fury flew. Antiphus his javelin threw. and renders all their cares in vain! So falls a poplar. slew. And trembling heard the javelin as it flew. Simoisius lies Stretch'd on the shore. He falls. And sinks a breathless carcase on the plain. but cautious look'd around. The weapon entered close above his ear. His eye-balls darken with the shades of death. that in watery ground Raised high the head. and largely spread. Struck at his sight the Trojans backward drew.132 The Iliad of Homer Brought forth the babe. And scorch'd by suns. and with grief enraged.

Before his helpless friends. "Trojans. and native bands. .BOOK IV. Ponderous he falls. nor ribb'd with steel. be bold. and crash'd the solid bone. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. And spreads for aid his unavailing hands. Have ye forgot what seem'd your dread before? The great. his clanging arms resound. And shouts and thunders in the fields below. and your strokes they feel. Your weapons enter. Your foaming steeds urge headlong on the foes! Nor are their bodies rocks. The Greeks with shouts press on. And the warm life came issuing from the wound. the fierce Achilles fights no more. roused the Trojan powers: While war's fierce goddess fires the Grecian foe. Supine he tumbles on the crimson sands." Apollo thus from Ilion's lofty towers. Slow he gave way. a fountain almost proverbial for its coldness. (Who from cold Ænus led the Thracian crew. and animates the fight. In vain his valour and illustrious line. Seized with affright the boldest foes appear. And through his navel drove the pointed death: His gushing entrails smoked upon the ground.)142 Full on his ankle dropp'd the ponderous stone. and force with force oppose. E'en godlike Hector seems himself to fear. The foe rush'd furious as he pants for breath. Then great Diores fell. Array'd in terrors. A broken rock the force of Pyrus threw. Burst the strong nerves. by doom divine. the rest tumultuous fled. 142 133 [081] —Ænus. and spoil the dead: But Phoebus now from Ilion's towering height Shines forth reveal'd.

Had some brave chief this martial scene beheld. And one the leader of the Epeian race. With copious slaughter all the fields are red. And crowds on crowds triumphantly expired. In dust the vanquish'd and the victor lies. And swords around him innocently play. Thus fell two heroes. Death's sable shade at once o'ercast their eyes. Stern Thoas. And gash'd his belly with a ghastly wound. To spoil his arms the victor strove in vain. A grove of lances glitter'd at his breast. So fought each host.134 The Iliad of Homer His lance bold Thoas at the conqueror sent. approaching near. By Pallas guarded through the dreadful field. [082] . And quivering in his heaving bosom stood: Till from the dying chief. The Thracian bands against the victor press'd. glaring with revengeful eyes. And counted heroes where he counted men. In sullen fury slowly quits the prize. Amid the lungs was fix'd the winged wood. Deep in his breast above the pap it went. one the pride of Thrace. The corpse now breathless on the bloody plain. The Ætolian warrior tugg'd his weighty spear: Then sudden waved his flaming falchion round. And heap'd with growing mountains of the dead. Might darts be bid to turn their points away. The war's whole art with wonder had he seen. with thirst of glory fired.

135 Map of the Plain of Troy.BOOK IV. .


. But Pallas now Tydides' soul inspires.[083] BOOK V. Gier. Æneas joins Pandarus to oppose him. where he is healed in the temple of Pergamus. e vi riduce Di giovinezza il bel purpureo lume. Pandarus is killed. THE ACTS OF DIOMED. and warms with all her fires. performs wonders in this day's battle. assisted by Pallas. who. excepting Venus. 7: "Nuovo favor del cielo in lui niluce E 'l fa grande. as she is removing her son from the fight. In the meantime Æneas is restored to the field. 143 Compare Tasso. is wounded on the hand by Diomed. and sends him groaning to heaven. enables him to discern gods from mortals. et angusto oltre il costume. but the goddess cures him. and prohibits him from contending with any of the former. he wounds him. Diomed. Mars rallies the Trojans. The scene is the same as in the former. Gl' empie d' honor la faccia. The first battle continues through this book. Pandarus wounds him with an arrow. Apollo seconds her in his rescue.143 Fills with her force. the latter incites Diomed to go against that god. and at length carries off Æneas to Troy." . and assists Hector to make a stand. ARGUMENT. and they overthrow several of the Greeks. among the rest Tlepolemus is slain by Sarpedon. Juno and Minerva descend to resist Mars. Lib. xx. and Æneas in great danger but for the assistance of Venus.

Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. flew thy lance in vain. And had not Vulcan lent celestial aid. And first bold Phegeus cast his sounding spear. And crown her hero with distinguish'd praise. Not so. High on his helm celestial lightnings play. The steeds and chariot. Like the red star that fires the autumnal skies. When fresh he rears his radiant orb to sight. [084] . and stretch'd him on the plain. shoots a keener light. Idaeus fled. And spent in empty air its erring force. These singled from their troops the fight maintain. the fierce effulgence flow'd: Onward she drives him. but rich without a fault. from their steeds. But in a smoky cloud the god of fire Preserved the son.138 The Iliad of Homer Above the Greeks his deathless fame to raise. Fierce for renown the brother-chiefs draw near. Increased the spoils of gallant Diomed. to the navy led. The sons to toils of glorious battle bred. Seized with unusual fear. These. in pity to the sire. Such glories Pallas on the chief bestow'd. He too had sunk to death's eternal shade. Such. In Vulcan's fane the father's days were led. and where the thickest rage. Tydides on the plain. bathed in ocean. The sons of Dares first the combat sought. The unwearied blaze incessant streams supplies. and his brother dead. Where the fight burns. A wealthy priest. Left the rich chariot. And. But pierced his breast. His beamy shield emits a living ray. from his arms. Tydides. furious to engage.

Nor tempt the wrath of heaven's avenging sire. His arms resound. the Greeks the Trojan race pursue. Meantime. Or slain. or fled. on Xanthus' flowery bounds They sat. and shake the lofty wall! Let the brave chiefs their glorious toils divide. Thy fate was next. When by the blood-stain'd hand Minerva press'd The god of battles. Struck with amaze and shame." Her words allay the impetuous warrior's heat. And pierced his shoulder as he mounts his car. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground. His death ennobled by Atrides' hand: As he to flight his wheeling car address'd. and this speech address'd: "Stern power of war! by whom the mighty fall. and bites the bloody sand. and listen'd to the dying sounds.BOOK V. the sons of Dares view. the spirit wings its way. 139 . The speedy javelin drove from back to breast. Who bathe in blood. And everlasting shades his eyes surround. the Trojan crew. The god of arms and martial maid retreat. In dust the mighty Halizonian lay. mighty Jove decide: While we from interdicted fields retire. And some bold chieftain every leader slew: First Odius falls. O Phaestus! doom'd to feel The great Idomeneus' protended steel. And whose the conquest. The Cretan javelin reach'd him from afar. Removed from fight. Whom Borus sent (his son and only joy) From fruitful Tarne to the fields of Troy.

[085] . Beneath his hand the fleet of Paris rose. Next artful Phereclus untimely fell. Diana taught him all her sylvan arts. The fatal cause of all his country's woes. the mystic will of heaven unknown. The spear of Merion mingled with the dead. Through his broad back and heaving bosom went: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. Nor saw his country's peril.140 The Iliad of Homer Then died Scamandrius. expert in the chase. Nursed the young stranger with a mother's care. His brazen armour rings against the ground. nor his own. For loved by Pallas. Between the bladder and the bone it pass'd. From Menelaus' arm the weapon sent. Through his right hip. Theanor. with forceful fury cast. Prone on his knees he falls with fruitless cries. In woods and wilds to wound the savage race. How vain those cares! when Meges in the rear Full in his nape infix'd the fatal spear. Bold Merion sent him to the realms of hell. But he. Whose generous spouse. O Phereclus! was thine. Thy father's skill. and aim unerring darts: But vainly here Diana's arts he tries. From Meges' force the swift Pedaeus fled. The hapless artist. while confused he fled. To bend the bow. The graceful fabric and the fair design. Pallas did impart To him the shipwright's and the builder's art. heavenly fair. And death in lasting slumber seals his eyes. Antenor's offspring from a foreign bed. The fatal lance arrests him as he flies.

descending on the plains. Uproot the forest oaks. On his broad shoulders fell the forceful brand. Sweep o'er the yellow year. amid the Trojan train. Amid the Greek. Thus toil'd the chiefs. folds. and honoured as a god. or lightens in their face. an undistinguish'd prey. Eurypylus inflicts a deadly wound. Then died Hypsenor. in different parts engaged. Thence glancing downwards. and bursts the lofty bounds. generous and divine. one sad waste appear!144 144 141 [086] "Or deluges. Rapt through the ranks he thunders o'er the plain. On him. Pours on the rear. and the peasant's gains. . Who near adored Scamander made abode." Dryden's Virgil ii. O'erwhelm's the bridge. he darts from place to place. now there.BOOK V. Through ruin'd moles the rushing wave resounds. Priest of the stream. Swift through his crackling jaws the weapon glides. lopp'd his holy hand. Now here. amidst the flying numbers found. and bear away Flocks. 408. Which stain'd with sacred blood the blushing sand. Down sunk the priest: the purple hand of death Closed his dim eye. Thus from high hills the torrents swift and strong Deluge whole fields. The yellow harvests of the ripen'd year. and trees. In every quarter fierce Tydides raged. and fate suppress'd his breath. and sweep the trees along. Sprung from the brave Dolopion's mighty line. And flatted vineyards. And the cold tongue and grinning teeth divides. destroy the pains Of lab'ring oxen.

now. and made all Troy retire. thy sacred succour yield. The helping hand of Sthenelus required. And tugg'd the weapon from the gushing wound. If e'er I felt thee in the fighting field. With grief the leader of the Lycian band Saw the wide waste of his destructive hand: His bended bow against the chief he drew.142 The Iliad of Homer While Jove descends in sluicy sheets of rain. That vaunts these eyes shall view the light no more. behind his car retired. Or Phoebus urged me to these fields in vain. And lay the boaster grovelling on the shore. ye Trojans. Swift to the mark the thirsty arrow flew. Whose arrow wounds the chief thou guard'st in fight. Not long the deathful dart he can sustain. And all the labours of mankind are vain. Drove armies back. hither drive your steeds! Lo! by our hand the bravest Grecian bleeds. When thus the king his guardian power address'd. boundless in his ire." . While the proud archer thus exulting cried: "Hither. goddess. O give my lance to reach the Trojan knight. Whose forky point the hollow breastplate tore. The wounded chief. The purple current wandering o'er his vest: "O progeny of Jove! unconquer'd maid! If e'er my godlike sire deserved thy aid. and mock'd the shooter's art. So raged Tydides. Now. and drank the gore: The rushing stream his brazen armour dyed." So spoke he. Deep in his shoulder pierced. Swift from his seat he leap'd upon the ground. boastful: but the winged dart Stopp'd short of life.

" With that. his languid spirits cheer'd. Yet more. As on the fleecy flocks when hunger calls. infused by me. The hero rush'd impetuous to the fight. he bathes with blood the ground." xi. . But trembling leaves the scattering flocks a prey. With tenfold ardour now invades the plain. These see thou shun. Nor rashly strive where human force is vain. His beating bosom claim'd the promised fight. Amidst the field a brindled lion falls. Thus pray'd Tydides. and every foe control. He foams. And all thy godlike father breathes in thee. 411. Wake each paternal virtue in thy soul: Strength swells thy boiling breast. Rush to the fight. Not with less fury stern Tydides flew. and Minerva heard.BOOK V. in every combat shine. "But to nobler sights Michael from Adam's eyes the film removed. the blue-eyed virgin wing'd her flight. 145 143 [087] —From mortal mists. War be thy province. (she cried). Then leaps victorious o'er the lofty mound. His nerves confirm'd. If chance some shepherd with a distant dart The savage wound. Wild with delay. from mortal mists I purge thy eyes. He feels each limb with wonted vigour light. Heaps fall on heaps. and more enraged by pain. through all the embattled plain. If Venus mingle in the martial band. Her shalt thou wound: so Pallas gives command. he rouses at the smart. thy protection mine.145 And set to view the warring deities. he roars. "Be bold." "Paradise Lost. the shepherd dares not stay.

Those slain he left. who. And leaves the father unavailing tears: To strangers now descends his heapy store. Young Xanthus next. The youths return'd not from the doubtful plain. and Thoon felt his rage. Their steeds and chariot to the navy borne. and by his side. and these the only heirs Of all his labours and a life of cares. He leaps amidst them with a furious bound. Cold death o'ertakes them in their blooming years. and the name no more. Hypenor's shoulder his broad falchion cleaves. Astynous breathless fell. The race forgotten. Though now determined by Tydides' spear. As when the lordly lion seeks his food Where grazing heifers range the lonely wood. and mystic dreams unfold. and combat side by side. His people's pastor. . and tears them to the ground: So from their seats the brother chiefs are torn. [088] Two sons of Priam in one chariot ride. died. wise and old. No mystic dream could make their fates appear. And the sad father tried his arts in vain. Bends their strong necks. The joy and hope of Phaenops' feeble age: Vast was his wealth. Could fate foresee. Astynous' breast the deadly lance receives. and sprung with noble rage Abas and Polyidus to engage.144 The Iliad of Homer And two brave leaders at an instant slew. good Hypenor. Glittering in arms. Sons of Eurydamus.

propitiate Jove with prayer. To whom the chief of Venus' race begun: "Where. And boasted glory of the Lycian name? O pierce that mortal! if we mortal call That wondrous force by which whole armies fall. So towers his helmet." To him the Lycian: "Whom your eyes behold. but some god. With deep concern divine Æneas view'd The foe prevailing. is Diomed the bold: Such coursers whirl him o'er the dusty field. destroy. entreat to spare. he wears that chief's disguise: Or if that chief. 145 . protects him in the fray. Exploring Pandarus with careful eyes. oh avert from our unhappy state! For what so dreadful as celestial hate)? Whoe'er he be. Skill'd in the bow. And turns unseen the frustrate dart away. I wing'd an arrow. thy yet unrivall'd fame. are all thy honours now. which not idly fell. Pandarus. At length he found Lycaon's mighty son.BOOK V. some angry god withstands. His fate was due to these unerring hands. If right I judge. If 'tis a god. Involved in clouds. Nor join'd swift horses to the rapid car. (Which. If man. who quits the distant skies To punish Troy for slighted sacrifice. Thy winged arrows and unerring bow. on foot I sought the war. and so flames his shield. Thy matchless skill. Through the thick storm of singing spears he flies. some guardian of the skies. Or god incensed. and his friends pursued. if god. And. The stroke had fix'd him to the gates of hell.

And still they grace Lycaon's princely dome: There veil'd in spacious coverlets they stand. In evil hour these bended horns I strung. If e'er I see my spouse and sire again. So took my bow and pointed darts in hand And left the chariots in my native land. In vain they bleed: this unavailing bow Serves. shall feed the blazing flames. Broke by my hand. And undissembled gore pursued the wound. I heard his counsels with unheedful mind. When first for Troy I sail'd the sacred seas. These shafts. O friend! my rashness I deplore. In fields. the spear and shield! If e'er with life I quit the Trojan plain. unfaithful to my glorious aims. not to slaughter. and yet to thrift inclined. carry death no more." . And twice ten coursers wait their lord's command. once fatal. the whirling car to guide. but provoke the foe. Cursed be the fate that sent me to the field Without a warrior's arms. And seized the quiver where it idly hung. The good old warrior bade me trust to these. And through the ranks of death triumphant ride. But vain with youth. Tydeus' and Atreus' sons their points have found. This bow. [089] "Too late.146 The Iliad of Homer Ten polish'd chariots I possess'd at home. aloft. And thought the steeds (your large supplies unknown) Might fail of forage in the straiten'd town.

and from the chariot's height Observe my father's steeds. in triumph led. And. Or. Secure with these. we desert the fight. and answer to thy hand. the victor's prize. though here we need The rushing chariot and the bounding steed. Now mount my seat. if Jove assist the foe. unhappy. and snatch the guiding rein. To whom the leader of the Dardan race: "Be calm. Else shall our fates be number'd with the dead. The warrior's fury let this arm sustain. Who thus. if. renown'd in fight. And these. But. Shall bear the rein. to great Tydides cried: 147 . To dare the shock. seize the whip. Thine be the guidance.BOOK V. to stop. or urge the rapid race. Or safe to Troy. The distant dart be praised." "O prince! (Lycaon's valiant son replied) As thine the steeds. Thy voice alone can animate their flight. to chase. The horses. practised to their lord's command. Their fierce approach bold Sthenelus espied. be thine the task to guide. the chariot's care be mine. alarm'd." And now both heroes mount the glittering car. Practised alike to turn. Against yon hero let us bend our course. The bounding coursers rush amidst the war. hand to hand. Take thou the spear. Haste. nor Phoebus' honour'd gift disgrace. through fighting fields we go. if to combat thy bold heart incline. then: with spear and shield Myself will charge this terror of the field. encounter force with force.

Thus front the foe. Who from their nostrils breathed ethereal fire. sprung from race divine! Enough is given to fame. which once the thundering god146 146 —The race of those. And seize the coursers of ethereal breed. and bend their rage on thee: Lo the brave heir of old Lycaon's line. the bulwark of our war. Fix'd on the chief with scorn. So Pallas tells me. Whose wombs conceived a more than mortal birth. Swift to Æneas' empty seat proceed. bear them both away. and thus he spoke: "Me dost thou bid to shun the coming fight? Me wouldst thou move to base. 'tis not honest in my soul to fear. my force entire. But if she dooms. and emulate my sire. "A pair of coursers. I hate the cumbrous chariot's slow advance. Dreadful they come. But while my nerves are strong." At this the hero cast a gloomy look. and if no god withstand. inglorious flight? Know. Nor shall yon steeds. Then heed my words: my horses here detain. One chief at least beneath this arm shall die. The race of those. And the long distance of the flying lance. That both shall fall by one victorious hand. that fierce to fight convey Those threatening heroes. . By substituting mares produced on earth. and forbids to fly. born of heav'nly breed. Ascend thy car! And save a life. Nor was Tydides born to tremble here.148 The Iliad of Homer [090] "O friend! two chiefs of force immense I see. Whom Circe stole from her celestial sire. Fix'd to the chariot by the straiten'd rein. And great Æneas.

" He said. Though late in vain assail'd. Ye 'scape not both. Hence great Anchises stole a breed unknown. "He bleeds! the pride of Greece! (the boaster cries. And stern Lycaon's warlike race begun: "Prince.BOOK V. were the rich immortal prize our own. The best that e'er on earth's broad surface run." 149 Thus while they spoke. These. thou art met. headlong from his car. And two transport Æneas o'er the plain. By mortal mares. The spear may enter where the arrow fail'd. On his broad shield the sounding weapon rung. and in his cuirass hung. Through the wide world should make our glory known. For ravish'd Ganymede on Tros bestow'd.) Our triumph now. and flung. one. Pierced the tough orb." . the foe came furious on.) Thy dart has erred. and now my spear be tried. the mighty warrior lies!" "Mistaken vaunter! (Diomed replied. Beneath the rising or the setting sun. then shook the ponderous lance. from fierce Laomedon: Four of this race his ample stalls contain. With hostile blood shall glut the god of war.

Then fierce Tydides stoops. and rising hurl'd his forceful dart. Full in his face it enter'd. is by no means confined to Homer. The starting coursers tremble with affright. Dryden's Virgil. and crack'd the solid bone. a rocky fragment wields. The soul indignant seeks the realms of night. and his arms resound. protects it every way. 386. Sunk on his knees. His falling bulk his bended arm sustains. Discharged the ponderous ruin at the foe. And stripp'd the skin. 147 . Through both the tendons broke the rugged stone. and staggering with his pains. Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. and cleft the tongue within. The belief in the existence of men of larger stature in earlier times.150 The Iliad of Homer [091] He spoke. He hides the hero with his mighty shade. pierced a vital part. and. Watchful he wheels. driven by Pallas. Such men as live in these degenerate days:147 He swung it round. Where to the hip the inserted thigh unites. his helmet knocks the ground: Earth groans beneath him. Which. gathering strength to throw. To guard his slaughter'd friend. Full on the bone the pointed marble lights. Till the bright point look'd out beneath the chin. sqq. and betwixt The nose and eye-ball the proud Lycian fix'd. O'er the fall'n trunk his ample shield display'd. but forbear the prize. Æneas flies. Headlong he falls. and from the fields Heaved with vast force. His spear extending where the carcase lies. As the grim lion stalks around his prey. vii. And threats aloud! the Greeks with longing eyes Behold at distance. Crash'd all his jaws.

mindful of the love She bore Anchises in the Idaean grove. Her arms whose whiteness match the falling snows. About her much-loved son her arms she throws. and feather'd flight Of sounding shafts. with unassisting hands. rushing to the Dardan spoil. Nor Sthenelus.BOOK V. removed from out the war. There the brave chief. Or fierce Bellona thundering at the wall. Like Pallas dreadful with her sable shield. And follow'd where Tydides swept the plain. No longer now a Trojan lord obey'd. His danger views with anguish and despair. resumed the rein. she bears him from the fight. (Whom most he loved. Lost in a dizzy mist the warrior lies. Next. Remain'd unheedful of his lord's commands: His panting steeds.) Then mounting on his car. Oppress'd had sunk to death's eternal shade. Screen'd from the foe behind her shining veil. He fix'd with straiten'd traces to the car. A sudden cloud comes swimming o'er his eyes. That charge to bold Deipylus he gave. who mighty numbers sway'd. detains The heavenly coursers with the flowing manes: These in proud triumph to the fleet convey'd. and mighty ruins fall. 151 [092] . Meanwhile (his conquest ravished from his eyes) The raging chief in chase of Venus flies: No goddess she. And guards her offspring with a mother's care. as brave men love the brave. commission'd to the field. The swords wave harmless. and the javelins fail. But heavenly Venus. While flames ascend. Safe through the rushing horse.

diseased. and wards the mortal wound.148 Pure emanation! uncorrupted flood! Unlike our gross. Through her bright veil the daring weapon drove. such as celestial spirits may bleed. Then with a voice that shook the vaulted skies." 148 —Such stream. And at the goddess his broad lance extends. Go. the ichor. lull the coward. terrestrial blood: (For not the bread of man their life sustains.152 The Iliad of Homer He knew soft combats suit the tender dame. Sanguine. And dropp'd her offspring from her weak embrace. The ambrosial veil which all the Graces wove. . Her snowy hand the razing steel profaned." vi. Such stream as issues from a wounded god. and still a foe to fame." "Paradise Lost. From the clear vein a stream immortal flow'd. or blood of the gods.e. Nor wine's inflaming juice supplies their veins:) With tender shrieks the goddess fill'd the place. Through breaking ranks his furious course he bends. Taught by this stroke renounce the war's alarms. let thy own soft sex employ thy care. "A stream of nect'rous humour issuing flow'd. And the transparent skin with crimson stain'd. or delude the fair. New to the field. 339. Him Phoebus took: he casts a cloud around The fainting chief. i. The king insults the goddess as she flies: "Ill with Jove's daughter bloody fights agree. And learn to tremble at the name of arms. The field of combat is no scene for thee: Go.

The war with Troy no more the Grecians wage. The lash resounds. beheld her bleed. swift the winged Iris flew. on the left. She mounts the seat. and there the coursers stood. who sat remote. To aid her. And ask'd what god had wrought this guilty deed? 153 [093] Then she: "This insult from no god I found. The queen of love with faded charms she found. Tydides thus. Stern Mars attentive hears the queen complain. seized with dread. the rapid chariot flies. distain'd with gore. Driven by the goddess of the painted bow. love's bright queen appears. Confused. An impious mortal gave the daring wound! Behold the deed of haughty Diomed! 'Twas in the son's defence the mother bled. and dissolved in tears: She raised her in her arms. rein'd with gold. Pale was her cheek. But with the gods (the immortal gods) engage. A mortal man. to mount the distant skies. and livid look'd the wound. Before her mother. his foaming steeds before.BOOK V. The goddess. Wrapt in a mist above the warring crew. distracted. And. O'erwhelmed with anguish. with clouds involved he lay. And show'd the wound by fierce Tydides given. they bent their way: Far. Low at his knee. from the conflict fled. who dares encounter heaven. And to her hand commits the golden rein." . To Mars. Beside him stood his lance. oppress'd with silent woe. she begg'd with streaming eyes Her brother's car. Fed by fair Iris with ambrosial food. And in a moment scales the lofty skies: They stopp'd the car.

And men with woes afflict the gods again. The mighty Mars in mortal fetters bound.154 The Iliad of Homer VENUS. Great Juno's self has borne her weight of pain. 150 149 [094] .149 And lodged in brazen dungeons underground. Amphitryon's son infix'd the deadly dart. —Amphitryon's son. the wife of Amphitryon. born to Jove by Alcmena. Otus and Ephialtes held the chain: Perhaps had perish'd had not Hermes' care Restored the groaning god to upper air. Hercules. CONDUCTED BY IRIS TO MARS. Full thirteen moons imprison'd roar'd in vain. And share those griefs inferior powers must share: Unnumber'd woes mankind from us sustain. This was during the wars with the Titans. The imperial partner of the heavenly reign. WOUNDED IN THE HAND.150 And fill'd with anguish her immortal heart. Dione then: "Thy wrongs with patience bear.

Whose spear ill-fated makes a goddess bleed. sprinkling heavenly balm around. "But thou (though Pallas urged thy frantic deed). Short is his date. Know thou. From fields of death when late he shall retire. E'en hell's grim king Alcides' power confess'd. To Jove's high palace for a cure he fled. Pierced in his own dominions of the dead. whoe'er with heavenly power contends. The shaft found entrance in his iron breast. and closed the wound.BOOK V. [095] . Where Paeon. And drench his arrows in the blood of gods! 155 OTUS AND EPHIALTES HOLDING MARS CAPTIVE. Assuaged the glowing pangs. No infant on his knees shall call him sire. Rash. impious man! to stain the bless'd abodes. and soon his glory ends.


The Iliad of Homer

Strong as thou art, some god may yet be found, To stretch thee pale and gasping on the ground; Thy distant wife, Ægiale the fair,151 Starting from sleep with a distracted air, Shall rouse thy slaves, and her lost lord deplore, The brave, the great, the glorious now no more!"

This said, she wiped from Venus' wounded palm The sacred ichor, and infused the balm. Juno and Pallas with a smile survey'd, And thus to Jove began the blue-eyed maid:

"Permit thy daughter, gracious Jove! to tell How this mischance the Cyprian queen befell, As late she tried with passion to inflame The tender bosom of a Grecian dame; Allured the fair, with moving thoughts of joy, To quit her country for some youth of Troy; The clasping zone, with golden buckles bound, Razed her soft hand with this lamented wound."

The sire of gods and men superior smiled, And, calling Venus, thus address'd his child: "Not these, O daughter are thy proper cares, Thee milder arts befit, and softer wars; Sweet smiles are thine, and kind endearing charms; To Mars and Pallas leave the deeds of arms."
—Ægiale daughter of Adrastus. The Cyclic poets (See Anthon's Lempriere, s. v.) assert Venus incited her to infidelity, in revenge for the wound she had received from her husband.

BOOK V. Thus they in heaven: while on the plain below The fierce Tydides charged his Dardan foe, Flush'd with celestial blood pursued his way, And fearless dared the threatening god of day; Already in his hopes he saw him kill'd, Though screen'd behind Apollo's mighty shield. Thrice rushing furious, at the chief he strook; His blazing buckler thrice Apollo shook: He tried the fourth: when, breaking from the cloud, A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. "O son of Tydeus, cease! be wise and see How vast the difference of the gods and thee; Distance immense! between the powers that shine Above, eternal, deathless, and divine, And mortal man! a wretch of humble birth, A short-lived reptile in the dust of earth." So spoke the god who darts celestial fires: He dreads his fury, and some steps retires. Then Phoebus bore the chief of Venus' race To Troy's high fane, and to his holy place; Latona there and Phoebe heal'd the wound, With vigour arm'd him, and with glory crown'd. This done, the patron of the silver bow A phantom raised, the same in shape and show With great Æneas; such the form he bore, And such in fight the radiant arms he wore. Around the spectre bloody wars are waged, And Greece and Troy with clashing shields engaged. Meantime on Ilion's tower Apollo stood, And calling Mars, thus urged the raging god:




The Iliad of Homer

"Stern power of arms, by whom the mighty fall; Who bathest in blood, and shakest the embattled wall, Rise in thy wrath! to hell's abhorr'd abodes Despatch yon Greek, and vindicate the gods. First rosy Venus felt his brutal rage; Me next he charged, and dares all heaven engage: The wretch would brave high heaven's immortal sire, His triple thunder, and his bolts of fire." The god of battle issues on the plain, Stirs all the ranks, and fires the Trojan train; In form like Acamas, the Thracian guide, Enraged to Troy's retiring chiefs he cried: "How long, ye sons of Priam! will ye fly, And unrevenged see Priam's people die? Still unresisted shall the foe destroy, And stretch the slaughter to the gates of Troy? Lo, brave Æneas sinks beneath his wound, Not godlike Hector more in arms renown'd: Haste all, and take the generous warrior's part. He said;—new courage swell'd each hero's heart. Sarpedon first his ardent soul express'd, And, turn'd to Hector, these bold words address'd: "Say, chief, is all thy ancient valour lost? Where are thy threats, and where thy glorious boast, That propp'd alone by Priam's race should stand Troy's sacred walls, nor need a foreign hand? Now, now thy country calls her wonted friends, And the proud vaunt in just derision ends. Remote they stand while alien troops engage, Like trembling hounds before the lion's rage. Far distant hence I held my wide command, Where foaming Xanthus laves the Lycian land;

BOOK V. With ample wealth (the wish of mortals) bless'd, A beauteous wife, and infant at her breast; With those I left whatever dear could be: Greece, if she conquers, nothing wins from me; Yet first in fight my Lycian bands I cheer, And long to meet this mighty man ye fear; While Hector idle stands, nor bids the brave Their wives, their infants, and their altars save. Haste, warrior, haste! preserve thy threaten'd state, Or one vast burst of all-involving fate Full o'er your towers shall fall, and sweep away Sons, sires, and wives, an undistinguish'd prey. Rouse all thy Trojans, urge thy aids to fight; These claim thy thoughts by day, thy watch by night; With force incessant the brave Greeks oppose; Such cares thy friends deserve, and such thy foes." Stung to the heart the generous Hector hears, But just reproof with decent silence bears. From his proud car the prince impetuous springs, On earth he leaps, his brazen armour rings. Two shining spears are brandish'd in his hands; Thus arm'd, he animates his drooping bands, Revives their ardour, turns their steps from flight, And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. They turn, they stand; the Greeks their fury dare, Condense their powers, and wait the growing war. As when, on Ceres' sacred floor, the swain Spreads the wide fan to clear the golden grain, And the light chaff, before the breezes borne, Ascends in clouds from off the heapy corn; The grey dust, rising with collected winds, Drives o'er the barn, and whitens all the hinds:




The Iliad of Homer

So white with dust the Grecian host appears. From trampling steeds, and thundering charioteers; The dusky clouds from labour'd earth arise, And roll in smoking volumes to the skies. Mars hovers o'er them with his sable shield, And adds new horrors to the darken'd field: Pleased with his charge, and ardent to fulfil, In Troy's defence, Apollo's heavenly will: Soon as from fight the blue-eyed maid retires, Each Trojan bosom with new warmth he fires. And now the god, from forth his sacred fane, Produced Æneas to the shouting train; Alive, unharm'd, with all his peers around, Erect he stood, and vigorous from his wound: Inquiries none they made; the dreadful day No pause of words admits, no dull delay; Fierce Discord storms, Apollo loud exclaims, Fame calls, Mars thunders, and the field's in flames. Stern Diomed with either Ajax stood, And great Ulysses, bathed in hostile blood. Embodied close, the labouring Grecian train The fiercest shock of charging hosts sustain. Unmoved and silent, the whole war they wait Serenely dreadful, and as fix'd as fate. So when the embattled clouds in dark array, Along the skies their gloomy lines display; When now the North his boisterous rage has spent, And peaceful sleeps the liquid element: The low-hung vapours, motionless and still, Rest on the summits of the shaded hill; Till the mass scatters as the winds arise, Dispersed and broken through the ruffled skies.


BOOK V. Nor was the general wanting to his train; From troop to troop he toils through all the plain, "Ye Greeks, be men! the charge of battle bear; Your brave associates and yourselves revere! Let glorious acts more glorious acts inspire, And catch from breast to breast the noble fire! On valour's side the odds of combat lie, The brave live glorious, or lamented die; The wretch who trembles in the field of fame, Meets death, and worse than death, eternal shame!" These words he seconds with his flying lance, To meet whose point was strong Deicoon's chance: Æneas' friend, and in his native place Honour'd and loved like Priam's royal race: Long had he fought the foremost in the field, But now the monarch's lance transpierced his shield: His shield too weak the furious dart to stay, Through his broad belt the weapon forced its way: The grisly wound dismiss'd his soul to hell, His arms around him rattled as he fell. Then fierce Æneas, brandishing his blade, In dust Orsilochus and Crethon laid, Whose sire Diocleus, wealthy, brave and great, In well-built Pherae held his lofty seat:152 Sprung from Alpheus' plenteous stream, that yields Increase of harvests to the Pylian fields. He got Orsilochus, Diocleus he, And these descended in the third degree. Too early expert in the martial toil, In sable ships they left their native soil, To avenge Atrides: now, untimely slain,


—Pherae, a town of Pelasgiotis, in Thessaly.


The Iliad of Homer


They fell with glory on the Phrygian plain. So two young mountain lions, nursed with blood In deep recesses of the gloomy wood, Rush fearless to the plains, and uncontroll'd Depopulate the stalls and waste the fold: Till pierced at distance from their native den, O'erpowered they fall beneath the force of men. Prostrate on earth their beauteous bodies lay, Like mountain firs, as tall and straight as they. Great Menelaus views with pitying eyes, Lifts his bright lance, and at the victor flies; Mars urged him on; yet, ruthless in his hate, The god but urged him to provoke his fate. He thus advancing, Nestor's valiant son Shakes for his danger, and neglects his own; Struck with the thought, should Helen's lord be slain, And all his country's glorious labours vain. Already met, the threatening heroes stand; The spears already tremble in their hand: In rush'd Antilochus, his aid to bring, And fall or conquer by the Spartan king. These seen, the Dardan backward turn'd his course, Brave as he was, and shunn'd unequal force. The breathless bodies to the Greeks they drew, Then mix in combat, and their toils renew. First, Pylaemenes, great in battle, bled, Who sheathed in brass the Paphlagonians led. Atrides mark'd him where sublime he stood; Fix'd in his throat the javelin drank his blood. The faithful Mydon, as he turn'd from fight His flying coursers, sunk to endless night; A broken rock by Nestor's son was thrown: His bended arm received the falling stone;

BOOK V. From his numb'd hand the ivory-studded reins, Dropp'd in the dust, are trail'd along the plains: Meanwhile his temples feel a deadly wound; He groans in death, and ponderous sinks to ground: Deep drove his helmet in the sands, and there The head stood fix'd, the quivering legs in air, Till trampled flat beneath the coursers' feet: The youthful victor mounts his empty seat, And bears the prize in triumph to the fleet.


Great Hector saw, and, raging at the view, Pours on the Greeks: the Trojan troops pursue: He fires his host with animating cries, And brings along the furies of the skies, Mars, stern destroyer! and Bellona dread, Flame in the front, and thunder at their head: This swells the tumult and the rage of fight; That shakes a spear that casts a dreadful light. Where Hector march'd, the god of battles shined, Now storm'd before him, and now raged behind.

Tydides paused amidst his full career; Then first the hero's manly breast knew fear. As when some simple swain his cot forsakes, And wide through fens an unknown journey takes: If chance a swelling brook his passage stay, And foam impervious 'cross the wanderer's way, Confused he stops, a length of country pass'd, Eyes the rough waves, and tired, returns at last. Amazed no less the great Tydides stands: He stay'd, and turning thus address'd his bands:


The Iliad of Homer

"No wonder, Greeks! that all to Hector yield; Secure of favouring gods, he takes the field; His strokes they second, and avert our spears. Behold where Mars in mortal arms appears! Retire then, warriors, but sedate and slow; Retire, but with your faces to the foe. Trust not too much your unavailing might; 'Tis not with Troy, but with the gods ye fight." Now near the Greeks the black battalions drew; And first two leaders valiant Hector slew: His force Anchialus and Mnesthes found, In every art of glorious war renown'd; In the same car the chiefs to combat ride, And fought united, and united died. Struck at the sight, the mighty Ajax glows With thirst of vengeance, and assaults the foes. His massy spear with matchless fury sent, Through Amphius' belt and heaving belly went; Amphius Apaesus' happy soil possess'd, With herds abounding, and with treasure bless'd; But fate resistless from his country led The chief, to perish at his people's head. Shook with his fall his brazen armour rung, And fierce, to seize it, conquering Ajax sprung; Around his head an iron tempest rain'd; A wood of spears his ample shield sustain'd: Beneath one foot the yet warm corpse he press'd, And drew his javelin from the bleeding breast: He could no more; the showering darts denied To spoil his glittering arms, and plumy pride. Now foes on foes came pouring on the fields, With bristling lances, and compacted shields; Till in the steely circle straiten'd round,


BOOK V. Forced he gives way, and sternly quits the ground. While thus they strive, Tlepolemus the great,153 Urged by the force of unresisted fate, Burns with desire Sarpedon's strength to prove; Alcides' offspring meets the son of Jove. Sheathed in bright arms each adverse chief came on. Jove's great descendant, and his greater son. Prepared for combat, ere the lance he toss'd, The daring Rhodian vents his haughty boast: "What brings this Lycian counsellor so far, To tremble at our arms, not mix in war! Know thy vain self, nor let their flattery move, Who style thee son of cloud-compelling Jove. How far unlike those chiefs of race divine, How vast the difference of their deeds and thine! Jove got such heroes as my sire, whose soul No fear could daunt, nor earth nor hell control. Troy felt his arm, and yon proud ramparts stand Raised on the ruins of his vengeful hand: With six small ships, and but a slender train, He left the town a wide-deserted plain. But what art thou, who deedless look'st around, While unrevenged thy Lycians bite the ground! Small aid to Troy thy feeble force can be; But wert thou greater, thou must yield to me. Pierced by my spear, to endless darkness go! I make this present to the shades below."



—Tlepolemus, son of Hercules and Astyochia. Having left his native country, Argos, in consequence of the accidental murder of Liscymnius, he was commanded by an oracle to retire to Rhodes. Here he was chosen king, and accompanied the Trojan expedition. After his death, certain games were instituted at Rhodes in his honour, the victors being rewarded with crowns of poplar.



The Iliad of Homer

The son of Hercules, the Rhodian guide, Thus haughty spoke. The Lycian king replied: "Thy sire, O prince! o'erturn'd the Trojan state, Whose perjured monarch well deserved his fate; Those heavenly steeds the hero sought so far, False he detain'd, the just reward of war. Nor so content, the generous chief defied, With base reproaches and unmanly pride. But you, unworthy the high race you boast, Shall raise my glory when thy own is lost: Now meet thy fate, and by Sarpedon slain, Add one more ghost to Pluto's gloomy reign." He said: both javelins at an instant flew; Both struck, both wounded, but Sarpedon's slew: Full in the boaster's neck the weapon stood, Transfix'd his throat, and drank the vital blood; The soul disdainful seeks the caves of night, And his seal'd eyes for ever lose the light. Yet not in vain, Tlepolemus, was thrown Thy angry lance; which piercing to the bone Sarpedon's thigh, had robb'd the chief of breath; But Jove was present, and forbade the death. Borne from the conflict by his Lycian throng, The wounded hero dragg'd the lance along. (His friends, each busied in his several part, Through haste, or danger, had not drawn the dart.) The Greeks with slain Tlepolemus retired; Whose fall Ulysses view'd, with fury fired; Doubtful if Jove's great son he should pursue, Or pour his vengeance on the Lycian crew. But heaven and fate the first design withstand, Nor this great death must grace Ulysses' hand.

BOOK V. Minerva drives him on the Lycian train; Alastor, Cronius, Halius, strew'd the plain, Alcander, Prytanis, Noemon fell:154 And numbers more his sword had sent to hell, But Hector saw; and, furious at the sight, Rush'd terrible amidst the ranks of fight. With joy Sarpedon view'd the wish'd relief, And, faint, lamenting, thus implored the chief: "O suffer not the foe to bear away My helpless corpse, an unassisted prey; If I, unbless'd, must see my son no more, My much-loved consort, and my native shore, Yet let me die in Ilion's sacred wall; Troy, in whose cause I fell, shall mourn my fall." He said, nor Hector to the chief replies, But shakes his plume, and fierce to combat flies; Swift as a whirlwind, drives the scattering foes; And dyes the ground with purple as he goes. Beneath a beech, Jove's consecrated shade, His mournful friends divine Sarpedon laid: Brave Pelagon, his favourite chief, was nigh, Who wrench'd the javelin from his sinewy thigh. The fainting soul stood ready wing'd for flight, And o'er his eye-balls swam the shades of night; But Boreas rising fresh, with gentle breath, Recall'd his spirit from the gates of death.



These heroes' names have since passed into a kind of proverb, designating the oi polloi or mob.



The Iliad of Homer

The generous Greeks recede with tardy pace, Though Mars and Hector thunder in their face; None turn their backs to mean ignoble flight, Slow they retreat, and even retreating fight. Who first, who last, by Mars' and Hector's hand, Stretch'd in their blood, lay gasping on the sand? Tenthras the great, Orestes the renown'd For managed steeds, and Trechus press'd the ground;, Next OEnomaus and OEnops' offspring died; Oresbius last fell groaning at their side: Oresbius, in his painted mitre gay, In fat Boeotia held his wealthy sway, Where lakes surround low Hyle's watery plain; A prince and people studious of their gain.

The carnage Juno from the skies survey'd, And touch'd with grief bespoke the blue-eyed maid: "Oh, sight accursed! Shall faithless Troy prevail, And shall our promise to our people fail? How vain the word to Menelaus given By Jove's great daughter and the queen of heaven, Beneath his arms that Priam's towers should fall, If warring gods for ever guard the wall! Mars, red with slaughter, aids our hated foes: Haste, let us arm, and force with force oppose!"


She spoke; Minerva burns to meet the war: And now heaven's empress calls her blazing car. At her command rush forth the steeds divine; Rich with immortal gold their trappings shine.

BOOK V. Bright Hebe waits; by Hebe, ever young, The whirling wheels are to the chariot hung. On the bright axle turns the bidden wheel Of sounding brass; the polished axle steel. Eight brazen spokes in radiant order flame; The circles gold, of uncorrupted frame, Such as the heavens produce: and round the gold Two brazen rings of work divine were roll'd. The bossy naves of sold silver shone; Braces of gold suspend the moving throne: The car, behind, an arching figure bore; The bending concave form'd an arch before. Silver the beam, the extended yoke was gold, And golden reins the immortal coursers hold. Herself, impatient, to the ready car, The coursers joins, and breathes revenge and war. Pallas disrobes; her radiant veil untied, With flowers adorn'd, with art diversified, (The laboured veil her heavenly fingers wove,) Flows on the pavement of the court of Jove. Now heaven's dread arms her mighty limbs invest, Jove's cuirass blazes on her ample breast; Deck'd in sad triumph for the mournful field, O'er her broad shoulders hangs his horrid shield, Dire, black, tremendous! Round the margin roll'd, A fringe of serpents hissing guards the gold: Here all the terrors of grim War appear, Here rages Force, here tremble Flight and Fear, Here storm'd Contention, and here Fury frown'd, And the dire orb portentous Gorgon crown'd. The massy golden helm she next assumes, That dreadful nods with four o'ershading plumes; So vast, the broad circumference contains



The Iliad of Homer

A hundred armies on a hundred plains. The goddess thus the imperial car ascends; Shook by her arm the mighty javelin bends, Ponderous and huge; that when her fury burns, Proud tyrants humbles, and whole hosts o'erturns. Swift at the scourge the ethereal coursers fly, While the smooth chariot cuts the liquid sky. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers,155 Heaven's golden gates, kept by the winged Hours;156 Commission'd in alternate watch they stand, The sun's bright portals and the skies command, Involve in clouds the eternal gates of day, Or the dark barrier roll with ease away. The sounding hinges ring on either side The gloomy volumes, pierced with light, divide. The chariot mounts, where deep in ambient skies, Confused, Olympus' hundred heads arise; Where far apart the Thunderer fills his throne, O'er all the gods superior and alone. There with her snowy hand the queen restrains The fiery steeds, and thus to Jove complains:


—Spontaneous open.

"Veil'd with his gorgeous wings, upspringing light Flew through the midst of heaven; th' angelic quires, On each hand parting, to his speed gave way Through all th' empyreal road; till at the gate Of heaven arrived, the gate self-open'd wide, On golden hinges turning." —"Paradise Lost," v. 250.

"Till Morn, Waked by the circling Hours, with rosy hand Unbarr'd the gates of light." —"Paradise Lost," vi, 2.

BOOK V. "O sire! can no resentment touch thy soul? Can Mars rebel, and does no thunder roll? What lawless rage on yon forbidden plain, What rash destruction! and what heroes slain! Venus, and Phoebus with the dreadful bow, Smile on the slaughter, and enjoy my woe. Mad, furious power! whose unrelenting mind No god can govern, and no justice bind. Say, mighty father! shall we scourge this pride, And drive from fight the impetuous homicide?" To whom assenting, thus the Thunderer said: "Go! and the great Minerva be thy aid. To tame the monster-god Minerva knows, And oft afflicts his brutal breast with woes." He said; Saturnia, ardent to obey, Lash'd her white steeds along the aerial way Swift down the steep of heaven the chariot rolls, Between the expanded earth and starry poles Far as a shepherd, from some point on high,157 O'er the wide main extends his boundless eye, Through such a space of air, with thundering sound, At every leap the immortal coursers bound Troy now they reach'd and touch'd those banks divine, Where silver Simois and Scamander join There Juno stopp'd, and (her fair steeds unloosed) Of air condensed a vapour circumfused For these, impregnate with celestial dew, On Simois, brink ambrosial herbage grew.


—Far as a shepherd. "With what majesty and pomp does Homer exalt his deities! He here measures the leap of the horses by the extent of the world. And who is there, that, considering the exceeding greatness of the space would not with reason cry out that 'If the steeds of the deity were to take a second leap, the world would want room for it'?"—Longinus, Section 8.


in Stentor's sounding voice. Or foaming boars. Now issuing fearless they possess the plain." "No trumpets. are used in the Homeric action itself. aloud. and is introduced for the purpose of illustration as employed in war. Such was their look as lions bathed in blood." &c. And shouts. the terror of the wood Heaven's empress mingles with the mortal crowd. and scarce the seas remain.158 Whose throats surpass'd the force of fifty tongues.—Coleridge. Hence arose the value of a loud voice in a commander. Stentor the strong.. [105] The best and bravest of the Grecian band (A warlike circle) round Tydides stand. And only men in figure and in name! Once from the walls your timorous foes engaged. Now win the shores.. p. 213. the uncle of Mohammed. endued with brazen lungs. While fierce in war divine Achilles raged.172 The Iliad of Homer Thence to relieve the fainting Argive throng. "Inglorious Argives! to your race a shame. but the trumpet was known. 158 . Stentor was an indispensable officer. Smooth as the sailing doves they glide along. or any other instruments of sound. the battle of Honain was restored by the shouts and menaces of Abbas. In the early Saracen campaigns frequent mention is made of the service rendered by men of uncommonly strong voices.

No drop of all thy father warms thy veins. O'erspent with toil reposing on the ground. Such nerves I gave him. Beside his coursers. and such force in fight. To cool his glowing wound he sat apart. but thy word restrains: From warring gods thou bad'st me turn my spear. He eased. once he dared to go. (The wound inflicted by the Lycian dart. or sloth detains. and warn'd our Argive bands: 173 . And Venus only found resistance here. thus her silence broke: "Degenerate prince! and not of Tydeus' kind. Alone. and confess thy aid. goddess! heedful of thy high commands. And scarce refrain'd when I forbade the war. unguarded. Foremost he press'd in glorious toils to share. and sent thee forth to war: But thee or fear deters. Whose ample belt. Nor sloth hath seized me. Thy hands I arm'd. that o'er his shoulder lay. thou know'st. While near Tydides stood the Athenian maid. and wash'd the clotted gore away. Hence. and vanquish'd. Her speech new fury to their hearts convey'd.) Large drops of sweat from all his limbs descend." The chief thus answered mild: "Immortal maid! I own thy presence. The king beside his panting steeds she found. incircled by the Theban foe. The goddess leaning o'er the bending yoke. There braved. Loth I gave way. And feast. Thou too no less hast been my constant care. Not fear. many a hardy knight. Whose little body lodged a mighty mind.BOOK V. withholds me from the plains. Beneath his ponderous shield his sinews bend.

Rash. Full on the god impel thy foaming horse: Pallas commands." vi. nor aught immortal. And full on Mars impelled the foaming horse: But first. from these to those he flies. and Diomed attends: The groaning axle bent beneath the load. 159 "Long had the wav'ring god the war delay'd. and to the steeds approaching near. She snatch'd the reins." [106] Then thus Minerva:—"Brave Tydides. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends. these eyes beheld. And every side of wavering combat tries. spread Black Orcus' helmet o'er her radiant head. fear. While Greece and Troy alternate own'd his aid. now the Trojans aid. and raging round the field. she lash'd with all her force. 761. Large promise makes. and breaks the promise made: Now gives the Grecians. hear! Not Mars himself. Fierce for revenge. sq. to hide her heavenly visage.174 The Iliad of Homer For Mars. blind. furious." Merrick's "Tryphiodorus. So great a hero."159 She said. Drew from his seat the martial charioteer. . the homicide. and Pallas lends thee force. and so great a god. With slaughter red.

The javelin hiss'd. Both armies start. Pregnant with plagues. It pierced the god: his groin received the wound. above his courser's head. the goddess urged it on: Where the broad cincture girt his armour round. who slew him. and at Tydides flies. and trembling gaze around. The god. From the rent skin the warrior tugs again The smoking steel. And earth and heaven re-bellow to the sound. The strongest warrior of the Ætolian train. the dreadful god of war! Full at the chief. Then threw the force of Tydeus' warlike son. and caused to glance Far from the car the strong immortal lance. Just then gigantic Periphas lay slain. When shouting millions shake the thundering field. As vapours blown by Auster's sultry breath.BOOK V. [107] . From Mars's arm the enormous weapon fled: Pallas opposed her hand. and shedding seeds of death. leaves his prostrate prize Stretch'd where he fell. Mars bellows with the pain: Loud as the roar encountering armies yield. in equal arms appear The daring Greek. 175 DIOMED CASTING HIS SPEAR AT MARS. Now rushing fierce.

though fated not to die. thy counsels. And gods on gods exert eternal rage: From thee. and even offending share Thy breast. High o'er the dusky whirlwind scales the heaven. Thou gavest that fury to the realms of light. he sought the bright abodes. Heap'd round. regardless of the right. From mortal madness scarce was saved by flight. And brook the furies of this daring day? For mortal men celestial powers engage. and thy behests obey: 'Tis hers to offend. flagitious facts survey. for ages lie. Else hadst thou seen me sink on yonder plain. thy distinguish'd care: So boundless she. and with a groan Thus pour'd his plaints before the immortal throne: "Can Jove. Show'd the celestial blood. O father! all these ills we bear. Vanquish'd I fled. Me next encountering. All heaven beside reveres thy sovereign sway." . There sullen sat beneath the sire of gods. Choke the parch'd earth. wild. supine. and heaving under loads of slain! Or pierced with Grecian darts. Now frantic Diomed. and thou so partial grown. even I. and blacken all the skies. Pernicious. Condemn'd to pain. Wild with his pain. me he dared to wound. Thy voice we hear. Against the immortals lifts his raging hand: The heavenly Venus first his fury found.176 The Iliad of Homer Beneath the rage of burning Sirius rise. at her command. In such a cloud the god from combat driven. And thy fell daughter with the shield and spear. the god of fight. Well may we deem the wondrous birth thy own.

thy fiery temper quells. infused in cream. no law. most odious in our eyes! Inhuman discord is thy dire delight. and her son pursues. Glorious he sat. Fast by the throne of heaven's superior lord. Their task perform'd. Thou most unjust. As when the fig's press'd juice. and stern bespoke: "To me. Juno and Pallas mount the bless'd abodes. Sudden the fluids fix the parts combined. and the rage of fight. She gives the example. Else. Where chain'd on burning rocks the Titans groan. And heal'd the immortal flesh. and so soon. with a wrathful look The lord of thunders view'd.160 With gentle hand the balm he pour'd around. and closed the wound. No bounds. And all thy mother in thy soul rebels. and heavenly-born.BOOK V. 177 Him thus upbraiding. The waste of slaughter. hadst thou hence been thrown. In vain our threats. Sprung since thou art from Jove. . fair Hebe dress'd His mighty limbs in an immortal vest. and mix among the gods. perfidious! this lamenting strain? Of lawless force shall lawless Mars complain? Of all the gods who tread the spangled skies. Such. To curds coagulates the liquid stream. the ethereal texture join'd." [108] Thus he who shakes Olympus with his nod. Then gave to Paeon's care the bleeding god. in majesty restored. singed with lightning. Cleansed from the dust and gore. Yet long the inflicted pangs thou shall not mourn. in vain our power we use.

178 The Iliad of Homer JUNO. .

BOOK V. 179 —Paeon seems to have been to the gods. what Podaleirius and Machaon were to the Grecian heroes. 160 .


now there. AND OF HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE. that bound the deathful plain On either side. . Hector. ARGUMENT. the tide of combat flows. the chief augur of Troy. the Grecians prevail. prevails upon Paris to return to the battle. THE EPISODES OF GLAUCUS AND DIOMED. The gods having left the field. in order to appoint a solemn procession of the queen and the Trojan matrons to the temple of Minerva. where. of the friendship and hospitality passed between their ancestors. The battle relaxing during the absence of Hector. The scene is first in the field of battle. and. to entreat her to remove Diomed from the fight. Now here. between the rivers Simois and Scamander. Now heaven forsakes the fight: the immortals yield To human force and human skill the field: Dark showers of javelins fly from foes to foes. While Troy's famed streams. and then changes to Troy. run purple to the main. they make exchange of their arms. Helenus. coming to the knowledge. commands Hector to return to the city. Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies. having performed the orders of Helenus.[109] BOOK VI. taking a tender leave of his wife Andromache. hastens again to the field.

and by his side His faithful servant. And next he laid Opheltius on the plain. The ruthless victor stripp'd their shining arms. a colony of the Mitylenaeans in Troas. his ever-open door Obliged the wealthy. Two twins were near. hospitable. Axylus. And seals in endless shades his swimming eyes.182 The Iliad of Homer [110] Great Ajax first to conquest led the way. The Thracian Acamas his falchion found. Broke the thick ranks. old Calesius died. Fix'd in his front the brazen weapon lies. And hew'd the enormous giant to the ground. In secret woods he won the naiad's grace. Next Teuthras' son distain'd the sands with blood. From a fair naiad and Bucolion sprung: (Laomedon's white flocks Bucolion fed. rich. beautiful. and turn'd the doubtful day. and good: In fair Arisbe's walls (his native place)161 He held his seat! a friend to human race. No friend to guard him in the dreadful day! Breathless the good man fell. Fast by the road. To stern Tydides now he falls a prey. That monarch's first-born by a foreign bed. By great Euryalus was Dresus slain. . His thundering arm a deadly stroke impress'd Where the black horse-hair nodded o'er his crest. and relieved the poor. and young. 161 —Arisbe. And two fair infants crown'd his strong embrace:) Here dead they lay in all their youthful charms. bold.

Great Agamemnon. Wide o'er the field.BOOK VI. it deserves to be remarked. while large stocks of yet unemployed metal—gold. In reference also to the metals. When fame shall tell. And Nestor's son laid stern Ablerus dead. By Teucer's shaft brave Aretaon bled. Ulysses' spear Pidytes sent to hell. Unbless'd Adrastus next at mercy lies Beneath the Spartan spear. The mortal wound of rich Elatus gave. not in battle slain. resistless as the wind. precipitate in flight. —Rich heaps of brass.162 And till'd the banks where silver Satnio flow'd. And Phylacus from Leitus flies in vain. Coined money is unknown in the Homeric age—the trade carried on being one of barter. His headlong steeds. a town near Pylos. Astyalus by Polypoetes fell. Who held in Pedasus his proud abode. For Troy they fly. a living prize. and leave their lord behind. and electrum. copper. copper. and thus his prayer address'd: "O spare my youth. Rush'd on a tamarisk's strong trunk. 163 162 . and iron are stored up in the treasure-chamber of Odysseus and other chiefs. Scared with the din and tumult of the fight. Thy hollow ships his captive son detain: Rich heaps of brass shall in thy tent be told. leader of the brave. "The halls of Alkinous and Menelaus glitter with gold. The fallen chief in suppliant posture press'd The victor's knees. and broke The shatter'd chariot from the crooked yoke. that. Prone on his face he sinks beside the wheel: Atrides o'er him shakes his vengeful steel. Melanthius by Eurypylus was slain. and for the life I owe Large gifts of price my father shall bestow.163 183 —Pedasus.

bk. ii."—Thirlwall. and to curb the great!" that the Homeric descriptions universally suppose copper. impatient of delay.165 A dreadful lesson of exampled fate.184 The Iliad of Homer And steel well-temper'd. Forbade the sire to linger out the day. And. ii. To warn the nations." [111] He said: compassion touch'd the hero's heart He stood. except with a view to the ransom of the prisoner. Shall save a Trojan from our boundless rage: Ilion shall perish whole. 142. vol. shall fall. we do not know. suspended with the lifted dart: As pity pleaded for his vanquish'd prize. i. p. Agamemnon reproaches Menelaus with unmanly softness. Her babes. her infants at the breast. And well her natives merit at thy hand! Not one of all the race. nor sex. Stern Agamemnon swift to vengeance flies. thus: "Oh impotent of mind!164 Shall these. but the use of iron for these objects belongs to a later age. 181 165 "The ruthless steel. and persuasive gold. and himself puts the suppliant to the sword. 164 —Oh impotent. and not iron. when he is on the point of sparing a fallen enemy. vol. to be employed for arms. furious."—Grote. And they who ne'er offended find a foe?" Rowe's Lucan. both offensive and defensive. And cropt the wailing infant at the birth. . By what process the copper was tempered and hardened. Can innocents the rage of parties know. quarter seems never to have been given. It struck the bending father to the earth. and bury all. shall these Atrides' mercy find? Well hast thou known proud Troy's perfidious land. so as to serve the purpose of the warrior. "In battle. &c. nor age. p.

To touch the booty. for servile gains. your future spoil! First gain the conquest. to the town retire. The seer reveal'd the counsels of his mind: "Ye generous chiefs! on whom the immortals lay The cares and glories of this doubtful day. Forth from the slain he tugg'd the reeking dart. your country's hopes depend. and active to defend! Here. Meanwhile thou. with great Æneas join'd. while a foe remains. Taught by the gods that moved his sacred breast. and sore of former fight. retired. Had not sage Helenus her state redress'd. the words. No son of Mars descend. These straits demand our last remains of might. Old Nestor saw. at our gates. your brave efforts unite. Turn back the routed. Behold yon glittering host. To rigid justice steel'd his brother's breast Fierce from his knees the hapless chief he thrust. And frighted Troy within her walls. The sport and insult of the hostile train. Wise to consult.BOOK VI. The monarch's javelin stretch'd him in the dust. Ere yet their wives' soft arms the cowards gain. heroes! thus the vigorous combat wage. here fix'd. and forbid the flight. Where Hector stood. "Thus. and roused the warrior's rage. Press'd as we are. On whom your aids. will make the dangerous stand. The monarch spoke. Ourselves. Hector. then reward the toil. Then pressing with his foot his panting heart." And now had Greece eternal fame acquired. with warmth address'd. When your commands have hearten'd every band. 185 [112] .

and seek the power. And twelve young heifers to her altars led: If so the power. they thought. With rage recruited the bold Trojans glow. Sprung though he was from more than mortal bed. they beat their breasts. our infants. who ruled the fate of wars. Through all his host inspiring force he flies. i. Most prized for art. with a bound. With offer'd vows. atoned by fervent prayer. in Ilion's topmost tower. Some god. Not thus resistless ruled the stream of fight. and labour'd o'er with gold. 166 "Meantime the Trojan dames. In hopes to reconcile their heav'nly foe: They weep. And turn the tide of conflict on the foe: Fierce in the front he shakes two dazzling spears. That mows whole troops. oppress'd with woe.166 Unbar the sacred gates." Hector obedient heard: and. they rend their hair. 670 . and our city spare. and 'midst her triumphs fears. Our wives." Dryden's Virgil. And rich embroider'd vests for presents bear. and unmatch'd in might. To Pallas' fane in long procession go. Leap'd from his trembling chariot to the ground. and makes all Troy retire.186 The Iliad of Homer And teach our mother what the gods require: Direct the queen to lead the assembled train Of Troy's chief matrons to Minerva's fane. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. In rage unbounded. All Greece recedes. Not thus Achilles taught our hosts to dread. The largest mantle her rich wardrobes hold. And bids the thunder of the battle rise.

And reverend elders. at the close of which the further account of the mission is resumed. which interval is dramatised. Now paused the battle (godlike Hector gone). either by a temporary continuation of the previous narrative. for example.167 Where daring Glaucus and great Tydeus' son Between both armies met: the chiefs from far Observed each other. as it were. and victims fall: Nor shall. i. immediately described.298: "The poet's method of introducing his episode. Near as they drew. To bid our altars flame. to his ankle hung." . seek the gods in vain. Be still yourselves. His neck o'ershading. or by fixing attention for a while on some new transaction. and had mark'd for war. Where. illustrates in a curious manner his tact in the dramatic department of his art. is well illustrated by the following remarks of Mure." This said. and Hector asks no more. to be executed at a certain distance of time or place. I trust. vol. Shot down avenging from the vault of stars. with ample strides the hero pass'd. Tydides thus began: 167 [113] The manner in which this episode is introduced. the matrons' holy train. And as he march'd the brazen buckler rung. 187 Then thus aloud: "Ye dauntless Dardans. p. one or more heroes are despatched on some commission. also. One hour demands me in the Trojan wall. The shield's large orb behind his shoulder cast. A certain interval is allowed them for reaching the appointed scene of action. the fulfilment of this task is not. hear! And you whom distant nations send to war! Be mindful of the strength your fathers bore.BOOK VI. as a general rule.

and enter the dark gates of death. Know with immortals we no more contend. or from whence I am. With curling vines and twisted ivy bound. Unhappy they.188 The Iliad of Homer "What art thou. and human be thy birth. and Bacchus' votaries. Bold as thou art. Approach. and born of luckless sires. Cheerless he breathed. Then sunk unpitied to the dire abodes. Now green in youth. Nor fail'd the crime the immortals' wrath to move. Where fame is reap'd amid the embattled field. Who tempt our fury when Minerva fires! But if from heaven. thou descend. And meet a lance the fiercest heroes fear. Bacchus. too prodigal of breath.) Deprived of sight by their avenging doom.) can Tydeus' son inquire? Like leaves on trees the race of man is found. and successive rise: . and hated by the gods! I brave not heaven: but if the fruits of earth Sustain thy life. That daring man who mix'd with gods in fight. With brandish'd steel. And Thetis' arms received the trembling god. boldest of the race of man? Our eyes till now that aspect ne'er beheld. Another race the following spring supplies. and wander'd in the gloom." "What. They fall successive. now withering on the ground. While Bacchus headlong sought the briny flood. (Replied the chief. A wretch accursed. from Nyssa's sacred grove: Their consecrated spears lay scatter'd round. Yet far before the troops thou dar'st appear. Not long Lycurgus view'd the golden light. (The immortals bless'd with endless ease above. he drove. celestial. or who my sire.

So generations in their course decay. p. With tablets seal'd. These probably were only devices of a hieroglyphical character.BOOK VI. that told his dire intent. sacred fear. Endued with wisdom. Whether writing was known in the Homeric times is utterly uncertain. "A city stands on Argos' utmost bound. Then hear a tale that fills the spacious earth. for warlike steeds renown'd. Fired at his scorn the queen to Praetus fled. when those are pass'd away. But if thou still persist to search my birth. Then call'd Ephyre: Glaucus was his son. Whose hard commands Bellerophon obey'd. Nine days he feasted. The chief arrived at Xanthus' silver flood: There Lycia's monarch paid him honours due. with wisdom bless'd. With direful jealousy the monarch raged. And strove to tempt him from the paths of fame: In vain she tempted the relentless youth. (Argos the fair.) Aeolian Sisyphus. Loved for that valour which preserves mankind. But hospitable laws restrain'd his hate: To Lycia the devoted youth he sent. So flourish these. 192. Great Glaucus.168 Now bless'd by every power who guards the good. And the brave prince in numerous toils engaged. vol ii. For him Antaea burn'd with lawless flame. In ancient time the happy wall possess'd. 189 [114] —With tablets sealed. sqq. resolving on his fate. and nine bulls he slew. And begg'd revenge for her insulted bed: Incensed he heard. and truth. 168 . Then mighty Praetus Argos' sceptre sway'd. See Grote. Who o'er the sons of men in beauty shined. father of Bellerophon.

dire Chimaera's conquest was enjoin'd.190 The Iliad of Homer But when the tenth bright morning orient glow'd. with vineyards. His daughter gave. And trusted heaven's informing prodigies. A goat's rough body bore a lion's head. the stranger to detain. At his return. The faithful youth his monarch's mandate show'd: The fatal tablets. "At length the monarch.) and those the warrior slew. With two brave sons and one fair daughter bless'd. a people of Lycia. First. With woods. a dragon's fiery tail was spread. Her pitchy nostrils flaky flames expire.) Then met in arms the Solymaean crew.169 (Fiercest of men. With levell'd spears along the winding shore: There fell they breathless. a treacherous ambush rose. . and with harvests crown'd. 169 [115] —Solymaean crew. The deathful secret to the king reveal'd. Next the bold Amazons' whole force defied. A mingled monster of no mortal kind! Behind. (for he read the skies. and return'd no more. "This pest he slaughter'd. With half the honours of his ample reign: The Lycians grant a chosen space of ground. Confess'd the gods. and god-descended chief. "Nor ended here his toils: his Lycian foes. till that instant seal'd. There long the chief his happy lot possess'd. Her gaping throat emits infernal fire. for heaven was on his side. And conquer'd still. with repentant grief.

OEneus the strong. (Fair e'en in heavenly eyes: her fruitful love Crown'd with Sarpedon's birth the embrace of Jove. By his decree I sought the Trojan town. The "Aleian field. our grandsires have been guests of old. The honour'd author of my birth and name. hypochondria received the name of "Morbus Bellerophonteus. His eldest born by raging Mars was slain. In earth the generous warrior fix'd his dart. and transport fill'd Tydides' heart. "the plain of wandering. 112.e." was situated between the rivers Pyramus and Pinarus. with kind embrace. in Cilicia. forlorn. ." i. By his instructions learn to win renown. Bellerophon the bold: Our ancient seat his honour'd presence graced. Know. And emulate the glories of our race. A long. Wide o'er the Aleian field he chose to stray. To add new honours to my native land.) But when at last." See my notes in my prose translation. In combat on the Solymaean plain. chief. 191 170 From this "melancholy madness" of Bellerophon. distracted in his mind." He spoke.BOOK VI. Before my eyes my mighty sires to place. Forsook by heaven. uncomfortable way!170 Woes heap'd on woes consumed his wasted heart: His beauteous daughter fell by Phoebe's dart. Then friendly. To stand the first in worth as in command. thus the Lycian prince address'd: "Welcome. forsaking humankind. The parting heroes mutual presents left. my brave hereditary guest! Thus ever let us meet. Nor stain the sacred friendship of our race. Hippolochus survived: from him I came. p. Where twenty days in genial rites he pass'd.

But thou and Diomed be foes no more. of gold. of gold divinely wrought. This bad bargain has passed into a common proverb." [116] Thus having said. (This from his pledge I learn'd. Brave Glaucus then each narrow thought resign'd. If heaven our steps to foreign lands incline. and prove to either host We guard the friendship of the line we boast. In the full harvest of yon ample field. and I in Lycia thine. safely stored Among my treasures. My guest in Argos thou.192 The Iliad of Homer A golden goblet was thy grandsire's gift. Their hands they join. See Aulus Gellius. For which nine oxen paid. and enlarged his mind. their mutual faith they plight.) For Diomed's brass arms. Enough of Greeks shall dye thy spear with gore. —His own. 23. when Thebe's wall Beheld the sons of Greece untimely fall. (Jove warm'd his bosom.171 A hundred beeves the shining purchase bought. OEneus a belt of matchless work bestowed. of mean device. (a vulgar price.) He gave his own. ii. That rich with Tyrian dye refulgent glow'd. which. Now change we arms. the gallant chiefs alight. Enough of Trojans to this lance shall yield. in friendship let us join.) Mindful of this. still adorns my board: For Tydeus left me young. 171 .

Great Hector. So large a promise of a progeny. And press'd his hand. to avert the impending woe. and hung with spoils. nor pass'd unseen Of royal Hecuba.173 Opposed to those. The rich pavilions of his fifty sons. And now to Priam's stately courts he came. sons. where Priam's daughters sate. He bids the train in long procession go. Meantime the guardian of the Trojan state. O'er these a range of marble structure runs. Rais'd on arch'd columns of stupendous frame. and tender thus begun: "O Hector! say.658 . The Trojan matrons and the Trojan maids Around him flock'd. Twelve domes for them and their loved spouses shone. (such hopes had he. "The fifty nuptial beds. his mother-queen.172 Beneath the beech-tree's consecrated shades. engaged in war. Com'st thou to supplicate the almighty power With lifted hands. and of polish'd stone. In fifty chambers lodged: and rooms of state. brothers. (With her Laodice. from Ilion's lofty tower? Stay. Hither great Hector pass'd. 172 173 193 —Scaean.) The ports of plated gold. i e. Of equal beauty." Dryden's Virgil. all press'd with pious care For husbands. whose beauteous face Surpass'd the nymphs of Troy's illustrious race.BOOK VI. enter'd at the Scaean gate. And seek the gods.) Long in a strict embrace she held her son. left hand. what great occasion calls My son from fight. when Greece surrounds our walls. ii. till I bring the cup with Bacchus crown'd. —In fifty chambers.

And twelve young heifers to her altar led. go! a spotless train. its better use. and labour'd o'er with gold. If yet not lost to all the sense of shame. You. would kind earth the hateful wretch embrace. and dulls the noble mind. O mother. (the chief rejoin'd. Our wives. By me that holy office were profaned. &c. with human gore distain'd. irregular burst of popular indignation to which Hector alludes. Oh. To the pure skies these horrid hands to raise. Ill fits it me. Unnerves the limbs. Or offer heaven's great Sire polluted praise. Spent as thou art with long laborious fight. and makes all Troy retire. So may the power.) Inflaming wine. with your matrons. The brave defender of thy country's right. That pest of Troy. And draw new spirits from the generous bowl. when he regrets that the Trojans 174 [117] .194 The Iliad of Homer In Jove's high name. that ruin of our race!174 —O would kind earth. And far avert Tydides' wasteful ire." "Far hence be Bacchus' gifts. and our city spare. atoned by fervent prayer. Let chiefs abstain. to sprinkle on the ground. And burn rich odours in Minerva's fane. Then with a plenteous draught refresh thy soul. Who mows whole troops. And pay due vows to all the gods around. The largest mantle your full wardrobes hold. pernicious to mankind. Before the goddess' honour'd knees be spread. "It is apparently a sudden. Be this. your religious care: I go to rouse soft Paris to the war. The recreant warrior hear the voice of fame. and spare the sacred juice To sprinkle to the gods. Most prized for art. our infants.

the example of the Roman Vestals affords reasons for believing that.BOOK VI. There lay the vestures of no vulgar art. She chose a veil that shone superior far. however. Deep to the dark abyss might he descend. Troy yet should flourish. They fill the dome with supplicating cries. sq. . i. Antenor's consort. Soon as to Ilion's topmost tower they come." This heard. waits As Pallas' priestess. 171. The train majestically slow proceeds. Whom from soft Sidon youthful Paris bore. With hands uplifted and imploring eyes. And glow'd refulgent as the morning star. and thus she prays: 195 [118] had not spirit enough to cover Paris with a mantle of stones. was also one of the ordinary formal modes of punishment for great public offences. and my sorrows end. Though Homer makes no mention of this horrible usage. p. Placed on Minerva's knees. fair Theano. in ascribing it to the heroic ages. Here. And awful reach the high Palladian dome. The Phrygian queen to her rich wardrobe went. Sophocles followed an authentic tradition. with a scantling of food by their side. Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent. This. Sidonian maids embroider'd every part. vol. she gave command: and summon'd came Each noble matron and illustrious dame. With Helen touching on the Tyrian shore. as the queen revolved with careful eyes The various textures and the various dyes. The priestess then the shining veil displays."—Thirlwall's Greece. Herself with this the long procession leads. It may have been originally connected with the same feeling—the desire of avoiding the pollution of bloodshed—which seems to have suggested the practice of burying prisoners alive. and unbars the gates.

guiltless of the yoke. but they vow'd in vain. and it is. rather than elegance. While these appear before the power with prayers. perhaps.175 Himself the mansion raised. The steely point with golden ringlets join'd. But thou."—Thirlwall's Greece. in the glittering rooms he found His brother-chief. and polishing the bow. i. 231. "With respect to the private dwellings. Troy's strong defence. It seems indeed probable. whose useless arms lay round. p. Beside him Helen with her virgins stands. A spear the hero bore of wondrous strength. and our city spare!" So pray'd the priestess in her holy fane. Before him brandish'd. our infants.196 The Iliad of Homer "Oh awful goddess! ever-dreadful maid. 175 . and affords no conception of the style which prevailed in them or of their effect on the eye. in speaking of the fair house which Paris had built for himself with the aid of the most skilful masons of Troy. —Paris' lofty dome. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. from the manner in which he dwells on their metallic ornaments that the higher beauty of proportion was but little required or understood. unconquer'd Pallas. aid! Break thou Tydides' spear. that he means to commend. strength and convenience. vol. So vow'd the matrons. from every part Assembling architects of matchless art. and the town commands. which are oftenest described. Hector to Paris' lofty dome repairs. Ourselves. at each motion shined Thus entering. Brightening the shield. His eyes delighting with their splendid show. the poet's language barely enables us to form a general notion of their ordinary plan. atoned by penitence and prayer. Near Priam's court and Hector's palace stands The pompous structure. and let him fall Prone on the dust before the Trojan wall! So twelve young heifers. Shall fill thy temple with a grateful smoke.

and our toils to share? Rise. now glory spreads her charms. contain thy ardent mind. than conscious shame and grief: Here. For thee the soldier bleeds. and high-resenting spoke. and instructs their hands. Guides their rich labours. 'Tis man's to fight. with an ardent look The prince beheld. Thy close resentment. And all the Phrygian glories at an end. nor answer'd Priam's warlike son. the matron mourns. (replied the beauteous youth. his and Ilion's fate. For thee great Ilion's guardian heroes fall. and Paris shall not lag behind." "Brother. Or go. But while I arm. and their vengeful ire. And beauteous Helen calls her chief to arms. Conquest to-day my happier sword may bless. O generous chief! On hate to Troy. "Thy hate to Troy. in secret. is this the time to show? (O wretch ill-fated. And mourn'd. hid from human eyes.) Thy free remonstrance proves thy worth and truth: Yet charge my absence less. 'tis just. And wasteful war in all its fury burns. but heaven's to give success. thy brother sate. Our troops to hearten. 'Tis now enough." 197 [119] He said. or behold the conquering flames ascend. Till heaps of dead alone defend her wall. Ungrateful man! deserves not this thy care. When Helen thus with lowly grace begun: . Him thus inactive.BOOK VI. and thy country's foe!) Paris and Greece against us both conspire.

Helen at least a braver spouse might claim. "Oh. Example sad! and theme of future song. The day that show'd me to the golden sun Had seen my death! why did not whirlwinds bear The fatal infant to the fowls of air? Why sunk I not beneath the whelming tide. and infamy to come: Wide shall it spread.198 The Iliad of Homer HECTOR CHIDING PARIS. some regard of fame! Now tired with toils. and Paris of those ills the worst. sustain'd for Paris' sake and mine The gods have link'd our miserable doom. generous brother! (if the guilty dame That caused these woes deserve a sister's name!) Would heaven. Our present woe. thy fainting limbs recline. and I accursed Bore all. And midst the roarings of the waters died? Heaven fill'd up all my ills." [120] . and last through ages long. ere all these dreadful deeds were done. With toils. Warm'd with some virtue.

BOOK VI. The chief replied: "This time forbids to rest; The Trojan bands, by hostile fury press'd, Demand their Hector, and his arm require; The combat urges, and my soul's on fire. Urge thou thy knight to march where glory calls, And timely join me, ere I leave the walls. Ere yet I mingle in the direful fray, My wife, my infant, claim a moment's stay; This day (perhaps the last that sees me here) Demands a parting word, a tender tear: This day, some god who hates our Trojan land May vanquish Hector by a Grecian hand." He said, and pass'd with sad presaging heart To seek his spouse, his soul's far dearer part; At home he sought her, but he sought in vain; She, with one maid of all her menial train, Had hence retired; and with her second joy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy, Pensive she stood on Ilion's towery height, Beheld the war, and sicken'd at the sight; There her sad eyes in vain her lord explore, Or weep the wounds her bleeding country bore. But he who found not whom his soul desired, Whose virtue charm'd him as her beauty fired, Stood in the gates, and ask'd "what way she bent Her parting step? If to the fane she went, Where late the mourning matrons made resort; Or sought her sisters in the Trojan court?" "Not to the court, (replied the attendant train,) Nor mix'd with matrons to Minerva's fane: To Ilion's steepy tower she bent her way, To mark the fortunes of the doubtful day.



The Iliad of Homer

Troy fled, she heard, before the Grecian sword; She heard, and trembled for her absent lord: Distracted with surprise, she seem'd to fly, Fear on her cheek, and sorrow m her eye. The nurse attended with her infant boy, The young Astyanax, the hope of Troy."


Hector this heard, return'd without delay; Swift through the town he trod his former way, Through streets of palaces, and walks of state; And met the mourner at the Scaean gate. With haste to meet him sprung the joyful fair. His blameless wife, Aetion's wealthy heir: (Cilician Thebe great Aetion sway'd, And Hippoplacus' wide extended shade:) The nurse stood near, in whose embraces press'd, His only hope hung smiling at her breast, Whom each soft charm and early grace adorn, Fair as the new-born star that gilds the morn. To this loved infant Hector gave the name Scamandrius, from Scamander's honour'd stream; Astyanax the Trojans call'd the boy, From his great father, the defence of Troy. Silent the warrior smiled, and pleased resign'd To tender passions all his mighty mind; His beauteous princess cast a mournful look, Hung on his hand, and then dejected spoke; Her bosom laboured with a boding sigh, And the big tear stood trembling in her eye.




"Too daring prince! ah, whither dost thou run? Ah, too forgetful of thy wife and son! And think'st thou not how wretched we shall be, A widow I, a helpless orphan he? For sure such courage length of life denies, And thou must fall, thy virtue's sacrifice. Greece in her single heroes strove in vain; Now hosts oppose thee, and thou must be slain. O grant me, gods, ere Hector meets his doom, All I can ask of heaven, an early tomb! So shall my days in one sad tenor run, And end with sorrows as they first begun. No parent now remains my griefs to share, No father's aid, no mother's tender care. The fierce Achilles wrapt our walls in fire, Laid Thebe waste, and slew my warlike sire! His fate compassion in the victor bred;



The Iliad of Homer

Stern as he was, he yet revered the dead, His radiant arms preserved from hostile spoil, And laid him decent on the funeral pile; Then raised a mountain where his bones were burn'd, The mountain-nymphs the rural tomb adorn'd, Jove's sylvan daughters bade their elms bestow A barren shade, and in his honour grow. "By the same arm my seven brave brothers fell; In one sad day beheld the gates of hell; While the fat herds and snowy flocks they fed, Amid their fields the hapless heroes bled! My mother lived to wear the victor's bands, The queen of Hippoplacia's sylvan lands: Redeem'd too late, she scarce beheld again Her pleasing empire and her native plain, When ah! oppress'd by life-consuming woe, She fell a victim to Diana's bow. "Yet while my Hector still survives, I see My father, mother, brethren, all, in thee: Alas! my parents, brothers, kindred, all Once more will perish, if my Hector fall, Thy wife, thy infant, in thy danger share: Oh, prove a husband's and a father's care! That quarter most the skilful Greeks annoy, Where yon wild fig-trees join the wall of Troy; Thou, from this tower defend the important post; There Agamemnon points his dreadful host, That pass Tydides, Ajax, strive to gain, And there the vengeful Spartan fires his train. Thrice our bold foes the fierce attack have given, Or led by hopes, or dictated from heaven. Let others in the field their arms employ, But stay my Hector here, and guard his Troy."



The chief replied: "That post shall be my care, Not that alone, but all the works of war. How would the sons of Troy, in arms renown'd, And Troy's proud dames, whose garments sweep the ground Attaint the lustre of my former name, Should Hector basely quit the field of fame? My early youth was bred to martial pains, My soul impels me to the embattled plains! Let me be foremost to defend the throne, And guard my father's glories, and my own. "Yet come it will, the day decreed by fates! (How my heart trembles while my tongue relates!) The day when thou, imperial Troy! must bend, And see thy warriors fall, thy glories end. And yet no dire presage so wounds my mind, My mother's death, the ruin of my kind, Not Priam's hoary hairs defiled with gore, Not all my brothers gasping on the shore; As thine, Andromache! Thy griefs I dread: I see thee trembling, weeping, captive led! In Argive looms our battles to design, And woes, of which so large a part was thine! To bear the victor's hard commands, or bring The weight of waters from Hyperia's spring. There while you groan beneath the load of life, They cry, 'Behold the mighty Hector's wife!' Some haughty Greek, who lives thy tears to see, Imbitters all thy woes, by naming me. The thoughts of glory past, and present shame, A thousand griefs shall waken at the name! May I lie cold before that dreadful day, Press'd with a load of monumental clay! Thy Hector, wrapt in everlasting sleep,



The Iliad of Homer

Shall neither hear thee sigh, nor see thee weep." Thus having spoke, the illustrious chief of Troy Stretch'd his fond arms to clasp the lovely boy. The babe clung crying to his nurse's breast, Scared at the dazzling helm, and nodding crest. With secret pleasure each fond parent smiled, And Hector hasted to relieve his child, The glittering terrors from his brows unbound, And placed the beaming helmet on the ground; Then kiss'd the child, and, lifting high in air, Thus to the gods preferr'd a father's prayer: "O thou! whose glory fills the ethereal throne, And all ye deathless powers! protect my son! Grant him, like me, to purchase just renown, To guard the Trojans, to defend the crown, Against his country's foes the war to wage, And rise the Hector of the future age! So when triumphant from successful toils Of heroes slain he bears the reeking spoils, Whole hosts may hail him with deserved acclaim, And say, 'This chief transcends his father's fame:' While pleased amidst the general shouts of Troy, His mother's conscious heart o'erflows with joy." He spoke, and fondly gazing on her charms, Restored the pleasing burden to her arms; Soft on her fragrant breast the babe she laid, Hush'd to repose, and with a smile survey'd. The troubled pleasure soon chastised by fear, She mingled with a smile a tender tear. The soften'd chief with kind compassion view'd, And dried the falling drops, and thus pursued:

BOOK VI. "Andromache! my soul's far better part, Why with untimely sorrows heaves thy heart? No hostile hand can antedate my doom, Till fate condemns me to the silent tomb. Fix'd is the term to all the race of earth; And such the hard condition of our birth: No force can then resist, no flight can save, All sink alike, the fearful and the brave. No more—but hasten to thy tasks at home, There guide the spindle, and direct the loom: Me glory summons to the martial scene, The field of combat is the sphere for men. Where heroes war, the foremost place I claim, The first in danger as the first in fame."



Thus having said, the glorious chief resumes His towery helmet, black with shading plumes. His princess parts with a prophetic sigh, Unwilling parts, and oft reverts her eye That stream'd at every look; then, moving slow, Sought her own palace, and indulged her woe. There, while her tears deplored the godlike man, Through all her train the soft infection ran; The pious maids their mingled sorrows shed, And mourn the living Hector, as the dead.

But now, no longer deaf to honour's call, Forth issues Paris from the palace wall. In brazen arms that cast a gleamy ray, Swift through the town the warrior bends his way.


The Iliad of Homer

The wanton courser thus with reins unbound176 Breaks from his stall, and beats the trembling ground; Pamper'd and proud, he seeks the wonted tides, And laves, in height of blood his shining sides; His head now freed, he tosses to the skies; His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies; He snuffs the females in the distant plain, And springs, exulting, to his fields again. With equal triumph, sprightly, bold, and gay, In arms refulgent as the god of day, The son of Priam, glorying in his might, Rush'd forth with Hector to the fields of fight. And now, the warriors passing on the way, The graceful Paris first excused his stay. To whom the noble Hector thus replied: "O chief! in blood, and now in arms, allied! Thy power in war with justice none contest; Known is thy courage, and thy strength confess'd. What pity sloth should seize a soul so brave, Or godlike Paris live a woman's slave! My heart weeps blood at what the Trojans say, And hopes thy deeds shall wipe the stain away. Haste then, in all their glorious labours share, For much they suffer, for thy sake, in war. These ills shall cease, whene'er by Jove's decree We crown the bowl to heaven and liberty: While the proud foe his frustrate triumphs mourns,


—The wanton courser.

"Come destrier, che da le regie stalle Ove a l'usa de l'arme si riserba, Fugge, e libero al fiu per largo calle Va tragl' armenti, o al fiume usato, o a l'herba." Gier, Lib. ix. 75.

BOOK VI. And Greece indignant through her seas returns."




The Iliad of Homer



ARGUMENT THE SINGLE COMBAT OF HECTOR AND AJAX. The battle renewing with double ardour upon the return of Hector, Minerva is under apprehensions for the Greeks. Apollo, seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her near the Scaean gate. They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, and incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat. Nine of the princes accepting the challenge, the lot is cast and falls upon Ajax. These heroes, after several attacks, are parted by the night. The Trojans calling a council, Antenor purposes the delivery of Helen to the Greeks, to which Paris will not consent, but offers to restore them her riches. Priam sends a herald to make this offer, and to demand a truce for burning the dead, the last of which only is agreed to by Agamemnon. When the funerals are performed, the Greeks, pursuant to the advice of Nestor, erect a fortification to protect their fleet and camp, flanked with towers, and defended by a ditch and palisades. Neptune testifies his jealousy at this work, but is pacified by a promise from Jupiter. Both armies pass the night in feasting but Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with thunder, and other signs of his wrath. The three and twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and Ajax, the next day the truce is agreed; another is taken up in the funeral rites of the slain and one more in building the fortification before the ships. So that somewhat about three days is employed in this book. The scene lies wholly in the field.


The Iliad of Homer

So spoke the guardian of the Trojan state, Then rush'd impetuous through the Scaean gate. Him Paris follow'd to the dire alarms; Both breathing slaughter, both resolved in arms. As when to sailors labouring through the main, That long have heaved the weary oar in vain, Jove bids at length the expected gales arise; The gales blow grateful, and the vessel flies. So welcome these to Troy's desiring train, The bands are cheer'd, the war awakes again. Bold Paris first the work of death begun On great Menestheus, Areithous' son, Sprung from the fair Philomeda's embrace, The pleasing Arne was his native place. Then sunk Eioneus to the shades below, Beneath his steely casque he felt the blow177 Full on his neck, from Hector's weighty hand; And roll'd, with limbs relax'd, along the land. By Glaucus' spear the bold Iphmous bleeds, Fix'd in the shoulder as he mounts his steeds; Headlong he tumbles: his slack nerves unbound, Drop the cold useless members on the ground. When now Minerva saw her Argives slain, From vast Olympus to the gleaming plain Fierce she descends: Apollo marked her flight, Nor shot less swift from Ilion's towery height. Radiant they met, beneath the beechen shade; When thus Apollo to the blue-eyed maid:
—Casque. The original word is stephanae, about the meaning of which there is some little doubt. Some take it for a different kind of cap or helmet, others for the rim, others for the cone, of the helmet.


BOOK VII. "What cause, O daughter of Almighty Jove! Thus wings thy progress from the realms above? Once more impetuous dost thou bend thy way, To give to Greece the long divided day? Too much has Troy already felt thy hate, Now breathe thy rage, and hush the stern debate; This day, the business of the field suspend; War soon shall kindle, and great Ilion bend; Since vengeful goddesses confederate join To raze her walls, though built by hands divine." To whom the progeny of Jove replies: "I left, for this, the council of the skies: But who shall bid conflicting hosts forbear, What art shall calm the furious sons of war?" To her the god: "Great Hector's soul incite To dare the boldest Greek to single fight, Till Greece, provoked, from all her numbers show A warrior worthy to be Hector's foe." At this agreed, the heavenly powers withdrew; Sage Helenus their secret counsels knew; Hector, inspired, he sought: to him address'd, Thus told the dictates of his sacred breast: "O son of Priam! let thy faithful ear Receive my words: thy friend and brother hear! Go forth persuasive, and a while engage The warring nations to suspend their rage; Then dare the boldest of the hostile train To mortal combat on the listed plain. For not this day shall end thy glorious date; The gods have spoke it, and their voice is fate."



The Iliad of Homer


He said: the warrior heard the word with joy; Then with his spear restrain'd the youth of Troy, Held by the midst athwart. On either hand The squadrons part; the expecting Trojans stand; Great Agamemnon bids the Greeks forbear: They breathe, and hush the tumult of the war. The Athenian maid, and glorious god of day,178 With silent joy the settling hosts survey: In form of vultures, on the beech's height They sit conceal'd, and wait the future fight. The thronging troops obscure the dusky fields, Horrid with bristling spears, and gleaming shields. As when a general darkness veils the main, (Soft Zephyr curling the wide wat'ry plain,) The waves scarce heave, the face of ocean sleeps, And a still horror saddens all the deeps; Thus in thick orders settling wide around, At length composed they sit, and shade the ground. Great Hector first amidst both armies broke The solemn silence, and their powers bespoke: "Hear, all ye Trojan, all ye Grecian bands, What my soul prompts, and what some god commands. Great Jove, averse our warfare to compose, O'erwhelms the nations with new toils and woes; War with a fiercer tide once more returns, Till Ilion falls, or till yon navy burns. You then, O princes of the Greeks! appear; 'Tis Hector speaks, and calls the gods to hear: From all your troops select the boldest knight, And him, the boldest, Hector dares to fight. Here if I fall, by chance of battle slain,

—Athenian maid: Minerva.

BOOK VII. Be his my spoil, and his these arms remain; But let my body, to my friends return'd, By Trojan hands and Trojan flames be burn'd. And if Apollo, in whose aid I trust, Shall stretch your daring champion in the dust; If mine the glory to despoil the foe; On Phoebus' temple I'll his arms bestow: The breathless carcase to your navy sent, Greece on the shore shall raise a monument; Which when some future mariner surveys, Wash'd by broad Hellespont's resounding seas, Thus shall he say, 'A valiant Greek lies there, By Hector slain, the mighty man of war,' The stone shall tell your vanquish'd hero's name. And distant ages learn the victor's fame."


This fierce defiance Greece astonish'd heard, Blush'd to refuse, and to accept it fear'd. Stern Menelaus first the silence broke, And, inly groaning, thus opprobrious spoke:

"Women of Greece! O scandal of your race, Whose coward souls your manly form disgrace, How great the shame, when every age shall know That not a Grecian met this noble foe! Go then! resolve to earth, from whence ye grew, A heartless, spiritless, inglorious crew! Be what ye seem, unanimated clay, Myself will dare the danger of the day; 'Tis man's bold task the generous strife to try, But in the hands of God is victory."



The Iliad of Homer

These words scarce spoke, with generous ardour press'd, His manly limbs in azure arms he dress'd. That day, Atrides! a superior hand Had stretch'd thee breathless on the hostile strand; But all at once, thy fury to compose, The kings of Greece, an awful band, arose; Even he their chief, great Agamemnon, press'd Thy daring hand, and this advice address'd: "Whither, O Menelaus! wouldst thou run, And tempt a fate which prudence bids thee shun? Grieved though thou art, forbear the rash design; Great Hectors arm is mightier far than thine: Even fierce Achilles learn'd its force to fear, And trembling met this dreadful son of war. Sit thou secure, amidst thy social band; Greece in our cause shall arm some powerful hand. The mightiest warrior of the Achaian name, Though bold and burning with desire of fame, Content the doubtful honour might forego, So great the danger, and so brave the foe." He said, and turn'd his brother's vengeful mind; He stoop'd to reason, and his rage resign'd, No longer bent to rush on certain harms; His joyful friends unbrace his azure arms. He from whose lips divine persuasion flows, Grave Nestor, then, in graceful act arose; Thus to the kings he spoke: "What grief, what shame Attend on Greece, and all the Grecian name! How shall, alas! her hoary heroes mourn Their sons degenerate, and their race a scorn! What tears shall down thy silvery beard be roll'd, O Peleus, old in arms, in wisdom old!

where Jardan's waters fall. How would he lift his aged arms on high. To Ereuthalion he consign'd the prize. my youth renew. And with the Arcadian spears my prowess tried. Whose guileful javelin from the thicket flew. knotted. and each hero's sire! Gods! should he see our warriors trembling stand. And trembling all before one hostile hand. a river of Elis.179 There Ereuthalion braved us in the field. and beg to die! Oh! would to all the immortal powers above. and almighty Jove! Years might again roll back. nor bent the twanging bow. Lament inglorious Greece. Deep in a winding way his breast assailed. Nor aught the warrior's thundering mace avail'd. now the victor bore: But when old age had dimm'd Lycurgus' eyes. Phoebus. And give this arm the spring which once it knew When fierce in war. each action. No lance he shook. Great Areithous. And dared the trial of the strongest hands. the battle of the foe. iron mace he bore. I led my troops to Phea's trembling wall. Once with what joy the generous prince would hear Of every chief who fought this glorious war. known from shore to shore By the huge. 179 215 [131] —Celadon. . But broke. Proud Areithous' dreadful arms to wield. with this. Minerva. Where Celadon rolls down his rapid tide. Him not by manly force Lycurgus slew. Supine he fell: those arms which Mars before Had given the vanquish'd. Participate their fame. Furious with this he crush'd our levell'd bands.BOOK VII. and pleased inquire Each name.

the youngest of the host. his own immortal praise. youngest. you that youthful vigour boast. the examples of our host. Can you stand trembling. Oileus follow'd. All these. be his the chance to raise His country's fame. I fought the chief: my arms Minerva crown'd: Prone fell the giant o'er a length of ground. Whom heaven shall choose.216 The Iliad of Homer Nor could the strongest hands his fury stay: All saw. and fear'd. dreadful as the god of war: With these Eurypylus and Thoas stand. Up-started fierce: but far before the rest The king of men advanced his dauntless breast: Then bold Tydides. the noblest of the Grecian name. What then I was. his huge tempestuous sway Till I. O were your Nestor now! Not Hector's self should want an equal foe. And. The flower of Greece.180 And Merion. And wise Ulysses closed the daring band. met whom all our army fear'd. Idomen was there. and desert the day?" His warm reproofs the listening kings inflame. What chief shall combat. appear'd. Demand the fight. But. alike inspired with noble rage. And next his bulk gigantic Ajax rear'd. appear'd." . great in arms. And nine. warriors. To whom the Pylian sage: "Lest thirst of glory your brave souls divide. let the gods decide. who such numbers sway. Sprung from such fathers.

A worthy champion for the Grecian state: This task let Ajax or Tydides prove." Old Nestor shook the casque. By heaven inspired. The lots produced. Surveys the inscription with rejoicing eyes. each man then took his choice. This from the right to left the herald bears. Now while my brightest arms my limbs invest. And vows like these ascend from all the bands: "Grant. fear no force on earth. born to combats.BOOK VII. the son of Oileus. And deem your prayers the mean effect of fear. To Saturn's son be all your vows address'd: But pray in secret.181 The people pray. each hero signs his own: Then in the general's helm the fates are thrown. your vows declare In such a voice as fills the earth and air. with lifted eyes and hands. Leap'd forth the lot. beloved by Jove. Then casts before him. the king of kings. Be mine the conquest of this chief of Troy. lest the foes should hear. thou Almighty! in whose hand is fate. Each to his rival yields the mark unknown. in contradistinction to Ajax. and with transport cries: "Warriors! I claim the lot.e. It was customary to put the lots into a helmet. and arm with joy." 217 —Oileus. Ajax. Lives there a chief whom Ajax ought to dread? Ajax. Said I in secret? No. Held out in order to the Grecian peers. 181 —In the general's helm. in which they were well shaken up. 180 . Till godlike Ajax finds the lot his own. Or he. of every Greek desired. in all the toils of battle bred! From warlike Salamis I drew my birth. son of Telamon. i. And.

Or. Through every Argive heart new transport ran. and with new doubt oppress'd. 845. 182 [133] ." Now Ajax braced his dazzling armour on. earth trembled as he strode:183 His massy javelin quivering in his hand. Implore the god whose thunder rends the skies: "O father of mankind. or Mavors. and that both may share. according to his Thracian epithet.182 When Jove to punish faithless men prepares. He stood. All Troy stood trembling at the mighty man: Even Hector paused. the bulwark of the Grecian band. superior lord! On lofty Ida's holy hill adored: Who in the highest heaven hast fix'd thy throne. The troops with elevated eyes. tremendous as a god." —"Paradise Lost. Thus march'd the chief. "There Mavors stands Grinning with ghastly feature. And gives whole nations to the waste of wars. Felt his great heart suspended in his breast: —God of Thrace." —Carey's Dante: Hell. Hence "Mavortia Moenia.218 The Iliad of Homer He said. Sheathed in bright steel the giant-warrior shone: He moves to combat with majestic pace. So stalks in arms the grisly god of Thrace. "And death Grinn'd horribly a ghastly smile." 183 —Grimly he smiled. if illustrious Hector be thy care." ii. that Telamon may bear away The praise and conquest of this doubtful day. Grimly he smiled. Supreme of gods! unbounded and alone: Grant thou. v. Mars. That both may claim it.

as a boy. and not unskill'd in war: Let him. Indulge his wrath. Achilles shuns the fight.BOOK VII." 219 . And. No more—be sudden. o'erlook'd the field. (The work of Tychius. Of tough bull-hides. As from a brazen tower. Not void of soul. New to the field." "O son of Telamon. yet some there are. thy country's pride! (To Ajax thus the Trojan prince replied) Me. and singly know What strength thou hast. and begin the fight. and bred amidst alarms: I know to shift my ground. 'Twas vain to seek retreat. wouldst thou fright. and the foe drew near. And sends thee one. Turn. with seven thick folds o'ercast. thus his adverse chief address'd: "Hector! approach my arm. threatening. charge. to left. To right. of solid brass the last. Stern Telamon behind his ample shield. Himself had challenged. who in Hyle dwell'd And in all arts of armoury excell'd. and trembling at the fight? Thou meet'st a chief deserving of thy arms. a sample of her host. To combat born. Huge was its orb. the dexterous lance I wield. and aid our arms no more. and answer every call of war. and vain to fear. unactive on the sea-beat shore.) This Ajax bore before his manly breast. remount the car. I steal no conquest from a noble foe. and bold each blow. Such as I am. and what the Grecian foe. or woman. And bear thick battle on my sounding shield But open be our fight. I come to prove thy might. Whole troops of heroes Greece has yet to boast.

Through Hector's shield the forceful javelin flew. the terror of the wood. Black. It reach'd his neck. Yet ceased not Hector thus. let the ruin fly. Applied each nerve. and dims his shining shield. And glancing downwards. watchful as his foe drew near. But Ajax. but stooping down. From their bored shields the chiefs their javelins drew. . Or foaming boars. Fierce as the mountain-lions bathed in blood. Then Ajax threw. The hollow brass resounded with the shock: Then Ajax seized the fragment of a rock. with matchless strength impell'd! Spouts the black gore. Till in the seventh it fix'd. His corslet enters. and restored to fight. At Ajax. Drove through the Trojan targe the knotty spear. Full on the brazen boss the stone descends. craggy. and rising. The huge stone thundering through his buckler broke: His slacken'd knees received the numbing stroke. Then close impetuous.220 The Iliad of Homer [134] He said. and the charge renew. His bulk supporting on the shatter'd shield: Nor wanted heavenly aid: Apollo's might Confirm'd his sinews. vast: to this his force he bends. and bending low Beneath his buckler. Full on the brass descending from above Through six bull-hides the furious weapon drove. near his flank descends. and swinging round on high. Hector his long lance extends. disappoints the blow. high above the field Whirl'd the long lance against the sevenfold shield. The wary Trojan shrinks. In his strong hand up-heaved a flinty stone. The blunted point against the buckler bends. Great Hector falls extended on the field. and his garment rends. With force tempestuous.

The goddess parts you. The sacred ministers of earth and heaven: Divine Talthybius. be the night obey'd. To either host your matchless worth is known. Between the swords their peaceful sceptres rear'd. and war is all your own. Both dear to men. And sage Idaeus on the part of Troy. and both beloved of Jove. And now both heroes their broad falchions drew In flaming circles round their heads they flew. Each sounds your praise. But then by heralds' voice the word was given. But now the Night extends her awful shade. my sons! your further force to prove.BOOK VII. Con pari honor di pari ambo possenti. And first Idaeus' awful voice was heard: 221 [135] HECTOR AND AJAX SEPARATED BY THE HERALDS."184 184 "Sete o guerrieri. "Forbear. . whom the Greeks employ. incomincio Pindoro.

51. And each brave foe was in his soul a friend. And heaven enjoins it. a sword with stars of silver graced. Return. And cease the strife when Hector shows the way. and with worth of mind! Now martial law commands us to forbear. The baldric studded. 'Not hate. the night extends her gloomy shade. The generous Greek bestow'd A radiant belt that rich with purple glow'd. but glory. made these chiefs contend. As I shall glad each chief. Hereafter we shall meet in glorious war. And joy the nations whom thy arm defends. e non sian rotte Le ragioni. Let him demand the sanction of the night." —Gier. Who wearies heaven with vows for Hector's life. But let us. And let the gods decide of death or life! Since." "O first of Greeks! (his noble foe rejoin'd) Whom heaven adorns. Exchange some gift: that Greece and Troy may say. on this memorable day. This seeks the Grecian. He gave the Greek. e 'l riposo. then. Lib. be the night obey'd. who first provoked our chiefs to fight. superior to thy kind. e de la notte.222 The Iliad of Homer To whom great Ajax his high soul express'd: "O sage! to Hector be these words address'd. vi. I content obey. brave Ajax. Let him. Then with majestic grace they quit the plain. . If first he ask'd it. Dunque cessi la pugna.'" With that. Some future day shall lengthen out the strife. to thy Grecian friends. and the sheath enchased. With strength of body. that the Phrygian train. and Trojan wife.

223 [136] It was an ancient style of compliment to give a larger portion of food to the conqueror. they survey him round. the repast prepare. And hail with joy the Champion of their state. as their late despair. The victim falls. Each takes his seat.185 When now the rage of hunger was removed. O kings! this fatal day has cost. From the red field their scatter'd bodies bear. What Greeks are perish'd! what a people lost! What tides of blood have drench'd Scamander's shore! What crowds of heroes sunk to rise no more! Then hear me." Gen. Escaped great Ajax. While we to flames our slaughter'd friends bequeath. 185 . A steer for sacrifice the king design'd. Nestor. and vigorous from his wound. See Virg.BOOK VII. Then spread the tables. Of full five years. viii. The Trojan bands returning Hector wait. The sage whose counsels long had sway'd the rest. chief! nor let the morrow's light Awake thy squadrons to new toils of fight: Some space at least permit the war to breathe. unarm'd. they strip the smoking hide. The king himself (an honorary sign) Before great Ajax placed the mighty chine. Thus Benjamin was honoured with a "double portion. in each persuasive art approved. But Ajax. or person to whom respect was to be shown. and the joints divide. The beast they quarter. glorying in his hardy deed. To Troy's high gates the godlike man they bear Their present triumph. Alive. 34. 181. In words like these his prudent thought express'd: "How dear. xliii. and each receives his share. and of the nobler kind. The well-arm'd Greeks to Agamemnon lead. Æn.

" 'Twas thus the sage his wholesome counsel moved. rising. Nor fear the fierce incursions of the foe. Antenor. as of choice: Their hearts were fearful. thus demands their ear: "Ye Trojans. The sceptred kings of Greece his words approved. convened at Priam's palace-gate. or reject. and confused their voice. From space to space be ample gates around. with lofty towers. So Greece to combat shall in safety go. the sworn alliance. So decent urns their snowy bones may keep. Next. hear! 'Tis heaven the counsel of my breast inspires. broke. and a trench profound. to secure our camp and naval powers. High o'er them all a general tomb be raised. Meanwhile. The ties of faith." . For passing chariots. And Argive Helen own her ancient lord. And pious children o'er their ashes weep. So hope success. Dardans. and auxiliars. where on one promiscuous pile they blazed. Our impious battles the just gods provoke. Raise an embattled wall. or dread the dire effect.224 The Iliad of Homer And nigh the fleet a funeral structure rear. And I but move what every god requires: Let Sparta's treasures be this hour restored. The Trojan peers in nightly council sate. Here. As this advice ye practise. A senate void of order.

more sound advice hast given. To whom replied The graceful husband of the Spartan bride: "Cold counsels. Thou. My treasures too. Thy words express the purpose of thy heart. That done. Before their ships proclaim my son's intent. but not the dame. Trojan. I will resign. that Troy may burn Her slaughter'd heroes. And whose the conquest. and auxiliar bands! Now take refreshment as the hour demands. to the Atrides sent. once more the fate of war be tried. in thy time. may become thy years But sound ungrateful in a warrior's ears: Old man. and their bones inurn. But wisdom has its date. assign'd by heaven. mighty Jove decide!" . Slow from his seat the reverend Priam rose: His godlike aspect deep attention drew: He paused. Then hear me. Dardans. for peace.BOOK VII. the growing discord to compose. and these pacific words ensue: "Ye Trojans. Guard well the walls. 225 The senior spoke and sate. But be this bright possession ever mine. if void of fallacy or art." 'Twas then. relieve the watch of night. Next let a truce be ask'd. Till the new sun restores the cheerful light. Then shall our herald. princes of the Trojan name! Their treasures I'll restore.

and Troy's great monarch. and their bones inurn. hear. The spoils and treasures he to Ilion bore (Oh had he perish'd ere they touch'd our shore!) He proffers injured Greece: with large increase Of added Trojan wealth to buy the peace. This Greece demands. At length Tydides rose. mighty Jove decide!" [138] The Greeks gave ear." . That done. and rising spoke: "Oh. nor even the Spartan dame. O ye chiefs! we ask a truce to burn Our slaughter'd heroes. And Troy already totters to her fall. but none the silence broke. in council found. declares. author of the war. and Troy requests in vain. And whose the conquest. friends! defrauded of your fame. There. Next. But to restore the beauteous bride again. to the sons of Mars. Their proffer'd wealth. Let conquest make them ours: fate shakes their wall. once more the fate of war be tried. take not. and ye Greeks. Pleased may ye hear (so heaven succeed my prayers) What Paris. Soon as the rosy morn had waked the day. He raised his voice: the host stood listening round. give ear! The words of Troy. "Ye sons of Atreus. To the black ships Idaeus bent his way.226 The Iliad of Homer The monarch spoke: the warriors snatch'd with haste (Each at his post in arms) a short repast.

With dust dishonour'd. In mingled throngs the Greek and Trojan train Through heaps of carnage search'd the mournful plain. their pious tears they shed. And tipp'd the mountains with a purple ray. Scarce could the friend his slaughter'd friend explore. With general shouts return'd him loud acclaim. He came. the herald bent his way. and rear'd his sceptre to the sky. The admiring chiefs. Hew'd the green forests. Be witness. and all the Grecian name. Straight to their several cares the Trojans move. some fell the sounding grove: Nor less the Greeks. and standing in the midst. 227 . The wounds they wash'd. Jove. Nor less the Greeks their pious sorrows shed. to sacred Troy return'd. explain'd The peace rejected. descending on the shore. Arose the golden chariot of the day. sadly slow. deplored the dead. Sage Priam check'd their grief: with silent haste The bodies decent on the piles were placed: With melting hearts the cold remains they burn'd. whose thunder rolls on high!" He said. where all her princes lay To wait the event. And. and the bodies bore. Then thus the king of kings rejects the peace: "Herald! in him thou hear'st the voice of Greece For what remains. let funeral flames be fed With heroes' corps: I war not with the dead: Go search your slaughtered chiefs on yonder plain. laid along their cars.BOOK VII. And. and deformed with gore. but the truce obtain'd. To shed his sacred light on earth again. Some search the plains. And now from forth the chambers of the main. And gratify the manes of the slain. To sacred Troy.

In shining circle round their father Jove.228 The Iliad of Homer [139] And decent on the pile dispose the dead. p. ere the morn had streak'd with reddening light The doubtful confines of the day and night. . This takes place in the seventh book. The cold remains consume with equal care. And round the pile a general tomb they rear'd. About the dying flames the Greeks appear'd. The reason ascribed for the glaring improbability that the Greeks should have left their camp and fleet unfortified during nine years. began: 186 —Embattled walls. Accordingly. Then. vol. in the battles previous to the eighth book. then. no allusion occurs to a rampart.' The disasters consequent on his secession first led to the necessity of other means of protection. And slowly. Here. to secure the camp and naval powers. forms the pervading bond of connexion to the whole poem. "Another essential basis of mechanical unity in the poem is the construction of the rampart. So toil'd the Greeks: meanwhile the gods above. Amazed beheld the wondrous works of man: Then he. in the midst of a hostile country."—Mure. or rather this peculiar crisis of it.. in all those which follow it forms a prominent feature. to their fleet repair. in the anomaly as in the propriety of the Iliad. Now. whose trident shakes the earth. i. is a purely poetical one: 'So long as Achilles fought. the terror of his name sufficed to keep every foe at a distance. and a trench profound Of large extent. They raised embattled walls with lofty towers:186 From space to space were ample gates around. sadly. For passing chariots. the destiny of Achilles. 257. and deep in earth below. Strong piles infix'd stood adverse to the foe.

"What mortals henceforth shall our power adore. Thy power is honour'd. razed and lost." Thus spoke the hoary monarch of the deep.BOOK VII. whose rage can make The solid earth's eternal basis shake! What cause of fear from mortal works could move187 The meanest subject of our realms above? Where'er the sun's refulgent rays are cast. Our fanes frequent. 304. Wide as the morn her golden beam extends. &c. No god consulted. iv. and no victim slain! Their fame shall fill the world's remotest ends. No trace remain where once the glory grew. Those radiant structures raised by labouring gods. "Seest thou not this? Or do we fear in vain Thy boasted thunders. 229 The almighty Thunderer with a frown replies. and blackens half the skies: "Strong god of ocean! thou. . Shall. If the proud Grecians thus successful boast Their rising bulwarks on the sea-beat coast? See the long walls extending to the main. whelm'd beneath the waves. While old Laomedon's divine abodes. and the name no more. and thy fame shall last. drop the huge wall: Vast drifts of sand shall change the former shore: The ruin vanish'd. and thy thoughtless reign?" Dryden's Virgil. our oracles implore." 187 —What cause of fear. And. But yon proud work no future age shall view. That clouds the world. in long oblivion sleep. The sapp'd foundations by thy force shall fall.

Enjoy'd the balmy blessings of the night. an ox.230 The Iliad of Homer [140] Thus they in heaven: while. (Eunaeus. some. tit. arrived from Lemnos' strands. These lines are referred to by Theophilus. Back from the tents the savoury vapour flew. whom Hypsipyle of yore To Jason. With Bacchus' blessings cheered the generous bands. in exchange.) The rest they purchased at their proper cost. xxiii. and these within their towers. or slave. 188 . o'er the Grecian train. proportion'd treasures gave. All night they feast. refresh'd with sleep from toils of fight. shepherd of his people. The rolling sun descending to the main Beheld the finish'd work. Each pour'd to Jove before the bowl was crown'd. But Jove averse the signs of wrath display'd. And large libations drench'd the thirsty ground: Then late. And well the plenteous freight supplied the host: Each. brass or iron. bore. While the deep thunder shook the aerial hall. And shot red lightnings through the gloomy shade: Humbled they stood. iii. the Roman lawyer. Of fragrant wines the rich Eunaeus sent A thousant measures to the royal tent.188 Some. And now the fleet. the Greek and Trojan powers: Those on the fields. —In exchange. as exhibiting the most ancient mention of barter. Their bulls they slew. Section 1. pale horror seized on all.



vol. and threatens them with the pains of Tartarus if they assist either side: Minerva only obtains of him that she may direct the Greeks by her counsels. v. (the Greeks being driven to their fortifications before the ships.189 his balances the fates of both.[141] BOOK VIII. while the other divine warriors. 252. THE SECOND BATTLE. Juno and Minerva prepare to aid the Grecians. in the military details of the narrative. Jupiter assembles a council of the deities. and affrights the Greeks with his thunders and lightnings. repeatedly allude to the supreme edict as the cause of their present inactivity." ch. whose exploits. p. or on that of one or two contumacious deities. who is at length wounded by Hector. and Grote. Section 6. sent from Jupiter. The night puts an end to the battle. In the opening of the twentieth book this interdict is withdrawn. During the twelve intermediate books it is kept steadily in view. ARGUMENT. p 257. but checked and reprimanded for their disobedience. i. described as boldly setting his commands at defiance. vol. . is the decree issued by Jupiter. "Greek Literature. See however. The acts of Teucer. AND THE DISTRESS OF THE GREEKS. Muller. and carried off. No interposition takes place but on the part of the specially authorised agents of Jove. are excellently described. ii. but are restrained by Iris. but in vain. and those of Hector. Nestor alone continues in the field in great danger: Diomed relieves him. Hector continues in the field. who in the previous and subsequent cantos are so active in support of their favourite heroes.) and gives orders to keep the watch 189 "A similar bond of connexion. at the commencement of the eighth book."—Mure. against any further interference of the gods in the battles. Juno endeavours to animate Neptune to the assistance of the Greeks.

They kindle fires through all the fields. to prevent the enemy from re-embarking and escaping by flight. The fix'd decree which not all heaven can move. With burning chains fix'd to the brazen floors.190 190 [142] "As far removed from God and light of heaven. Low in the dark Tartarean gulf shall groan. The heavens attentive trembled as he spoke: "Celestial states! immortal gods! give ear. And lock'd by hell's inexorable doors. fate! fulfil it! and. and pass the night under arms. from steep Olympus thrown. Hear our decree. and reverence what ye hear. ye powers." —"Paradise Lost. approve! What god but enters yon forbidden field. Who yields assistance. the scorn of heaven. As deep beneath the infernal centre hurl'd. or but wills to yield. When Jove convened the senate of the skies.234 The Iliad of Homer all night in the camp. Sprinkled with rosy light the dewy lawn. The sire of gods his awful silence broke. The time of seven and twenty days is employed from the opening of the poem to the end of this book. oh far. As from the centre thrice to th' utmost pole. fair daughter of the dawn. Tanto e piu in su de la stellata spera" . Gash'd with dishonest wounds. Aurora now. Or far." "E quanto e da le stelle al basso inferno. Where high Olympus' cloudy tops arise. Back to the skies with shame he shall be driven. Thou. The scene here (except of the celestial machines) lies in the field towards the seashore.

217. then. of mortal and immortal birth. the Thunderer down to earth Ye strive in vain! if I but stretch this hand. 191 "Now lately heav'n. Let down our golden everlasting chain191 Whose strong embrace holds heaven. To drag. and main Strive all." The all-mighty spoke. i. dread those dire abodes: And know. and gods. The summit of the Thessalian Olympus was regarded as the highest point on the earth. vol."—Thirlwall's Greece.BOOK VIII. . But it is not necessary to construe these epithets so literally. sq. and the land. and it is not always carefully distinguished from the aerian regions above The idea of a seat of the gods—perhaps derived from a more ancient tradition. Let him who tempts me. 235 —Gier. ye powers above. earth. and try the omnipotence of Jove. As from that centre to the ethereal world. from the manner in which the height of heaven is compared with the depth of Tartarus. p. Yet it would seem." —"Paradise Lost. i. Join all. 7. And the vast world hangs trembling in my sight! For such I reign. I fix the chain to great Olympus' height. in which it was not attached to any geographical site—seems to be indistinctly blended in the poet's mind with that of the real mountain. link'd in a golden chain To that side heav'n. another world Hung e'er my realm. League all your forces. 1004. I heave the gods. nor to draw any such inference from his description of Atlas. nor durst the powers reply: A reverend horror silenced all the sky. who holds the lofty pillars which keep earth and heaven asunder. that the region of light was thought to have certain bounds. compared to Jove. Lib. unbounded and above. the Almighty is the god of gods. the ocean." ii. And such are men. by this. and earth. "Some of the epithets which Homer applies to the heavens seem to imply that he considered it as a solid vault of metal.

(Fair nurse of fountains. . our father and our lord! But.) Where o'er her pointed summits proudly raised. the power of wisdom. at least lament their fate. The town. And smiled superior on his best beloved. Brass were their hoofs. the sacred sire Of gods and men released the steeds of fire: Blue ambient mists the immortal steeds embraced. Or all must perish in the wrath of Jove.236 The Iliad of Homer Trembling they stood before their sovereign's look. Then call'd his coursers. Refulgent. Thence his broad eye the subject world surveys. Yet grant my counsels still their breasts may move. and navigable seas. But when to Ida's topmost height he came. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. their curling manes of gold: Of heaven's undrossy gold the gods array. and his altar blazed: There. by gods adored We own thy might. and tents. from his radiant car. spoke: "O first and greatest! God. and his chariot took. ah! permit to pity human state: If not to help. flash'd intolerable day. and of savage game. High on the throne he shines: his coursers fly Between the extended earth and starry sky. The stedfast firmament beneath them shook: Rapt by the ethereal steeds the chariot roll'd. With arms unaiding mourn our Argives slain. At length his best-beloved." [143] The cloud-compelling god her suit approved. High on the cloudy point his seat he placed. His fane breathed odours.

And now with shouts the shocking armies closed. But when the sun the height of heaven ascends. The gates unfolding pour forth all their train. "Th' Eternal. To lances lances. for on this dreadful day The fate of fathers. sole arbiter of peace and war. increasing bright. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. Triumphant shouts and dying groans arise. The tumult thickens. shields to shields opposed. Long as the morning beams. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. And buckled on their shining arms with haste. Hung forth in heav'n his golden scales. and the skies resound. with balanced air In counterpoise. Battles and realms. to prevent such horrid fray. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. With streaming blood the slippery fields are dyed. Victors and vanquish'd join promiscuous cries. now ponders all events. Troy roused as soon. The sire of gods his golden scales suspends. Wherein all things created first he weighed. In these he puts two weights. steeds. The pendulous round earth. wives. Till Troy descending fix'd the doubtful scale.192 192 237 [144] —His golden scales.BOOK VIII. Held forth the fatal balance from afar: Each host he weighs. Now had the Grecians snatch'd a short repast. by turns they both prevail. Host against host with shadowy legends drew. "Jove now. and chariots shake the trembling ground. O'er heaven's clear azure spread the sacred light. Squadrons on squadrons cloud the dusky plain: Men. sqq. The sounding darts in iron tempests flew." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. The sequel each of parting and of fight: . v 687. and infants lay.

Mad with his anguish. and unmans their souls. Fix'd in the forehead. thundering through the war. thunderbolts of war: Nor he. and the skies on fire. Nor each stern Ajax. for Paris' dart Had pierced his courser in a mortal part. oh whither does Ulysses run? Oh. Before his wrath the trembling hosts retire. from forth the crowd He rush'd.238 The Iliad of Homer With equal hand: in these explored the fate Of Greece and Troy." "Paradise Lost. The gods in terrors. The clouds burst dreadful o'er the Grecian heads. the Trojan strikes the skies. the king of war. Pour'd to the tumult on his whirling car. where the springing man Curl'd o'er the brow. Then Jove from Ida's top his horrors spreads. When dreadful Hector. and freed The encumber'd chariot from the dying steed. . the alarm sustain'd Nestor alone. flight unworthy great Laertes' son! The latter quick up flew. 496. Nor great Idomeneus that sight could bear. he begins to rear. and lash the air. amidst the storm remain'd. Their strength he withers. Paw with his hoofs aloft. Scarce had his falchion cut the reins. Unwilling he remain'd. and kick'd the beam. the muttering thunder rolls. the Grecian balance lies Low sunk on earth. and on Ulysses call'd aloud: "Whither." iv. it stung him to the brain. That day had stretch'd beneath his matchless hand The hoary monarch of the Pylian band. and poised the mighty weight: Press'd with its load. Thick lightnings flash. But Diomed beheld.

even he may learn to fear The thirsty fury of my flying spear. To dare the fight. ascend my seat. dishonest wound? Oh turn and save from Hector's direful rage The glory of the Greeks. With these against yon Trojans will we go. Fierce as he is. and Sthenelus the bold: The reverend charioteer directs the course." His fruitless words are lost unheard in air. Leave thou thy chariot to our faithful train. Mix'd with the vulgar shall thy fate be found. Approves his counsel. Tydides whirl'd his spear. and shelters there. and thy coursers slow. to chase. Then haste. the Pylian sage. skill'd in war. renown'd in war. their trusty servants hold. to stop. A single warrior midst a host of foes. Nor shall great Hector want an equal foe. or urge the rapid race: These late obey'd Æneas' guiding rein. Hector they face. Pierced in the back. These younger champions will oppress thy might. and anxious thus bespoke the king: "Great perils. Fierce he drove on. Eurymedon. Thy veins no more with ancient vigour glow. unknowing how to fear. a vile. father! wait the unequal fight. 239 [145] . Ulysses seeks the ships. Weak is thy servant. And strains his aged arm to lash the horse. Before the coursers with a sudden spring He leap'd. and Nestor.BOOK VIII. Practised alike to turn. But bold Tydides to the rescue goes. and ascends the car: The steeds he left." Thus said the chief. and from the car Observe the steeds of Tros.

The ground before him flamed with sulphur blue. Rose Archeptolemus. 'Tis not in man his fix'd decree to move: The great will glory to submit to Jove." vi. to supply his place and rule the car. Had not th' Almighty Father. and our palm denies. warn'd the intrepid Diomed: "O chief! too daring in thy friend's defence Retire advised. turning. But plunged in Eniopeus' bosom lay. Till. the fierce in war. The steeds fly back: he falls. His opening hand in death forsakes the rein. shook with sacred dread. "And now all heaven Had gone to wrack. 669. and spurns the plain.240 The Iliad of Homer The spear with erring haste mistook its way. Yet unrevenged permits to press the field. This day. &c.193 Like timorous flocks the Trojans in their wall Inclosed had bled: but Jove with awful sound Roll'd the big thunder o'er the vast profound: Full in Tydides' face the lightning flew. Great Hector sorrows for his servant kill'd. averse." 193 —And now. the sovereign of the skies Assists great Hector. And Nestor's trembling hand confess'd his fright: He dropp'd the reins: and. Some other sun may see the happier hour. and urge the chariot hence. ." —"Paradise Lost.. When Greece shall conquer by his heavenly power. where he sits . with ruin overspread.. Thus. The quivering steeds fell prostrate at the sight. And now had death and horror cover'd all. foreseen.

The shouts of Trojans thicken in the wind." He said. and now hopes invite. in II. Then with a voice that shakes the solid skies. Pleased. 340. Hector braves the warrior as he flies. This arm shall reach thy heart. To lead in exile the fair Phrygian dames. yet bleeding in her heroes lost. The epithet Gerenian either refers to the name of a place in which Nestor was educated. Thrice turn'd the chief. hasty. in the form of man! To scale our walls. viii. o'er the gasping throng Drives the swift steeds: the chariot smokes along. the Dardan host. and stretch thee dead. but who shall heed the boast? Not those who felt thy arm. See Schol. But ah. Strabo. Go less than woman. to wrap our towers in flames. 336. Before that dire disgrace shall blast my fame. Thy once proud hopes. Not even a Phrygian dame. or merely signifies honoured.BOOK VIII. B. who dreads the sword That laid in dust her loved. "O reverend prince! (Tydides thus replies) Thy years are awful. p. lamented lord. revered. what grief! should haughty Hector boast I fled inglorious to the guarded coast. earth. mighty hero! graced above the rest In seats of council and the sumptuous feast: Now hope no more those honours from thy train. and thy words are wise. and. Nor Troy. 194 . and hide a warrior's shame!" To whom Gerenian Nestor thus replied:194 "Gods! can thy courage fear the Phrygian's pride? Hector may vaunt. O'erwhelm me. and thrice imperial Jove 241 [146] —Gerenian Nestor." Now fears dissuade him. presumptuous prince! are fled. The storm of hissing javelins pours behind. and to stand the fight. "Go. Venet. To stop his coursers.

and dreadful hand to hand. Lampus. and your own. And all your master's well-spent care repay. Podargus! prove thy generous race. in plenteous stalls ye stand. Dardan band. Till. From Tydeus' shoulders strip the costly load. Your great forefathers' glories. be fearless. this important day. Heard ye the voice of Jove? Success and fame Await on Troy. Served with pure wheat. And pass victorious o'er the levell'd mound. Be mindful of the wreaths your arms have won. In vain they skulk behind their boasted wall. then bending o'er the yoke. Weak bulwarks." Furious he said. Fight each with flames. For this my spouse. Encouraged his proud steeds. of great Aetion's line. High o'er their slighted trench our steeds shall bound. All famed in war. now thunder uncontroll'd: Give me to seize rich Nestor's shield of gold. then victory. he saw the flashing light. All Greece. in one blaze expires. urge the chase. Now swift pursue. For this. Soon as before yon hollow ships we stand. So oft has steep'd the strengthening grain in wine. Great Hector heard. Be fleet. Xanthus. on Greece eternal shame. Æthon. every Trojan. destined by this arm to fall. while thus he spoke: "Now. And thou. Vulcanian arms. their proud navy wrapt in smoke and fires.) and thus urged the fight: "Hear. and by a princess' hand. encompass'd. Lycian. high-fed. and toss the blazing brand. the labour of a god: These if we gain.242 The Iliad of Homer On Ida's summits thunder'd from above. ye powers! [147] . (The sign of conquest.

Toil'd through the tents. Helice. what madness. 195 . the fleet is ours!" That heard. Would all the deities of Greece combine. Where the deep trench in length extended lay. This night. Nor swells thy heart in that immortal breast? Yet Ægae. with scarce a god to friend.195 And gifts unceasing on thine altars lay. She shook her throne. this glorious night.BOOK VIII. All above Submit and tremble at the hand of Jove. In vain the gloomy Thunderer might repine: Sole should he sit. And see his Trojans to the shades descend: Such be the scene from his Idaean bower. and with thicken'd shields. Both these towns were conspicuous for their worship of Neptune. Compacted troops stand wedged in firm array. A dreadful front! they shake the brands. Squadrons on squadrons drives. thy power obey. by Juno's self inspired. Ungrateful prospect to the sullen power!" Neptune with wrath rejects the rash design: "What rage. to whose matchless might Jove gave the glory of the destined fight. furious queen! is thine? I war not with the highest. whose force can make The stedfast earth from her foundations shake. Seest thou the Greeks by fates unjust oppress'd." Now godlike Hector. 243 —Ægae. Helice. and fills the fields With close-ranged chariots. and all his army fired. that shook the starry pole: And thus to Neptune: "Thou. The king of men. and threat With long-destroying flames the hostile fleet. deep anguish stung Saturnia's soul.

and my people slain! To thee my vows were breathed from every shore.244 The Iliad of Homer [148] Swift as he moved. and while the goblet flows. bright ensign of command. like me oppress'd? With power immense. And ask'd destruction to the Trojan name. he lifted in his hand His purple robe. Whose distant ships the guarded navy bound. Who paid their vows to Panomphaean Jove. (divine portent!) High o'er the wondering hosts he soar'd above. and the flames surround? O mighty Jove! O sire of the distress'd! Was ever king like me. with justice arm'd in vain. A fawn his talons truss'd. What altar smoked not with our victims' gore? With fat of bulls I fed the constant flame. When the fight rages. his voice was heard: To Ajax and Achilles reach'd the sound. And save the relics of the Grecian land!" Thus pray'd the king. And gives the people to their monarch's prayers. Now. His eagle. gracious god! far humbler our demand. in bitterness of soul preferr'd: The wrath appeased. "O Argives! shame of human race! (he cried: The hollow vessels to his voice replied. . But who to meet one martial man is found. While the feast lasts. Your hasty triumphs on the Lemnian shore? Each fearless hero dares a hundred foes. High on the midmost bark the king appear'd: There. sacred bird of heaven! he sent. by happy signs declares. Give these at least to 'scape from Hector's hand. and heaven's great father heard His vows. My glory ravish'd. from Ulysses' deck.) Where now are all your glorious boasts of yore.

With every shaft some hostile victim slew. then fell Ormenus dead: The godlike Lycophon next press'd the plain. Moves as he moves. Struck through the back. Forth rush a tide of Greeks. Then close beneath the sevenfold orb withdrew: The conscious infant so. The dart drove on. and transport seized on all: Encouraged by the sign. like Mars in arms renown'd. And fierce on Troy with doubled fury drive. Then let the prey before his altar fall. now passed the mound. With Chromius. His ponderous buckler thunders on the ground. Ophelestes slain: Bold Hamopaon breathless sunk to ground. of all the Grecian force. the passage freed. and issued at his breast: Headlong he quits the car: his arms resound. Pierced the deep ranks. the Ajaces next succeed: Meriones. the troops revive. the Phrygian fell oppress'd. The Atridae first. Daetor. their strongest battle tore. Tydides first.BOOK VIII. and turns the shining shield. when fear alarms. Who first by Teucer's mortal arrows bled? Orsilochus. O'er the broad ditch impell'd his foaming horse. 245 [149] . The bloody pile great Melanippus crown'd. The Greeks beheld. Young Agelaus (Phradmon was his sire) With flying coursers shunn'd his dreadful ire. And godlike Idomen. And dyed his javelin red with Trojan gore. Thus Ajax guards his brother in the field. Retires for safety to the mother's arms. And last young Teucer with his bended bow. Evaemon's son next issues to the foe. Secure behind the Telamonian shield The skilful archer wide survey'd the field.

Thy country's saviour.246 The Iliad of Homer Heaps fell on heaps. And eight bold heroes by their points lie dead: But sure some god denies me to destroy This fury of the field. sad trophies of his art. The vigorous offspring of a stolen embrace: Proud of his boy. Shall recompense the warrior's toils with love." To this the chief: "With praise the rest inspire. The next rich honorary gift be thine: Some golden tripod. Nor urge a soul already fill'd with fire. this dog of Troy." . Now hear a monarch's vow: If heaven's high powers Give me to raze Troy's long-defended towers. A Trojan ghost attending every dart. Still aim'd at Hector have I bent my bow: Eight forky arrows from this hand have fled. always thus. Thy brave example shall retrieve our host. With coursers dreadful in the ranks of war: Or some fair captive. And the brave son repays his cares with fame. and thy father's boast! Sprung from an alien's bed thy sire to grace. Since rallying from our wall we forced the foe. thy early worth be tried. whom thy eyes approve. he own'd the generous flame. Till every shaft in Phrygian blood be dyed. be now in battle tried. Whatever treasures Greece for me design. Great Agamemnon views with joyful eye The ranks grow thinner as his arrows fly: "O youth forever dear! (the monarch cried) Thus. or distinguished car. What strength I have.

Hector with grief his charioteer beheld All pale and breathless on the sanguine field: Then bids Cebriones direct the rein. and twang'd the string. where the juncture knits the channel bone. The feather in his hand. That other shaft with erring fury flew.196 Decline the head. depress'd Beneath his helmet.) As full-blown poppies. 85.BOOK VIII. The shaft already to his shoulder drew." Gier. E in atto si gentil languir tremanti Gl' occhi. and drooping kiss the plain. nymph of form divine. (Fair Castianira. e cader siu 'l tergo il collo mira. but pierced Gorgythio's heart. Lib. "Il suo Lesbia quasi bel fior succiso. and issues on the plain. There. So sinks the youth: his beauteous head. ix. Dreadful he shouts: from earth a stone he took. And dipp'd its feathers in no vulgar gore. Headlong he falls: his sudden fall alarms The steeds. This offspring added to king Priam's line. . (From Hector. The weapon flies At Hector's breast. that startle at his sounding arms. just wing'd for flight. &c. And drench'd in royal blood the thirsty dart.) Yet fell not dry or guiltless to the ground: Thy breast. Touch'd where the neck and hollow chest unite. Quits his bright car. The youth already strain'd the forceful yew. 196 247 [150] —As full blown. Another shaft the raging archer drew. He said. and sings along the skies: He miss'd the mark. drops upon his breast. Phoebus turn'd the flying wound. And rush'd on Teucer with the lifted rock. overcharged with rain. brave Archeptolemus! it tore.

When flying they had pass'd the trench profound. As the bold hound. bore The batter'd archer groaning to the shore. He arm'd their hands. Fierce on his rattling chariot Hector came: His eyes like Gorgon shot a sanguine flame That wither'd all their host: like Mars he stood: Dire as the monster. retreat behind their wall. Hangs on his haunch. Guards as he turns. Troy yet found grace before the Olympian sire. and with eager pace. but still they flew. great Hector march'd along. Thus following. First of the foe. And his numb'd hand dismiss'd his useless bow. And fired the troops. or fastens on his heels.248 The Iliad of Homer The furious chief discharged the craggy stone: The bow-string burst beneath the ponderous blow. And screen'd his brother with the mighty shade. Before the ships a desperate stand they made. to war's triumphant maid: . and more than mortal strong. that gives the lion chase. and called the gods to aid. dreadful as the god! Their strong distress the wife of Jove survey'd. Then pensive thus. Thus oft the Grecians turn'd. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground. and Mecistheus. Hector still the hindmost slew. The Greeks repulsed. With terror clothed. He fell: but Ajax his broad shield display'd. With beating bosom. Or in the trench on heaps confusedly fall. Till great Alaster. and fill'd their breasts with fire. and circles as he wheels.

249 "O daughter of that god. Mocks our attempts. the sire of heaven. he may be moved . Shall wretched Greece no more confess our care. and my Greeks undone. fierce. The stubborn god. And drain the dregs of heaven's relentless hate? Gods! shall one raging hand thus level all? What numbers fell! what numbers yet shall fall! What power divine shall Hector's wrath assuage? Still swells the slaughter. To whom the goddess with the azure eyes: "Long since had Hector stain'd these fields with gore. his favourite son distress'd. Forgets my service and deserved reward: Saved I. nor hell explored in vain. When to grim Pluto's gloomy gates he went. My hopes are frustrate. By stern Eurystheus with long labours press'd? He begg'd. in deep dismay. Nor Styx been cross'd. in this moment of her last despair. and shake the sable shield! Now. To grace her gloomy. for this. Oh had my wisdom known this dire event. I shot from heaven. Averse to me of all his heaven of gods.BOOK VIII. perhaps. The triple dog had never felt his chain. Condemn'd to suffer the full force of fate. withstands. Stretch'd by some Argive on his native shore: But he above. At Thetis' suit the partial Thunderer nods. and still grows the rage!" So spake the imperial regent of the skies. with tears he begg'd. Some future day. and slights our just demands. inflexible and hard. and gave his arm the day. resenting son. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt.

Expiring. Smooth glides the chariot through the liquid sky. Heaven's gates spontaneous open to the powers. The sounding hinges ring. The vigorous power the trembling car ascends: Shook by her arm. Myself will arm. or roll those clouds away. goddess! say. pale. Prone down the steep of heaven their course they guide. All dreadful in the crimson walks of war! What mighty Trojan then. and Juno rein'd the steeds with care: (Heaven's awful empress. [152] . launch thy chariot. and glut the dogs with gore?" She ceased. His cuirass blazes on her ample breast. the massy javelin bends: Huge. or unfold. kept by the winged Hours. Shall feast the fowls. the clouds divide. on yonder shore. Saturn's other heir:) Pallas. and Pallas shall appear. that man of men) When Juno's self. Her father's arms her mighty limbs invest. and thunder at thy side.250 The Iliad of Homer To call his blue-eyed maid his best beloved. ponderous. Haste. Saturnia lends the lash. The radiant robe her sacred fingers wove Floats in rich waves. Heaven's golden gates. Close. through yon ranks to ride. shall Hector glory then? (That terror of the Greeks. with art immortal crown'd. The sun's bright portals and the skies command. Then. the eternal gates of day Bar heaven with clouds. and spreads the court of Jove. strong! that when her fury burns Proud tyrants humbles. her various veil unbound. the coursers fly. and terrible no more. and whole hosts o'erturns. Commission'd in alternate watch they stand. meanwhile. With flowers adorn'd.

"Thaumantia! mount the winds. Condemn'd for ten revolving years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. from Ida's top survey'd. Their car in fragments. and stop their car. scatter'd o'er the sky: My lightning these rebellious shall confound. So shall Minerva learn to fear our ire. 251 JUNO AND MINERVA GOING TO ASSIST THE GREEKS." [153] . headlong. incensed. to the ground. and what I speak is fate: Their coursers crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. headstrong and imperious still. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire. For Juno. But Jove. She claims some title to transgress our will. Against the highest who shall wage the war? If furious yet they dare the vain debate. Thus have I spoke. And thus enjoin'd the many-colour'd maid.BOOK VIII. And hurl them flaming.

" . Your car in fragments scatter'd o'er the sky. Your horses crush'd beneath the wheels shall lie. and Juno thus her rage resign'd: "O daughter of that god. Yourselves condemn'd ten rolling years to weep The wounds impress'd by burning thunder deep. whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. They breathe or perish as the fates ordain: But Jove's high counsels full effect shall find. to the ground. Triumphant now. now miserably slain. She claims some title to transgress his will: But thee. Nor dare to combat hers and nature's sire. ever constant. And hurl ye headlong. what desperate insolence has driven To lift thy lance against the king of heaven?" Then. the various-colour'd maid From Ida's top her golden wings display'd.252 The Iliad of Homer Swift as the wind. And. ever rule mankind. She flew. For Juno. and know his word shall stand: His lightning your rebellion shall confound. flaming. "What frenzy goddesses! what rage can move Celestial minds to tempt the wrath of Jove? Desist. headstrong and imperious still. obedient to his high command: This is his word. mounting on the pinions of the wind. And speaks the mandate of the sire of gods. and shake the dreadful shield No more let beings of superior birth Contend with Jove for this low race of earth. To great Olympus' shining gate she flies. There meets the chariot rushing down the skies. Restrains their progress from the bright abodes. So shall Minerva learn to fear his ire.

panting as they stood.BOOK VIII. [154] . and reach the sky. There stood the chariot. and heavenly bright. abash'd. beaming forth its rays. Flame through the vast of air. the wheels instinctive fly. There tied. She spoke. The pensive goddesses. Swifter than thought. they rest in high celestial stalls. 'Twas Neptune's charge his coursers to unbrace. And fix the car on its immortal base. Adorn'd with manes of gold. 253 THE HOURS TAKING THE HORSES FROM JUNO'S CAR. And now the Thunderer meditates his flight From Ida's summits to the Olympian height. and backward turn'd her steeds of light. The Hours unloosed them. Till with a snowy veil he screen'd the blaze. And heap'd their mangers with ambrosial food. controll'd. Mix with the gods. and fill their seats of gold. The chariot propp'd against the crystal walls.

ours to grieve alone. With arms unaiding see our Argives slain. Yet grant our counsels still their breasts may move. High heaven the footstool of his feet he makes. The eternal Thunderer sat. For thus I speak. why heave your hearts? Soon was your battle o'er: proud Troy retired Before your face. Though secret anger swell'd Minerva's breast. and thus his word imparts: "Pallas and Juno! say. for his frown they fear'd. From fields forbidden we submiss refrain. Cut off. But know. On this our hill no more shall hold his place. O tyrant of the skies! Strength and omnipotence invest thy throne. and what I speak shall stand. But feast their souls on Ilion's woes to come. What power soe'er provokes our lifted hand. whoe'er almighty power withstand! Unmatch'd our force. But Juno. enthroned in gold.254 The Iliad of Homer He. Your hearts shall tremble. whose all-conscious eyes the world behold. and exiled from the ethereal race. abandon'd by her fate To drink the dregs of thy unmeasured hate. The prudent goddess yet her wrath repress'd. impotent of rage. He saw their soul. if our arms we take. Trembling afar the offending powers appear'd. Confused and silent. For Greece we grieve. replies: "What hast thou said." Juno and Pallas grieving hear the doom. And each immortal nerve with horror shake. [155] . 'Tis thine to punish. and in your wrath expired. unconquer'd is our hand: Who shall the sovereign of the skies control? Not all the gods that crown the starry pole. And wide beneath him all Olympus shakes.

Lest all should perish in the rage of Jove. and blackens all the skies: "The morning sun. Who swells the clouds. The navy flaming. Nor shall great Hector cease the rage of fight. And arm in vain. Fly. nor canst thou turn its course With all thy rage.BOOK VIII. And drew behind the cloudy veil of night: The conquering Trojans mourn his beams decay'd. and thy Greeks in flight. No sun e'er gilds the gloomy horrors there. Even till the day when certain fates ordain That stern Achilles (his Patroclus slain) Shall rise in vengeance. Fast by the brink. if thy wilt. Where cursed Iapetus and Saturn dwell. Shall see the almighty Thunderer in arms. The Greeks rejoicing bless the friendly shade. awaked by loud alarms." Now deep in ocean sunk the lamp of light. and thus the god replies. and lay waste the plain. Those radiant eyes shall view. and view in vain. shall stand." 255 The goddess thus. What heaps of Argives then shall load the plain. with all thy rebel force. No cheerful gales refresh the lazy air: There arm once more the bold Titanian band. for what I will. For such is fate. to earth's remotest bound. . Where on her utmost verge the seas resound. within the streams of hell.

Some hostile wound let every dart bestow. Where thinly scatter'd lay the heaps of dead. Let numerous fires the absent sun supply. descending on the ground. and use her peaceful hours Our steeds to forage. And. thus reveal'd his mind: "Ye valiant Trojans. Lest. Some lasting token of the Phrygian foe. The assembled chiefs. Of full ten cubits was the lance's length. would wrap in conquering flame Greece with her ships. in the silence and the shades of night. and refresh our powers. These to Scamander's bank apart he led. to save the cowards. Till the bright morn her purple beam displays. and crown our toils with fame. Fix'd to the wood with circling rings of gold: The noble Hector on his lance reclined. And strengthening bread and generous wine be brought Wide o'er the field. Straight from the town be sheep and oxen sought. Obey the night. with attention hear! Ye Dardan bands. A massy spear he bore of mighty strength. [156] . or safely cleave the main. The point was brass. And guards them trembling in their wooden walls. bending forward. that long hence may ask their spouses' care. and generous aids. and Hector calls A martial council near the navy walls. refulgent to behold. Greece on her sable ships attempt her flight. Not unmolested let the wretches gain Their lofty decks. Wounds. high blazing to the sky. Attend his order. But darkness now. falls. give ear! This day. The flaming piles with plenteous fuel raise.256 The Iliad of Homer The victors keep the field. we hoped. and their prince surround.

oh! might my days endure. our battlements surround. From age inglorious. while distant lie our powers. Shall crush the Greeks. And warn their children from a Trojan war. And beardless youths. Like Pallas worshipp'd. Lest. these orders to obey. But soon as morning paints the fields of air. Our common safety must be now the care. So might my life and glory know no bound. With this keen javelin shall his breast be gored. the watery way: For Trojan vultures a predestined prey. The insidious foe the naked town invade. To bid the sires with hoary honours crown'd. A nobler charge shall rouse the dawning day. and end the woes of Troy. shall give to Hector's hand From these detested foes to free the land. To-morrow's light (O haste the glorious morn!) Shall see his bloody spoils in triumph borne. Suffice." The leader spoke. And the fired fleet behold the battle rage. Let sacred heralds sound the solemn call. under covert of the midnight shade. and black death secure. And prostrate heroes bleed around their lord. Certain as this. like the sun renown'd! As the next dawn. From all his host around Shouts of applause along the shores resound. The gods. 257 . with fates averse. then shall Hector and Tydides prove Whose fates are heaviest in the scales of Jove. Now through the circuit of our Ilion wall. And let the matrons hang with lights the towers. I trust. the last they shall enjoy. Sheathed in bright arms let every troop engage. Then. to-night.BOOK VIII. Firm be the guard. Who plough'd.

But vain their toil: the pow'rs who rule the skies Averse beheld the ungrateful sacrifice. And not a cloud o'ercasts the solemn scene. vi. refulgent lamp of night. And all the signs in heaven are seene. . And fix'd their headstalls to his chariot-side. 527. Around her throne the vivid planets roll. And stars shine cleare. The troops exulting sat in order round." Chapman.198 O'er heaven's pure azure spreads her sacred light. Full hecatombs lay burning on the shore: The winds to heaven the curling vapours bore. With generous wine." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. And stars unnumber'd gild the glowing pole. And beaming fires illumined all the ground. and all-sustaining bread.258 The Iliad of Homer [157] Each from the yoke the smoking steeds untied. When not a breath disturbs the deep serene. As when the moon. And even the lowly valleys joy to glitter in their sight. because the cause in which they were engaged was unjust. 197 —Ungrateful. that glad the shepherd's heart. The curling vapours load the ambient air. O'er the dark trees a yellower verdure shed. When the unmeasured firmament bursts to disclose her light. sqq. Fat sheep and oxen from the town are led. "Struck by the lab'ring priests' uplifted hands The victims fall: to heav'n they make their pray'r. and her guilty race. Proud Troy they hated. 198 "As when about the silver moon. Ungrateful offering to the immortal powers!197 Whose wrath hung heavy o'er the Trojan towers: Nor Priam nor his sons obtain'd their grace. when aire is free from winde. to whose sweet beams high prospects on the brows Of all steepe hills and pinnacles thrust up themselves for shows.

Full fifty guards each flaming pile attend. And tip with silver every mountain's head: Then shine the vales. by fits. and bless the useful light. and tremble on the spires. So many flames before proud Ilion blaze.BOOK VIII. 259 [158] . And ardent warriors wait the rising morn. Whose umber'd arms. Loud neigh the coursers o'er their heaps of corn. the rocks in prospect rise. And shoot a shady lustre o'er the field. The long reflections of the distant fires Gleam on the walls. A thousand piles the dusky horrors gild. rejoicing in the sight. And lighten glimmering Xanthus with their rays. A flood of glory bursts from all the skies: The conscious swains. thick flashes send. Eye the blue vault.

.260 The Iliad of Homer THE SHIELD OF ACHILLES.

and Nestor seconds him. but "a great and general one. Thus joyful Troy maintain'd the watch of night. The scene lies on the sea-shore. The ambassadors return unsuccessfully to the camp. This book. and sadden'd every heart. but are rejected with roughness by Achilles. 358. Ulysses and Ajax are made choice of. very moving and pressing speeches. Sat on each face. on the Grecian part. but with the approval of Jove. who notwithstanding retains Phoenix in his tent. ARGUMENT. after the last day's defeat. caused by Hector and the Trojans. This flight of the Greeks. THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES.[159] BOOK IX. each of them. and return to their country.199 And heaven-bred horror. While fear. in order to move him to a reconciliation. was not a supernatural flight caused by the gods. who are accompanied by old Phoenix. and the next following. take up the space of one night. Agamemnon pursues this advice. Agamemnon. praising his wisdom and resolution. p. He orders the guard to be strengthened. the station of the Grecian ships. Diomed opposes this. according to Buttmann." 199 . and the troops betake themselves to sleep. which is the twenty-seventh from the beginning of the poem. and Nestor further prevails upon him to send ambassadors to Achilles. Lexil. proposes to the Greeks to quit the siege. pale comrade of inglorious flight. and a council summoned to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency. They make.

In solemn sadness and majestic grief. and bids the Ægean roar: This way and that the boiling deeps are toss'd: Such various passions urged the troubled host. Haste then. our people. mix'd with sighs. With conquest honour'd and enrich'd with spoils: Now shameful flight alone can save the host. almighty lord of all! Jove. Haste to the joys our native country yields. With more than vulgar grief he stood oppress'd. Himself his orders to the heralds bears. Heaps waves on waves. And heavenly oracles believed in vain. . Fellows in arms and princes of the war! Of partial Jove too justly we complain. A safe return was promised to our toils. thus bursting from his breast: "Ye sons of Greece! partake your leader's care. So silent fountains. Spread all your canvas.262 The Iliad of Homer [160] As from its cloudy dungeon issuing forth. And towers and armies humbles to the dust. The king amidst the mournful circle rose: Down his wan cheek a briny torrent flows. So Jove decrees. from a rock's tall head. at whose nod whole empires rise or fall. Great Agamemnon grieved above the rest. Our wealth. To bid to council all the Grecian peers. Words. A double tempest of the west and north Swells o'er the sea. for ever quit these fatal fields. from Thracia's frozen shore. and our glory lost. Superior sorrows swell'd his royal breast. In sable streams soft-trickling waters shed. Who shakes the feeble props of human trust. But bid in whispers: these surround their chief. all your oars employ.

Myself shall stay. will fight for fame. if all Greece retire. prince! thy wrath withhold. till Troy or I expire. and a wide command. Myself. Thou first. in fields of fight. conquer. and Sthenelus. A pensive scene! till Tydeus' warlike son Roll'd on the king his eyes. and extirpate Troy. The Greeks stood witness. And if we fly. God bade us fight. The laws of council bid my tongue be bold." .BOOK IX. he stands. or. They gave dominion o'er the seas and land. and 'twas with God we came. First let him speak who first has suffer'd shame. Is this a general's voice. If I oppose thee. and thou alone. The gods have made thee but by halves a king: They gave thee sceptres. and defame my might: Nor from a friend the unkind reproach appear'd. Here Greece shall stay. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. Durst brand my courage. that would suggest Fears like his own to every Grecian breast? Confiding in our want of worth. Go thou. A noble care the Grecians shall employ. O chief! from whom our honours spring. inglorious! from the embattled plain." 263 He said: deep silence held the Grecian band. Ships thou hast store. The noblest power that might the world control They gave thee not—a brave and virtuous soul. and thus begun: "When kings advise us to renounce our fame. and nearest to the main. Silent. unmov'd in dire dismay they stand. To combat. The gods. all our army heard. 'tis what our king commands.

because with truth. Age bids me speak! nor shall the advice I bring Distaste the people. p. Still first to act what you advise so well. after noticing the modest calmness and respect with which Nestor addresses Agamemnon. Unfit for public rule. Then let me add what yet remains behind. and whose horrid joy. Kings thou canst blame. unworthy light. He spoke: the host in still attention heard:200 "O truly great! in whom the gods have join'd Such strength of body with such force of mind: In conduct.264 The Iliad of Homer [161] He ceased. Whose lust is murder. or offend the king: "Cursed is the man. "The Homeric Council is a purely consultative body. as in courage. These wholesome counsels which thy wisdom moves. Applauding Greece with common voice approves. And voice to voice resounds Tydides' praise. ii. that monster. assembled not with any power of peremptorily arresting mischievous resolves of the king. Between the trench and wall let guards remain: Grote. you excel. Wise Nestor then his reverend figure rear'd. To tear his country. That wretch. observes. 91." 200 . A thought unfinish'd in that generous mind. Unworthy property. a bold but prudent youth: And blame even kings with praise. and void of law and right. and his kind destroy! This night. or private care. who delights in war. the Greeks loud acclamations raise. but solely for his information and guidance. refresh and fortify thy train. And yet those years that since thy birth have run Would hardly style thee Nestor's youngest son. vol.

And Lycomed of Creon's noble line. For happy counsels flow from sober feasts. Great is thy sway. Troy must flame. But stay'd his hand when thirst and hunger ceased. O king. Some line the trench. or Greece must fall. to council call the old. With Thracian wines recruit thy honour'd guests. and weighty are thy cares. Convened the princes in his ample tent. Ascalaphus. Each seized a portion of the kingly feast. unmoved. See what a blaze from hostile tents aspires. Merion join. and can close to-night? This dreadful interval determines all. Thy high commands must spirit all our wars. Then Nestor spoke. To-morrow.BOOK IX. Seven were the leaders of the nightly bands. 265 [162] . Swift through the gates the guards direct their way. The double offspring of the warrior-god: Deipyrus. And such a monarch as can choose the best. And each bold chief a hundred spears commands. His son was first to pass the lofty mound. thus the council moved. Aphareus." Thus spoke the hoary sage: the rest obey. on public counsels bent. How near our fleet approach the Trojan fires! Who can. weighty counsels aid a state distress'd. The fires they light. for wisdom long approved. Be that the duty of the young and bold. to short repasts they fall. Ialmen. But thou. in arms renown'd: Next him. and others man the wall. behold the dreadful light? What eye beholds them. The generous Thrasymed. Wise. And slowly rising. stood. The king of men.

The laws and sceptres to thy hand are given. with regard give ear. by men and gods admired: Now seek some means his fatal wrath to end. which err'd through frantic rage. repine. all ye Greeks. And ratify the best for public good. The wrathful chief and angry gods assuage. (Tacit. You wronged the man. Germ. and formed the income of the German. and himself a host. and lords of earth obey. Heaven fights his war. With prayers to move him. it is not unfrequent for the king to receive presents to purchase freedom from his wrath. Is more than armies. or immunity from his exactions. Thee. 201 [163] . But bold of soul. But follow it. Bless'd in his love. and faithful. durst dissuade. If gifts immense his mighty soul can bow. And millions own the care of thee and Heaven. "With justice hast thou shown A prince's faults. To see no wholesome motion be withstood. Nor. O king! the counsels of my age attend. Hear then a thought. or with gifts to bend. When from Pelides' tent you forced the maid. whom Jove still honours most. At once my present judgment and my past." To whom the king.266 The Iliad of Homer "Monarch of nations! whose superior sway Assembled states. though a meaner give advice. Pronounce with judgment. and witness what I vow. prince! it fits alike to speak and hear. this wondrous hero stands. That happy man. and I with reason own. Fain would my heart. With thee my cares begin. and humbles all our bands. Such gifts gradually became regular. when headlong fury fired. I first opposed. In the heroic times. not now conceived in haste. with thee must end.201 Hear. and make the wisdom thine.

With all her charms. And twice ten vases of refulgent mould: Seven sacred tripods. p. as if he spoke correctly. Then shall he store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass his loaded navy's sides: Besides. or approve of his being so covetous as to receive presents from Agamemnon. Skill'd in each art.89). uninjured she removes. and other kings. iii. x. When Lesbos sank beneath the hero's arms: All these. without presents. Briseis I resign. Pure from my arms. And solemn swear those charms were never mine. but. says. nor again. Untouch'd she stay'd. 202 It may be observed. are features well contrasted with the rough. should we commend Achilles himself. Twelve steeds unmatch'd in fleetness and in force. of which they for a long time answered the purpose. not to desist from his wrath. And join'd with these the long-contested maid. (De Rep. 'The feudal aids are the beginning of taxation. brief as is the mention of Briseis in the Iliad. "We cannot commend Phoenix. So. . however. The same I chose for more than vulgar charms. (Herodot. ch. the tutor of Achilles. 1. 4). and retiring delicacy. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. when counselling him to accept of presents and assist the Greeks. Middle Ages. that." &c. pt. vi. and guiltless of my loves.202 These instant shall be his. but tender disposition of the hero. shall be paid. unmatch'd in form divine. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold. and small the part she plays—what little is said is pre-eminently calculated to enhance her fitness to be the bride of Achilles. And still victorious in the dusty course. Plato. (Rich were the man whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. to buy his friendship. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race 267 Section 15) Persian.' (Hallam. nor has felt the flame. Purity. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. in the middle ages. 189) This fact frees Achilles from the apparent charge of sordidness.BOOK IX.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. too.

And rich Antheia with her flowery fields:204 The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. Bold are the men. 204 "Agamemnon. Such as himself will choose. 162. and Pherae him obey. vol. I ask no presents. Laodice and Iphigenia fair. Him Enope. If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. or Iphigenia. when he offers to transfer to Achilles seven towns inhabited by wealthy husbandmen. i Section 6. note. the Dolopes of Phthia. 203 —Laodice. And sacred Pedasus for vines renown'd. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. who yield to none. no reward for love: Myself will give the dower. . There shall he live my son. And rule the tributary realms around. our honours share. and labouring oxen toil. and generous is the soil. is not mentioned by Homer. Along the verdant margin of the main There heifers graze. Yet more—three daughters in my court are bred. And the same thing may be intimated when it is said that Peleus bestowed a great people. There shall he reign. And each well worthy of a royal bed. Æpea fair.268 The Iliad of Homer [164] With copious love shall crown his warm embrace. Her let him choose whom most his eyes approve. with power and justice crown'd. among the daughters of Agamemnon."—Thirlwall's Greece. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er. p. so vast a store As never father gave a child before. who would enrich their lord by presents and tribute. And with Orestes' self divide my care. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. than an authority over them.203 And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair. Seven ample cities shall confess his sway. the pastures Hira yields. seems likewise to assume rather a property in them. on Phoenix. Iphianassa.

as the worst of gods Great though he be. his vengeance to control." or." 206 —Purest hands. All this I give." 269 The monarch thus. Lives dark and dreadful in deep hell's abodes. Let chosen delegates this hour be sent (Myself will name them) to Pelides' tent. might defeat the object of their supplications. And mortals hate him. This is one of the most ancient superstitions respecting prayer. Now pray to Jove to grant what Greece demands. Rather: "use well-omened words. who never spares. revered for hoary age. Since more than his my years. Who feels no mercy. And such as fits a generous king to make. and more my sway. Great Ajax next. And sure all this may move his mighty soul.BOOK IX. which. as Kennedy has explained it. "Abstain from expressions unsuitable to the solemnity of the occasion. Let Phoenix lead. Yet more to sanctify the word you send. and one founded as much in nature as in tradition.205 and with purest hands. Let Hodius and Eurybates attend. it fits him to obey."206 [165] —Pray in deep silence. and who hears no prayers. Pluto. The reverend Nestor then: "Great Agamemnon! glorious king of men! Such are thy offers as a prince may take. Pray in deep silence. by offending the god. the grisly god. and Ithacus the sage. 205 .

.270 The Iliad of Homer PLUTO.

Pleased with the solemn harp's harmonious sound. the chiefs their thirst allay. arrived. Whose liquid arms the mighty globe surround.BOOK IX. The youth with wine the sacred goblets crown'd. To deprecate the chief. Amused at ease. And calm the rage of stern Æacides. Forbids to offend. To Neptune. Much he advised them all. He said. And large libations drench'd the sands around. Through the still night they march. ruler of the seas profound. instructs them to apply. and save the host. They pour forth vows. Wise Nestor turns on each his careful eye. their embassy to bless. and hear the roar Of murmuring billows on the sounding shore. . Ulysses most. the godlike man they found. and all approved. The rite perform'd. The heralds bring The cleansing water from the living spring. And now. where on the sandy bay The Myrmidonian tents and vessels lay. 271 THE EMBASSY TO ACHILLES. Then from the royal tent they take their way.

" . and listen'd long.272 The Iliad of Homer [166] (The well wrought harp from conquered Thebae came. though Greeks! for not as foes ye came. Mix purer wine. and open every soul. attends the lofty strain: Full opposite he sat. Then thus—"Patroclus. Leap'd from his seat. Achilles starting. With like surprise arose Menoetius' son: Pelides grasp'd their hands. crown a larger bowl. the great Ulysses leads. Of polish'd silver was its costly frame. Thy friend most honours these. the chiefs beneath his roof he led. Unseen the Grecian embassy proceeds To his high tent. and laid the harp aside.) With this he soothes his angry soul." With that. Placed in his tent. and thus begun: "Princes. And placed in seats with purple carpets spread. Of all the warriors yonder host can send. Welcome. Patroclus only of the royal train. and these thy friend. all hail! whatever brought you here. as the chiefs he spied. In silence waiting till he ceased the song. or urgent fear. and sings The immortal deeds of heroes and of kings. Or strong necessity. To me more dear than all that bear the name.

and for the living fear. Himself. His thirst and hunger soberly repress'd. The parts transfixes. sheep. He said: Patroclus o'er the blazing fire Heaps in a brazen vase three chines entire: The brazen vase Automedon sustains. opposed to Ulysses full in sight. and instant thus began. when the languid flames at length subside. Above the coals the smoking fragments turns And sprinkles sacred salt from lifted urns. What scenes of slaughter in yon fields appear! The dead we mourn. His speech addressing to the godlike man. Achilles at the genial feast presides. 273 [167] . and goat contains. and with skill divides. But greater cares sit heavy on our souls.BOOK IX. The tent is brighten'd with the rising blaze: Then. Which flesh of porker. Then each. That done. That. With bread the glittering canisters they load. The first fat offering to the immortals due. Amidst the greedy flames Patroclus threw. Greece on the brink of fate all doubtful stands. Meanwhile Patroclus sweats. "Health to Achilles! happy are thy guests! Not those more honour'd whom Atrides feasts: Though generous plenty crown thy loaded boards. Each portion parts. the fire to raise. Agamemnon's regal tent affords. and orders every rite. He strows a bed of glowing embers wide. to Phoenix Ajax gave the sign: Not unperceived. Which round the board Menoetius' son bestow'd. Ulysses crown'd with wine The foaming bowl. indulging in the social feast. Nor eased by banquets or by flowing bowls.

When Peleus in his aged arms embraced His parting son. and this the fatal day? Return. all our warriors slain. ah. and all the Grecian name. O prince divinely brave! Those wholesome counsels which thy father gave. that courage rise in vain: Regard in time. the sure source of woe. See. and success. Lest Fate accomplish all his rage design'd! And must we. That young and old may in thy praise combine. avenging Hector rise! See! heaven and earth the raging chief defies. Heavens! how my country's woes distract my mind. and stop the course of Fate. yet to conquer. full of Jove. though late. these accents were his last: "'My child! with strength.274 The Iliad of Homer And owns no help but from thy saving hands: Troy and her aids for ready vengeance call. Achilles: oh return. thy cares engage To calm thy passions. And point at every ship their vengeful flame! For them the father of the gods declares. . Theirs are his omens. What fury in his breast. Rise to redeem. what lightning in his eyes! He waits but for the morn. Thy arms may Juno and Minerva bless! Trust that to Heaven: but thou. the Greeks. If in that heart or grief or courage lies. And shun contention. Their threatening tents already shade our wall: Hear how with shouts their conquest they proclaim. with glory. gods! our heads inglorious lay In Trojan dust. rise! The day may come. To save thy Greeks. That heart shall melt. to sink in flame The ships. and subdue thy rage: From gentler manners let thy glory grow. and his thunder theirs. when.

And. Skill'd in each art. Pure from his arms. Briseis he'll resign. Then shalt thou store (when Greece the spoil divides) With gold and brass thy loaded navy's sides. These instant shall be thine. Or yield to Helen's heavenly charms alone. Yet hear me further: when our wars are o'er.) Seven lovely captives of the Lesbian line. whose unsullied frame Yet knows no office. If thou wilt yield to great Atrides' prayers. and if the powers Give to our arms proud Ilion's hostile towers. (Rich were the man. The virtues of humanity be thine—' This now-despised advice thy father gave. With all her charms. the long-contested maid. an exhaustless store. nor has felt the flame. 275 [168] . And twice ten vases of refulgent mould. All these. Gifts worthy thee his royal hand prepares. And still victorious in the dusty course. Such as thyself shall chose. When Lesbos sank beneath thy conquering arms. Besides. uninjured she removes. join'd with these. to buy thy friendship shall be paid. and be truly brave. If not—but hear me. whose ample stores exceed The prizes purchased by their winged speed. And solemn swear those charms were only thine. while I number o'er The proffer'd presents. and guiltless of his loves. Twelve steeds unmatched in fleetness and in force.BOOK IX. Seven sacred tripods. Ah! check thy anger. The same he chose for more than vulgar charms. Untouch'd she stay'd. Ten weighty talents of the purest gold. full twenty nymphs of Trojan race With copious love shall crown thy warm embrace. unmatch'd in form divine. who yield to none.

And be. If no regard thy suffering country claim. There heifers graze. . Yet more—three daughters in his court are bred. Seven ample cities shall confess thy sway. And bright Chrysothemis with golden hair: Her shalt thou wed whom most thy eyes approve. thou disdain. There shalt thou reign. and whole hosts retire. The Enope and Pherae thee obey. his honour share. He asks no presents. Cardamyle with ample turrets crown'd. Hear thy own glory. Proud Hector. relentless. And with Orestes' self divide his care. the pastures Hira yields. and generous is the soil. and labouring oxen toil. Along the verdant margin of the main. Such the repentance of a suppliant king. with power and justice crown'd. now. If honour and if interest plead in vain. And sacred Pedasus. The whole extent to Pylos' sandy plain. And each well worthy of a royal bed: Laodice and Iphigenia fair. And rich Antheia with her flowery fields. so vast a store As never father gave a child before. whose unresisted ire Made nations tremble. There shalt thou live his son. and the voice of fame: For now that chief. Bold are the men. amongst her guardian gods. the unequal fight demands.276 The Iliad of Homer [169] If safe we land on Argos' fruitful shore. adored. But if all this. no reward for love: Himself will give the dower. And rule the tributary realms around. for vines renown'd: Æpea fair. Yet some redress to suppliant Greece afford. Such are the proffers which this day we bring.

My heart detests him as the gates of hell. My tongue shall utter. or who bravely dies." Then thus the goddess-born: "Ulysses. lo! what fruit remains? As the bold bird her helpless young attends. A life of labours. Fight or not fight. From the following verses. But now the unfruitful glories charm no more. a like reward we claim. From danger guards them. by my labours saved. Such a one was that of which Achilles now speaks. that knows nor art nor fear. and my deeds make good. Let Greece then know. I sack'd twelve ample cities on the main. Which nor Atrides nor his Greeks can bend. my purpose I retain: Nor with new treaties vex my peace in vain. her infants.BOOK IX. it is evident that fruits of these maraudings went to the common support of the expedition. "Then thus in short my fix'd resolves attend. that the war at Troy was not a settled siege. all my glorious pains. In search of prey she wings the spacious air. Long toils. And with the untasted food supplies her care: For thankless Greece such hardships have I braved. Alike regretted in the dust he lies. and that many of the chieftains busied themselves in piratical expeditions about its neighborhood. Who dares think one thing. And only triumphs to deserve thy hands. hear A faithful speech. and another tell. 207 . Her wives. The wretch and hero find their prize the same. and not to the successful plunderer. And sweat laborious days in dust and blood. and from want defends.207 277 It must be recollected. long perils in their cause I bore. Of all my dangers. Who yields ignobly. What in my secret soul is understood. Long sleepless nights in heavy arms I stood.

of Greece to Troy? What to these shores the assembled nations draws. Deceived for once. Slave as she was. and a trench profound? And will not these (the wonders he has done) Repel the rage of Priam's single son? There was a time ('twas when for Greece I fought) When Hector's prowess no such wonders wrought. himself the rest. with ramparts. all proffers I disdain. Wrong'd in my love. my soul adored the dame. I trust not kings again. then. too. of all his train. may consult with you. Some few my soldiers had. And every prince enjoys the gift he made: I only must refund. He kept the verge of Troy. Ye have my answer—what remains to do.278 The Iliad of Homer [170] And twelve lay smoking on the Trojan plain: Then at Atrides' haughty feet were laid The wealth I gathered. Nor did my fair one less distinction claim. Your king. and the spoils I made. What needs he the defence this arm can make? Has he not walls no human force can shake? Has he not fenced his guarded navy round With piles. Your mighty monarch these in peace possess'd. Sure every wise and worthy man will love. nor dared to wait . to every prince was paid. See what pre-eminence our merits gain! My spoil alone his greedy soul delights: My spouse alone must bless his lustful nights: The woman. But what's the quarrel. What calls for vengeance but a woman's cause? Are fair endowments and a beauteous face Beloved by none but those of Atreus' race? The wife whom choice and passion doth approve. Ulysses. Some present. let him (as he may) enjoy.

but twice were mine. Pthia to her Achilles shall restore The wealth he left for this detested shore: Thither the spoils of this long war shall pass. His gifts are hateful: kings of such a kind Stand but as slaves before a noble mind. For once deceiv'd. Achilles' fury at the Scaean gate. And meditates new cheats on all his slaves. the steel. Though shameless as he is. . But now those ancient enmities are o'er. Then tell him: loud. Not though he proffer'd all himself possess'd. and scarce was saved by fate. run where frenzy drives. And all his rapine could from others wrest: Not all the golden tides of wealth that crown 208 279 [171] —Pthia. all terms.) Tell him. that all the Greeks may hear. And all that rests of my unravish'd prey. And learn to scorn the wretch they basely fear. all commerce I decline. to face these eyes Is what he dares not: if he dares he dies. mankind he braves. The ruddy gold. nor his battle join. And that resumed—the fair Lyrnessian slave. whom Jove deprives Of sense and justice. and shining brass: My beauteous captives thither I'll convey. Nor share his council.BOOK IX. To-morrow we the favouring gods implore. One only valued gift your tyrant gave. Then shall you see our parting vessels crown'd. No—let the stupid prince. He tried it once.208 If mighty Neptune send propitious gales. (For arm'd in impudence. the capital of Achilles' Thessalian domains. And hear with oars the Hellespont resound. The third day hence shall Pthia greet our sails. was his.

"on the northern bank of the lake Æpais. which receives not only the river Cephisus from the valleys of Phocis. p. And kings that sue to mix their blood with mine. If heaven restore me to my realms with life. in Boeotia. or designedly choked up by an enemy. Some greater Greek let those high nuptials grace. Content with just hereditary sway. and to occasion the change of the site of Orchomenus itself from the plain to the declivity of Mount Hyphanteion. or sands along the shore. "As long as the channels of these waters were diligently watched and kept clear.) 210 The phrase "hundred gates. 209 . Two hundred horsemen and two hundred cars From each wide portal issuing to the wars)." (Ibid. But when the channels came to be either neglected.210 Though bribes were heap'd on bribes. Thessalian nymphs there are of form divine. —Orchomenian town. Like golden Venus though she charm'd the heart. The reverend Peleus shall elect my wife. The world's great empress on the Egyptian plain (That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states. pre-eminently rich and fertile.209 Not all proud Thebes' unrivall'd walls contain. p. and I scorn them all. "situated. was a sufficient reason for its prosperity and decay. seems to be merely expressive of a great number. but also other rivers from Parnassus and Helicon" (Grote. my years shall glide away. in number more Than dust in fields." as it was. Bless'd in kind love. And pours her heroes through a hundred gates.280 The Iliad of Homer [172] The many-peopled Orchomenian town. And vied with Pallas in the works of art. a large portion of the lake was in the condition of alluvial land. I hate alliance with a tyrant's race.. See notes to my prose translation. Atrides' daughter never shall be led (An ill-match'd consort) to Achilles' bed. the water accumulated in such a degree as to occupy the soil of more than one ancient islet. 'Tis he that offers. vol. The topography of Orchomenus. 181). Should all these offers for my friendship call." &c. 162.

from fire. My fates long since by Thetis were disclosed. life or fame. all your arts conspire. Returns no more to wake the silent dead." 281 . His age be sacred. in peace and pride of sway. To quit these shores. Let all your forces. the troops. though late. And each alternate. Short is my date. I quit immortal praise For years on years. and her glories rise. Jove's arm display'd asserts her from the skies! Her hearts are strengthen'd. but deathless my renown: If I return. before the Trojan town. There. Nor hope the fall of heaven-defended Troy. if I stay. deaf for ever to the martial strife. Or Troy once held. But whether he remain or sail with me. And warn the Greeks the wiser choice to make. And steeds unrivall'd on the dusty plain: But from our lips the vital spirit fled. I find my fond mistake. Enjoy the dear prerogative of life. their native seats enjoy. Go then—digest my message as ye may— But here this night let reverend Phoenix stay: His tedious toils and hoary hairs demand A peaceful death in Pthia's friendly land. and his will be free. report our fix'd design. Not all Apollo's Pythian treasures hold. the chiefs. Here. and long-extended days. One stratagem has fail'd.BOOK IX. Go then to Greece. Can bribe the poor possession of a day! Lost herds and treasures we by arms regain. all your armies join. proposed. Convinced. and others will: Ye find. Achilles is unconquer'd still. Life is not to be bought with heaps of gold. Bid all your counsels. To save the ships.

Attend the stern reply. .282 The Iliad of Homer GREEK GALLEY. With accent weak these tender words return'd. in consternation drown'd.) And while the fate of suffering Greece he mourn'd. The son of Peleus ceased: the chiefs around In silence wrapt. Then Phoenix rose. (Down his white beard a stream of sorrow flows.


with draughts of fragrant wine. And cries. and the port I bore. and no fate divide.' Infernal Jove.284 The Iliad of Homer [173] "Divine Achilles! wilt thou then retire. the vengeful fiends below. adored a stranger's charms. Never. black bulls. To shine in councils. our fleets on fire? If wrath so dreadful fill thy ruthless mind. ah. and prevent my sire. How shall thy friend. . Thy youth as then in sage debates unskill'd. and in camps to dare. stay behind? The royal Peleus. And new to perils of the direful field: He bade me teach thee all the ways of war. and brawny swine. My father faithless to my mother's arms. Despair and grief distract my labouring mind! Gods! what a crime my impious heart design'd! I thought (but some kind god that thought suppress'd) To plunge the poniard in my father's breast. On fat of rams. the land of lovely dames). 'Ye furies! barren be his bed. They daily feast. and with force detain. And leave our hosts in blood. Old as he was. Then meditate my flight: my friends in vain With prayers entreat me. never let me leave thy side! No time shall part us. that breathed my life. confirm'd his vow. restore The bloom I boasted. When Greece of old beheld my youthful flames (Delightful Greece. My sire with curses loads my hated head. thy Phoenix. And ruthless Proserpine. and watch'd nine nights entire. when from Pthia's coast He sent thee early to the Achaian host. Strong guards they placed. Not though the god. I tried what youth could do (at her desire) To win the damsel.

II ix. unseen of all: And. The tenth. while round my neck thy hands were lock'd. I fail'd not in my trust And oft. and with possessions bless'd. Your sire received me. p. and anxiously enjoin'd That I should rear thee as my own with all A parent's love.— "Many gifts he gave. And all the coast that runs along the main." "And the wine Held to thy lips.211 285 [174] Compare the following pretty lines of Quintus Calaber (Dyce's Select Translations. affecting) circumstance. in translating which. The strong Dolopians thenceforth own'd my reign. Mewling and puking didst thou drench my tunic. as children use. and many a time in fits Of infant frowardness the purple juice 211 . No food was grateful but from Phoenix' hand. on my bosom laid The precious charge. artificial taste." "This description. but a hero gave. Still in my arms (an ever-pleasing load) Or at my knee. My travels thence through spacious Greece extend. I forced the gates. let me add. by Phoenix wouldst thou stand. favour'd by the night. In Phthia's court at last my labours end. Thy infant breast a like affection show'd. as his son caress'd. Pope. with that squeamish. From thy sweet lips the half articulate sound Of Father came. p 88). my lessons made thee brave: A child I took thee." observes my learned friend (notes. which distinguished the age of Anne. thee in his arms He brought an infant. o'erleap'd the wall. and oft. and o'er Dolopia bade me rule. The roofs and porches flamed with constant fire. And early wisdom to thy soul convey'd: Great as thou art. 121) "is taken from the passage of Homer. By love to thee his bounties I repaid.BOOK IX. With gifts enrich'd. omits the natural (and.

thy fatal rage. and unconfined. Were these not paid thee by the terms we bring. where injustice flies. O let not headlong passion bear the sway These reconciling goddesses obey Due honours to the seed of Jove belong. Due honours calm the fierce. Were rage still harbour'd in the haughty king. Rejecting thou hast deluged all my vest. From Jove commission'd. erect. Injustice swift. A cruel heart ill suits a manly mind: The gods (the only great. and tramples o'er mankind. For him they mediate to the throne above When man rejects the humble suit they make. Who hears these daughters of almighty Jove. With humble mien.286 The Iliad of Homer [175] I pass my watchings o'er thy helpless years. and wrinkled is their face. The gods (I thought) reversed their hard decree. Prayers are Jove's daughters. vows. Lame are their feet. the compliant cares. and bend the strong. move slow behind." —Cowper. Offending man their high compassion wins. to heal her wrongs. and with dejected eyes. of celestial race. And promised comfort to my silver hairs. Sweeps the wide earth. . And daily prayers atone for daily sins. And Phoenix felt a father's joys in thee: Thy growing virtues justified my cares. And fill'd my bosom. and sacrifice. Now be thy rage. The sire revenges for the daughters' sake. Constant they follow. The tender labours. While Prayers. and only wise) Are moved by offerings. fierce injustice then Descends to punish unrelenting men. resign'd.

sqq. to conquer. and sue in vain! Let me (my son) an ancient fact unfold. Nor Greece nor all her fortunes should engage Thy friend to plead against so just a rage. The neighbour nations thence commencing foes. On OEneus fields she sent a monstrous boar. A great example drawn from times of old. To guard it those. That levell'd harvests. The silver Cynthia bade contention rise. see my notes to the prose translation. and for the authorities. and what their praise. see Grote. But since what honour asks the general sends. Strong as they were. Hear what our fathers were. p. 287 "Where Calydon on rocky mountains stands212 Once fought the Ætolian and Curetian bands. and whole forests tore: This beast (when many a chief his tusks had slain) Great Meleager stretch'd along the plain. In vengeance of neglected sacrifice. too long to be inserted here. For a good sketch of the story of Meleager. And mutual deaths were dealt with mutual chance. for his spoils. p. a new debate arose. Who conquer'd their revenge in former days. these advance. i. Permit not these to sue. vol. the bold Curetes fail'd..BOOK IX. And sends by those whom most thy heart commends. 212 . The best and noblest of the Grecian train. Then. 166. 195. —Where Calydon. While Meleager's thundering arm prevail'd: Till rage at length inflamed his lofty breast (For rage invades the wisest and the best).

and their proffers great: (Full fifty acres of the richest ground. Althaea. their sorrows to proclaim. From Cleopatra changed their daughter's name. the mourning mother's woe. With piercing cries. Besought the chief to save the sinking state: Their prayers were urgent. She beat the ground. And the red fiends that walk the nightly round. to his wrath he yields. Against the god the father bent his arms: The afflicted pair. even the vengeful dame. His sisters follow'd. (She from Marpessa sprung. Whose luckless hand his royal uncle slew. . and rejects them all. more than man in war: The god of day adored the mother's charms. and elders of the land.288 The Iliad of Homer [176] "Cursed by Althaea. the rolling flames arise. and call'd the powers beneath On her own son to wreak her brother's death. and supplicating tears. Half pasture green. his friends before him fall: He stands relentless. Priests of the gods. sues. She sent ambassadors. War shakes her walls. In vain Ætolia her deliverer waits. Meanwhile the victor's shouts ascend the skies. aged OEneus. divinely fair. At length his wife (a form divine) appears. and thunders at her gates. came. And in his wife's embrace forgets the fields. Hell heard her curses from the realms profound. and half with vineyards crown'd:) His suppliant father. And call'd Alcyone. a chosen band. But found no peace from fierce Althaea's hate: Althaea's hate the unhappy warrior drew. And matchless Idas. The walls are scaled.) To her the chief retired from stern debate. a name to show The father's grief.

My friend must hate the man that injures me. believe me. and lodge it in thy heart: No more molest me on Atrides' part: Is it for him these tears are taught to flow. draw thy conquering sword. And asks no honours from a mortal's hands. One should our interests and our passions be. The Ætolians. betimes to curb pernicious ire. For him these sorrows? for my mortal foe? A generous friendship no cold medium knows. Let these return: our voyage. Jove honours me. She paints the horrors of a conquer'd town. and his will confines. or our stay. my Phoenix. he vanquish'd. The heroes slain. Accept the presents.BOOK IX. long disdain'd. and he saved. And left the chief their broken faith to mourn. my honours. the whole race enslaved: The warrior heard. Burns with one love. Rest undetermined till the dawning day. Nor stay till yonder fleets ascend in fire. and my reverend guide: Thy friend. Learn hence. Do this. 'tis a generous part. with one resentment glows. And share my realms. And here I stay (if such his high behest) While life's warm spirit beats within my breast. and favours my designs. His pleasure guides me." 289 Thus he: the stern Achilles thus replied: "My second father. no such gifts demands. and my heart. Yet hear one word. The matrons ravish'd." . now took their turn. And be amongst our guardian gods adored. the palaces o'erthrown.

nor to conceive that it left a stain which could only be washed away by blood. Even for real and deep injuries they were commonly willing to accept a pecuniary compensation. stern Ajax his long silence broke." 213 . that iron heart retains Its stubborn purpose. Proud as he is. impatient.213 The gods that unrelenting breast have steel'd. "Greece. Who honour worth. Then hear. then order'd for the sage's bed A warmer couch with numerous carpets spread. With that. 180." vol. And gifts can conquer every soul but thine. we remit the deed. The Greeks expect them.290 The Iliad of Homer He ceased. the murderer lives: The haughtiest hearts at length their rage resign. and prize thy valour most. One woman-slave was ravish'd from thy arms: Lo. Revere thy roof. and our heroes wait. and to thy guests be kind. The price of blood discharged. On just atonement." "Gifts can conquer"—It is well observed by Bishop Thirlwall. seven are offer'd. i. And cursed thee with a mind that cannot yield. that the law of honour among the Greeks did not compel them to treasure up in their memory the offensive language which might be addressed to them by a passionate adversary. A sire the slaughter of his son forgives. to Ulysses spoke: [177] "Hence let us go—why waste we time in vain? See what effect our low submissions gain! Liked or not liked. And thus. his words we must relate. p. Stern and unpitying! if a brother bleed. And know the men of all the Grecian host. and of equal charms. and his friends disdains. Achilles! be of better mind.

Consume your vessels. "O soul of battles. In slumber sweet the reverend Phoenix lay. Whose nightly joys the beauteous Iphis shared. carpets. and becomes the brave: Disgraced. and thy people's guide! (To Ajax thus the first of Greeks replied) Well hast thou spoke. amidst yon sinking navy slain. and in his warm embrace Fair Diomede of the Lesbian race. But in his inner tent. Not till the flames. dishonour'd. divine Ulysses leads. through the gloomy shades. And cast a large libation on the ground. till the sacred morn restored the day. and approach my own. The blood of Greeks shall dye the sable main. by Hector's fury thrown. but at the tyrant's name My rage rekindles. Last. and there feel our hand. for Patroclus was the couch prepared.BOOK IX. Achilles to his friend consign'd her charms When Scyros fell before his conquering arms. There cease his battle. like the vilest slave! Return. With fleeces. heroes! and our answer bear. and soft linen spread: There." 291 This said. an ampler space. and my soul's on flame: 'Tis just resentment. Meantime Achilles' slaves prepared a bed. the impetuous homicide shall stand. The glorious combat is no more my care. Just there. Not till. then. Then to their vessels. The chiefs return. each prince a double goblet crown'd. [178] . Achilles slept.

" . and our fleets to free. The peers and leaders of the Achaian bands Hail'd their return: Atrides first begun: "Say what success? divine Laertes' son! Achilles' high resolves declare to all: "Returns the chief. Us too he bids our oars and sails employ.292 The Iliad of Homer And now the elected chiefs whom Greece had sent. To save our army. with fiercer fury burns. and his choice is free. thy proposals scorns. Inspires her war. Is not his care. Such was his word: what further he declared. He slights thy friendship. Nor hope the fall of heaven-protected Troy. thus implored. unconquer'd is his pride. but left to Greece and thee. and bids her glory shine. Beneath his oars the whitening billows fly. Pass'd through the hosts. with goblets in their hands. Then rising all. And. and reach'd the royal tent. Your eyes shall view. But Phoenix in his tent the chief retains. when morning paints the sky. These sacred heralds and great Ajax heard. For Jove o'ershades her with his arm divine. His age is sacred. or must our navy fall?" "Great king of nations! (Ithacus replied) Fix'd is his wrath. if other he decree. Safe to transport him to his native plains When morning dawns.

let due repast refresh our powers.) But when the rosy messenger of day Strikes the blue mountains with her golden ray."214 214 "The boon of sleep. let all our squadrons shine In flaming arms. is always ours. Then each to Heaven the due libations pays. as in high command. Ulysses ceased: the great Achaian host. and undaunted spoke.BOOK IX. Attend the stern reply. Or strive with prayers his haughty soul to bend? His country's woes he glories to deride. in consternation lost." 293 [179] Shouts of acclaim the listening heroes raise. descending o'er the tents. Be the fierce impulse of his rage obey'd. Tydides broke The general silence. to his madness. And those are owed to generous wine and food. a long-extended line: In the dread front let great Atrides stand. (For strength consists in spirits and in blood. "Why should we gifts to proud Achilles send. bestows The grateful blessings of desired repose. And prayers will burst that swelling heart with pride. The first in danger."—Milton . Then let him arm when Jove or he think fit: That. Till sleep. or to Heaven commit: What for ourselves we can. With sorrow seized. Ranged at the ships. Our battles let him or desert or aid. This night.

294 The Iliad of Homer ACHILLES. .

Menelaus. ARGUMENT. whom Hector had sent on a like design to the camp of the Grecians. From him they are informed of the situation of the Trojan and auxiliary forces. and particularly of Rhesus. and discover their intentions. They pass on with success. In their passage they surprise Dolon. awaking the leaders. 767. but passes through the camp. He takes no rest that night. THE NIGHT-ADVENTURE OF DIOMED AND ULYSSES. with several of his officers. with which they return in triumph to the camp. and the Thracians who were lately arrived. Diomed undertakes this hazardous enterprise." —Dryden's Virgil. All night the chiefs before their vessels lay. and makes choice of Ulysses for his companion. and Diomed are employed in raising the rest of the captains. to learn their posture.215 215 "All else of nature's common gift partake: Unhappy Dido was alone awake. kill Rhesus. and seize the famous horses of that prince. And lost in sleep the labours of the day: All but the king: with various thoughts oppress'd. and contriving all possible methods for the public safety. They call a council of war. Nestor. . and determine to send scouts into the enemies' camp. the distress of Agamemnon is described in the most lively manner. Upon the refusal of Achilles to return to the army. the scene lies in the two camps. iv.[180] BOOK X. The same night continues. Ulysses.

Meanwhile his brother. that in his cause before So much had suffer'd and must suffer more. As when by lightnings Jove's ethereal power Foretels the rattling hail. Sighs following sighs his inward fears confess'd. With him. Now o'er the fields. Next on his feet the shining sandals bound. A lion's yellow spoils his back conceal'd. By fits one flash succeeds as one expires. and wage a double war. To seek sage Nestor now the chief resolves. And marks distinct the voices of the foe. and first he cast his mantle round. He rose. Or sends soft snows to whiten all the shore. to debate What yet remains to save the afflicted state. Anxious he sorrows for the endangered host. He rends his hair. And sues to him that ever lives above: Inly he groans.296 The Iliad of Homer [181] His country's cares lay rolling in his breast. dejected. Alike denied the gifts of soft repose. Hears in the passing wind their music blow. And heaven flames thick with momentary fires: So bursting frequent from Atrides' breast. in sacrifice to Jove. Now looking backwards to the fleet and coast. in wholesome counsels. A thousand cares his labouring breast revolves. His warlike hand a pointed javelin held. Or bids the brazen throat of war to roar. while glory and despair Divide his heart. Laments for Greece. press'd with equal woes. A leopard's spotted hide his shoulders spread: A brazen helmet glitter'd on his head: . he surveys From thousand Trojan fires the mounting blaze. or weighty shower.

" 297 To whom the king: "In such distress we stand. Ourself to hoary Nestor will repair. and of no goddess born. To try yon camp. amidst these silent hours. In one great day. Thus (with a javelin in his hand) he went To wake Atrides in the royal tent. Greece to preserve. deep design.BOOK X. And bows his head to Hector's sacrifice. Yet such his acts. Such wondrous deeds as Hector's hand has done. "Now speed thy hasty course along the fleet. But asks high wisdom. For Jove. through night's dark shade to go. and watch the Trojan powers? But say. and art. What eye has witness'd. And curse the battle where their fathers fell. as Greeks unborn shall tell. or what ear believed. is now no easy part. Already waked. There call great Ajax. And midst a hostile camp explore the foe. Guideless. and the prince of Crete. what hero shall sustain that task? Such bold exploits uncommon courage ask. by one great arm achieved. His armour buckling at his vessel's side. Joyful they met. To keep the guards on duty be his care. our humble prayer denies. the Spartan thus begun: "Why puts my brother his bright armour on? Sends he some spy. alone. [182] . averse. the last revolving sun What honours the beloved of Jove adorn! Sprung from no god. Atrides he descried. No vulgar counsel our affairs demand. And we beheld.

that on designs unknown. The shining helmet. Seek'st thou some friend or nightly sentinel? Stand off. but thy purpose tell. Say. disdain'd the peace of age. The hoary monarch raised his eyes and said: "What art thou. must prove our worth. approach not. The sage protector of the Greeks he found Stretch'd in his bed with all his arms around The various-colour'd scarf. old in arms. The paths so many. he gave us woe. While others sleep. o'er the watch presides. Urge by their fathers' fame their future praise. or with despatch return?" "There shall thou stay.) Else may we miss to meet. To labour is the lot of man below.") To whom the Spartan: "These thy orders borne. shall I stay. The dreadful weapons of the warrior's rage." This said. and the camp so wide. thus range the camp alone. Forget we now our state and lofty birth. each parted to his several cares: The king to Nestor's sable ship repairs. Whose son with Merion.298 The Iliad of Homer (For Nestor's influence best that quarter guides." . Not titles here. speak. Still. but works. (the king of men replied. and the pointed spears. without a guide. Then. leaning on his hand his watchful head. the shield he rears. That. And when Jove gave us life. with your voice the slothful soldiers raise.

Tired with the toils of day and watch of night. that only with his life shall end! Scarce can my knees these trembling limbs sustain. I wander thus alone. Some other be despatch'd of nimbler feet. with no fix'd design. No taste of sleep these heavy eyes have known. The unhappy general of the Grecian bands. and sad. and what woes remain! Lo. So near. faithful Nestor thy command obeys. remotest of the fleet. here the wretched Agamemnon stands. and assist thy friend. And woes.) Pride of the Greeks. Oileus famed for speed. deprive thy soul of rest.) Impart thy counsel. At every gate the fainting guard excite. "O son of Neleus. Nor think proud Hector's hopes confirm'd by Jove: How ill agree the views of vain mankind. And the wise counsels of the eternal mind! Audacious Hector. 299 [183] . With fears distracted. Diomed. (thus the king rejoin'd." To him thus Nestor: "Trust the powers above. Meges for strength. The care is next our other chiefs to raise: Ulysses. Else may the sudden foe our works invade. and glory of thy kind! Lo. we chiefly need. Whom Jove decrees with daily cares to bend. and favour'd by the gloomy shade. (Since cares. Now let us jointly to the trench descend. What toils attend thee. if the gods ordain That great Achilles rise and rage again.BOOK X. Confused. If aught of use thy waking thoughts suggest. To those tall ships. And all my people's miseries are mine. like mine. And scarce my heart support its load of pain.

The camp he traversed through the sleeping crowd. and dear to thee. Yet must I tax his sloth. Preventing every part perform'd by you. Through too much deference to our sovereign sway. The shining greaves his manly legs enclose. he snatch'd in haste His steely lance. our chosen council waits. already at his call. and doubly lined. Assembling there." To whom the king: "With reverence we allow Thy just rebukes.216 To rouse the Spartan I myself decree. and urges all our hands. For great examples justify command. Near the night-guards. Dear as he is to us. Warm with the softest wool.300 The Iliad of Homer Where lie great Ajax and the king of Crete. the venerable warrior rose. 216 —The king of Crete: Idomeneus. He seems remiss. and sought my tent. our ills industrious to prevent. that claims no share With his great brother in his martial care: Him it behoved to every chief to sue. but bears a valiant mind. Then rushing from his tent. yet learn to spare them now: My generous brother is of gentle kind." With that. Stopp'd at Ulysses' tent. Long ere the rest he rose. Claims all our hearts. For strong necessity our toils demands. The chiefs you named." "Then none (said Nestor) shall his rule withstand. Content to follow when we lead the way: But now. . His purple mantle golden buckles join'd. that lighten'd as he pass'd. between the trench and gates. Prepare to meet us near the navy-wall. and call'd aloud.

"What new distress. Whatever counsels can inspire our thought. return'd. Whatever methods. and the night too long. all depend on this important night!" He heard. The warrior saw the hoary chief. bold Diomed they found. His head reclining on his bossy shield. and said: "Wondrous old man! whose soul no respite knows. and took his painted shield. Then join'd the chiefs. Ill fits thy age these toils to undertake. and issues from his tent. his brave companions round: Each sunk in sleep. Ulysses. Thus leads you wandering in the silent night?" "O prudent chief! (the Pylian sage replied) Wise as thou art. fix'd upright. starts up. and shades our walls below?" At this. Awakes. son of Tydeus! to the brave and strong Rest seems inglorious. All. Though years and honours bid thee seek repose. Then. A bull's black hide composed the hero's bed.BOOK X. or to fly or fight. be now thy wisdom tried: Whatever means of safety can be sought. Without his tent. and in these words awakes: "Rise. soft slumber from his eyelids fled. But sleep'st thou now. A splendid carpet roll'd beneath his head." 301 [184] . with his foot. when from yon hill the foe Hangs o'er the fleet. extended on the field. old Nestor gently shakes The slumbering chief. what sudden cause of fright. All sheathed in arms. Let younger Greeks our sleeping warriors wake. A wood of spears stood by. that. Shot from their flashing points a quivering light. sudden as the voice was sent. and follow'd through the field.

with hunger bold.) generous is thy care. Meges the bold. they gaze around. cautious of surprise. repel invading sleep. Each voice. And. couching close. no moment must be lost. Thus watch'd the Grecians. The warrior roused. So faithful dogs their fleecy charge maintain. each motion. my subjects and my sons might bear. Then seized his ponderous lance. who serves his country best. that to his ankles hung. With toil protected from the prowling train." This said. and strode along. Their loyal thoughts and pious love conspire To ease a sovereign and relieve a sire: But now the last despair surrounds our host. the hero o'er his shoulders flung A lion's spoils. He serves me most. No hour must pass. and turn to every sound. Springs from the mountains toward the guarded fold: Through breaking woods her rustling course they hear. Loud. and to the entrenchments lead. Stands on the sharpest edge of death or life: Yet. Employ thy youth as I employ my age. and more loud. with Ajax famed for speed. Watch every side. When the gaunt lioness.302 The Iliad of Homer "My friend. And now the chiefs approach the nightly guard. drew their ears and eyes: Each step of passing feet increased the affright. (he answered. Each single Greek. each in arms prepared: The unwearied watch their listening leaders keep. A wakeful squadron. Succeed to these my cares. and rouse the rest. [185] . the clamours strike their ear Of hounds and men: they start. in this conclusive strife. These toils. if my years thy kind regard engage.

and Greece shall live. And all his progress mark'd by heaps of dead:) There sat the mournful kings: when Neleus' son. And pass unharm'd the dangers of the night. or seize some straggling foe? Or favour'd by the night approach so near. or men have tongues to praise! What gifts his grateful country would bestow! What must not Greece to her deliverer owe? 303 . and designs to hear? If to besiege our navies they prepare. the assembled kings around In silent state the consistory crown'd. their counsels. A place there was. "'Tis well. And thus accosted through the gloomy shade. and to our peers recite. When night descending. While Phoebus shines. and his country save? Lives there a man. His life to hazard. my sons! your nightly cares employ. The spot where Hector stopp'd his rage before. And hostile Troy was ever full in sight. and godlike Merion. Nestor with joy the wakeful band survey'd.BOOK X. His son. The trenches pass'd. The council opening. Their speech. Then o'er the trench the following chieftains led." The hero said. yet undefiled with gore. What fame were his through all succeeding days. from his vengeful hand Reprieved the relics of the Grecian band: (The plain beside with mangled corps was spread. Else must our host become the scorn of Troy. Watch thus. march'd behind (For these the princes to their council join'd). who singly dares to go To yonder camp. Or Troy once more must be the seat of war? This could he learn. in these words begun: "Is there (said he) a chief so greatly brave.

and thou best of friends. By mutual confidence and mutual aid. The Spartan wish'd the second place to gain. Bold Merion strove. or office. Tydides spoke—"The man you seek is here. and second my design. Undaunted Diomed! what chief to join In this great enterprise. Some god within commands. And one brave hero fans another's fire. nor wish'd in vain. To raise my hopes. and great discoveries made. To birth. Each generous breast with emulation glows. And his the foremost honours of the feast." The monarch spake. And inly trembled for his brother's sake. With each a sable lambkin by her side." Contending leaders at the word arose. is only thine. So brave a task each Ajax strove to share. and I obey. no respect be paid." [186] Fear held them mute: alone.304 The Iliad of Homer A sable ewe each leader should provide. without affection made. Great deeds are done. . Let worth determine here. Then thus the king of men the contest ends: "Thou first of warriors. Through yon black camps to bend my dangerous way. Just be thy choice. The wise new prudence from the wise acquire. And great Ulysses wish'd. At every rite his share should be increased. untaught to fear. and Nestor's valiant heir. But let some other chosen warrior join.

How can I doubt. A two-edged falchion Thrasymed the brave. 305 [187] —Soft wool within. And ample buckler. in the works of war: Bless'd in his conduct. A bow and quiver. to protect the head. whose safety is Minerva's care. so dreadful. to Tydides gave: Then in a leathern helm he cased his head. before these chiefs of fame. rich Ormenus' son. The reddening orient shows the coming day. Wisdom like his might pass through flames of fire. This from Amyntor. Short of its crest. In arms terrific their huge limbs they dress'd. Meriones. (Replied the sage. with generous ardour press'd. 217 . or to blame: Praise from a friend.) to praise me. in order spread. I no aid require. The stars shine fainter on the ethereal plains. (Thy gift.217 A boar's white teeth grinn'd horrid o'er his head. without. But let us haste—Night rolls the hours away. So famed." Thus having spoke. i e. a kind of woollen stuffing. or censure from a foe. Next him Ulysses took a shining sword. Soft wool within. and make the helmet fit close. Are lost on hearers that our merits know. And of night's empire but a third remains. with bright arrows stored: A well-proved casque. "Then thus (the godlike Diomed rejoin'd) My choice declares the impulse of my mind.BOOK X." "It fits thee not. with leather braces bound. while great Ulysses stands To lend his counsels and assist our hands? A chief.) his temples crown'd. pressed in between the straps. and with no plume o'erspread: (Such as by youths unused to arms are worn:) No spoils enrich it. and no studs adorn.

the pledge of social ties. whose favour Tydeus won. O celestial maid! . And now Ulysses' thoughtful temples press'd. As thou defend'st the sire. though surrounding shades obscured their view. When on Æsopus' banks the banded powers Of Greece he left. By the shrill clang and whistling wings they knew. Peace was his charge. unconquer'd Pallas! hear. As from the right she soar'd. He fought with numbers. Just then. from him the prize Molus received. received with peaceful show. defend the son. And let some deed this signal night adorn. He went a legate. Ulysses pray'd. To claim the tears of Trojans yet unborn. Hail'd the glad omen. Great queen of arms. Thus sheathed in arms. and made numbers yield." Then godlike Diomed preferr'd his prayer: "Daughter of Jove.306 The Iliad of Homer Autolycus by fraudful rapine won. And gave Amphidamas. all my toils survey! Safe may we pass beneath the gloomy shade. and sought the Theban towers. And dark through paths oblique their progress take. and cover'd by thy shield. Who all my motions. A long-wing'd heron great Minerva sent: This. and address'd the maid: "O daughter of that god whose arm can wield The avenging bolt. the council they forsake. in sign she favour'd their intent. Safe by thy succour to our ships convey'd. The helmet next by Merion was possess'd. but return'd a foe: Then help'd by thee. and shake the dreadful shield! O thou! for ever present in my way. So now be present.

On high designs the wakeful hours employ. succeeds their enterprise. and what resolves they take? If now subdued they meditate their flight. and with spreading horns. through blood. Through the black horrors of the ensanguined plain. o'er arms. Of all the plunder of the vanquish'd host. And his the glory to have served so well. spent with toil. and hills of slain. And. and the sons of Troy. Untamed. for high attempts prepared. Through dust. The assembled peers their lofty chief enclosed." [188] . So still continue to the race thine aid! A youthful steer shall fall beneath the stroke." The heroes pray'd. and Pallas from the skies Accords their vow. neglect the watch of night? His be the chariot that shall please him most. Now. His the fair steeds that all the rest excel. Dares greatly venture for a rich reward? Of yonder fleet a bold discovery make.BOOK X. What watch they keep. 307 Nor less bold Hector. With dreadful thoughts they trace the dreary way. unconscious of the galling yoke. Who thus the counsels of his breast proposed: "What glorious man. With ample forehead. Whose taper tops refulgent gold adorns. like two lions panting for the prey.

That bear Pelides through the ranks of war. And trod the path his feet must tread no more. Eumedes' only boy. and explore the fleet: But first exalt thy sceptre to the skies. But the rash youth prepares to scour the plain: Across his back the bended bow he flung. "Hector! (he said) my courage bids me meet This high achievement. Dolon his name." The chief then heaved the golden sceptre high. But swift of foot. Even to the royal tent pursue my way.) Rich was the son in brass. and the glittering car. Fulfil thy wish. (Five girls beside the reverend herald told. and rich in gold. The immortal coursers. Scarce had he pass'd the steeds and Trojan throng. And in his hand a pointed javelin shined. Then (never to return) he sought the shore.308 The Iliad of Homer A youth there was among the tribes of Troy. And swear to grant me the demanded prize. Not bless'd by nature with the charms of face. all their aims betray. A ferret's downy fur his helmet lined. Attesting thus the monarch of the sky: "Be witness thou! immortal lord of all! Whose thunder shakes the dark aerial hall: By none but Dolon shall this prize be borne. Encouraged thus. And all their counsels. and matchless in the race. no idle scout I go. A wolf's grey hide around his shoulders hung. (Still bending forward as he coursed along.) ." Thus Hector swore: the gods were call'd in vain. And him alone the immortal steeds adorn. their whole intention know.

Soft. When. And intercept his hoped return to Troy. Some spy. But if too swift of foot he flies before. on the hollow way. "O friend! I hear some step of hostile feet. perhaps. and stoop'd their head. Now almost on the fleet the dastard falls. and with such fears. listening. Moving this way. they intercept his way. heard them as they pass'd.) behind a heap of dead: Along the path the spy unwary flew. (To whom the hind like shares of land allows.) When now new furrows part the approaching ploughs. the bold Greeks pursue. Or chase through woods obscure the trembling hind. Yet let him pass. so constant. No voice succeeding. and such the space between. And mingles with the guards that watch the walls. Confine his course along the fleet and shore. Now lost. As when two teams of mules divide the green. Betwixt the camp and him our spears employ.BOOK X. Till scarce at distance of a javelin's throw. both the chiefs pursue. and check'd his haste. So close. Then rush behind him. Now Dolon. and thus to Diomed. or hastening to the fleet. And from the herd still turn the flying prey: So fast. he perceived the foe. Or nightly pillager that strips the slain. at just distance. 309 [189] ." With that they stepp'd aside. to lurk beside the main. So distant they. now seen. As when two skilful hounds the leveret wind. (As Dolon pass'd. the Trojan flew. and prevent his pace. and win a little space. Hector (he thought) had sent. the approaching tread Ulysses mark'd.

Through heaps of carnage. and for the breath I owe. say. when sleep has closed the sight. And snatch the glory from his lifted lance. And steel well-temper'd and refulgent gold. The panting warriors seize him as he stands. What moves thee." He said. This javelin else shall fix thee to the plain. and his colour fled. By Hector prompted. Against the trembling wood The wretch stood propp'd. Large gifts of price my father shall bestow: Vast heaps of brass shall in your ships be told.310 The Iliad of Homer When brave Tydides stopp'd. To roam the silent fields in dead of night? Cam'st thou the secrets of our camp to find. or thy daring mind? Or art some wretch by hopes of plunder led." To whom Ulysses made this wise reply: "Whoe'er thou art. a gen'rous thought (Inspired by Pallas) in his bosom wrought. "O spare my youth. to despoil the dead?" . A sudden palsy seized his turning head. His loose teeth chatter'd. and o'er his shoulder pass'd. Then thus aloud: "Whoe'er thou art. and high in air the weapon cast. and quiver'd as he stood. remain. be bold. Lest on the foe some forward Greek advance. And with unmanly tears his life demands. nor fear to die. Then fix'd in earth. Which wilful err'd.

Whose wives and infants. from the danger far. Urged me. Even great Achilles scarce their rage can tame. his faithful tongue shall own. Achilles sprung from an immortal dame. the Trojans wake: Anxious for Troy. To learn what counsels. A council holds at Ilus' monument. and the truth recite! Where lies encamp'd the Trojan chief to-night? Where stand his coursers? in what quarter sleep Their other princes? tell what watch they keep: Say. this attempt to make. since this conquest. the guard the natives keep. And. the peers assembling in his tent. Or here to combat. from their city far. Where'er yon fires ascend. as he spoke. tired with toils. Safe in their cares. replies. what their counsels are. his limbs with horror shook:) "Hither I came. Discharge their souls of half the fears of war. But say. And scorn the guidance of a vulgar hand. be faithful. and thus Eumedes' son: "What Dolon knows. No certain guards the nightly watch partake. with a fearful look: (Still. rashly I believed: No less a bribe than great Achilles' car. Or back to Ilion's walls transfer the war?" Ulysses thus. by Hector's words deceived." "Bold was thy aim. And those swift steeds that sweep the ranks of war.BOOK X. unwilling. neglect the watch of night.) Far other rulers those proud steeds demand." 311 . and glorious was the prize. what resolves you take: If now subdued. (Ulysses. Much did he promise. Then thus pale Dolon. you fix your hopes on flight. with a scornful smile. the auxiliar forces sleep. Hector.

Mysian. to grace a god! Let me. lie higher on the land The Lycian. by Thymbras' ancient wall. And Phrygia's horse. with a gloomy frown: "Think not to live.) or scattered o'er the plain?" To whom the spy: "Their powers they thus dispose The Paeons. and apart from all. and white as winter-snow. No mortal shoulders suit the glorious load. These Troy but lately to her succour won. The Carians. In cruel chains. in some future strife To risk more bravely thy now forfeit life? Or that again our camps thou may'st explore? No—once a traitor. dreadful with their bended bows. encamp along the coast.312 The Iliad of Homer [191] "Then sleep those aids among the Trojan train." To this Tydides. a captive's fate to mourn. (Inquired the chief. refulgent. His solid arms. Not distant far. though all the truth be shown: Shall we dismiss thee. and Maeonian band. the Pelasgian host. Caucons. great Eioneus' son: I saw his coursers in proud triumph go. And Leleges. Celestial panoply. to your fleet be borne. Swift as the wind. Rich silver plates his shining car infold. flame with gold. The Thracians utmost. till your return reveal The truth or falsehood of the news I tell. unhappy. Or leave me here. Led on by Rhesus." . thou betray'st no more.

The head. High on a spreading tamarisk he placed. To guide their footsteps to the place again. yet speaking. Ranged in three lines they view the prostrate band: The horses yoked beside each warrior stand. the spoils. we praise. Arriving where the Thracian squadrons lay. One instant snatch'd his trembling soul to hell. stretch'd in sleep profound. Through the still night they cross the devious fields. Thee. The welcome sight Ulysses first descries. O speed our labours. o'er arms and heaps of shields. the coursers. "The man.BOOK X. mutter'd as it fell. 313 . and cuts the nerves in two. receive this hostile spoil. The wolf's grey hide. and direct our ways!" This said. The furry helmet from his brow they tear. Slippery with blood. first of all the heavenly host. Through the brown shade the fulgid weapons shined: Amidst lay Rhesus. And let the Thracian steeds reward our toil. These great Ulysses lifting to the skies. And points to Diomed the tempting prize. Their arms in order on the ground reclined. Then heap'd with reeds and gathered boughs the plain. with the arms of gold. And the white steeds behind his chariot bound. the unbended bow and spear. and as the wretch prepared With humble blandishment to stroke his beard. Like lightning swift the wrathful falchion flew. Sternly he spoke. with dropping gore defaced. And eased in sleep the labours of the day. and the car behold! Described by Dolon. Divides the neck. To favouring Pallas dedicates the prize: "Great queen of arms.

and foaming rends the guardless prey. Urge thou the slaughter." Pallas (this said) her hero's bosom warms. beholding his enemy in a dream. plunging the sword into his bosom. Or if thy soul aspire to fiercer deeds. fat with hostile blood. Back by the foot each slaughter'd warrior drew. Tydides' falchion fix'd him to the ground. not yet to battles bred. O'erleaps the fences. Approach the chariot. Breathed in his heart. and Diomede with the sword in his hand hanging over the head of that prince—furnished Homer with the idea of this fiction. and the steeds untie.314 The Iliad of Homer Now. Rhesus buried in a profound sleep. So the grim lion. Just then a deathful dream Minerva sent. Ulysses following. and awaked no more. dyed the fields with gore.218 "All the circumstances of this action—the night. and strung his nervous arms. Till twelve lay breathless of the Thracian band. as it were. he wisely cleared the way: Lest the fierce steeds. and tremble at the heaps of dead. He falls. while I seize the steeds. And a low groan remurmur'd through the shore. Bathed all his footsteps. and invades the pen. A warlike form appear'd before his tent. The milk-white coursers studious to convey Safe to the ships. as his partner slew. This image is very natural. and to think it not 218 [192] . Where'er he pass'd. a purple stream pursued His thirsty falchion. Now twelve despatch'd. Should start. for a man in his condition awakes no farther than to see confusedly what environs him. and. Nor stopp'd the fury of his vengeful hand. brave Tydides! now thy courage try. from his nightly den. Whose visionary steel his bosom tore: So dream'd the monarch. On sheep or goats. which represents Rhesus lying fast asleep. the monarch last they found. resistless in his way.

Saw Tydeus' son with heavenly succour bless'd.) Then gave his friend the signal to retire."—Pope. Pallas appears. and lift away. new achievements fire. . a reality but a dream." 315 [193] —Macbeth. Swift to the Trojan camp descends the power. and her word obey'd. fasten'd by the silver reins. my son. and depart in peace. on Rhesus' chariot hung. Haste to the ships. Swift as the wind. Nor tempt too far the hostile gods of Troy. But him. from further slaughter cease. "There's one did laugh in his sleep. or with his reeking blade To send more heroes to the infernal shade. And leads them. The coursers fly before Ulysses' bow. These. Ulysses now the snowy steeds detains. In haste he mounted. the gotten spoils enjoy. They wak'd each other. (The scourge forgot. Drag off the car where Rhesus' armour lay. Not unobserved they pass'd: the god of light Had watch'd his Troy.BOOK X. Or heave with manly force. and white as winter-snow. Regard thy safety." The voice divine confess'd the martial maid. Doubtful he stood. While unresolved the son of Tydeus stands. and thus her chief commands: "Enough. with his bow unbent. And vengeful anger fill'd his sacred breast. and one cry'd murder. and mark'd Minerva's flight. he lash'd along. new dangers.

316 The Iliad of Homer And wakes Hippocoon in the morning-hour. The gathering tumult spreads o'er all the plain. and thunder towards the fleet. and saw the field deform'd with blood. The yet-warm Thracians panting on the coast. And wondering view the slaughters of the night. Ulysses stopp'd. For each he wept. (On Rhesus' side accustom'd to attend. but for his Rhesus most: Now while on Rhesus' name he calls in vain. with wild affright. An empty space where late the coursers stood. and instructive friend. again their nimbler feet The coursers ply. arriving at the shade Where late the spoils of Hector's spy were laid. dropping yet with Dolon's gore: Then mounts again. to him Tydides bore The trophy.) He rose. Meanwhile the chiefs. . DIOMED AND ULYSSES RETURNING WITH THE SPOILS OF RHESUS. On heaps the Trojans rush. A faithful kinsman.

lo! the chiefs appear. But sure till now no coursers struck my sight Like these. Bespeaking thus the Grecian peers around: "Methinks the noise of trampling steeds I hear. That draw the burning chariot of the day. And daily mingle in the martial field. or present of a god? Not those fair steeds." 317 [194] Scarce had he spoke. Or. Thou living glory of the Grecian name! Say whence these coursers? by what chance bestow'd. The spoil of foes. and gathering on my ear. And spring to earth. they seek the shore. oh! perhaps those heroes are no more. Some god.BOOK X. and Nestor first demands: "Say thou. when. And her. the Greeks dismiss their fear: With words of friendship and extended hands They greet the kings. to age I scorn to yield. Old as I am. whose praises all our host proclaim. even now pursued. Bless'd as ye are. conspicuous through the ranks of fight. Return'd triumphant with this prize of war. I deem. The care of him who bids the thunder roar." . may that fear be vain!) The chiefs outnumber'd by the Trojan train. ye gods! my pious hopes succeed) The great Tydides and Ulysses bear. Thickening this way. conferred the glorious prize. and favourites of the skies. whose fury bathes the world with gore. Perhaps. so radiant and so gay. Perhaps some horses of the Trojan breed (So may. Yet much I fear (ah. Old Nestor first perceived the approaching sound.

" Then o'er the trench the bounding coursers flew. The matchless steeds his ample stalls adorn: The neighing coursers their new fellows greet. In due repast indulge the genial hour. rejoicing in her aid divine.318 The Iliad of Homer "Father! not so. Of Thracian lineage are the steeds ye view. High on the painted stern Ulysses laid. with all his guards around. . These other spoils from conquer'd Dolon came. Sleeping he died. He now lies headless on the sandy shore. The joyful Greeks with loud acclaim pursue. to his ships convey'd. But Dolon's armour. And twelve beside lay gasping on the ground.) The gifts of heaven are of a nobler kind. Straight to Tydides' high pavilion borne. A trophy destin'd to the blue-eyed maid. Their joints they supple with dissolving oil. Now from nocturnal sweat and sanguine stain They cleanse their bodies in the neighb'ring main: Then in the polished bath. By Hector sent our forces to explore. And first to Pallas the libations pour: They sit. (sage Ithacus rejoin'd. Whose hostile king the brave Tydides slew. whose swiftness was his only fame. And the full racks are heap'd with generous wheat. A wretch. refresh'd from toil. And the crown'd goblet foams with floods of wine.

clad in Achilles' armour. with its various actions and adventures is . In the meantime Machaon. while Jupiter. and in the utmost danger. but that hero alone opposes multitudes. is obliged to desert his companion. meets Eurypylus also wounded. till the king shall be wounded and retire from the field. Agamemnon. Agamemnon bears all before him and Hector is commanded by Jupiter (who sends Iris for that purpose) to decline the engagement. tending to put Patroclus upon persuading Achilles to fight for his countrymen. Nestor entertains him in his tent with an account of the accidents of the day. Hector comes against Ajax. and the same day. Hector prepares the Trojans to receive them. Ulysses and Diomed put a stop to him for a time but the latter. and Minerva give the signals of war. till Menelaus and Ajax rescue him. Juno. and carried from the fight in Nestor's chariot. who is encompassed by the Trojans. in the other wing of the army. ARGUMENT THE THIRD BATTLE. leads the Grecians to battle. having armed himself. wounded. and rallies the Greeks. and assists him in that distress. being wounded by Paris.[195] BOOK XI. AND THE ACTS OF AGAMEMNON. Patroclus. He then makes a great slaughter of the enemy. and a long recital of some former wars which he remembered. is pierced with an arrow by Paris. This book opens with the eight and-twentieth day of the poem. on his return. Achilles (who overlooked the action from his ship) sent Patroclus to inquire which of the Greeks was wounded in that manner. or at least to permit him to do it.

inglorious to return. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light: When baleful Eris. [196] Even Ajax and Achilles heard the sound. The torch of discord blazing in her hand. No more they sigh. And beams of early light the heavens o'erspread. with early blushes spread. wrapt in tempests. remote. and part of the eighteenth books. iv. fifteenth.320 The Iliad of Homer extended through the twelfth. each warrior starts to arms. But breathe revenge. High on Ulysses' bark her horrid stand She took. Through the red skies her bloody sign extends. The saffron morn." Dryden's Virgil. 639 . and thunder'd through the seas and land. sent by Jove's command. seventeenth. and at the dire alarms Each bosom boils. o'er the fleet descends. Thence the black fury through the Grecian throng With horror sounds the loud Orthian song: The navy shakes. sixteenth. Whose ships. The scene lies in the field near the monument of Ilus. 219 "Aurora now had left her saffron bed. and for the combat burn. fourteenth. With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. And. the guarded navy bound.219 Now rose refulgent from Tithonus' bed. thirteenth.

321 THE DESCENT OF DISCORD. The same which once king Cinyras possess'd: (The fame of Greece and her assembled host Had reach'd that monarch on the Cyprian coast. And first he cased his manly legs around In shining greaves with silver buckles bound. himself before the rest His mighty limbs in radiant armour dress'd. 'Twas then. The king of men his hardy host inspires With loud command. and twelve of ductile gold. Twice ten of tin. nor sent in vain:) Ten rows of azure steel the work infold. The beaming cuirass next adorn'd his breast. the friendship of the chief to gain. This glorious gift he sent. with great example fires! Himself first rose. and arching bow'd. Like colour'd rainbows o'er a showery cloud .BOOK XI. Three glittering dragons to the gorget rise. Whose imitated scales against the skies Reflected various light.

322 The Iliad of Homer [197] (Jove's wondrous bow. Till in three heads the embroider'd monster ends. His azure length in easy waves extends. High o'er the chief they clash'd their arms in air. rush forward to the field. And twice ten bosses the bright convex crown'd: Tremendous Gorgon frown'd upon its field. The squadrons spread their sable wings behind. The fiery coursers to their chariots bound The squires restrain'd: the foot. Placed as a sign to man amidst the skies). of three celestial dies. A radiant baldric. His buckler's mighty orb was next display'd. in close array combined. In happy thunders promised Greece their aid. expect the war. Close to the limits of the trench and mound. And circling terrors fill'd the expressive shield: Within its concave hung a silver thong. leaning from the clouds. and the martial maid. And. Sustain'd the sword that glitter'd at his side: Gold was the hilt. With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. and lighten all the fields. And in his hands two steely javelins wields. a silver sheath encased The shining blade. Last o'er his brows his fourfold helm he placed. o'er his shoulder tied. That round the warrior cast a dreadful shade. That instant Juno. Now shouts and tumults wake the tardy sun. As with the light the warriors' toils begun. On which a mimic serpent creeps along. Ten zones of brass its ample brim surround. To second these. . and golden hangers graced. That blaze to heaven. with those who wield The lighter arms.

Æneas. honour'd as a guardian god. might seem arbitrary or far-fetched. whose thunder spoke his wrath. Ranged in two bands. i p. Even Jove. Agenor the divine. As the red star now shows his sanguine fires Through the dark clouds. or blazing in the van. Bold Polybus. The brother-warriors of Antenor's line: With youthful Acamas. Thus through the ranks appear'd the godlike man. While streamy sparkles. Thick fall the heapy harvests at their feet: So Greece and Troy the field of war divide. whose beauteous face And fair proportion match'd the ethereal race. distill'd Red drops of blood o'er all the fatal field. cover'd with his spacious shield. and of no uncommon occurrence in the climate of Greece. if a mere fruit of the poet's imagination. Bear down the furrows. Lib. As sweating reapers in some wealthy field. as lightning from the skies.BOOK XI. Near Ilus' tomb. 15: "La terra in vece del notturno gelo Bagnan rugiade tepide. Plunged in the rear. The Trojan lines possess'd the rising ground: There wise Polydamas and Hector stood. And all the slaughters that must stain the day. restless as he flies. Plies all the troops.220 The woes of men unwilling to survey. None stoop'd a thought to base inglorious flight. Flash from his arms."—Mure.221 323 [198] 220 —Red drops of blood. Gier. Cf. however. Great Hector. ix. and orders all the field. "This phenomenon. of ascertained reality. e sanguigne. in order ranged around. Tasso. 493. And falling ranks are strow'd on every side. It is one. and now in night retires. their crooked weapons wield." 221 . till their labours meet.

and alone. O'er heaven's pure azure spread the glowing light. Commutual death the fate of war confounds. 236. Not rabid wolves more fierce contest their prey. None of retreat. Swells the red horrors of this direful plain: The gods in peace their golden mansions fill. and exposed to day) "No thought of flight. Wrapt in the blaze of boundless glory sate. but none resign the day. The eternal Monarch. and man to man they fight. And mark'd the spot where Ilion's towers arise. the dying. And drinks large slaughter at her sanguine eyes: Discord alone. on his awful throne. superior. . And each accused the partial will of Jove. But not till half the prostrate forests lay Stretch'd in long ruin. Thus while the morning-beams. The victor's rage. Meanwhile apart. But now (what time in some sequester'd vale The weary woodman spreads his sparing meal. increasing bright. the fields with armies spread. And claim a respite from the sylvan war. On earth he turn'd his all-considering eyes. When his tired arms refuse the axe to rear. And fix'd. each bleeds. no unbecoming deed That argued fear." —"Paradise Lost. Discord with joy the scene of death descries. fulfill'd the just decrees of fate. Each adverse battle gored with equal wounds. The sea with ships." vi. Each wounds. of all the immortal train.324 The Iliad of Homer But horse to horse. Ranged in bright order on the Olympian hill: But general murmurs told their griefs above. and the dead.

Which pierced his brain. their father's fleecy sheep. Great Agamemnon then the slaughter led. Swift to the spoil the hasty victor falls. And. These on the mountains once Achilles found. and left them on the plain: Vain was their youth. than when they wont to keep. their glittering armour vain: Now soil'd with dust. and naked to the sky. . 325 [199] 222 —One of love. one of love:222 In the same car the brother-warriors ride. with pliant osiers bound. p. But now to perish by Atrides' sword: Pierced in the breast the base-born Isus bleeds: Cleft through the head his brother's fate succeeds. Then to their sire for ample sums restored. This took the charge to combat. 114. Grote. Leap'd from the chariot to revenge his king. Their snowy limbs and beauteous bodies lie. The product. Although a bastard brother received only a small portion of the inheritance. with a sudden spring. their features to his mind recalls. Atrides spoil'd. And slew Bienor at his people's head: Whose squire Oileus. ii. he was commonly very well treated. But helpless tremble for themselves. Then. that to guide: Far other task. note. So when a lion ranging o'er the lawns. On Ida's tops.BOOK XI. nor till then. stript. and stretch'd him on the ground. vol. Two sons of Priam next to battle move. But in his front he felt the fatal wound. and let in the light. and fly. Priam appears to be the only one of whom polygamy is directly asserted in the Iliad. the Greeks' impulsive might Pierced the black phalanx. And captive led. The Trojans see the youths untimely die. one of marriage.

attended with the flood of tears. Antimachus shall copious gifts bestow: Soon as he hears. as these their safety sought. their reeking vitals draws. die. The Grecian ships his captive sons detain. The daring wretch who once in council stood To shed Ulysses' and my brother's blood. Their headstrong horse unable to restrain. and persuasive gold. And steel well-tempered. The sons of false Antimachus were slain. on some grassy lair. All drown'd in sweat. The youths address'd to unrelenting ears: The vengeful monarch gave this stern reply: "If from Antimachus ye spring. Large heaps of brass in ransom shall be told. the panting mother flies. and dares not stay. The frighted hind beholds.326 The Iliad of Homer Finds. Amidst the tumult of the routed train. and for the life we owe. Then in the chariot on their knees they fall. For proffer'd peace! and sues his seed for grace? No. And the big tears roll trickling from her eyes." These words. They shook with fear. the couching fawns. And grinds the quivering flesh with bloody jaws. and dropp'd the silken rein." [200] . Atrides mark'd. that. But swift through rustling thickets bursts her way. not in battle slain. He who for bribes his faithless counsels sold. ye die. And voted Helen's stay for Paris' gold. Their bones he cracks. and pay the forfeit of your race. And slew the children for the father's fault. And thus with lifted hands for mercy call: "O spare our youth.

and crushing out their souls. Pisander from the car he cast. And one refulgent ruin levels all: Before Atrides' rage so sinks the foe. drew a bloody train along. Safe from the darts. Shade the black host. as he lay. The steeds fly trembling from his waving sword. and dust. The king's example all his Greeks pursue. Then.BOOK XI. As when the winds with raging flames conspire. the king of men proceeds. And many a car. And pierced his breast: supine he breathed his last. The distanced army wonders at his deeds. Now by the foot the flying foot were slain. the care of heaven he stood. and blood. Whole squadrons vanish. And the thick thunder beats the labouring ground. now. The trenchant falchion lopp'd his hands away. Amidst alarms. lay foaming on the plain. The brass-hoof'd steeds tumultuous plunge and bound. Wide o'er the field with guideless fury rolls. 327 . to vultures than their wives! Perhaps great Hector then had found his fate. While his keen falchion drinks the warriors' lives. Still slaughtering on. In blazing heaps the grove's old honours fall. where the thickest fought. Horse trod by horse. But Jove and destiny prolong'd his date. and intercept the skies. From the dry fields thick clouds of dust arise. but. His brother leap'd to earth. and proud heads lie low. And o'er the forests roll the flood of fire. His sever'd head was toss'd among the throng. rolling. And. More grateful. Breaking their ranks. now lighted of its lord. and death. This said. the victor flew.

And down their summits pour'd a hundred rills: The unkindled lightning in his hand he took. Fights in the front. To godlike Hector this our word convey— While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. On heaps they tumble with successless haste. Bid him give way. So flies a herd of beeves. and meditates their fall. And rage. and death. that hear dismay'd The lion's roaring through the midnight shade. draws. The path they take. Now near the beech-tree. But Jove descending shook the Idaean hills. Dispersed. The savage seizes. Surveys the towers. The hero halts. Not with less fury stern Atrides flew. with haste thy golden wings display. Through the mid field the routed urge their way: Where the wild figs the adjoining summit crown. Meanwhile on every side around the plain. Now storms the victor at the Trojan wall. but issue forth commands. Still press'd the rout. and speed to reach the town. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. and carnage load the field. and depart. and still the hindmost slew. fly the Trojan train. Atrides with loud shouts pursued. and rends the last. Hurl'd from their cars the bravest chiefs are kill'd. and bathes with blood the ground. or wounded by the spear or dart. disorder'd. and the Scaean gates. and his associates waits. Hot with his toil. .328 The Iliad of Homer [201] Now past the tomb where ancient Ilus lay. As swift. and bathed in hostile blood. And thus the many-coloured maid bespoke: "Iris. That chief shall mount his chariot.

Fights in the front. And sacred night her awful shade extend. The chief she found amidst the ranks of war." She said. They stand to arms: the Greeks their onset dare. and Iris at his word obey'd. and fire his breast. or wounded by the spear or dart. on his glittering car. and wait the coming war. and speeds from band to band. to each breast returns. The fight renew'd with fiercer fury burns: The king leads on: all fix on him their eye. and his high mandate bear. 329 [202] . And wakes anew the dying flames of fight. On wings of winds descends the various maid. Abstain from fight. While Agamemnon wastes the ranks around. Then Jove shall string thy arm. Then Jove shall string his arm. and depart. The chief shall mount his chariot. The goddess then: "O son of Priam. hear! From Jove I come. Revives their ardour. Till to the main the burning sun descend. or to die. and bathes with blood the ground. Till to the main the burning sun descend. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. And learn from him to conquer. turns their steps from flight. with a bound. Springs from his chariot on the trembling ground. yet issue forth commands. And sacred night her awful shade extend. and vanish'd. Hector. And trust the war to less important hands: But when. and fire thy breast. Then to her ships shall flying Greece be press'd. Condense their powers. new spirit." He spoke.BOOK XI. Close to the bulwarks. In clanging arms: he grasps in either hand A pointed lance. New force.

Encumber'd with the dart.330 The Iliad of Homer Ye sacred nine! celestial Muses! tell. The Trojan stoop'd. With all his strength. and braves the king of kings. grasp'd with force. Scarce did the down his rosy cheeks invest. The point rebated. Atrides stands. Stretch'd in the dust the unhappy warrior lies. And nursed in Thrace where snowy flocks are fed. before the ranks he springs. Atrides first discharged the missive spear. Towering in arms. And sleep eternal seals his swimming eyes. Oh worthy better fate! oh early slain! Thy country's friend. that fell'd him to the ground. Thence took the long laborious march by land. and virtuous. When the kind sire consign'd his daughter's charms (Theano's sister) to his youthful arms. Till. And swift to aid his dearer country flies. At once a virgin. and by his prowess fell? The great Iphidamas. Who faced him first. with plates of silver bound. and repell'd the wound. And early honour warm his generous breast. he wrench'd it from his hands. at the monarch's heart. With twelve black ships he reach'd Percope's strand. Whom from his youth his grandsire Cisseus bred. Now fierce for fame. Then near the corslet. At once his weighty sword discharged a wound Full on his neck. the youth directs his dart: But the broad belt. the javelin pass'd in air. the bold and young. and at once a bride! . But call'd by glory to the wars of Troy. From his loved bride departs with melting eyes. From sage Antenor and Theano sprung. though in vain! No more the youth shall join his consort's side. He leaves untasted the first fruits of joy.

and whole troops o'erthrown. uncover'd. with his spear. And join each other in the realms below. or ponderous stone. Prone on his brother's bleeding breast he lay. Atrides. came starting from his eye. On whom his passion. Then. And through his arm stood forth the barbed dart. unseen. was nigh: Tears. With every weapon art or fury yields: By the long lance. at the sight. marking an unguarded part. Or lay the spoils of conquest at her feet. Transfix'd the warrior with his brazen dart. while yet warm distill'd the purple flood. his time he took. Aim'd at the king. And calls his country to assert his cause. Defends him breathless on the sanguine field. While the proud victor bore his arms away. And o'er the body spreads his ample shield. Coon.BOOK XI. While pierced with grief the much-loved youth he view'd. and near his elbow strook. on the plain he lay. yet void of fear On Coon rushes with his lifted spear: His brother's corpse the pious Trojan draws. The vengeful victor rages round the fields. the sword. Whole ranks are broken. lavish of his store. And the pale features now deform'd with blood. Antenor's eldest hope. No more with presents her embraces meet. and vainly promised more! Unwept. Surprised the monarch feels. This. The monarch's falchion lopp'd his head away: The social shades the same dark journey go. Bestow'd so much. The thrilling steel transpierced the brawny part. 331 [203] . But when the wound grew stiff with clotted blood.

Your great forefathers' virtues. Shot through the battle in a moment's space. and your own. Then with a voice which fury made more strong. Behold. And." He said: the driver whirls his lengthful thong. sure of glory. and finish what this arm begun: Lo! angry Jove forbids your chief to stay. all ye Dardan. Clouds from their nostrils the fierce coursers blow. Sad mothers of unutterable woes!) Stung with the smart. the chariot smokes along. all-panting with the pain. The horses fly. And from their sides the foam descends in snow. But thus his Trojans and his aids he fired: "Hear. all ye Lycian race! Famed in close fight. Jove himself declares the conquest ours! Now on yon ranks impel your foaming steeds. And pain augmented. Proceed. No sooner Hector saw the king retired. Less keen those darts the fierce Ilythiae send: (The powers that cause the teeming matron's throes. The wounded monarch at his tent they place. And envies half the glories of the day. dare immortal deeds. He mounts the car. thus exhorts the throng: "O friends! O Greeks! assert your honours won. and gives his squire the rein.332 The Iliad of Homer Then grinding tortures his strong bosom rend. the general flies! deserts his powers! Lo. and dreadful face to face: Now call to mind your ancient trophies won." .

violent and strong. O'erturns. and awaked his worth. with resistless hands. Opheltius. raging Hector. Beneath his arm what heroes bit the ground? Assaeus. O eternal shame! Till Hector's arm involve the ships in flame? 333 . and wide the bottom bares: Thus. all chiefs of name. "And stand we deedless. Orus. With words like these the fiery chief alarms His fainting host. Rolls sable clouds in heaps on heaps along. As from the cloud's deep bosom. As when a western whirlwind. Nor prompts alone. Now to the skies the foaming billows rears. swell'd with showers. and every bosom warms. Agelaus. and scatters all their bands. Now breaks the surge. Drives the wild waves. Now the last ruin the whole host appals. Dispels the gather'd clouds that Notus forms: The gust continued. Now Greece had trembled in her wooden walls. On the black body of the foe he pours. Æsymnus. and Autonous died. Opites next was added to their side. As the bold hunter cheers his hounds to tear The brindled lion. His soul rekindled. and tosses all the deeps. And springs the foremost with his lifted dart: So godlike Hector prompts his troops to dare. sunk to endless night. Then brave Hipponous. charged with storms. Muse! when Jove the Trojan's glory crown'd. or the tusky bear: With voice and hand provokes their doubting heart. confounds. famed in many a fight.BOOK XI. but leads himself the war. Say. But wise Ulysses call'd Tydides forth. A sudden storm the purple ocean sweeps. Dolops. The rest were vulgar deaths unknown to fame.

sighing." He sigh'd. They rush'd to fight. So two wild boars outstrip the following hounds. And from his car the proud Thymbraeus fell: Molion. Hypirochus by great Ulysses dies. But Jove with conquest crowns the Trojan train: And. and combat side by side. and thus the friend replied: "No martial toil I shun. Great Jove from Ide with slaughter fills his sight. By Tydeus' lance Agastrophus was slain. Their breasts no more the vital spirit warms. let us join. and wounds return for wounds.334 The Iliad of Homer Haste." The warrior thus. The sons of Merops shone amidst the war. and Greece respired again. Then swift revert. Wing'd with his fears. and perish'd on the plain. Stern Hector's conquests in the middle plain Stood check'd awhile. raised his vengeful steel. Towering they rode in one refulgent car: In deep prophetic arts their father skill'd. The stern Tydides strips their shining arms. on foot he strove to fly. Had warn'd his children from the Trojan field. all human force is vain. the charioteer. There slain. And level hangs the doubtful scale of fight. pursued his lord. The far-famed hero of Paeonian strain. I wait his fury here. and the foe too nigh: [205] . but. Jove our foe. Let Hector come. His death ennobled by Ulysses' sword. no danger fear. they left them in eternal night. Fate urged them on: the father warn'd in vain. His steeds too distant. And rich Hippodamus becomes his prize. Then plunged amidst the thickest ranks of fight.

Or thank that swiftness which outstrips the death. as he pass'd. If any god assist Tydides' hand. Through broken orders. this day. His arm and knee his sinking bulk sustain. Thou shall not long the death deserved withstand. Shouts. and herds amidst the crowd: The Greek pursues him. as his experienced eyes Traverse the files. O'er his dim sight the misty vapours rise. Fly then. Remounts his car. swifter than the wind. While Hector rose. the crystal regions rend. but flying left his life behind. and Hector rules the field: Here stand his utmost force. He fled. Swift at the word his ponderous javelin fled. Great Diomed himself was seized with fear. and exults aloud: "Once more thank Phoebus for thy forfeit breath. Nor miss'd its aim. but where the plumage danced Razed the smooth cone."—The warrior said. And oft that partial power has lent his aid. Tydides followed to regain his lance. This Hector sees. inglorious! but thy flight. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Mark how this way yon bending squadrons yield! The storm rolls on. But yet so stunn'd." 335 . And a short darkness shades his swimming eyes. and to the rescue flies. recover'd from the trance. Well by Apollo are thy prayers repaid. Safe in his helm (the gift of Phoebus' hands) Without a wound the Trojan hero stands. Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay.BOOK XI. And moving armies on his march attend. and thence obliquely glanced. that. staggering on the plain.

nor flew the shaft in vain. while he triumph'd. From ancient Ilus' ruin'd monument: Behind the column placed. As scatter'd lambs the rushing lion fear. and drew the corslet from his breast. Thou woman-warrior with the curling hair." He dauntless thus: "Thou conqueror of the fair. he bent his bow. the fair cause of war. relieved from that wide-wasting hand. Paris eyed from far. Such hands may wound. Unskill'd in arms to act a manly part! Thou hast but done what boys or women can. Nor boast the scratch thy feeble arrow gave. The bowstring twang'd. and nail'd it to the plain. bathes the cheeks of sires. And wing'd an arrow at the unwary foe. Steeps earth in purple. some noble life expires. Its touch makes orphans. Not so this dart. which thou may'st one day feel. Agastrophus's crest To seize. Leaps from his ambush. And leaves such objects as distract the fair." . But pierced his foot. Just as he stoop'd.) Around the fields his feather'd shafts he sent. (The spouse of Helen. The laughing Trojan. gluts the birds of air.336 The Iliad of Homer [206] Him. A coward's weapon never hurts the brave. "He bleeds! (he cries) some god has sped my dart! Would the same god had fix'd it in his heart! So Troy. Fate wings its flight. Should breathe from slaughter and in combat stand: Whose sons now tremble at his darted spear. with a joyful spring. and death is on the steel: Where this but lights. but not incense a man. Vain archer! trusting to the distant dart. and insults the king.

The brave meets danger. He grinds his ivory tusks. My friends all scatter'd. and more near. their own fate enclose. in the warrior. Near. the Trojans pouring on. all the foes around? Yet wherefore doubtful? let this truth suffice." Such thoughts revolving in his careful breast. Before him steps. he foams with ire. inglorious if I quit the plain? What danger. And. Tydides mounts. [207] . Ulysses hastens with a trembling heart. and the coward flies. To die or conquer. I know a soldier's part. an eager pang succeeds. what hopes remain? What shame. the shady cohorts press'd. And questions thus his own unconquer'd soul: "What further subterfuge. proves a hero's heart. and bending draws the dart: Forth flows the blood. These. The Greeks all fled. His sanguine eye-balls glare with living fire. knowing this. and whole. singly if I stand the ground. 337 Now on the field Ulysses stands alone. But stands collected in himself.BOOK XI. And round him deep the steely circle grows. So fares a boar whom all the troop surrounds Of shouting huntsmen and of clamorous hounds. and to the navy speeds.

nor with his entrails mix'd. pierced by this. though deep infix'd. and grasps the bloody dust. Next Ennomus and Thoon sank to hell. and bared it to the bone. and the wise. beneath the navel thrust. the son of Hippasus. But. And end at once the great Hippasian race. Plough'd half his side.338 The Iliad of Homer By these. Near as he drew. the spear. Falls prone to earth. was near. by those. But to his aid his brother Socus flies." He said. Fate calls thee hence and finish'd is thy race. And the red slaughter spreads on every side. And add one spectre to the realms below!" . on every part is plied. Nor longer check my conquests on the foe. the generous. Stopp'd short of life. Socus the brave. Pierced through the shoulder. Ulysses reach'd him with the fatal spear. Or thou beneath this lance must press the field. Charops. first Deiopis fell. The wound not mortal wise Ulysses knew. the warrior thus began: "O great Ulysses! much-enduring man! Not deeper skill'd in every martial sleight. Than worn to toils. By Pallas' care. Chersidamas. and forceful pierced his spacious shield: Through the strong brass the ringing javelin thrown. and active in the fight! This day two brothers shall thy conquest grace. to endless darkness go. Then furious thus (but first some steps withdrew): "Unhappy man! whose death our hands shall grace.

to Ajax Telamon he cried. Then thus Ulysses. Oppress'd by multitudes." Then raging with intolerable smart. yet one opposed to all. He writhes his body.BOOK XI. Greece robb'd of him must bid her host despair. and defends his side: "O friend! Ulysses' shouts invade my ear. Distressed he seems. Now troops on troops the fainting chief invade. the best may fall. The well-known voice thrice Menelaus hears: Alarm'd. Thy dying eyes no tender mother close. There ends thy narrow span assign'd by fate. and turn'd his back to flight. And hovering vultures scream around their prey. Forced he recedes. and loudly calls for aid. He falls. when I meet my doom. With solemn funerals and a lasting tomb. The dart a tide of spouting gore pursued. Strong as he is. wretch! no father shall thy corpse compose. Thrice to its pitch his lofty voice he rears. And feel a loss not ages can repair. But hungry birds shall tear those balls away. his armour rings against the ground. Heaven owes Ulysses yet a longer date." 339 [208] . seized with sudden fright. Ah. Trembling gave way. Between his shoulders pierced the following dart. Me Greece shall honour. Who shares his labours. while Socus. and extracts the dart. And gladden'd Troy with sight of hostile blood. He spoke. And held its passage through the panting heart: Wide in his breast appear'd the grisly wound. gazing on the slain: "Famed son of Hippasus! there press the plain. and no assistance near.

while fresh the blood distils. and scuds from hills to hills. attends. On strong Pandocus next inflicts a wound. to his car conveys. Priam's son. The prudent chief in sore distress they found. with a flying spear. The lion rushes through the woodland shade. A single warrior half a host sustains: But soon as Ajax leaves his tower-like shield.340 The Iliad of Homer Then. He bounds aloft. The wolves. his course he bends. . And lays Lysander bleeding on the ground. And. though hungry. whilst his warm blood doth flow. And first Doryclus. Till life's warm vapour issuing through the wound. the jackals charge him round. And his light knees have power to move: but (maistred by his wound) Embost within a shady hill. unconquer'd by his pains. The lordly savage vindicates his prey. Wild mountain-wolves the fainting beast surround: Just as their jaws his prostrate limbs invade. scour dispersed away. 223 "Circled with foes as when a packe of bloodie jackals cling About a goodly palmed hart.223 As when some huntsman. From the blind thicket wounds a stately deer. Atrides' arm the sinking hero stays. with whose sighte they flie and he devours. And teare his flesh—when instantly fortune sends in the powers Of some sterne lion. Ulysses thus. he slew. like the god of war. Great Ajax. hurt with a hunter's bow Whose escape his nimble feet insure. The scattered crowds fly frighted o'er the field. saved from numbers. Down his cleft side." —Chapman. With bands of furious Trojans compass'd round. So they around Ulysses prest. Victorious Ajax plies the routed crew. where the cry directs.

roll in heaps along. or from the chariot's height." Old Nestor mounts the seat. And trembling Greece for her physician fear'd. There fierce on foot. Is more than armies to the public weal. and chariots. dealing darts around. from their foundations torn. and ruled the tide of war: Loud groans proclaim his progress through the plain. Pours from the mountains o'er the deluged plains. beside him rode The wounded offspring of the healing god. As when a torrent. His sword deforms the beauteous ranks of fight. Had pierced Machaon with a distant wound: In his right shoulder the broad shaft appear'd. 341 But Hector. There Nestor and Idomeneus oppose The warrior's fury. steeds. And deep Scamander swells with heaps of slain. the steeds with sounding feet Shake the dry field. Raged on the left. And great Machaon to the ships convey. The spouse of Helen. old Neleus' valiant son! Ascend thy chariot. A country's ruins! to the seas are borne: Fierce Ajax thus o'erwhelms the yielding throng. He lends the lash. and thunder toward the fleet.BOOK XI. And pines and oaks. haste with speed away. from this scene of slaughter far. Men. A wise physician skill'd our wounds to heal. [209] . To Nestor then Idomeneus begun: "Glory of Greece. swell'd with wintry rains. there the battle glows.

dashing. Broke the dark phalanx. Swift through the ranks the rapid chariot bounds. or ponderous stone. And. through all the dire debate. Confused. Stung by the stroke. by tardy steps withdrew. Before great Ajax see the mingled throng Of men and chariots driven in heaps along! I know him well. O'er his broad back his moony shield he threw. the driver's lash resounds." Thus having spoke. the sword. [210] . And groans of slaughter mix with shouts of fight. The horses' hoofs are bathed in heroes' gore. Thus the grim lion his retreat maintains. The ranks he scatter'd and the troops o'erthrown:) Ajax he shuns. espousing Hector's part. Thither. Here Hector. and there the combat bleeds. O'er heaps of carcases. Survey'd the various fortune of the war: "While here (he cried) the flying Greeks are slain. And fears that arm whose force he felt so late. Shot heaven-bred horror through the Grecian's heart. thither urge thy steeds. purple all the car before. with terrors not his own. from Hector's car.342 The Iliad of Homer But now Cebriones. unnerved in Hector's presence grown. distinguish'd o'er the field By the broad glittering of the sevenfold shield. O Hector. There horse and foot in mingled deaths unite. plunging through the thickest fight. But partial Jove. and hills of shields. And mangled carnage clogs the rapid wheels. the coursers scour the fields. and let in the light: (By the long lance. glaring round. And. The groaning axle sable drops distils. Amazed he stood. Trojans on Trojans yonder load the plain. There danger calls.

Scarce from the field with all their efforts chased. As the slow beast. Its surface bristled with a quivering wood. by whole hosts repell'd. Marks the dry dust. and though hunger calls. And his slack knees desert their dying load. Long stands the showering darts. But bold Eurypylus his aid imparts. In some wide field by troops of boys pursued. Repulsed by numbers from the nightly stalls. Confiding now in bulky strength he stands. and missile fires. Beset with watchful dogs. And stirs but slowly when he stirs at last: On Ajax thus a weight of Trojans hung. While hissing darts descend in iron showers: In his broad buckler many a weapon stood. Crops the tall harvest. guiltless on the plain. Though round his sides a wooden tempest rain. and lays waste the plain. yet hardly seems to fly. 343 . Thick on his hide the hollow blows resound. While his swoln heart at every step rebell'd. Whose eager javelin launch'd against the foe. Now turns. Though rage impels him. Then sourly slow the indignant beast retires: So turn'd stern Ajax.BOOK XI. Now stiff recedes. and backward bears the yielding bands. From his torn liver the red current flow'd. Great Apisaon felt the fatal blow. And many a javelin. Fix'd as the bar between two warring powers. And dauntless springs beneath a cloud of darts. and shouting swains. And threats his followers with retorted eye. and thirsts for blood in vain. with heavy strength endued. The strokes redoubled on his buckler rung. The patient animal maintains his ground.

from the gloomy grave The warrior rescue. from the topmost height Of his proud fleet. and stain'd with gore. bore. And this the last brave battle he shall wage: Haste. turn to arms. A transient pity touch'd his vengeful breast. Fix'd in his nervous thigh the weapon stood. and your country save. The hero rallies. O Grecians! has your hearts dismay'd? Oh. the slaying. join your forces. That hour Achilles. Yet thus retreating. great Ajax joins the band: Each takes new courage at the hero's sight. This hour he stands the mark of hostile rage. To guard their wounded friend: while thus they stand With pious care. From Paris' bow a vengeful arrow fled. In evil hour! Then fate decreed his doom. and renews the fight. While Nestor's chariot far from fight retires: His coursers steep'd in sweat. 'tis Ajax claims your aid. Thus raged both armies like conflicting fires. great Machaon. Straight to Menoetius' much-loved son he sent: Graceful as Mars. and the slain. o'erlook'd the fields of fight. His friend Machaon singled from the rest.344 The Iliad of Homer The victor rushing to despoil the dead. Patroclus quits his tent. Who spread their bucklers. The Greeks' preserver. Back to the lines the wounded Greek retired. His feasted eyes beheld around the plain The Grecian rout. and advance their spears. his associates fired: "What god. but broken was the wood." Thus urged the chief: a generous troop appears. Fix'd was the point. [211] . And fix'd the date of all his woes to come.

and but seen behind. "Why calls my friend? thy loved injunctions lay. when yon despairing host Shall learn the value of the man they lost: Now at my knees the Greeks shall pour their moan. seen at distance." The hero said. Here paused a moment. His form recall'd Machaon to my mind. Through intermingled ships and tents he pass'd. while the gentle gale Convey'd that freshness the cool seas exhale. The coursers pass'd me with so swift a pace. crown'd the savoury treat. and from him be taught What wounded warrior late his chariot brought: For. Whate'er thy will.BOOK XI. And took their seats beneath the shady tent. 345 [212] . And proud Atrides tremble on his throne. discern his face. The warriors standing on the breezy shore. To dry their sweat. Then to consult on farther methods went. His friend obey'd with haste. Whose ample orb a brazen charger graced. and wash away the gore. as the prize of Nestor's wisdom gave:) A table first with azure feet she placed. through yon cloud. a royal slave. Go now to Nestor. fair Hecamede prepares. Patroclus shall obey. and ever at my side! The time is come. the sacred flour of wheat. Arsinous' daughter. Nor could I. Greece. The draught prescribed. The chiefs descending from their car he found: The panting steeds Eurymedon unbound." "O first of friends! (Pelides thus replied) Still at my heart. graced with golden hairs: (Whom to his aged arms. Honey new-press'd. And wholesome garlic.

346 The Iliad of Homer Next her white hand an antique goblet brings. Temper'd in this. the nymph of form divine Pours a large portion of the Pramnian wine. two turtles seem to drink: A massy weight. and four handles hold. my hasty course I bend. A goblet sacred to the Pylian kings From eldest times: emboss'd with studs of gold. This to report. The great Achilles with impatience stays. by Achilles sent. what hero. Meantime Patroclus. And pleasing conference beguiles the day. Unheard approached. wounded by the foe. In sculptured gold. Old Nestor. When the brisk nectar overlook'd the brim. With goat's-milk cheese a flavourous taste bestows. And last with flour the smiling surface strows: This for the wounded prince the dame prepares: The cordial beverage reverend Nestor shares: Salubrious draughts the warriors' thirst allay. . Two feet support it. On each bright handle. and stood before the tent. Thou know'st the fiery temper of my friend. the hero led To his high seat: the chief refused and said: "'Tis now no season for these kind delays. bending o'er the brink." "Can then the sons of Greece (the sage rejoin'd) Excite compassion in Achilles' mind? Seeks he the sorrows of our host to know? This is not half the story of our woe. yet heaved with ease by him. Who asks. To great Achilles this respect I owe. rising then. Was borne from combat by thy foaming steeds? With grief I see the great Machaon bleeds.

already bleed. And stretch'd the great Itymonaeus dead! Then from my fury fled the trembling swains. Tell him. And shares were parted to each Pylian lord. And stern Eurypylus. Diomed. The bulls of Elis in glad triumph led. But. Oh! had I still that strength my youth possess'd. I won.BOOK XI. When the proud Elians first commenced the war: For Neleus' sons Alcides' rage had slain. Agamemnon. and now this conquest gain'd. ah! what flattering hopes I entertain! Achilles heeds not. And waits the rising of the fatal blaze. Calm he looks on. I alone remain! Oppress'd. as my first essay of arms. As many goats. For prize defrauded. her long arrears restored. not great Machaon bleeds alone. My sire three hundred chosen sheep obtain'd. and of generous breeds. Our bravest heroes in the navy groan. Ulysses. as many lowing kine: And thrice the number of unrivall'd steeds. And ours was all the plunder of the plains: Fifty white flocks. The state of Pyle was sunk to last despair. and every death enjoys. Of twelve bold brothers. but derides our pain: Even till the flames consume our fleet he stays. Now the slow course of all-impairing time Unstrings my nerves. These. When this bold arm the Epeian powers oppress'd. All teeming females. full fifty herds of swine. (That large reprisal he might justly claim. Old Neleus gloried in his conquering son. and insulted fame. Chief after chief the raging foe destroys. Thus Elis forced. and ends my manly prime. 347 [213] . we arm'd.

and swells with martial pride. And sheathed in arms. In arms we slept. at the public course. expect the dawning light. ere the sun advanced his noon-day flame. Myself the foremost. Each burns for fame. My sire denied in vain: on foot I fled Amidst our chariots. Detain'd his chariot. The sons of Actor at their army's head (Young as they were) the vengeful squadrons led. with all-revealing ray. but my sire denied. A bull. beside the winding flood. horse and foot. Alarms the Pylians and commands the fight. myself survey'd The just partition. High on the rock fair Thryoessa stands. and with many a car. Our utmost frontier on the Pylian lands: Not far the streams of famed Alphaeus flow: The stream they pass'd. Fear'd for my youth. There first to Jove our solemn rites were paid. exposed to stern alarms. With many a courser. While round the town the fierce Epeians stood. the Pylian troops unite. Soon as the sun. An untamed heifer pleased the blue-eyed maid. and victorious horse. descending in the shades of night. Three days were past. for the goddess led. Pallas. and pitch'd their tents below. Thence. To great Alphaeus' sacred source we came. and a bull was slain To the blue monarch of the watery main. and due victims paid. And stopp'd my chariot. Alphaeus.348 The Iliad of Homer When Elis' monarch. "Along fair Arene's delightful plain Soft Minyas rolls his waters to the main: There. and detain'd my arms. . when Elis rose to war.) The rest the people shared.

"Achilles with unactive fury glows.BOOK XI. There to high Jove were public thanks assign'd. Even there the hindmost of the rear I slay. The nations meet. So proved my valour for my country's good. and works of war appear. And the same arm that led concludes the day. Elis here. and gave the day. their bravest warrior kill'd. and spouse of Agamede: (She that all simples' healing virtues knew. Such then I was. And gives to passion what to Greece he owes. Then Actor's sons had died. gathering aids along the Grecian sea. When. Two chiefs from each fell breathless to the plain. there Pylos. 349 [214] . King Augias' son. and slaughtering all along. of mankind. The first who fell. And every herb that drinks the morning dew:) I seized his car. As first of gods. beneath my javelin bled. Fierce as the whirlwind now I swept the field: Full fifty captive chariots graced my train. How shall he grieve. Where o'er the vales the Olenian rocks arose. Bright scenes of arms. when to the eternal shade Her hosts shall sink. Till Pallas stopp'd us where Alisium flows. impell'd by youthful blood. The Epeians saw. and o'er the prostrate throng. the van of battle led. nor his the power to aid! 0 friend! my memory recalls the day. Collecting spoils. they trembled. and they fled. O'er heapy shields. to Nestor. Flamed in the front of Heaven. The foe dispersed. but Neptune shrouds The youthful heroes in a veil of clouds. Through wide Buprasian fields we forced the foes. Then back to Pyle triumphant take my way.

and thy reverend sire Menoetius. Social we sit.350 The Iliad of Homer [215] I." This touch'd his generous heart. and desist from war.' Thus spoke your father at Thessalia's court: Words now forgot. Press'd by fresh forces. where. Achilles sees us. and share the genial rites. her o'er-labour'd train Shall seek their walls. though now of vast import. and of race divine. and Greece respire again. Soon as he came. Urged you to arms. Yet cooler thoughts thy elder years attend. on the crowded strand. Your ancient fathers generous precepts gave. If aught from Heaven withhold his saving arm. to the feast invites. If some dire oracle his breast alarm. Some favouring god Achilles' heart may move. Peleus said only this:—'My son! be brave. Achilles. If thou but lead the Myrmidonian line. and Ulysses. and from the tent Along the shore with hasty strides he went. touch'd at Phthia's port. he may yield to love. A bull to Jove he slew in sacrifice. Though deaf to glory. Thyself. and rule thy friend. Ah! try the utmost that a friend can say: Such gentle force the fiercest minds obey. Clad in Achilles' arms. Proud Troy may tremble. Let thy just counsels aid.' Menoetius thus: 'Though great Achilles shine In strength superior. We then explained the cause on which we came. . turn'd the fragments on the fire. if thou appear. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. and found you fierce for fame. And entered Peleus' hospitable court. And pour'd libations on the flaming thighs.

With lukewarm water wash the gore away. sighing. Weak was his pace. Of two famed surgeons. The sable blood in circles mark'd the ground. Podalirius stands 351 . But. but dauntless was his heart. great Eurypylus! shall Greece yet stand? Resists she yet the raging Hector's hand? Or are her heroes doom'd to die with shame. There. Lead to my ships. Divine compassion touch'd Patroclus' breast. sad. thus his bleeding friend address'd: "Ah. and from your native shore? Say. Such as sage Chiron. Far from your friends. Her force increasing as her toil renews. and draw this deadly dart. that used her utmost rage to meet. Lie pierced with wounds. and Achilles thee. Even to the ships victorious Troy pursues. The public mart and courts of justice stand. Greece is no more! this day her glories end.BOOK XI. sire of pharmacy. With healing balms the raging smart allay. Those chiefs. Large painful drops from all his members run. Where the tall fleet of great Ulysses lies. And altars to the guardian gods arise. As faintly reeling he confess'd the smart. And this the period of our wars and fame?" Eurypylus replies: "No more. Who. he met the brave Euaemon's son. Patroclus! act a friendly part. An arrow's head yet rooted in his wound. hapless leaders of the Grecian host! Thus must ye perish on a barbarous coast? Is this your fate. Once taught Achilles. and bleeding in the fleet. to glut the dogs with gore. my friend. thou.

The slaves their master's slow approach survey'd.352 The Iliad of Homer [216] This hour surrounded by the Trojan bands. the styptic juice infused. Now wants that succour which so oft he lent." To him the chief: "What then remains to do? The event of things the gods alone can view. And bear with haste the Pylian king's reply: But thy distress this instant claims relief. Patroclus cut the forky steel away: Then in his hands a bitter root he bruised. The closing flesh that instant ceased to glow. . Charged by Achilles' great command I fly. The wound he wash'd. and the blood to flow." He said. The wound to torture. And great Machaon. wounded in his tent. And hides of oxen on the floor display'd: There stretch'd at length the wounded hero lay. and in his arms upheld the chief.



begin the assault.[217] BOOK XII. in which. THE BATTLE AT THE GRECIAN WALL. . and enters at the head of his troops. The Greeks having retired into their intrenchments. The walls were raised. the trenches sunk in vain. This Hector opposes. Nor long the trench or lofty walls oppose. and manage the attack on foot. casting a stone of vast size. While thus the hero's pious cares attend The cure and safety of his wounded friend. and having divided their army into five bodies of foot. The Trojans follow his counsel. Hector attempts to force them. Their powers neglected. ARGUMENT. Sarpedon makes the first breach in the wall. after many actions. But upon the signal of an eagle with a serpent in his talons. Hector also. With gods averse the ill-fated works arose. And mutual deaths are dealt with mutual rage. which appeared on the left hand of the Trojans. forces open one of the gates. and no victim slain. and continues the attack. Trojans and Greeks with clashing shields engage. Polydamas advises to quit their chariots. Polydamas endeavours to withdraw them again. who victoriously pursue the Grecians even to their ships. but it proving impossible to pass the ditch.

But when her sons were slain. &c. Now smooth'd with sand. and godlike heroes slain: These. Rhesus and Rhodius then unite their rills. or wander o'er the plain. Granicus. In their old bounds the rivers roll again. Caresus roaring down the stony hills. And to the sea the floating bulwarks fall. rolling to the main224 Helmets. railing. Then Neptune and Apollo shook the shore. 142.356 The Iliad of Homer [218] Without the gods. And gulfy Simois. And half the skies descend in sluicy showers.225 224 —Simois. 225 . And whelms the smoky ruin in the waves. i. Then Ida's summits pour'd their watery store. Shine 'twixt the hills. With his huge trident wounds the trembling shore. how short a period stands The proudest monument of mortal hands! This stood while Hector and Achilles raged." —Dryden's Virgil. her city burn'd. And Xanthus foaming from his fruitful source. and shields. And what survived of Greece to Greece return'd. While sacred Troy the warring hosts engaged. The weight of waters saps the yielding wall. "In those bloody fields Where Simois rolls the bodies and the shields Of heroes. and levell'd by the flood. marching stern before. Æsepus. The god of ocean. Incessant cataracts the Thunderer pours. Vast stones and piles from their foundation heaves. with mingled force. Deluged the rampire nine continual days. No fragment tells where once the wonder stood. turn'd by Phoebus from their wonted ways.

War thunder'd at the gates. Below the wall's foundation drives his mace. And heaves the building from the solid base. The strokes yet echoed of contending powers. "Where yon disorder'd heap of ruin lies.— Amid that smother. and headlong hung the steep. their bold assault defy. The panting steeds impatient fury breathe. his courage makes him fall. Mingled the troops. and braved the storm. he bounds against them all. He. Vast was the leap. The bottom bare. a boar or lion stands. 825. So 'midst the dogs and hunters' daring bands. and the skies resound. Neptune holds his place. like a whirlwind." 357 Dryden's Virgil. ii. And if he falls. and drove the field along.—where clouds of dust arise. and blood distain'd the towers. With equal rage encompass'd Hector glows. Eager they view'd the prospect dark and deep. Stones rent from stones. and paw the ground. Fierce of his might. . Just at the brink they neigh. and the trenches shows. Exhorts his armies. And snort and tremble at the gulf beneath. As yet the bulwark stood. Close by their hollow ships the Grecians lay: Hector's approach in every wind they hear. And hissing javelins rain an iron storm: His powers untamed. toss'd the scattering throng. But this the gods in later times perform.BOOK XII. And the turf trembles. And where he turns the rout disperse or die: He foams. Smote by the arm of Jove with dire dismay. And Hector's fury every moment fear. (a formidable show!) And bristled thick with sharpen'd stakes below. he glares. Arm'd foes around a dreadful circle form.

bold leader of the Trojan bands! And you. Oh may this instant end the Grecian name! Here. Back from the trenches let your steeds be led. ye warriors! and obey with speed. Nor shall a Trojan live to tell the tale. In one promiscuous carnage crush'd and bruised. Proud of the favours mighty Jove has shown. and here oppress our train. No space for combat in yon narrow bounds. who. the Grecian walls behind? No pass through those. This saw Polydamas. Proceed on foot. And try the pass impervious to the horse. without a thousand wounds. And this (if Jove consent) her fatal hour. and Hector lead the way. Restrain'd great Hector. wisely brave. if their arms prevail. confederate chiefs from foreign lands! What entrance here can cumbrous chariots find. Hear then.358 The Iliad of Homer [219] The foot alone this strong defence could force. All Troy must perish. On certain dangers we too rashly run: If 'tis will our haughty foes to tame. let their heroes fall. And one great day destroy and bury all! But should they turn. far from Argos. The stakes beneath. by our own troops confused. what methods of retreat remain? Wedged in the trench." . So Greece shall stoop before our conquering power. Then all alighting. and this counsel gave: "O thou. wedged in firm array. What hopes.

and issues on the plain. Before the next the graceful Paris shines. And bold Alcathous. Deiphobus. And whom Arisba's yellow coursers bore. This counsel pleased: the godlike Hector sprung Swift from his seat.BOOK XII. In arms with these the mighty Asius stood. his clanging armour rung. Polydamas. The coursers fed on Selle's winding shore. 359 POLYDAMAS ADVISING HECTOR. And all obey their several chiefs' commands. and Agenor joins. Each quits his car. The forces part in five distinguish'd bands. By orders strict the charioteers enjoin'd Compel the coursers to their ranks behind. and threat the fleet with fire: Great Hector glorious in the van of these. [220] . Pant for the fight. The best and bravest in the first conspire. and brave Cebriones. The chief's example follow'd by his train. The sons of Priam with the third appear. Antenor's sons the fourth battalion guide. and Helenas the seer. Who drew from Hyrtacus his noble blood.

The advice of wise Polydamas obey'd. Unhappy hero! and advised in vain.360 The Iliad of Homer And great Æneas. His vaunted coursers urged to meet the war. but all their hopes were vain! . at their army's head. Swift through the wall their horse and chariots pass'd. The gates half-open'd to receive the last. The moving legions speed their headlong way: Already in their hopes they fire the fleet. the bravest. confiding in his car. born on fountful Ide. While every Trojan thus. Whom Glaucus and Asteropaeus aid. where from the plain The flying Grecians strove their ships to gain. And see the Grecians gasping at their feet. Divine Sarpedon the last band obey'd. Those wheels returning ne'er shall mark the plain. Next him. Asius alone. exulting in his force. And great Idomeneus shall boast thy fall! Fierce to the left he drives. But he more brave than all the hosts he led. Now with compacted shields in close array. he flies: His following host with clamours rend the skies: To plunge the Grecians headlong in the main. and every aid. No more those coursers with triumphant joy Restore their master to the gates of Troy! Black death attends behind the Grecian wall. Such their proud hopes. Thither.

This Polypoetes. As two tall oaks. and stood themselves the war. great Perithous' heir. Who from the Lapiths' warlike race descend. Fierce was the fight. Orestes. Their roots in earth. Roused with the cries of dogs and voice of men. and his furious band. So two wild boars spring furious from their den. Opposed their breasts. They gnash their tusks. with fire their eye-balls roll. To guard their navies. To guard the gates. High on the hills appears their stately form. In vain around them beat their hollow shields. while yet the Grecian powers Maintain'd the walls. and so the shock they stand Of raging Asius. With sounding strokes their brazen targets rung. before the wall they rise. Around their heads the whistling javelins sung. And their deep roots for ever brave the storm. And stones and darts in mingled tempests fly. Till some wide wound lets out their mighty soul. in front appear. 361 [221] . Acamas. Forbid the tempest. And Greece tumultuous from her towers descend. and protect the ground. And that Leonteus. two mighty chiefs attend. And root the shrubs. like the god of war. The fearless brothers on the Grecians call. Forth from the portals rush'd the intrepid pair. and mann'd the lofty towers: To save their fleet their last efforts they try. Even when they saw Troy's sable troops impend. So graceful these. and defend the wall. their heads amidst the skies: Whose spreading arms with leafy honours crown'd. And OEnomaus and Thoon close the rear: In vain their clamours shake the ambient fields.BOOK XII. and lay the forest bare. On every side the crackling trees they tear.

So down the rampires rolls the rocky shower: Heavy. To guard the entrance of their common hive. and thick. Beneath the low-hung clouds the sheets of snow Descend. and sing with fire! [222] . and defraud the fates?" These empty accents mingled with the wind. and brings The dreary winter on his frozen wings. and this her fatal hour? But like when wasps from hollow crannies drive. A race determined. And all the gates sustain'd an equal tide. Darkening the rock. Repel an army. with grief and fury driven. The blaze of flames. and whiten all the fields below: So fast the darts on either army pour. And the deaf echo rattles round the fields. and can Jove deceive? What man could doubt but Troy's victorious power Should humble Greece. The frantic Asius thus accuses Heaven: "In powers immortal who shall now believe? Can those too flatter. Gods! shall two warriors only guard their gates. resound the batter'd shields. while with unwearied wings They strike the assailants. the flash of arms appear'd. The spirit of a god my breast inspire. To godlike Hector and his matchless might Was owed the glory of the destined fight. and infix their stings. Like deeds of arms through all the forts were tried. With shame repulsed. Nor moved great Jove's unalterable mind. Through the long walls the stony showers were heard. To raise each act to life.362 The Iliad of Homer As when sharp Boreas blows abroad. that to death contend: So fierce these Greeks their last retreats defend.

pursue. Pierced through his helmet's brazen visor. in deep dismay. and round them heap the slain. the bravest of the Trojan crew. Their martial fury in their wonder lost.BOOK XII. bled. as through the ranks he broke. Bold Hector and Polydamas. And round him rose a monument of dead. and curling round. By Heaven alarm'd. tremendous now no more! Next Ormenus and Pylon yield their breath: Nor less Leonteus strews the field with death. Even yet the dauntless Lapithae maintain The dreadful pass. Then sudden waved his unresisted sword: Antiphates. Orestes. First through the belt Hippomachus he gored. And wrap in rolling flames the fleet and wall. The weapon drank the mingled brains and gore! The warrior sinks. alive. These on the farther bank now stood and gazed. Jove's bird on sounding pinions beat the skies. Fierce with impatience on the works to fall. With unassisting arms deplored the day. His talons truss'd. Meantime. The falchion struck. First Damasus. A bleeding serpent of enormous size. While Greece unconquer'd kept alive the war. Floats on the winds. and fate pursued the stroke: Iamenus. and rends the heaven with cries: 363 . And all her guardian gods. Menon. He stung the bird. confiding in despair. In airy circles wings his painful way. Secure of death. he drops the fatal prey. by Polypoetes' steel. fell. by prodigies amazed: A signal omen stopp'd the passing host. whose throat received the wound: Mad with the smart.

They. So bodes my soul. and sentiments sincere? True to those counsels which I judge the best. And thus my mind explains its clear event: The victor eagle. his eyes with fury burn'd:) "Are these the faithful counsels of thy tongue? Thy will is partial. my brother. In peace. But tends to raise that power which I obey. and in fight. are decreed. pale with terror.364 The Iliad of Homer Amidst the host the fallen serpent lies. I tell the faithful dictates of my breast. Then hear my words. For sure. deferring to thy sway. thy reproach I bear. Long weigh'd the signal. but not possess the prize. Jove his omen sent. For thus a skilful seer would read the skies." To him then Hector with disdain return'd: (Fierce as he spoke. Allow'd to seize. and fiercer. For words well meant. Toils unforeseen. And all I move. and more heroes bleed. whose sinister flight Retards our host. [223] . nor may my words be vain! Seek not this day the Grecian ships to gain. To speak his thoughts is every freeman's right. and bids me thus advise. Thus. to warn us. though we gird with fires the Grecian fleet. not thy reason wrong: Or if the purpose of thy heart thou vent. mark its spires unroll'd. Though these proud bulwalks tumble at our feet. More woes shall follow. Then first Polydamas the silence broke. And Jove's portent with beating hearts behold. and to Hector spoke: "How oft. in council. in war. and fills our hearts with fright. Dismiss'd his conquest in the middle skies.

to left. Close to the works their rigid siege they laid. But why should'st thou suspect the war's success? None fears it more. What coward counsels would thy madness move Against the word. the irrevocable nod. as none promotes it less: Though all our chiefs amidst yon ships expire. and." Furious he spoke. for thou canst be a slave. Calls on his host. With ardour follow where their leader flies: Redoubling clamours thunder in the skies. unheeded take your way. the will reveal'd of Jove? The leading sign. And gives great Hector the predestined day. He fills the Greeks with terror and dismay. To right. And free the soul that quivers in thy heart. his host obey the call.BOOK XII. Or where the suns arise. but stronger in his aid. My javelin can revenge so base a part. and guide my wavering mind By wandering birds that flit with every wind? Ye vagrants of the sky! your wings extend. Jove breathes a whirlwind from the hills of Ide. Yet should the fears that wary mind suggests Spread their cold poison through our soldiers' breasts. While I the dictates of high heaven obey. Strong in themselves. or where descend. These shall I slight. Sure heaven resumes the little sense it lent. And drifts of dust the clouded navy hide. rushing to the wall. Troy and her sons may find a general grave. And asks no omen but his country's cause. But thou canst live. And happy thunders of the favouring god. 365 [224] . Trust thy own cowardice to escape their fire. Without a sign his sword the brave man draws.

Threats urge the fearful. Shield touching shield. The bold Ajaces fly from tower to tower. or augment the old. rain below. Whence hissing darts. Then pours the silent tempest thick and deep. Greece on her ramparts stands the fierce alarms. Drown Hector's vaunts in loud exhorts of fight. but sally from the wall. excite. He stills the winds. The crowded bulwarks blaze with waving arms. As when high Jove his sharp artillery forms. fill the thoughts of all. While these they undermine. whose ardour hopes an equal name! Since not alike endued with force or art. And you. incessant. Upheaved the piles that prop the solid wall. A snowy inundation hides the plain." Their ardour kindles all the Grecian powers. And Troy lie trembling in her walls again. And opes his cloudy magazine of storms. "Fellows in arms! whose deeds are known to fame. Urge those who stand. And now the stones descend in heavier showers. In winter's bleak un comfortable reign. the Grecian power. So Jove once more may drive their routed train. And heaps on heaps the smoky ruins fall. Conquest. Behold a day when each may act his part! A day to fire the brave. not safety. and the valiant. and those they rend. a long refulgent row.366 The Iliad of Homer In vain the mounds and massy beams defend. and those who faint. and bids the skies to sleep. praise. Seek not your fleet. The generous impulse every Greek obeys. with flame divine. To gain new glories. . and warm the cold. And rouse.

In sullen majesty. and leads his Lycian bands. Bent with the weight. Within whose orb the thick bull-hides were roll'd. For mighty Jove inspired with martial flame His matchless son. he pursues his way. Drink the dissolving fleeces as they fall: So from each side increased the stony rain. [225] So press'd with hunger. and bound with ductile gold: And while two pointed javelins arm his hands. from the mountain's brow Descends a lion on the flocks below. And one bright waste hides all the works of men: The circling seas. alone absorbing all. Till great Sarpedon tower'd amid the field. nor the Greeks would yield. and stern disdain: In vain loud mastiffs bay him from afar. and then the sandy shore. 367 Thus godlike Hector and his troops contend To force the ramparts. And the white ruin rises o'er the plain. So stalks the lordly savage o'er the plain. He foams. Ponderous with brass. he roars. furious. and urged him on to fame. Majestic moves along. conspicuous from afar.BOOK XII. And first the mountain-tops are cover'd o'er. . the nodding woods are seen. he rends the panting prey. In arms he shines. Regardless. And shepherds gall him with an iron war. and the gates to rend: Nor Troy could conquer. And bears aloft his ample shield in air. Then the green fields.

and as gods obey'd.226 Where Xanthus' streams enrich the Lycian plain. And hills where vines their purple harvest yield. Glaucus! our extended reign. deserve the sovereign state. For lust of fame I should not vainly dare 226 —Why boast we. Unless great acts superior merit prove. the dignity they give to grace. That when with wondering eyes our martial bands Behold our deeds transcending our commands.368 The Iliad of Homer Resolved alike. The first in valour. Which claims no less the fearful and the brave. "Wherefore do I assume These royalties and not refuse to reign. thus he spoke: "Why boast we. Fired with the thirst of glory." ii. Our foaming bowls with purer nectar crown'd. they may cry. divine Sarpedon glows With generous rage that drives him on the foes. 450. due alike to him Who reigns. . and meditates their fall. as he above the rest High honour'd sits. Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour. Our numerous herds that range the fruitful field. as the first in place. He views the towers. And vindicate the bounteous powers above? 'Tis ours. Admired as heroes. Our feasts enhanced with music's sprightly sound? Why on those shores are we with joy survey'd. Whom those that envy dare not imitate! Could all our care elude the gloomy grave. and so much to him due Of hazard more. To sure destruction dooms the aspiring wall. Such. Then casting on his friend an ardent look." —"Paradise Lost.

our towers defend. The troops pursue their leaders with delight. alas! ignoble age must come. But since. And give to fame what we to nature owe. Their strength. In fighting fields. And urge the bold Ajaces to our aid. and death's inexorable doom The life. the din of helms and shields Rings to the skies. The best and bravest of the hostile force. the walls resound. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Hither the Lycian princes bend their course. The brazen hinges fly. nor urge thy soul to war. and honour'd if we live. Heaven trembles. at least. But if too fiercely there the foes contend. roar the mountains. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. to view from far What aid appear'd to avert the approaching war. Or let us glory gain.BOOK XII. prodigal of blood. Of fight insatiate. and rouse the warrior's fire. Disease. his words the listening chief inspire With equal warmth. and repel the foe. and claim the promised fight. And saw where Teucer with the Ajaces stood. and blackening in the field: Around the walls he gazed. Menestheus from on high the storm beheld Threatening the fort. and echoes through the fields. united. Rush to the foe. Brave though we fall. let us bestow. Let Telamon. which others pay. thunders all the ground Then thus to Thoos: "Hence with speed (he said)." . or glory give!" 369 [226] He said. In vain he calls.

At least. High on the walls appear'd the Lycian powers. Your strength. at the word. And sends the brave Epicles to the shades. Till by this arm the foe shall be repell'd: That done. To you I trust the fortune of the field. [227] . Whose fatal bow the strong Pandion bore. united. mix'd shouts and groans arise. But if too fiercely. here. prove your force in fight. And thus bespoke his brothers of the war: "Now. And. Like some black tempest gathering round the towers: The Greeks. "Ye valiant leaders of our warlike bands! Your aid (said Thoos) Peteus' son demands. the foes contend. and repel the foe. the herald speeds along The lofty ramparts. their utmost force unite. Tumultuous clamour mounts.370 The Iliad of Homer Swift. and thickens in the skies. And Teucer haste with his unerring bow To share the danger. let Telamon those towers defend. valiant Lycomede! exert your might. Prepared to labour in the unequal fight: The war renews. best may help to bear The bloody labours of the doubtful war: Thither the Lycian princes bend their course. expect me to complete the day Then with his sevenfold shield he strode away. brave Oileus. And finds the heroes bathed in sweat and gore. through the martial throng. Opposed in combat on the dusty shore. With equal steps bold Teucer press'd the shore. The best and bravest of the hostile force. oppress'd." Straight to the fort great Ajax turn'd his care. Fierce Ajax first the advancing host invades.

Divine Sarpedon with regret beheld Disabled Glaucus slowly quit the field. The chief. And murmuring to the shades the soul retires. He springs to fight. From Teucer's hand a winged arrow flew.BOOK XII. 371 While to the ramparts daring Glaucus drew. leaping from his height Retired reluctant from the unfinish'd fight. and shoot into the deep. Sarpedon's friend. Then from the yawning wound with fury tore The spear. It flew with force. And on his naked arm inflicts a wound. Across the warrior's way. The ponderous ruin crush'd his batter'd crown. In modern ages not the strongest swain Could heave the unwieldy burden from the plain: He poised. Deep in his breast he plunged the pointed steel. and labour'd up the sky. and flies upon the foes. who fear'd some foe's insulting boast Might stop the progress of his warlike host. then toss'd on high. and swung it round. Full on the Lycian's helmet thundering down. then in groans expires. His brazen armour rings against the ground. Alcmaon first was doom'd his force to feel. So falls Epicles. and. As skilful divers from some airy steep Headlong descend. His beating breast with generous ardour glows. Rent from the walls. Conceal'd the wound. . pursued by gushing streams of gore: Down sinks the warrior with a thundering sound. The bearded shaft the destined passage found. a rocky fragment lay.

Two stubborn swains with blows dispute their bounds. The prince gave back. Thus obstinate to death. But Jove was present in the dire debate. One foot. And fix'd support the weight of all the war. and the assault renew: Unmoved the embodied Greeks their fury dare. they sweat. rushes in the war. and severer fight. not meditating flight.372 The Iliad of Homer [228] Swift to the battlement the victor flies. "O where. ye Lycians. And. and fired with glory's charms. is the strength you boast? Your former fame and ancient virtue lost! The breach lies open. of the contended field." This just rebuke inflamed the Lycian crew. they fall. Fix'd in his belt the feather'd weapon stood. and every nerve applies: It shakes. they fight. one inch. His fainting squadrons to new fury warms. And through his buckler drove the trembling wood. the ponderous stones disjointed yield. Then raised with hope. they thicken. Tugs with full force. and soon that hostile fleet shall fall: The force of powerful union conquers all. To shield his offspring. A mighty breach appears. They tug. They join. but your chief in vain Attempts alone the guarded pass to gain: Unite. The rolling ruins smoke along the field. But urging vengeance. nor yield. like a deluge. the walls lie bare. As on the confines of adjoining grounds. At once bold Teucer draws the twanging bow. And Ajax sends his javelin at the foe. Nor the bold Lycians force the Grecian towers. . Nor could the Greeks repel the Lycian powers. but neither gain. and avert his fate.

just and poor. nor those can win the wall. With fates prevailing. as easy as a swain could bear The snowy fleece. nor that. and. and shook in air.) Till poised aloft. ye Trojans! lend your valiant hands. and rough and gross below: Not two strong men the enormous weight could raise. and all the rising host appears. and rattling arms resound. With nice exactness weighs her woolly store. Such men as live in these degenerate days: Yet this. Haste to the fleet. and lighten'd of its load The unwieldy rock. 227 373 [229] —Each equal weight. A ponderous stone bold Hector heaved to throw. and toss the blazing brands!" They hear. Raise scaling engines. For Jove upheld. Pointed above. And the high ramparts drip with human gore.BOOK XII. And fires his host with loud repeated cries. (While some laborious matron. descends:227 So stood the war. the labour of a god. 245. From side to side the trembling balance nods. they run." —"Paradise Lost. Their manly breasts are pierced with many a wound. turn'd the scale of fight. Nor these can keep. Fierce as a whirlwind up the walls he flies. "Advance. gathering at his call. till Hector's matchless might. and ascend the wall: Around the works a wood of glittering spears Shoots up. . "Long time in even scale The battle hung. the resting beam suspends Each equal weight. Loud strokes are heard. he toss'd. nor this. The copious slaughter covers all the shore." vi. As when two scales are charged with doubtful loads.

The folds are shatter'd. Gloomy as night! and shakes two shining spears:228 A dreadful gleam from his bright armour came. through the gaping space. The Greeks behold. And seems a match for more than mortal force.374 The Iliad of Homer Thus arm'd. they tremble. Of massy substance. And from his eye-balls flash'd the living flame. the furious chief appears. Now rushing in. A tide of Trojans flows." —"Paradise Lost. 831 . from the crackling door Leap the resounding bars. The shore is heap'd with death. He moves a god. and fills the place. the flying hinges roar. before the folded gates he came. and tumult rends the sky. With iron bars and brazen hinges strong. the solid beams give way. 228 "He on his impious foes right onward drove. Drives the sharp rock. On lofty beams of solid timber hung: Then thundering through the planks with forceful sway. and stupendous frame." vi. Gloomy as night. and they fly. resistless in his course. Then pouring after.



and put a stop to Hector and the Trojans. and inspires those heroes to oppose him: then. meets Ajax again. upon seeing the fortification forced by Hector. in the form of one of the generals. who return together to the battle.[230] BOOK XIII. and Alcathous: Deiphobus and Æneas march against him. (who had entered the gate near the station of the Ajaces. concerned for the loss of the Grecians. losing his spear in the encounter. Polydamas advises to call a council of war: Hector approves of his advice. Idomeneus signalizes his courage above the rest. Asius. Neptune. repairs to seek another at the tent of Idomeneus: this occasions a conversation between those two warriors. being galled by the Locrian slingers and archers. The scene is between the Grecian wall and the sea-shore. IN WHICH NEPTUNE ASSISTS THE GREEKS: THE ACTS OF IDOMENEUS. upbraids Paris. rejoins Polydamas. Meriones. but goes first to rally the Trojans. The eight-and-twentieth day still continues. . The Ajaces form their troops in a close phalanx. Several deeds of valour are performed. THE FOURTH BATTLE CONTINUED. Menelaus wounds Helenus. The Trojans are repulsed on the left wing. Hector still keeps his ground against the Ajaces. ARGUMENT. encourages the other Greeks who had retired to their vessels. he kills Othryoneus. and at length Idomeneus retires.) assumes the shape of Calchas. till. and renews the attack. and kills Pisander.

since the oldest of the Samatian nomads made their mares' milk one of their chief articles of diet. And where the far-famed Hippomolgian strays. seek their simple food: Jove sees delighted.e.378 The Iliad of Homer [231] When now the Thunderer on the sea-beat coast Had fix'd great Hector and his conquering host. de Exp. which he regards as the result of their poverty and uprightness. to either host is given. p. He left them to the fates. and dying men: No aid." i. There. Whose waving woods o'erhung the deeps below." as an epithet applicable to numerous tribes. nor observed in vain. Some authors have regarded the phrase "Hippomolgian. according as we read it. Arrian. from the crystal chambers of the main —Renown'd for justice and for length of days. of arms. Below." or "bowless. either "long-lived. Meantime the monarch of the watery main Observed the Thunderer. Renown'd for justice and for length of days. While his high law suspends the powers of Heaven. He sat. In Samothracia. and avoids the scene Of guilty Troy. Then turn'd to Thracia from the field of fight Those eyes that shed insufferable light. The crowded ships and sable seas between. also speaks of the independence of these people. he deems. fair Ilion's glittering spires were seen. has occasioned much discussion. "milking their mares. innoxious. It may mean. The epithet abion or abion. And hardy Thracians tame the savage horse. To where the Mysians prove their martial force. innocent of blood. in bloody fray To toil and struggle through the well-fought day. and round him cast his azure eyes Where Ida's misty tops confusedly rise. From milk. 239. iv. in this passage.229 Thrice happy race! that." the latter epithet indicating that they did not depend upon archery for subsistence. on a mountain's brow. 229 . Alex.

And link'd their fetlocks with a golden band. And. At Jove incensed. at the fourth. his brass-hoof'd steeds he reins. And felt the footsteps of the immortal god. Immortal arms of adamant and gold. He sits superior. the lofty mountains nod. The forest shakes. Exults. and mourn'd his Argives slain. and deck'd with golden manes. Far in the bay his shining palace stands. the golden scourge applies.BOOK XIII. Between where Tenedos the surges lave. Eternal frame! not raised by mortal hands: This having reach'd. Fierce as he pass'd. The parting waves before his coursers fly. From realm to realm three ample strides he took. The enormous monsters rolling o'er the deep Gambol around him on the watery way. the distant Ægae shook. He mounts the car. And rocky Imbrus breaks the rolling wave: There the great ruler of the azure round Stopp'd his swift chariot. Fed with ambrosial herbage from his hand. Refulgent arms his mighty limbs infold. The wondering waters leave his axle dry. Deep in the liquid regions lies a cave. Emerged. he sat. The sea subsiding spreads a level plain. and owns the monarch of the main. And heavy whales in awkward measures play. Infrangible. earth trembled as he trod. Fleet as the winds. with grief and fury stung. and the chariot flies: His whirling wheels the glassy surface sweep. immortal: there they stay: 379 . Prone down the rocky steep he rush'd along. and his steeds unbound.

. darkening heaven around. Or fiery deluge that devours the ground. rising from the seas profound. and the shores reply: They vow destruction to the Grecian name. as Hector rush'd along: To the loud tumult and the barbarous cry The heavens re-echo. adding fire to fire. and such his manly mien. like Calchas seen. The impatient Trojans. in a gloomy throng. But most the Ajaces. But Neptune. Now wears a mortal form.380 The Iliad of Homer [232] The father of the floods pursues his way: Where. His shouts incessant every Greek inspire. NEPTUNE RISING FROM THE SEA. The god whose earthquakes rock the solid ground. Embattled roll'd. Such his loud voice. like a tempest. And in their hopes the fleets already flame.

as a falcon from the rocky height. The wide horizon shut him from their view. Greece yet may live. and calls high Jove his sire: If yet some heavenly power your breast excite. and swells their daring hearts. impetuous at the sight. and so swift. all our hopes to raise: Oh recollect your ancient worth and praise! 'Tis yours to save us. Prompts their light limbs. this part o'erthrown. be vain. He touch'd the chiefs. Flight. Then. Her quarry seen. On other works though Troy with fury fall." 381 Then with his sceptre. and thus to Telamon: . and skims along the sky: Such. not their own. is destructive here. O warriors. if you cease to fear. and string your arms to fight. Breathe in your hearts. the power of ocean flew. her threaten'd fleet maintain: And Hector's force. darts herself from high. I dread for you alone: Here Hector rages like the force of fire. Vaunts of his gods. and Jove's own aid.BOOK XIII. Forth-springing instant. Shoots on the wing. and steel'd their manly souls: Strength. "'Tis yours. more than shameful. And pour her armies o'er our batter'd wall: There Greece has strength: but this. that the deep controls. [233] The inspiring god Oileus' active son Perceived the first. Her strength were vain. the touch divine imparts.

This ready arm. with length of labours tired. New rising spirits all my force alarm. breathless. and tread in air!" "With equal ardour (Telamon returns) My soul is kindled. and my bosom burns. shakes the dart. Pant in the ships. While thus the god the martial fire awakes: . my friend. the venerable seer. pale. The blood pours back. Short as he turned. and the steps he trod. Thoas. His own bright evidence reveals a god. in arms renown'd. Who. yon towering chief I meet. And stretch the dreadful Hector at my feet. Not Calchas this. while Troy to conquest calls. While tears of rage stand burning in their eye." Full of the god that urged their burning breast. unthinking. and fortifies my heart: Singly. The heroes thus their mutual warmth express'd. some god in human form Favouring descends. and this their fatal hour. Even now some energy divine I share. Then stern Peneleus rises to the fight. Greece sunk they thought. And seem to walk on wings. But breathe new courage as they feel the power. methinks. and wills to stand the storm. Lift each impatient limb. and brace my arm. And swarms victorious o'er their yielding walls: Trembling before the impending storm they lie. I saw the power appear: I mark'd his parting. Deipyrus. And Merion next. Last Nestor's son the same bold ardour takes. Neptune meanwhile the routed Greeks inspired.382 The Iliad of Homer "Some god. Teucer and Leitus first his words excite. the impulsive fury found.

all you lose. who prizes fame or breath. and manly race! I trusted in the gods. My heart weeps blood to see your glory lost! Nor deem this day. Heavens! what a prodigy these eyes survey. a straggling train. on instant death: 383 [234] . oh dire disgrace To chiefs of vigorous youth. this battle.BOOK XIII. to see Brave Greece victorious. Invade your camps. Achilles' injured fame: Another's is the crime. till this amazing day! Fly we at length from Troy's oft-conquer'd bands? And falls our fleet by such inglorious hands? A rout undisciplined. and life the price? 'Tis not your cause. Not born to glories of the dusty plain. if your king's unjust? Prevent this evil. Must you be cowards. but yours the shame. the flower of all our host. so late who trembled at your name. ensues. unthought. Grant that our chief offend through rage or lust. no—the glorious combat you disclaim. the pride. On endless infamy. Like frighted fawns from hill to hill pursued. The purchase infamy. Think. a fate more vile. involve your ships in flame? A change so shameful. Unseen. and subdue! on dastards dead to fame I waste no anger. what cause has wrought? The soldiers' baseness. A prey to every savage of the wood: Shall these. "Oh lasting infamy. say. and her navy free: Ah. A day more black. or the general's fault? Fools! will ye perish for your leader's vice. Let each reflect. And one black day clouds all her former fame. for they feel no shame: But you. and you. and your country save: Small thought retrieves the spirits of the brave.

And levell'd at the skies with pointing rays. The close compacted legions urged their way: Fierce they drove on. Or had the god of war inclined his eyes. so disposed their fight. the spot. the appointed shore: Hark! the gates burst. Descending Hector and his battle wait. the brazen barriers roar! Impetuous Hector thunders at the wall. Fix'd at his post was each bold Ajax found. with fury borne. to conquer. in terrible array. lo! the fated time. At every shock the crackling wood resounds. With well-ranged squadrons strongly circled round: So close their order. Their brandish'd lances at each motion blaze. As when an earthquake stirs the nodding grove.384 The Iliad of Homer For. Spears lean on spears.) Precipitate the ponderous mass descends: From steep to steep the rolling ruin bounds. An iron scene gleams dreadful o'er the fields. And listening armies catch the godlike fire. and shields in shields. The hour. Armour in armour lock'd. and Hector first of Troy. or to fall. (Which from the stubborn stone a torrent rends. firm. As from some mountain's craggy forehead torn. Helms stuck to helms. A chosen phalanx. [235] . Thus breathing death." These words the Grecians' fainting hearts inspire. Troy charged the first. resolved as fate. and man drove man along. impatient to destroy. on targets targets throng. The floating plumes unnumber'd wave above. The god of war had own'd a just surprise. A rock's round fragment flies. As Pallas' self might view with fix'd delight.

—" . it headlong leaps till in a plaine it stay. Whirls. and my spear shall rout their scattering power. The glittering javelin pierced the tough bull-hide. this day inspires our arms. leaps. it stirs not any way:— So Hector. Their whole force he proved. and thunders down. Flies jumping all adourne the woods. And all their falchions wave around his head: Repulsed he stands. Forth march'd Deiphobus. and sparkled in the sand. The Greek. and that black array: Stand. impetuous to the plain: There stops—so Hector. when he stopp'd. beyond the rest. 230 Compare Chapman's quaint. embattled like a tower. But with repeated shouts his army fires. this arm shall make your way Through yon square body. the darts are shed. resounding everie shocke. On him the war is bent. Bold Merion aim'd a stroke (nor aim'd it wide). bold verses:— "And as a round piece of a rocke.230 Resistless when he raged. retreating. and. marching. For he that Juno's heavenly bosom warms. held Before his wary steps his ample shield. Hath broke the naturall band it had within the roughftey rock.BOOK XIII. but. and urged amain." He said. On the raised orb to distance bore the spear. And then (tho' never so impelled). "Trojans! be firm. The first of gods. Strong as they seem. and roused the soul in every breast: Urged with desire of fame. nor from his stand retires. when a shoure poured from a bursten cloud. it smokes. unmoved. The Trojan warrior. which with a winter's flood Is from his top torn. uncheckt. touch'd with timely fear. And on. mourn'd his frustrate blow. 385 Still gathering force. The point broke short. But pierced not through: unfaithful to his hand.

And his broad buckler thunders on the ground. Allied the warrior to the house of Troy:) To Troy. Subdued by steel. of Neptune's forceful line. And just had fastened on the dazzling prize. Meanwhile with rising rage the battle glows. And match'd the bravest of her chiefs in fame: With Priam's sons. He lived. Then to the ships with surly speed he went. rich in generous steeds. [236] . when glory call'd his arms. beloved and honour'd as his own. To seize his beamy helm the victor flies. his clanging arms resound. By Teucer's arm the warlike Imbrius bleeds. Vain was his courage. And soils its verdant tresses on the ground. As from some far-seen mountain's airy crown. his arms the fall resound. Ere yet to Troy the sons of Greece were led. The tumult thickens. a guardian of the throne. he came. remote from war's alarms. The son of Mentor. and the clamour grows. Him Teucer pierced between the throat and ear: He groans beneath the Telamonian spear. and his race divine! Prostrate he falls. the fruit of Priam's ravish'd joy. and pierced Amphimachus's heart. In fair Pedaeus' verdant pastures bred. Cteatus' son. From Hector's hand a shining javelin fled: He saw. a tall ash tumbles down. Then Teucer rushing to despoil the dead. To seek a surer javelin in his tent.386 The Iliad of Homer And cursed the treacherous lance that spared a foe. the forceful dart Sung on. and shunn'd the death. And blest in bright Medesicaste's arms: (This nymph. The youth had dwelt. So falls the youth.

a slaughter'd fawn. nor more was doom'd to feel. In their fell jaws high-lifting through the wood. the victor Greeks obtain The spoils contested. fired with stern disdain. Andraemon's valiant son. and sheath'd in shining steel. At Hector's feet the gory visage lay. confirms their hands. Who ruled where Calydon's white rocks arise. Between the leaders of the Athenian line. Imbrius remains the fierce Ajaces' prize. Swift as a whirlwind rushing to the fleet. Menestheus the divine. and bear off the slain. He felt the shock. Full on the shield's round boss the weapon rung. In Thoas' voice. And his sad comrades from the battle bore. And pierced with sorrow for his grandson slain. Him to the surgeons of the camp he sent: That office paid. The god of ocean.) Deplored Amphimachus. His pensive brow the generous care express'd With which a wounded soldier touch'd his breast. When Ajax' manly arm a javelin flung. 387 [237] . Snatch'd from devouring hounds. Repulsed he yields. and whirl'd in air away. And breathes destruction on the Trojan bands.BOOK XIII. As two grim lions bear across the lawn. he issued from his tent Fierce for the fight: to whom the god begun. the chief: great Ajax from the dead Strips his bright arms. And sprinkling all the shrubs with drops of blood. Secure in mail. Oileus lops his head: Toss'd like a ball. So these. Whom in the chance of war a javelin tore. sad object! lies. Inspires the Grecian hearts. (Stichius the brave. He finds the lance-famed Idomen of Crete.

nor shameful sloth detains: 'Tis heaven. But feed the vultures on this hateful strand. nor even this succour vain: Not vain the weakest. my friend! Once foremost in the fight. the bravest have confess'd in fight. the daring boast. alas! and Jove's all-powerful doom. Of Greece victorious. and war is all her own." Thus he: and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Ah! never may he see his native land. urge the rest. if their force unite." . Her hardy heroes from the well-fought plains Nor fear withholds. That far. Two. far distant from our native home Wills us to fall inglorious! Oh. not the worst. still prone to lend Or arms or counsels. and proud Ilion lost?" To whom the king: "On Greece no blame be thrown. now perform thy best. Nor dares to combat on this signal day! For this. And what thou canst not singly. But ours. Together let us battle on the plain. Arms are her trade.388 The Iliad of Homer And Pleuron's chalky cliffs emblaze the skies: "Where's now the imperious vaunt. And urge thy soul to rival acts with mine. behold! in horrid arms I shine. Who seeks ignobly in his ships to stay.

From pole to pole the trail of glory flies: Thus his bright armour o'er the dazzled throng Gleam'd dreadful. Swift to his tent the Cretan king returns: From thence. as the monarch flash'd along. And glows with prospects of th' approaching day. Or terrifies the offending world with wars. Whom thus he questions: "Ever best of friends! O say. Which to pale man the wrath of heaven declares. near his tent. And clad in arms that lighten'd all the strand. Or bleeds my friend by some unhappy wound? Inglorious here. In streamy sparkles. This said." "O prince! (Meriones replies) whose care Leads forth the embattled sons of Crete to war. in every art of battle skill'd. he rushes where the combat burns. What holds thy courage from so brave a field? On some important message art thou bound. my soul abhors to stay.BOOK XIII. Fierce on the foe the impetuous hero drove. Meriones attends. kindling all the skies. This speaks my grief: this headless lance I wield." [238] . The rest lies rooted in a Trojan shield. two javelins glittering in his hand. 389 Him. Like lightning bursting from the arm of Jove.

those my tent can give. and spoil the slain. Though I. no firmness. Spears I have store. determined is his eye. disdainful of the distant war. The fear of each. and these arms I gain. I fight conspicuous in the van of war. and see on heaps the helmets roll'd. What need I more? If any Greek there be Who knows not Merion. Unchanged his colour. (and Trojan lances all. No force. With chattering teeth he stands. And high-hung spears. I appeal to thee. Even there thy courage would not lag behind: In that sharp service. nor aim the uncertain spear.390 The Iliad of Homer To whom the Cretan: "Enter. and shields that flame with gold. and receive The wonted weapons. Terror and death in his wild eye-balls stare. singled from the rest. We too can boast of no ignoble spoils: But those my ship contains. And thence these trophies. Yet hand to hand I fight. And looks a bloodless image of despair! Not so the brave—still dauntless." "Nor vain (said Merion) are our martial toils. and unconquer'd might: And were some ambush for the foes design'd." To this. Enter. stands confess'd. and stiffening hair. or valour. . whence distant far. still the same. and unmoved his frame: Composed his thought. He shifts his place: his colour comes and goes: A dropping sweat creeps cold on every part.) That shed a lustre round the illumined wall. the pale coward shows. Idomeneus: "The fields of fight Have proved thy valour. Against his bosom beats his quivering heart. Nor trust the dart.

murderous rout to those. and all before. The pride of haughty warriors to confound. But why. So Mars armipotent invades the plain. Invoked by both. And their bright arms shot horror o'er the plain. call'd to the dire alarms Of warring Phlegyans. And fix'd his soul. (The wide destroyer of the race of man. relentless they dispose. follow'd to the war. his best-beloved son. 'twas still thy brave delight T'oppose thy bosom where thy foremost fight. By chance of fight whatever wounds you bore. and Ephyrian arms. cold to honour's charms." Swift at the word bold Merion snatch'd a spear And. And every art of dangerous war thy own. attends his course. breathing slaughter. And to their owners send them nobly back. Then first spake Merion: "Shall we join the right." 391 [239] . So march'd the leaders of the Cretan train. Stand we to talk. 'Tis but the wish to strike before the rest. Arm'd with stern boldness. to conquer or to die: If aught disturb the tenour of his breast.BOOK XIII. And lay the strength of tyrants on the ground: From Thrace they fly. To these glad conquest. when glory calls to arms? Go—from my conquer'd spears the choicest take. and enormous force. Those wounds were glorious all. "In such assays thy blameless worth is known. Or combat in the centre of the fight? Or to the left our wonted succour lend? Hazard and fame all parts alike attend. like infants.) Terror. Such as may teach.

and. . meeting. helms. and shields. And live with glory. Fierce as the god of battles. or with glory die. Whom Ajax fells not on the ensanguined ground. Excell'd alone in swiftness in the course. Dire was the gleam of breastplates. The rising combat sounds along the shore. And hurl the blazing ruin at our head. In standing fight he mates Achilles' force. of more than human birth. that flash'd afar. Soon as the foe the shining chiefs beheld Rush like a fiery torrent o'er the field. From different quarters sweep the sandy plain. together driven. Then to the left our ready arms apply. Till Jove himself descends. Met the black hosts. Bristled with upright spears. Their force embodied in a tide they pour. darken'd heaven. All dreadful glared the iron face of war." He said: and Merion to th' appointed place. Him neither rocks can crush. As warring winds. Skill'd or with shafts to gall the distant field. Great must he be. nor steel can wound. Nor feed like mortals on the fruits of earth. On every side the dusty whirlwinds rise. These can the rage of haughty Hector tame: Safe in their arms. in Sirius' sultry reign. Each godlike Ajax makes that post his care. the navy fears no flame. And the dry fields are lifted to the skies: Thus by despair. Or bear close battle on the sounding shield. And gallant Teucer deals destruction there.392 The Iliad of Homer "Not in the centre (Idomen replied:) Our ablest chieftains the main battle guide. his bolts to shed. hope. urged his pace. rage.

first-born of the skies. Call'd by the voice of war to martial fame. And breathed revenge. or gods. And promised conquest was the proffer'd dower. And crowds of heroes in their anger died. and close compell'd they die. First by his hand Othryoneus was slain. The bold Idomeneus controls the day. but the fates refused. The king consented. and heaven their native place. And polish'd arms emblazed the flaming fields: Tremendous scene! that general horror gave. of one ethereal race. But spared awhile the destined Trojan towers.BOOK XIII. The king consented. Gods of one source. But touch'd with joy the bosoms of the brave. For this. rising from his azure main. Neptune in human form conceal'd his aid. Alike divine. Warr'd on the king of heaven with stern disdain. Saturn's great sons in fierce contention vied. While Neptune. with boasts of power. Indissolubly strong: the fatal tie Is stretch'd on both. And more than men. of Jove's superior might afraid. Cassandra's love he sought. and fired the Grecian train. The sire of earth and heaven. These powers enfold the Greek and Trojan train In war and discord's adamantine chain. But Jove the greater. Will'd not destruction to the Grecian powers. by his vaunts abused. Dreadful in arms. From high Cabesus' distant walls he came. supremely wise. by Thetis won To crown with glory Peleus' godlike son. and grown in combats grey. with mad ambition vain. 393 [240] . Swell'd with false hopes.

And glitter'd. to his squire consign'd." He spoke. The field he measured with a larger stride. Him as he stalk'd. For such an aid what will not Argos give? To conquer Troy. on further methods to advise. He hoped the conquest of the Cretan king. Groans to the oft-heaved axe. Full on his throat discharged the forceful spear: Beneath the chin the point was seen to glide. There hear what Greece has on her part to say. And stretch'd before his much-loved coursers lay. . Come. and of the imagined bride. His arms resounded as the boaster fell. "And thus (he cries) behold thy promise sped! Such is the help thy arms to Ilion bring.394 The Iliad of Homer [241] Proud of himself. the Cretan javelin found. Then spreads a length of ruin o'er the ground: So sunk proud Asius in that dreadful day. fit mast for some great admiral. And such the contract of the Phrygian king! Our offers now. unable to contain. illustrious prince! receive. The wary Cretan. follow to the fleet thy new allies. As when the mountain-oak. And count Atrides' fairest daughter thine. This Asius view'd. as his foe drew near. Meantime. or poplar tall. Impatient panted on his neck behind:) To vengeance rising with a sudden spring. Vain was his breastplate to repel the wound: His dream of glory lost. with many a wound. and dragg'd the gory corse away. extant at the further side. Or pine. Before his chariot warring on the plain: (His crowded coursers. he plunged to hell. with ours thy forces join. The great Idomeneus bestrides the dead.

and labours out his breath. caused to glance From his slope shield the disappointed lance. fierce in death. stooping. lies foaming on the shore. On his raised arm by two strong braces stay'd. And pierced. his people's guardian now no more! "Not unattended (the proud Trojan cries) Nor unrevenged. and. the vengeful weapon fly. with force. Thick with bull-hides and brazen orbits bound.) He lay collected in defensive shade. obliquely. Beneath the spacious targe. Nor shuns the foe. And on the tinkling verge more faintly rung. Deiphobus drew nigh. stiff with stupid fear. Deprived of motion. nor turns the steeds away. through hell's black portals stand display'd. The Cretan saw.BOOK XIII. king Hypsenor's breast: Warm'd in his liver. This mate shall joy thy melancholy shade. O'er his safe head the javelin idly sung. He grinds the dust distain'd with streaming gore. And. an unresisting prey: Pierced by Antilochus. (a blazing round. Stands all aghast his trembling charioteer. And made." . 395 Stabb'd at the sight. to the ground it bore The chief. But falls transfix'd. Thus Asius' steeds (their mighty master gone) Remain the prize of Nestor's youthful son. lamented Asius lies: For thee. he pants beneath The stately car. Even then the spear the vigorous arm confess'd.

whom heaven and he shall doom To wail his fate in death's eternal gloom. His labouring heart heaves with so strong a bound. Who covers with a cloud those beauteous eyes. Long used to ward the death in fighting fields. Before the ponderous stroke his corslet yields. or deep-rooted oak. His spouse Hippodame. The long lance shakes. Resolved to perish in his country's cause. Touch'd every Greek. Fast flowing from its source.396 The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish. divinely fair. nor shuns the lance of Crete. but Nestor's son the most. and every work of art: He once of Ilion's youth the loveliest boy. and darling care: Who charm'd her parents' and her husband's heart With beauty. his breast received the stroke. Grieved as he was. Or find some foe. at the haughty boast. [242] Nor yet from fight Idomeneus withdraws. sense. He sees Alcathous in the front aspire: Great Æsyetes was the hero's sire. The riven armour sends a jarring sound. . his pious arms attend. Life's purple tide impetuous gush'd away. as prone he lay. The fairest she of all the fair of Troy. Anchises' eldest hope. While the winds sleep. By Neptune now the hapless hero dies. Fix'd as some column. and vibrates in the wound. And his broad buckler shields his slaughter'd friend: Till sad Mecistheus and Alastor bore His honour'd body to the tented shore. And fetters every limb: yet bent to meet His fate he stands.

Come. my third victim.BOOK XIII. was Minos' heir. I reign. Alcathous dies. Trojan prince. Forthwith Æneas rises to his thought: For him in Troy's remotest lines he sought. Then Idomen. stands." The Trojan heard. insulting o'er the slain: "Behold. Haste. Deiphobus! nor vaunt in vain: See! on one Greek three Trojan ghosts attend. Great Minos. and said: "Now. and the warrior's loved remains defend. And try the prowess of the seed of Jove. Approaching now thy boasted might approve. blameless prince. A scourge to thee. If e'er thy bosom felt fair honour's charms. Alone. ambitious of so great an aid. enamour'd of a mortal dame. and one roof contain'd. This deed to fierce Idomeneus we owe. o'er all my host I shine. and thy line. One table fed you. and her bold sons. Where he. the third from Jupiter: O'er spacious Crete. His first-born I. employ thy pious arms. with venturous arms the king of Crete. thy brother and thy friend. thy father. to the shades I send. Or seek auxiliar force. came: Deucalion. Beneath his cares thy early youth was train'd." 397 [243] . And sees superior posts in meaner hands. This. The bold Deiphobus approach'd. To him. uncertain or to meet. From Jove. guardian of his country. incensed at partial Priam. And thence my ships transport me through the main: Lord of a host. and revenge it on th' insulting foe. at length decreed To call some hero to partake the deed.

Lo. The great dispute. as with one soul. or of life. He fresh in youth. Æneas too demands Th' assisting forces of his native bands. Like Ida's flocks proceeding o'er the plain. he burns to fight: The Greek awaits him with collected might. Agenor. Arm'd with wild terrors. Before his fleecy care." He spoke. Deipyrus. on some rough mountain's head. O'er his bent back the bristly horrors rise. Then rising in his rage. The youthful offspring of the god of war. (Co-aids and captains of the Trojan line. "Fellows in arms! your timely aid unite. erect and bold. Antilochus. Paris. were near. great Æneas rushes to the fight: Sprung from a god. and I in arms grown old. . But most his hunters rouse his mighty rage: So stood Idomeneus. And met the Trojan with a lowering look. his javelin shook. and expects the war. Fires stream in lightning from his sanguine eyes. and for a space resign'd To tender pity all his manly mind. Their lifted bucklers cast a dreadful shade Around the chief. and all. in field renown'd: To these the warrior sent his voice around. Merion. Deiphobus. As the fell boar. His foaming tusks both dogs and men engage. and more than mortal bold. of glory. this hour decide the strife. join.398 The Iliad of Homer Æneas heard. and shout from far. obey'd. Else should this hand. and to slaughter bred. When the loud rustics rise. Attends the tumult.) In order follow all th' embodied train. and Aphareus.

Stalks the proud ram. And o'er their heads unheeded javelins sing. The victor from his breast the weapon tears. In standing fight he yet maintains his force. Above the rest. Æneas here. Till faint with labour. And. Now batter'd breast-plates and hack'd helmets ring. His listless limbs unable for the course. On every side the steely circle grows. The Trojan weapon whizz'd along in air. And roll'd the smoking entrails on the ground. And burn'd to drench the ground with mutual blood. the father of the bold. Deiphobus beheld him as he pass'd. There great Idomeneus. Stretch'd on the plain. two towering chiefs appear. But OEnomas received the Cretan's stroke. and shunn'd the brazen spear: Sent from an arm so strong. Heavy with cumbrous arms. And. for the shower of spears. furious. as his native band Moves on in rank. Like gods of war. His spoils he could not. His tired slow steps he drags from off the field. The Cretan saw. and stretches o'er the land.BOOK XIII. stiff with cold age. fired with hate. With joy the swain surveys them. through the well-known meads: So joys Æneas. The forceful spear his hollow corslet broke. grasps the bloody dust in death. he sobs away his breath. Round dread Alcathous now the battle rose. and by foes repell'd. a parting javelin cast: 399 [244] . they stood. Though now unfit an active war to wage. the missive wood Stuck deep in earth. and quiver'd where it stood. It ripp'd his belly with a ghastly wound. as he leads To the cool fountains. dispensing fate.

His wounded brother good Polites tends. groaning from the shore. High-throned amidst the great Olympian hall. the sands with gore. Rapt from the lessening thunder of the war. And sprinkling. on his splendid car. and rejoin'd his friends. . Meriones drew near. And pierced Ascalaphus. For slain Ascalaphus commenced the fray. And from the rage of battle gently drew: Him his swift coursers. Valiant as Mars. but held its course along. Detain'd from bloody war by Jove and Fate. Swift as a vulture leaping on his prey.400 The Iliad of Homer The javelin err'd. And from his temples rends the glittering prize. To Troy they drove him. Now. On golden clouds th' immortal synod sate. And on his loaded arm discharged his spear: He drops the weight. The hollow helmet rings against the plain. From his torn arm the Grecian rent away The reeking javelin. And gnash'd the dust. all bloody with his wound. disabled with the pain. Around his waist his pious arms he threw. Deiphobus to seize his helmet flies. as he pass'd. where in dust the breathless hero lay. the brave and young: The son of Mars fell gasping on the ground. Nor knew the furious father of his fall.

Adamas. From his broad shoulders tore the spoils away. his eager javelin rends: Supine he falls. And everlasting slumber seals his eyes. Meanwhile fresh slaughter bathes the sanguine ground. And meditates the distant enemy. He pierced his throat. with the first he fought. As toward the chief he turn'd his daring head. and heaven and earth resound. the joy of Nestor's glorious age. the bending head. His winged lance. leaping where he lay. And blunts the javelin of th' eluded foe: In the broad buckler half the weapon stood. but spreads in vain. as Thoon turn'd him round. and every danger sought. that to the neck extends Along the chine. Th' exulting victor.BOOK XIII. Heaps fall on heaps. His shield emboss'd the ringing storm sustains. nods upon his breast. 401 . Obeys each motion of the master's mind! Restless it flies. On all sides thick the peals of arms resound. Bold Aphareus by great Æneas bled. Transpierced his back with a dishonest wound: The hollow vein. (Great Neptune's care preserved from hostile rage This youth. depress'd Beneath his helmet. And struck his target with the brazen spear Fierce in his front: but Neptune wards the blow.) In arms intrepid. But he impervious and untouch'd remains. for closed by foes around. Splinter'd on earth flew half the broken wood. resistless as the wind. drew near. Antilochus. His shield reversed o'er the fallen warrior lies. His time observed. Faced every foe. impatient to be free. and to his social train Spreads his imploring arms. The son of Asius.

and doubled to the ground. As on some ample barn's well harden'd floor. And fraught with vengeance. Lay panting. Repell'd to distance flies the bounding dart. watchful of the unwary foe. And nailed it to the yew: the wounded hand Trail'd the long lance that mark'd with blood the sand: But good Agenor gently from the wound . His bulk enormous on the field displays. Light leaps the golden grain. But Merion's spear o'ertook him as he flew. resulting from the ground: So from the steel that guards Atrides' heart. Thus an ox in fetters tied. Deep in the belly's rim an entrance found.) While the broad fan with force is whirl'd around. Pierced with his lance the hand that grasp'd the bow.402 The Iliad of Homer [246] Disarm'd. The spear the conqueror from his body drew. he mingled in the Trojan crew. But harmless bounded from the plated steel. And this stood adverse with the bended bow: Full on his breast the Trojan arrow fell. in act to throw. and roll'd amid the throng: There for some luckier Greek it rests a prize. The helm fell off. to the victor turns: That shook the ponderous lance. Next brave Deipyrus in dust was laid: King Helenus waved high the Thracian blade. And death's dim shadows swarm before his view. Bending he fell. (The winds collected at each open door. great Menelaus burns. Where sharp the pang. and mortal is the wound. Atrides. For dark in death the godlike owner lies! Raging with grief. His heaving heart beats thick as ebbing life decays. While death's strong pangs distend his labouring side. And smote his temples with an arm so strong.

First the sharp lance was by Atrides thrown. to the future blind. and brazen was the blade. And fierce Atrides spurn'd him as he bled. the cover'd pole-axe held. Springs through the ranks to fall. The lance far distant by the winds was blown. and fall by thee. Vain dreams of conquest swell his haughty mind. The plume dropp'd nodding to the plain below. snatch'd from a soldier's side. Great Menelaus! to enchance thy fame: High-towering in the front. The spear solicits. and the bandage bound. Atrides waved his steel: Deep through his front the weighty falchion fell. In dust and blood the groaning hero lay: Forced from their ghastly orbs. Dauntless he rushes where the Spartan lord Like lightning brandish'd his far beaming sword. A sling's soft wool. Nor pierced Pisander through Atrides' shield: Pisander's spear fell shiver'd on the field. loud-exulting. Shorn from the crest. said: .) This on the helm discharged a noble blow. Distinct with studs. 403 Behold! Pisander. the warrior came. Tore off his arms. The clotted eye-balls tumble on the shore.BOOK XIII. urged by fate's decree. The crashing bones before its force gave way. His left arm high opposed the shining shield: His right beneath. and spouting gore. At once the tent and ligature supplied. (An olive's cloudy grain the handle made. and. Not so discouraged.

The feast. Never. A princess raped transcends a navy storm'd: In such bold feats your impious might approve.404 The Iliad of Homer [247] "Thus. Our heroes slaughter'd and our ships on flame. the ravish'd dame. And the bold son of Pylaemenes slew." This said. But Troy for ever reaps a dire delight In thirst of slaughter. The violated rites. Even the sweet charms of sacred numbers tire. beyond their measure. O race perfidious. Still breathing rapine. or the fear of Jove. supremely wise! If from thy hand the fates of mortals flow. love's endearing joy. who delight in war! Already noble deeds ye have perform'd. Harpalion had through Asia travell'd far. shall bend your glory down. great father! lord of earth and skies. O thou. and in lust of fight. the dance. Sleep's balmy blessing. ah. abandon'd and unjust. at length be taught to fear. violence. whate'er mankind desire. which his train received: Then sudden mix'd among the warring crew. . Above the thought of man. cloy. And whelm in ruins yon flagitious town. Crimes heap'd on crimes. he seized (while yet the carcase heaved) The bloody armour. From whence this favour to an impious foe? A godless crew. and lust? The best of things. Without th' assistance. thus. Following his martial father to the war: Through filial love he left his native shore. from death he flies. Thus of his lance disarm'd. Trojans. never to behold it more! His unsuccessful spear he chanced to fling Against the target of the Spartan king.

The shaft of Merion mingled with the dead. And everlasting darkness shades him round. deplored his offspring dead.BOOK XIII. And turns around his apprehensive eyes. And. the swelling bladder rends: Sunk in his sad companions' arms he lay. And. And wing'd the feather'd vengeance at the foe. Beneath his ear the pointed arrow went. Who held his seat in Corinth's stately town. By arms abroad. With pity soften'd and with fury swell'd: His honour'd host. A chief there was. a youth of matchless grace. prodigal of breath. the brave Euchenor named. 405 [248] . Him.) While life's red torrent gush'd from out the wound. And in short pantings sobb'd his soul away. unrevenged. And unavailing tears profusely shed. unnerved. Him on his car the Paphlagonian train In slow procession bore from off the plain. driving down. a seer of old renown. drop useless on the ground. Oft had the father told his early doom. And loved of all the Paphlagonian race! With his full strength he bent his angry bow. For riches much. through the hip transpiercing as he fled. (Like some vile worm extended on the ground. Polydus' son. The pensive father. Beneath the bone the glancing point descends. and more for virtue famed. Paris from far the moving sight beheld. The soul came issuing at the narrow vent: His limbs. or slow disease at home: He climb'd his vessel. father now no more! Attends the mournful pomp along the shore. And chose the certain glorious path to death.

by a stolen embrace. Stichius. This drew from Phylacus his noble line. Where first the gates were forced. famed for martial might. And brave Podarces. And where low walls confine the beating tides. the whole Boeotian strength remains. He dwelt far distant from his native place. Whose humble barrier scarce the foe divides. The flower of Athens. and their arms employ. Medon. repel not Hector's fiery course. And he that shakes the solid earth gave aid. But join'd. Locrians and Phthians. and bulwarks gain'd. With such a tide superior virtue sway'd. And all the thunder of the battle raged. Iphiclus' son: and that (Oileus) thine: (Young Ajax' brother. The proud Iaonians with their sweeping trains. By his fierce step-dame from his father's reign Expell'd and exiled for her brother slain:) These rule the Phthians. and Amphion bold: The Phthians. There. But in the centre Hector fix'd remain'd. Bias and great Menestheus at their head: Meges the strong the Epaean bands controll'd. Where late in fight both foot and horse engaged. on the shores of Troy. Phidas. (Wrapp'd in the cloud and tumult of the field:) Wide on the left the force of Greece commands. and th' Epaean force. (Their naval station where the Ajaces keep.406 The Iliad of Homer Nor knew great Hector how his legions yield. led. Mix'd with Boeotians. on the margin of the hoary deep. active in the fight.) There join'd. . And conquest hovers o'er th' Achaian bands. And Dracius prudent.

And streams of sweat down their sour foreheads flow. A train of heroes followed through the field. The Locrian squadrons nor the javelin wield. O'er their huge limbs the foam descends in snow. And the gall'd Ilians to their walls retired. Tired with the incessant slaughters of the fight. The mingled tempest on the foes they pour. with like unwearied care. Nor bear the helm. No following troops his brave associate grace: In close engagement an unpractised race. Or fell the distant warrior to the ground. Throng'd in bright arms. But skill'd from far the flying shaft to wing. Troy's scattering orders open to the shower. Thus in the van the Telamonian train. And trace large furrows with the shining share. But sage Polydamas. Join'd to one yoke. and this counsel gave: .BOOK XIII. a pressing fight maintain: Far in the rear the Locrian archers lie. remissive of his might. Force the bright ploughshare through the fallow soil. Address'd great Hector. Dexterous with these they aim a certain wound. Or whirl the sounding pebble from the sling. Each Ajax laboured through the field of war: So when two lordly bulls. Now side by side. discreetly brave. nor lift the moony shield. Whene'er he breathed. 407 [249] Now had the Greeks eternal fame acquired. with equal toil. Who bore by turns great Ajax' sevenfold shield. Whose stones and arrows intercept the sky. the stubborn earth they tear.

To some sweet music and the charm of song.408 The Iliad of Homer [250] "Though great in all. To some the powers of bloody war belong. and pass unhurt away. extensive. Contented with the conquest of the day. the chiefs and kings Convoked to council. I fear. weigh the sum of things. Their guardians these. Achilles. Attend. great Achilles. See. How widely differs this from warring well! Content with what the bounteous gods have given. lest Greece. I fear. not yet undone. out-number'd. thou seem'st averse to lend Impartial audience to a faithful friend. And war's whole fury burns around thy head. Behold! distress'd within yon hostile wall. To few. and yet o'erlooks the plains!" . Pay the large debt of last revolving sun. as thou mov'st. scarce the war maintain! And what brave heroes at the ships lie slain! Here cease thy fury: and. How many Trojans yield. on dangers dangers spread. Seek not alone to engross the gifts of Heaven. Or quit the fleet. Whether (the gods succeeding our desires) To yon tall ships to bear the Trojan fires. all-considering mind. yet remains On yonder decks. To gods and men thy matchless worth is known. If Heaven have lodged this virtue in my breast. the nations round confess. And towns and empires for their safety bless. And every art of glorious war thy own. has Jove assign'd A wise. or fall! What troops. and wondrous few. But in cool thought and counsel to excel. O Hector! what I judge the best. disperse.

Some cold in death. and Hector. Far on the left. nor Asius' self appear: For these were pierced with many a ghastly wound. Through all his host. And seems a moving mountain topp'd with snow. And here detain the scatter'd youth of Troy. and dealing deaths around) The graceful Paris. nor Helenus the seer. For many a chief he look'd. and round the plain. th' impatient chief reproved: . High on the wall some breathed their souls away. Nor Asius' son. And bids anew the martial thunder rise. with a bound. inspiring force. but look'd in vain. at Hector's high command Haste the bold leaders of the Trojan band: But round the battlements. "To guard this post (he cried) thy art employ." 409 This said. with fury moved. the towering chief prepares to go. And hasten back to end the doubtful day. I bend my way. Leap'd from his chariot on the trembling ground. To Panthus' son. he flies. amid the throng he found (Cheering the troops. The counsel pleased. Deiphobus. Opprobrious thus. some groaning on the ground. Swift as he leap'd his clanging arms resound. Some low in dust. Where yonder heroes faint.BOOK XIII. whom. Shakes his white plumes that to the breezes flow. (a mournful object) lay.

nor unknown to fame: But since yon rampart by thy arms lay low. with forces not our own To combat: strength is of the gods alone. Go then. from Ascania far." When Paris thus: "My brother and my friend. where thy soul inspires: This heart and hand shall second all thy fires: What with this arm I can. and blow for blow." These words the hero's angry mind assuage: Then fierce they mingle where the thickest rage. Deiphobus. Phalces. But 'tis not ours. Of all those heroes. Though then not deedless. And one devouring vengeance swallow all. Imperial Troy from her foundations nods. and Helenus the seer. Till death for death be paid. Around Polydamas. distain'd with blood. prepare to know. Thy warm impatience makes thy tongue offend. The chiefs you seek on yonder shore lie slain. successful. Palmus. Cebrion. I scatter'd slaughter from my fatal bow. As smooth of face as fraudulent of mind! Where is Deiphobus. dispensing fate. with Polypoetes the divine. Whelm'd in thy country's ruin shalt thou fall. In other battles I deserved thy blame. two alone remain. where Asius gone? The godlike father. And two bold brothers of Hippotion's line (Who reach'd fair Ilion. and th' intrepid son? The force of Helenus. so fear'd of late? Black fate hang's o'er thee from th' avenging gods. And great Othryoneus. stern Orthaeus stood.410 The Iliad of Homer "Ill-fated Paris! slave to womankind. Each now disabled by a hostile spear. [251] .

settles on the hoary deeps. but Heaven. Advanced the first. To force our fleet: the Greeks have hands and hearts. dreadful. Lo! Greece is humbled.BOOK XIII. His nodding helm emits a streamy ray. Then. and your god-built wall. Thus stalk'd he. but not an Argive shook. the next engaged in war). thy empty threats forbear. Chief urged on chief. gather'd. in dreadful order bright. As when from gloomy clouds a whirlwind springs. 'Tis not thy arm. 'tis thundering Jove we fear: The skill of war to us not idly given. Long ere in flames our lofty navy fall. Far o'er the plains. Wide rolling. and thus the chief defied: "Hector! come on. The brazen arms reflect a beamy light: Full in the blazing van great Hector shined. That bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful wings. Vain are the hopes that haughty mind imparts. Shot terrors round. Before him flaming his enormous shield. The waves behind impel the waves before. not by Troy. and tumbling to the shore: Thus rank on rank. And. Your boasted city. death was in his look: Whole nations fear'd. The afflicted deeps tumultuous mix and roar. with an ample stride. The former day. Wide o'er the blasted fields the tempest sweeps. Like Mars commission'd to confound mankind. and man drove man along. The towering Ajax. 411 . illumined all the field. while beneath his targe he flash'd along. foaming high. His piercing eyes through all the battle stray. that wither'd e'en the strong. Like the broad sun. the thick battalions throng.

So may the gods on Hector life bestow. this insulting strain? Enormous boaster! doom'd to vaunt in vain. The blue-eyed maid. But such as those of Jove's high lineage born. his progress through the skies: Far-echoing clamours bound from side to side." As thus he spoke. Sent from his following host: the Grecian train With answering thunders fill'd the echoing plain. The time shall come. chased along the plain. to aid thy desperate course. and. when. in open view.) As this decisive day shall end the fame Of Greece.412 The Iliad of Homer [252] Shall sink beneath us. Shalt run. And thou. or he that gilds the morn. imperious! if thy madness wait The lance of Hector. Shook the fix'd splendours of the throne of Jove. thou shalt meet thy fate: That giant-corse. extended on the shore. They ceased. And hail." He said. with shouts. Shall largely feast the fowls with fat and gore. forgetful of a warrior's fame. To Jove's glad omen all the Grecians rise. and like a lion stalk'd along: With shouts incessant earth and ocean rung. Even thou shalt call on Jove. A shout that tore heaven's concave. Even thou shalt wish. On sounding wings a dexter eagle flew. and call in vain. The wings of falcons for thy flying horse. above. and thus the chief of Troy replied: "From whence this menace. . smoking on the ground. behold. (Not that short life which mortals lead below. and Argos be no more a name. While clouds of friendly dust conceal thy shame. And spread a long unmeasured ruin round.



It is as well to observe.[253] BOOK XIV. and succours the Greeks: Hector is struck to the ground with a prodigious stone by Ajax. is alarmed with the increasing clamour of war. and (the more surely to enchant him) obtains the magic girdle of Venus. forms a design to over-reach him: she sets off her charms with the utmost care. at first sight. with some difficulty. which Ulysses withstands. till the Trojans. is ravished with her beauty. whom he informs of the extremity of the danger. and is laid asleep. 231 . are obliged to give way: the lesser Ajax signalizes himself in a particular manner. much distressed. and hastens to Agamemnon. Agamemnon proposes to make their escape by night. that the sameness of these scenes renders many notes unnecessary. where the god. which advice is pursued. Juno. seeing the partiality of Jupiter to the Trojans. wounded as they were. that. which occupy the latter part of the Iliad. to which Diomed adds his advice. and carried off from the battle: several actions succeed. on his way he meets that prince with Diomed and Ulysses. she goes to mount Ida. She then applies herself to the god of sleep. Nestor. persuades him to seal the eyes of Jupiter: this done. and.231 JUNO DECEIVES JUPITER BY THE GIRDLE OF VENUS. ARGUMENT. Neptune takes advantage of his slumber. they should go forth and encourage the army with their presence. sitting at the table with Machaon. sinks in her embraces. This book forms a most agreeable interruption to The continuous round of battles.

the sight his bosom warms. (His valiant offspring. Dire disarray! the tumult of the fight. The field rings dreadful with the clang of arms.416 The Iliad of Homer But not the genial feast. As when old ocean's silent surface sleeps. and the Greeks in flight. or to the general haste. and cleanse the clotted gore. he fixes on the last: Yet. Debating long. While wavering counsels thus his mind engage. And now come full." He said: and. impatient. divine Machaon. and blackens in the sky. seizing Thrasymedes' shield. Fluctuates in doubtful thought the Pylian sage. While I the adventures of the day explore.) hasten'd to the field. His wounded eyes the scene of sorrow knew. His startled ears the increasing cries attend. and how they meet. To join the host. Could charm the cares of Nestor's watchful soul.) Then snatch'd a lance. nor flowing bowl. as he moves. and issued from the door. The wall in ruins. Then thus. (That day the son his father's buckler bore. Weighs down the cloud. and thicken to the fleet! Here with the cordial draught dispel thy care. and bids them roll away. Refresh thy wound. Jove sends one gust. The mass of waters will no wind obey. [254] . What mix'd events attend this mighty day? Hark! how the shouts divide. The waves just heaving on the purple deeps: While yet the expected tempest hangs on high. Let Hecamede the strengthening bath prepare. Soon as the prospect open'd to his view. to his wounded friend: "What new alarm. say.

from the field of fame? Shall then proud Hector see his boast fulfill'd. but anxious for the day. By tardy steps ascending from the fleet: The king of men. Rank above rank. . ah! now too soon made good. the fleet unable to contain At length. the javelins fly. In lines advanced along the shelving strand: Whose bay. the crowded ships they moor: Who landed first. lay highest on the shore. Is every heart inflamed with equal rage Against your king.e.232 (Their ships at distance from the battle stand. Blows echo blows.) Supported on the spears. Ulysses the divine. Nestor. 417 Him. the wounded princes meet. Diomed. Nestor's approach alarm'd each Grecian breast.BOOK XIV. and our heroes kill'd? Such was his threat. they took their way. and all or kill or die. in his march. And who to Tydeus owes his noble line. What drives thee. nor will one chief engage? And have I lived to see with mournful eyes In every Greek a new Achilles rise?" 232 —Who to Tydeus owes. The gleaming falchions flash. i. Whom thus the general of the host address'd: "O grace and glory of the Achaian name. beside the margin of the main. Our fleets in ashes. On many a Grecian bosom writ in blood. Unfit to fight.

And all his favour. And that the rampart. Now heaven averse. And best defence. Not he that thunders from the aerial bower. lies smoking in the dust. These gaping wounds withhold us from the fight. And launch what ships lie nearest to the main. Cease we at length to waste our blood in vain.418 The Iliad of Homer [255] Gerenian Nestor then: "So fate has will'd. Who. Bring all to sea. Than perish in the danger we may shun. well foreseen. Past are the days when happier Greece was blest. late our surest trust And best defence. our late inviolable bound. Better from evils. That Troy triumphant our high fleet ascends." . and hoist each sail for flight. lies smoking on the ground: Even to the ships their conquering arms extend. On speedy measures then employ your thought In such distress! if counsel profit aught: Arms cannot much: though Mars our souls incite. upon the past has power. our hands from battle ties. far from Argos. if impetuous Troy forbear the fight." To him the monarch: "That our army bends. The wall. And lifts the Trojan glory to the skies. all his aid confess'd. And all-confirming time has fate fulfill'd. Leave these at anchor. And groans of slaughter'd Greeks to heaven ascend. till the coming night: Then. Not Jove himself. to run. wills our ruin here. All this from Jove's afflictive hand we bear.

Glad I submit. while his soldiers fight? What more could Troy? What yet their fate denies Thou givest the foe: all Greece becomes their prize." 419 [256] . or old. While war hangs doubtful. whoe'er. unfold. Employ'd our youth. Aught." "Thy just reproofs (Atrides calm replies) Like arrows pierce me. And taught to conquer. more conducive to our weal. Speak it in whispers. No more the troops (our hoisted sails in view. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes: "What shameful words (unkingly as thou art) Fall from that trembling tongue and timorous heart? Oh were thy sway the curse of meaner powers. I force not Greece to quit this hateful coast. by Jove endued with martial might. lest a Greek should hear. or young. And wilt thou thus desert the Trojan plain? And have whole streams of blood been spilt in vain? In such base sentence if thou couch thy fear. for thy words are wise. But thy ships flying. Thus he. with despair shall see. or the thought declares? And comes it even from him whose sovereign sway The banded legions of all Greece obey? Is this a general's voice that calls to flight. and yet employs our age. who dares To think such meanness. And owe destruction to a prince like thee. Unwilling as I am to lose the host. or to fall in fight: Adventurous combats and bold wars to wage. Themselves abandon'd) shall the fight pursue.BOOK XIV. And thou the shame of any host but ours! A host. The sage Ulysses thus replies. Lives there a man so dead to fame.

And numerous flocks that whiten'd all the field. and in the son respect the sire. Attend. From him.420 The Iliad of Homer Tydides cut him short. Let each go forth. Though sore of battle. Young though he be. my sire. and what he shall say. and animate the rest. May speak to councils and assembled kings. Inspire the ranks. and flourish'd where Adrastus reign'd. and glorious in his fall. and. But lest new wounds on wounds o'erpower us quite. Who Pleuron's walls and Calydon possess'd. his acres till'd. Brave in his life." . and rule the distant war. From Calydon expell'd. Whose honoured dust (his race of glory run) Lies whelm'd in ruins of the Theban wall. He pass'd to Argos. Melas and Agrius. disdain not to obey: A youth. rich in fortune's gifts. and thus began: "Such counsel if you seek. the foremost once in fame! Nor lives in Greece a stranger to his name. Such Tydeus was. With three bold sons was generous Prothous bless'd. Beyond the missile javelin's sounding flight. though with wounds oppress'd. Beheld his vines their liquid harvest yield. witness of the war. The monarch's daughter there (so Jove ordain'd) He won. Hear then in me the great OEnides' son. Safe let us stand. who from the mighty Tydeus springs. Advance the glory which he cannot share. what for common good my thoughts inspire. Then. behold the man Who boldly gives it. and in exile dwell'd. There. but (who far surpass'd The rest in courage) OEneus was the last. from the tumult far. Though not partaker.

Press'd in his own. The god of ocean (to inflame their rage) Appears a warrior furrowed o'er with age. their winged wheels employ To hide their ignominious heads in Troy. And thus the venerable hero spoke: 421 "Atrides! lo! with what disdainful eye Achilles sees his country's forces fly. and such the thundering sound Of him whose trident rends the solid ground. Loud. And sent his voice before him as he flew. Blind. with clouds involved around Of rolling dust. Each Argive bosom beats to meet the fight. Atrides leads the way. and chiefs renown'd. Slow moving on. while proud kings. So may he perish. so may Jove disclaim The wretch relentless." [257] He spoke. . and o'erwhelm with shame! But Heaven forsakes not thee: o'er yonder sands Soon shall thou view the scattered Trojan bands Fly diverse. And grisly war appears a pleasing sight. Who glories in unutterable pride. impious man! whose anger is his guide. the general's hand he took. He added not: the listening kings obey.BOOK XIV. Such was the voice. then rush'd amid the warrior crew. as the shout encountering armies yield When twice ten thousand shake the labouring field. Driven heaps on heaps.

What arts. and round her body pours Soft oils of fragrance. Safe from access of each intruding power. And lull the lord of thunders in her arms.422 The Iliad of Homer Meantime Saturnia from Olympus' brow. A golden zone her swelling bosom bound. beheld the fields below. . That rich with Pallas' labour'd colours glow'd: Large clasps of gold the foldings gather'd round. Against his wisdom to oppose her charms. Where her great brother gave the Grecians aid. to blind his all-beholding eye? At length she trusts her power. Part o'er her shoulders waved like melted gold. But placed aloft. Jove to deceive. Sacred to dress and beauty's pleasing cares: With skill divine had Vulcan form'd the bower. on Ida's shady height She sees her Jove. Around her next a heavenly mantle flow'd. Part on her head in shining ringlets roll'd. the doors unfold: Self-closed. cheat of love. what methods shall she try. and all the aerial way: Spirit divine! whose exhalation greets The sense of gods with more than mortal sweets. the balmy gale convey Through heaven. and ambrosial showers: The winds. through earth. Far-beaming pendants tremble in her ear. Touch'd with her secret key. and trembles at the sight. Swift to her bright apartment she repairs. resolved to prove The old. With joy the glorious conflict she survey'd. Thus while she breathed of heaven. behind her shut the valves of gold. yet still successful. High-throned in gold. with decent pride Her artful hands the radiant tresses tied. Here first she bathes. perfumed.

will Venus aid Saturnia's joy. I hear. Then o'er her head she cast a veil more white Than new-fallen snow. And set aside the cause of Greece and Troy?" "Let heaven's dread empress (Cytheraea said) Speak her request. Where the great parents. And burns the sons of heaven with sacred fires! "For lo! I haste to those remote abodes. If I compose those fatal feuds again. (sacred source of gods!) Ocean and Tethys their old empire keep. And. In their kind arms my tender years were past. and dazzling as the light.BOOK XIV. "How long (to Venus thus apart she cried) Shall human strife celestial minds divide? Ah yet. from Olympus cast. which melts mankind in fierce desires." 423 [258] "Then grant me (said the queen) those conquering charms. Once more their minds in mutual ties engage. which mortals and immortals warms. Of upper heaven to Jove resign'd the reign. Which held so long that ancient pair in peace. That love. And calls the mother of the smiles and loves. Each gem illumined with a triple star. That power. Thus issuing radiant with majestic pace. What honour. repay their age!" . Forth from the dome the imperial goddess moves. and what love. shall I obtain. Last her fair feet celestial sandals grace. Whelm'd under the huge mass of earth and main. has made the union cease. On the last limits of the land and deep. what my youth has owed. and deem her will obey'd. What time old Saturn. For strife.

With awe divine. and eloquence of eyes. and the more persuasive sighs. e molli baci. and with it all thy wish. Sorrisi. e liete paci. Then Venus to the courts of Jove withdrew. 25 Compare the description of the dwelling of Sleep in Orlando Furioso. e placide. In this was every art.234 233 [259] Compare Tasso:— Teneri sdegni. 234 vi. And seeks the cave of Death's half-brother. bk." she said. the gay desire. e dolci stille Di pianto. and every charm.424 The Iliad of Homer She said. Silence that spoke. parolette. The kind deceit. the still-reviving fire. She speeds to Lemnos o'er the rolling deep. . Sleep. e tranquille Repulse. and the coldest warm: Fond love. Lib. Persuasive speech. O'er Hemus' hills with snows eternal crown'd. e cari vezzi. Nor once her flying foot approach'd the ground. e sospir tronchi. and smiling press'd The powerful cestus to her snowy breast. the gentle vow. To win the wisest. This on her hand the Cyprian Goddess laid: "Take this. O'er fair Emathia's ever-pleasing shore." Gier. And from her fragrant breast the zone embraced. xvi. O'er high Pieria thence her course she bore. the queen of love Obey'd the sister and the wife of Jove. Then taking wing from Athos' lofty steep.233 With various skill and high embroidery graced. With smiles she took the charm. Whilst from Olympus pleased Saturnia flew.

" . owns my reign. and tumbled gods on gods. to whom I fled for aid. "Sweet pleasing Sleep! (Saturnia thus began) Who spread'st thy empire o'er each god and man. On those eternal lids I laid my hand. the tempests roar. and a throne.BOOK XIV. If e'er obsequious to thy Juno's will. A splendid footstool. and favour still. at thy bold command. shook the blest abodes With rising wrath. The sire of all. too venturous. Somnus. shall I dare to steep Jove's awful temples in the dew of sleep? Long since. While sunk in love's entrancing joys he lies. that shine With gold unfading. Impower'd the wrath of gods and men to tame. Me chief he sought. Even Jove revered the venerable dame. Alcides. and empress of the skies! O'er other gods I spread my easy chain. But gentle Night. old Ocean. And his hush'd waves lie silent on the main. Shed thy soft dews on Jove's immortal eyes. O power of slumbers! hear. Great Saturn's heir. When lo! the deeps arise. And drive the hero to the Coan shore: Great Jove. The work of Vulcan. to indulge thy ease. awaking." 425 "Imperial dame (the balmy power replies). deserting Ilion's wasted plain. But how. plough'd the main. unbidden.) her wings display'd. What time. and from the realms on high Had hurl'd indignant to the nether sky. His conquering son. shall be thine. (The friend of earth and heaven. When wine and feasts thy golden humours please.

The youngest Grace. Pasithae the divine. Æn. The youngest Grace. speaking. seq. shall be ever mine. And. 107."235 [260] "Swear then (he said) by those tremendous floods That roar through hell. And stretch the other o'er the sacred main: Call the black Titans. and bear my train: Succeed my wish. . Whom mortals name the dread Titanian gods." The queen assents. Like great Alcides. and second my design. The fairest. my loved-one. For know. and from the infernal bowers Invokes the sable subtartarean powers." Dryden's Virgil. rolls her large majestic eyes).426 The Iliad of Homer "Vain are thy fears (the queen of heaven replies. and bind the invoking gods: Let the great parent earth one hand sustain. Deiopeia. To hear and witness from the depths of hell. shall be thine. And those who rule the inviolable floods. thy loved-one shall be ever thine. 235 "Twice seven. his all-conquering son? Hear. and obey the mistress of the skies. the charming daughters of the main— Around my person wait. That she. Think'st thou that Troy has Jove's high favour won. i. Pasithae the divine. Nor for the deed expect a vulgar prize. that with Chronos dwell.


Mix'd with her soul. involved in darkness glide. Through air. Hush'd are her mountains. There on a fir. Dark in embowering shade. on the point of Ide: (Mother of savages. and thus with transport spoke: "Why comes my goddess from the ethereal sky. and Imbrus' sea-beat soil. Then press'd her hand. And light on Lectos. unseen. in likeness of the bird of night. whose spiry branches rise To join its summit to the neighbouring skies. Sat Sleep. But call'd Cymindis by the race of earth. and melted in her arms: Fix'd on her eyes he fed his eager look. (Chalcis his name by those of heavenly birth. Great Jove surveys her with desiring eyes: The god. And not her steeds and flaming chariot nigh?" .428 The Iliad of Homer Then swift as wind. o'er Lemnos' smoky isle They wing their way. whose lightning sets the heavens on fire. Through all his bosom feels the fierce desire. Fierce as when first by stealth he seized her charms. and her forests nod.) [261] To Ida's top successful Juno flies. conceal'd from sight. whose echoing hills Are heard resounding with a hundred rills:) Fair Ida trembles underneath the god.

and too ancient to allow his descent to be traced to any other source. Let softer cares the present hour employ. Or for an earthly. I visit these. beautiful and young. Ne'er did my soul so strong a passion prove. has made that union cease Which held so long that ancient pair in peace.BOOK XIV. the sacred cells Deep under seas. Then she—"I haste to those remote abodes Where the great parents of the deathless gods. Whence rose Pirithous like the gods in fame: Not when fair Danae felt the shower of gold Stream into life. The steeds." "For that (said Jove) suffice another day! But eager love denies the least delay. where hoary Ocean dwells. Nor seek. apparently as a native hero. The reverend Ocean and gray Tethys. or a heavenly love: Not when I press'd Ixion's matchless dame. and he is thus carried back into the remotest period of Cretan antiquity known to the poet. 236 .236 429 —And Minos. and of the daughter of Phoenix. Minos is described as the son of Jupiter. I hear. reign. Not thus I burn'd for either Theban dame: (Bacchus from this. But in a genealogy recorded by later writers. to whose indulgent cares I owe the nursing of my tender years: For strife. from that Alcides came:) Nor Phoenix' daughter. Illustrious enough for a divine parentage. prepared my chariot to convey O'er earth and seas. he is likewise the adopted son of Asterius. unknown to thee. whence Perseus brave and bold. On the last limits of the land and main. "By Homer. And be these moments sacred all to joy. and through the aerial way. Whence godlike Rhadamanth and Minos sprung. I leave the Olympian bower. whom all succeeding authors name Europa. Wait under Ide: of thy superior power To ask consent.

"—Thirlwall. the goddess with the charming eyes Glows with celestial red. All heaven beholds me recent from thy arms? With skill divine has Vulcan form'd thy bower. son of Dorus." as descendant of Dorus. And whose broad eye the extended earth surveys. In secret there indulge thy soft desire. 136. with disorder'd charms. Sacred to love and to the genial hour." [262] He spoke. Or mix among the senate of the gods? Shall I not think.430 The Iliad of Homer Not thus I burn'd for fair Latona's face. to that recess retire. or to have embarked at Malea after having led his followers by land into Laconia. and thus replies: "Is this a scene for love? On Ida's height." She ceased. the son of Helen. who is related either to have crossed over from Thessaly. Not even the sun. and. Nor comelier Ceres' more majestic grace. or Tectamus. and is thus connected with a colony said to have been led into Creta by Tentamus. Shaded with clouds. smiling with superior love. that. Not thus even for thyself I felt desire. . The sport of heaven. Exposed to mortal and immortal sight! Our joys profaned by each familiar eye. p. Thus answer'd mild the cloud-compelling Jove: "Nor god nor mortal shall our joys behold. As now my veins receive the pleasing fire. and circumfused in gold. If such thy will. seq. who darts through heaven his rays. and fable of the sky: How shall I e'er review the blest abodes.

renews his care. he stood." Thus having said. and hyacinth with rich inlay. Beside him sudden. the power of slumber flew.BOOK XIV. 'Broider'd the ground. The panting thunderer nods. Steep'd in soft joys and circumfused with air. unperceived.237 And flamy crocus made the mountain glow There golden clouds conceal the heavenly pair. Neptune! now. and. while yet my vapours shed The golden vision round his sacred head. Crocus. Perfume the mount. 700. and from her bosom pours Unbidden herbs and voluntary flowers: Thick new-born violets a soft carpet spread. and sinks to rest. Glad Earth perceives. and Somnus' pleasing ties. And clustering lotos swell'd the rising bed." —"Paradise Lost. On human lids to drop the balmy dew. Gazing he spoke. 431 [263] Milton has emulated this passage. with zeal increased. Neptune. and breathe ambrosia round: At length. Celestial dews. descending o'er the ground. To check a while the haughty hopes of Troy: While Jove yet rests. For Juno's love. with love and sleep's soft power oppress'd. the important hour employ. And thus with gentle words address'd the god: "Now. And sudden hyacinths the turf bestrow. To Neptune's ear soft Sleep his message brings." iv. Now to the navy borne on silent wings. His eager arms around the goddess threw. kindling at the view. 237 . in describing the couch of our first parents:— "Underneath the violet. Have closed those awful and eternal eyes.

. in bright array The legions march. One hero's loss too tamely you deplore. The ponderous targe be wielded by the strong. The strong and cumbrous arms the valiant wield. The kings. their martial arms they change: The busy chiefs their banded legions range. Myself. and Neptune leads the way: His brandish'd falchion flames before their eyes. and oppress'd with pain. With helpful hands themselves assist the train. and ye shall need no more. Pale mortals tremble." The troops assent. and threats the fleet with fires. and stand to arms: His strongest spear each valiant Grecian wield. Brace on your firmest helms. Oh yet. Each valiant Grecian seize his broadest shield. Like lightning flashing through the frighted skies. though wounded. not Hector shall our presence stay. Let to the weak the lighter arms belong.432 The Iliad of Homer And towering in the foremost ranks of war. ye Greeks! myself will lead the way. Clad in his might. The weaker warrior takes a lighter shield. if glory any bosom warms. Thus arm'd. the earth-shaking power appears. Thus sheath'd in shining brass. and confess their fears. While stern Achilles in his wrath retires. Indignant thus—"Oh once of martial fame! O Greeks! if yet ye can deserve the name! This half-recover'd day shall Troy obtain? Shall Hector thunder at your ships again? Lo! still he vaunts. Be still yourselves.


Less loud the winds that from the Æolian hall Roar through the woods. The roaring main. Both armies join: earth thunders. and ploughs into the ground.) Toss'd round and round. With such a rage the meeting hosts are driven. and form'd a watery wall Around the ships: seas hanging o'er the shores. The first bold javelin. On the razed shield the fallen ruin rings. Arms his proud host. with many a fiery round. . As when the bolt. and wondrous man. (Where heaps laid loose beneath the warrior's feet. Direct at Ajax' bosom winged its course. when flames in torrents pour. Not half so loud the bellowing deeps resound. red-hissing from above. Or served to ballast. Catch the dry mountain. Rose in huge ranks. ocean roars. or to prop the fleet. Smokes in the dust.) Then back the disappointed Trojan drew. Darts on the consecrated plant of Jove. and Hector here. (One braced his shield. But whirling on. urged by Hector's force. the missive marble flings. at her great master's call. and dares oppose a god: And lo! the god. and its shades devour. his tempestuous hand A ponderous stone upheaving from the sand. appear: The sea's stern ruler there. But there no pass the crossing belts afford. and make whole forests fall. When stormy winds disclose the dark profound. And such a clamour shakes the sounding heaven.434 The Iliad of Homer [264] Troy's great defender stands alone unawed. and one sustain'd his sword. Full on his breast and throat with force descends. Less loud the woods. And cursed the lance that unavailing flew: But 'scaped not Ajax. Nor deaden'd there its giddy fury spends.

" "Paradise Lost. Speed to the town. And thicker javelins intercept the sky.BOOK XIV. He lies protected. The mountain-oak in flaming ruin lies. With covering shields (a friendly circle) stand. And own the terrors of the almighty hand! So lies great Hector prostrate on the shore. Troy's great defender slain: All spring to seize him. And each bold leader of the Lycian band. His foaming coursers. His following shield the fallen chief o'erspread. and without a wound. Loud shouts of triumph fill the crowded plain. there they him laid. and shame. 238 435 [265] —He lies protected. and despite. where it stood retir'd From off the files of war. storms of arrows fly." vi. and leave the war behind. Beneath his helmet dropp'd his fainting head.238 Polydamas. 335. His mournful followers. The pious warrior of Anchises' line. sinking to the ground. Gnashing for anguish. who interpos'd Defence. Clanks on the field. with assistant care. Greece sees. a dead and hollow sound. The groaning hero to his chariot bear. His slacken'd hand deserts the lance it bore. and smokes of sulphur rise. His load of armour. swifter than the wind. In vain an iron tempest hisses round. Black from the blow. "Forthwith on all sides to his aid was run By angels many and strong. in hope. Stiff with amaze the pale beholders stand. while others bore him on their shields Back to his chariot. Agenor the divine. seq. .

Propp'd on that spear to which thou owest thy fall. Now faints anew. The driving javelin through his shoulder thrust. he now ejects the gore. Fired with revenge. Oilean Ajax first his javelin sped. half views the fleeting skies. by turns the Trojans bled. Where gentle Xanthus rolls his easy tide. and grasps the bloody dust. Raised on his knees. And seals again. Polydamas drew near. Placed on the margin of the flowery ground. With watery drops the chief they sprinkle round. (Satnius the brave. Pierced by whose point the son of Enops bled.436 The Iliad of Homer When now they touch'd the mead's enamell'd side. guide thy darksome steps to Pluto's dreary hall. his swimming eyes. And thus their arms the race of Panthus wield: From this unerring hand there flies no dart But bathes its point within a Grecian heart." . Go. whom beauteous Neis bore Amidst her flocks on Satnio's silver shore. And at Prothoenor shook the trembling spear. low-sinking on the shore. "Lo thus (the victor cries) we rule the field.) Struck through the belly's rim. by fits. An arduous battle rose around the dead. and shades eternal veil his eyes. Soon as the Greeks the chief's retreat beheld. With double fury each invades the field. the warrior lies Supine. He sinks to earth. By turns the Greeks. By fits he breathes.

may make his lineage known. Archilochus. Antenor's brother. But fate. The wings of death o'ertook thee on the dart." He spake. He said. As Promachus his slaughtered brother draws. but haughty Greece. is this chief extended on the plain A worthy vengeance for Prothoenor slain? Mark well his port! his figure and his face Nor speak him vulgar. the sorrows. As by his side the groaning warrior fell. and cut the nerves in twain: The dropping head first tumbled on the plain. Behold your Promachus deprived of breath. Not Troy alone. and sorrow touch'd each Argive breast: The soul of Ajax burn'd above the rest.BOOK XIV. shunn'd the flying death. shall share The toils. or perhaps his son. here turn thy eyes! (The towering Ajax loud-insulting cries:) Say. it fled Full on the juncture of the neck and head. He pierced his heart—"Such fate attends you all. 437 [266] . At the fierce foe he launch'd his piercing steel. and the wounds of war. methinks. Proud Argives! destined by our arms to fall. And took the joint. that yet the body stood Erect. The foe. A victim owed to my brave brother's death. But furious Acamas avenged his cause. and smiled severe. Some lines. Swift to perform heaven's fatal will. proud Polydamas. for well he knew The bleeding youth: Troy sadden'd at the view. nor of vulgar race. reclining. then roll'd along the sands in blood. So just the stroke. demands thy breath: Thy lofty birth no succour could impart. "Here.

and taught the arts of gain:) Full in his eye the weapon chanced to fall. When we victorious shall to Greece return. The victor seized. Such as the house of Promachus must know." The Iliad of Homer Heart-piercing anguish struck the Grecian host. At the proud boaster he directs his course. But young Ilioneus received the spear. Such as to Promachus' sad spouse we bear. thus insulting spoke: "Trojans! your great Ilioneus behold! Haste. and shuns superior force. The Trojans hear. . But touch'd the breast of bold Peneleus most. they tremble. And the pale matron in our triumphs mourn." Dreadful he spoke. Drove through the neck. of all the Trojan train Whom Hermes loved. yet sticking through the bleeding eye. Let doleful tidings greet his mother's ear. The boaster flies. The lance. and. his father's only care: (Phorbas the rich. and hurl'd him to the plain. And from the spouting shoulders struck his head.438 Not unappeased he enters Pluto's gate. He lifts his miserable arms in vain! Swift his broad falchion fierce Peneleus spread. then toss'd the head on high. as aloft he shook The gory visage. And dread the ruin that impends on all. Ilioneus. Who leaves a brother to revenge his fate. to his father let the tale be told: Let his high roofs resound with frantic woe. and they fly: Aghast they gaze around the fleet and wall. To earth at once the head and helmet fly. And from the fibres scoop'd the rooted ball.

. all-recording nine! O say. what hero first embrued the field? Of all the Grecians what immortal name. Hyperenor fell.BOOK XIV. of all the Grecian race Skill'd in pursuit. His people's pastor. Strong Periphaetes and Prothoon bled. And the fierce soul came rushing through the wound. Fall mighty numbers. What chief. leader of the Mysian train. Nestor's son o'erthrew. Ye all-beholding. But stretch'd in heaps before Oileus' son. And whose bless'd trophies. Phalces and Mermer. 439 [267] BACCHUS. Daughters of Jove! that on Olympus shine. Pierced in the flank by Menelaus' steel. Morys and Hippotion slew. By Teucer's arrows mingled with the dead. Eternal darkness wrapp'd the warrior round. will ye raise to fame? Thou first. Bold Merion. mighty numbers run. Ajax the less. when Neptune made proud Ilion yield. great Ajax! on the unsanguined plain Laid Hyrtius. and swiftest in the chase.


repelled by the greater Ajax with a prodigious slaughter.[268] BOOK XV. . who appeases him by her submissions. awaking. in particular she touches Mars with a violent resentment. Iris and Apollo obey the orders of Jupiter. and attempt to fire the first line of the fleet. the Greeks pursue. Jupiter. and horror in their eye. Meanwhile. and Neptune at the head of the Greeks: he is highly incensed at the artifice of Juno. he consents. repairing to the assembly of the gods. He breaks down great part of the Grecian wall: the Trojans rush in. she is then sent to Iris and Apollo. to which. but are. to incense them against Jupiter. There saw the Trojans fly. with extraordinary address. he is ready to take arms. sees the Trojans repulsed from the trenches. AND THE ACTS OF AJAX. Juno. attempts. THE FIFTH BATTLE AT THE SHIPS. And many a chief lay gasping on the ground: Then stopp'd and panted. after much reluctance and passion. and turns the fortune of the fight. Hector in a swoon. On Ida's summit sat imperial Jove: Round the wide fields he cast a careful view. Now in swift flight they pass the trench profound. awaken'd from his dream of love. ARGUMENT. brings him back to the battle. but is prevented by Minerva. where the chariots lie Fear on their cheek. as yet. Iris commands Neptune to leave the battle. marches before him with his aegis. Apollo reinspires Hector with vigour.

From the vast concave of the spangled sky.) Ejecting blood. trembling. Canst thou. (His sad associates round with weeping eyes. I hung thee trembling in a golden chain. when." The Thunderer spoke: imperial Juno mourn'd. The god beheld him with a pitying look. and his native shore. His senses wandering to the verge of death. and our fury dread. those scatter'd o'er the plain And. and breathless with the fall. Nor seem'd the vengeance worthy such a son: When. And thus. Stunn'd in the whirl. And all the raging gods opposed in vain? Headlong I hurl'd them from the Olympian hall. incensed. to fraudful Juno spoke: "O thou. bound and fix'd on high. Hear this. For ever studious in promoting ill! Thy arts have made the godlike Hector yield. withstand Our power immense. Lest arts and blandishments successless prove. For godlike Hercules these deeds were done. Not far. unhappy in thy wiles. by thy wiles induced. 'midst the war. And sent to Argos. Him through a thousand forms of death I bore. fierce Boreas toss'd The shipwreck'd hero on the Coan coast. still adverse to the eternal will. and brave the almighty hand? Hast thou forgot. Nor pull the unwilling vengeance on thy head. And driven his conquering squadrons from the field. and well-dissembled love.442 The Iliad of Homer These proud in arms. these submissive words return'd: [269] . and panting yet for breath. Thy soft deceits. the monarch of the main. great Hector on the dust he spies. And. remember.

By thy black waves.) Then soon the haughty sea-god shall obey." 443 "Think'st thou with me? fair empress of the skies! (The immortal father with a smile replies. and once more wake the war: His labouring bosom re-inspires with breath. his own pity sway'd. proclaim our will To yon bright synod on the Olympian hill. "By every oath that powers immortal ties. not untouch'd with pity. and ranges round the plain: By his own ardour. By the dread honours of thy sacred head. Greece chased by Troy. to the plain Shall send Patroclus. Shall fall by thousands at the hero's feet. To help his Greeks. our virgin bed! Not by my arts the ruler of the main Steeps Troy in blood. Nor dare to act but when we point the way. but shall send in vain. And calls his senses from the verge of death. The foodful earth and all-infolding skies. Let her descend. falls! [270] . He. he fought and disobey'd: Else had thy Juno better counsels given. What youths he slaughters under Ilion's walls! Even my loved son. even to Achilles' fleet. tremendous Styx! that flow Through the drear realms of gliding ghosts below. And taught submission to the sire of heaven. Our high decree let various Iris know. And call the god that bears the silver bow. If truth inspires thy tongue. And that unbroken vow.BOOK XV. divine Sarpedon. and from the embattled plain Command the sea-god to his watery reign: While Phoebus hastes great Hector to prepare To rise afresh.

See the note on Bk. who wanders o'er In thought a length of lands he trod before. and made obeisance as she pass'd Through all the brazen dome: with goblets crown'd239 They hail her queen. Page 142. and measures space with space: So swift flew Juno to the bless'd abodes. Not till that day shall Jove relax his rage. the nectar streams around. nor till then. If thought of man can match the speed of gods. and lofty Ilion burns. And anxious asks what cares disturb her soul? 239 —The brazen dome. viii. Nor one of all the heavenly host engage In aid of Greece. Pallas assists. Achilles' glory to the stars to raise. There sat the powers in awful synod placed. and seal'd it with the almighty nod. As some wayfaring man. and fate the word obeys. They bow'd. Sends forth his active mind from place to place. Such was our word. The promise of a god I gave. godlike Hector dies. Fair Themis first presents the golden bowl. Joins hill to dale." The trembling queen (the almighty order given) Swift from the Idaean summit shot to heaven. shall great Achilles rise: And lo! that instant. From that great hour the war's whole fortune turns. . Then.444 The Iliad of Homer Vanquish'd at last by Hector's lance he lies.

and sees. And damp the eternal banquets of the skies. in pride of sway. ye powers above! But know. While on her wrinkled front. immortals! all he wills. begin and show the way. such threaten'd woes to come. Go thou. Your vassal godheads grudgingly obey: Fierce in the majesty of power controls. Submiss.BOOK XV. obey: And thou. the feasts of heaven attend thy call. and eyebrow bent. and unrestrain'd his will. Unmoved his mind." 445 The goddess said. To whom the white-arm'd goddess thus replies: "Enough thou know'st the tyrant of the skies. and lowering discontent. and bends the poles. Bid the crown'd nectar circle round the hall: But Jove shall thunder through the ethereal dome Such stern decrees. If that loved boasted offspring be thy own. But dare not murmur. Sat stedfast care. Black horror sadden'd each celestial face. Behold Ascalaphus! behold him die. great Mars. 'tis madness to contest with Jove: Supreme he sits. and sullen took her place. Shakes all the thrones of heaven. Thus she proceeds—"Attend. To see the gathering grudge in every breast. Thy own loved boasted offspring lies o'erthrown. Severely bent his purpose to fulfil." [271] . Smiles on her lips a spleenful joy express'd. As soon shall freeze mankind with dire surprise. dare not vent a sigh.

Discharged his wrath on half the host of heaven. And was imperial Juno heard in vain? Back to the skies wouldst thou with shame be driven. . Forgive me. springing through the bright abode. And in thy guilt involve the host of heaven? Ilion and Greece no more should Jove engage. But Pallas. and yet shall fall. Starts from her azure throne to calm the god." With that he gives command to Fear and Flight To join his rapid coursers for the fight: Then grim in arms. And now had Jove. gods. The god of battles dares avenge the slain. Guilty and guiltless find an equal fate And one vast ruin whelm the Olympian state. by bold rebellion driven. with anguish for his slaughter'd son. furious! art thou toss'd? Striv'st thou with Jove? thou art already lost. The skies would yield an ampler scene of rage. immortals! thus shall Mars obey. though the thunder bursting o'er my head Should hurl me blazing on those heaps of dead. Shall not the Thunderer's dread command restrain. and fierce begun: "Thus then. From frantic Mars she snatch'd the shield and spear. Cease then thy offspring's death unjust to call. Heroes as great have died. and yield my vengeance way: Descending first to yon forbidden plain. Struck for the immortal race with timely fear. Arms that reflect a radiance through the skies.446 The Iliad of Homer Stern Mars. with hasty vengeance flies. Dares. Smote his rebelling breast. Thus to the impetuous homicide she said: "By what wild passion. Then the huge helmet lifting from his head.

If he refuse. And various Iris. Then Juno call'd (Jove's orders to obey) The winged Iris. Report to yon mad tyrant of the main. and the god of day. and execute his dread command. and of savage game) There sat the eternal. wing their airy way. With clouds of gold and purple circled round. (Fair nurse of fountains. Well-pleased the Thunderer saw their earnest care. Veil'd in a mist of fragrance him they found. the god that gilds the day. Receive. How shall his rashness stand the dire alarms. and curb'd the rising groan. Why should heaven's law with foolish man comply Exempted from the race ordain'd to die?" This menace fix'd the warrior to his throne. then let him timely weigh Our elder birthright. by whom his power was given. and superior sway. Bid him from fight to his own deeps repair. And prompt obedience to the queen of air. and shakes the steady poles.BOOK XV. to Ida's hills they came. "Go wait the Thunderer's will (Saturnia cried) On yon tall summit of the fountful Ide: There in the father's awful presence stand. Or breathe from slaughter in the fields of air. Swift as the wind. and what we here ordain. Sullen he sat. Then (while a smile serenes his awful brow) Commands the goddess of the showery bow: "Iris! descend. If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Strives he with me." She said. And is there equal to the lord of heaven?" 447 [272] . he whose nod controls The trembling world. and sat.

And hush the roarings of the sacred deep.448 The Iliad of Homer The all-mighty spoke. when Boreas fiercely blows. and superior sway. And to blue Neptune thus the goddess calls: "Attend the mandate of the sire above! In me behold the messenger of Jove: He bids thee from forbidden wars repair To thine own deeps. And ancient Rhea.) Rule as he will his portion'd realms on high. How shall thy rashness stand the dire alarms If heaven's omnipotence descend in arms? Striv'st thou with him by whom all power is given? And art thou equal to the lord of heaven?" "What means the haughty sovereign of the skies? (The king of ocean thus. am I. My court beneath the hoary waves I keep. and o'er the starry plain. and this earth. Ethereal Jove extends his high domain. No vassal god. So from the clouds descending Iris falls. Drive through the skies. This if refused. Olympus. Infernal Pluto sways the shades below. earth's immortal dame: Assign'd by lot. And awe the younger brothers of the pole. Three brother deities from Saturn came. Swift as the rattling hail. he bids thee timely weigh His elder birthright. our triple rule we know. nor of his train. incensed. replies. or fleecy snows. [273] . in common lie: What claim has here the tyrant of the sky? Far in the distant clouds let him control. the goddess wing'd her flight To sacred Ilion from the Idaean height. O'er the wide clouds. or to the fields of air.

that perfidious place. O sire of floods! Bear this fierce answer to the king of gods? Correct it yet. furious from the field he strode. The same our honours.BOOK XV. A noble mind disdains not to repent. and thus bespoke the source of light: . though angry. To elder brothers guardian fiends are given. second race of heaven. He breaks his faith with half the ethereal race. forgetful of his promise given To Hermes. The wrath of Neptune shall for ever last. servile. The lord of thunders. The trembling. the contended field: Not but his threats with justice I disclaim. And quit." Thus speaking. Pallas. To favour Ilion. If yet. Give him to know. to powerful Jove I yield. and our birth the same. There to his children his commands be given. Howe'er the offence by other gods be pass'd." 449 "And must I then (said she)." "Great is the profit (thus the god rejoin'd) When ministers are blest with prudent mind: Warn'd by thy words. from his lofty height Beheld. To scourge the wretch insulting them and heaven. unless the Grecian train Lay yon proud structures level with the plain. and change thy rash intent. and the queen of heaven. And plunged into the bosom of the flood.

Else had my wrath. Swell his bold heart. Seeks his own seas. Go thou. His will divine the son of Jove obey'd. That drives a turtle through the liquid skies." The godhead said. His sense returning with the coming breeze. And all the gods that round old Saturn dwell Had heard the thunders to the deeps of hell. Even power immense had found such battle hard. Jove thinking of his pains. and urge his strength to war: Let Ilion conquer. Glides down the mountain to the plain below. my son! the trembling Greeks alarm. heaven's thrones all shaking round. Again his pulses beat. Be godlike Hector thy peculiar care. till the Achaian train Fly to their ships and Hellespont again: Then Greece shall breathe from toils. his spirits rise. what wound. As Phoebus. whose earthquakes rock the world. half unseal'd his sight: . as the vision bright Stood shining o'er him. Well was the crime. To whom the god who gives the golden day: "Why sits great Hector from the field so far? What grief. and well the vengeance spared. shooting from the Idaean brow. Not half so swift the sailing falcon flies. Shake my broad aegis on thy active arm. Desists at length his rebel-war to wage. Again his loved companions meet his eyes. withholds thee from the war?" The fainting hero.450 The Iliad of Homer [274] "Behold! the god whose liquid arms are hurl'd Around the globe. There Hector seated by the stream he sees. and trembles at our rage. they pass'd away. Burn'd to the bottom of his seas profound.

As when the pamper'd steed. to his fields again: Urged by the voice divine. Breaks from his stall. And springs. how. "What blest immortal. Inspire thy warriors then with manly force. now freed. His mane dishevell'd o'er his shoulders flies: He snuffs the females in the well-known plain. With ample strokes he rushes to the flood. Full of the god. (not fated yet to die) 451 . or branching hind. And to the ships impel thy rapid horse: Even I will make thy fiery coursers way. His head. thus Hector flew. with commanding breath. Thus wakens Hector from the sleep of death? Has fame not told. and cool his fiery blood. Phoebus. with reins unbound. and pours along the ground. he tosses to the skies. propitious still to thee and Troy. and be strong! the Thunderer sends thee aid. and her battle gored. methinks." Thus to bold Hector spoke the son of Jove. Far from the hunter's rage secure they lie Close in the rock. and all his hosts pursue. And drive the Grecians headlong to the sea. To bathe his sides. See. the gliding ghosts I spy. And hell's black horrors swim before my eye. while my trusty sword Bathed Greece in slaughter.BOOK XV. exulting. And breathed immortal ardour from above. The mighty Ajax with a deadly blow Had almost sunk me to the shades below? Even yet. Behold! thy Phoebus shall his arms employ." To him Apollo: "Be no more dismay'd. As when the force of men and dogs combined Invade the mountain goat.

[275] Thoas with grief observed his dreadful course. and his worst withstand: The Greeks' main body to the fleet command.452 The Iliad of Homer When lo! a lion shoots across the way! They fly: at once the chasers and the prey. Soon as they see the furious chief appear. So Greece." The warrior spoke. the listening Greeks obey. and form a deep array. But let the few whom brisker spirits warm. late. Thickening their ranks. that late in conquering troops pursued. and conquers still! Yet hear my counsel. Jove! without thy powerful will. . Stand the first onset. Not more in councils famed for solid sense. Skill'd to direct the javelin's distant flight. pursues. and when such foes appear. by thundering Ajax kill'd: What god restores him to the frighted field. the bravest of the Ætolian force. Than winning words and heavenly eloquence. Fierce as he is. and provoke the storm. Pours new destruction on her sons again? He comes not. Thus point your arms. Thoas. And mark'd their progress through the ranks in blood. Forget to vanquish. And not content that half of Greece lie slain. Lo! still he lives. let Hector learn to fear. And bold to combat in the standing fight. "Gods! what portent (he cried) these eyes invades? Lo! Hector rises from the Stygian shades! We saw him. and consent to fear.

When two fell lions from the mountain come. and no day to guide. Behind. scatter'd wide. The Greeks expect the shock. Merion gave command. Sat doubtful conquest hovering o'er the field. Each Ajax. Vulcan to Jove the immortal gift consign'd. But when aloft he shakes it in the skies. Jove's enormous shield Portentous shone. and shaded all the field. Teucer. Shouts in their ears. and meet the coming fight. And arrows leaping from the bow-string sung. Full on the front the pressing Trojans bear.BOOK XV. and the shores defend. Their force is humbled. unnumber'd multitudes attend. the clamours rise From different parts. The valiant leader of the Cretan band. Approach the foe. and lightens in their eyes. And Hector first came towering to the war. And spread the carnage through the shady gloom. Dire was the hiss of darts. No swain to guard them. And Mars-like Meges: these the chiefs excite. Phoebus himself the rushing battle led. These drink the life of generous warriors slain: Those guiltless fall. A veil of clouds involved his radiant head: High held before him. Heaps fall on heaps: the slaughter Hector leads. 453 [276] . by heroes flung. and mingle in the skies. First great Arcesilas. To scatter hosts and terrify mankind. And Troy and Hector thunder in the rear. So flies a herd of oxen. and their fear confess'd. then Stichius bleeds. Deep horror seizes every Grecian breast. As long as Phoebus bore unmoved the shield. and thirst for blood in vain. Impending Phoebus pours around them fear. To flank the navy.

others pant for breath. Though born of lawless love: from home expell'd. And o'er the slaughter stalks gigantic death. Stretch'd on one heap. Troy ends at last his labours and his life. and heaven. Polites' arm laid Echius on the plain. Deiochus inglorious dies. So in Milton:— "Thus at their shady lodge arriv'd. Points to the fleet: "For. by the gods! who flies. in Phylace he dwell'd. the victors spoil the slain. The Greeks dismay'd. This sprang from Phelus. Pierced through the shoulder as he basely flies. Observe the bold ellipsis of "he cries. both stood.454 The Iliad of Homer One to the bold Boeotians ever dear. confused. Him Ajax honour'd with a brother's name. and the Athenians led. disperse or fall. Forbids to plunder.240 Who dares but linger. gloomy as the night. some skulk behind the wall. Æneas sped. . 240 —For. And one Menestheus' friend and famed compeer. And starry pole. "Paradise Lost. Which they beheld. On rush'd bold Hector. by this hand he dies." and the transition from the direct to the oblique construction. earth.—Thou also mad'st the night. And thee. Both turn'd." Milton. Some seek the trench. No weeping sister his cold eye shall close. Press'd by the vengeance of an angry wife. animates the fight. Mecystes next Polydamas o'erthrew. A banish'd man. air. But hapless Medon from Oileus came. and thou the day. Maker omnipotent. While these fly trembling. the moon's resplendent globe." Book iv. Medon and Iasus. By Paris. brave Clonius. and under open sky ador'd The God that made both sky. great Agenor slew. by the gods! who flies.

commands. No friendly hand his funeral pyre compose. loud clamours shake the shore. Push'd at the bank: down sank the enormous mound: Roll'd in the ditch the heapy ruin lay. eyes. pleased with some new play. and men. The horses thunder. earth and ocean roar! Apollo. The toil of thousands in a moment falls. and cars tumultuous pass. and weary all the powers with prayer: Exhort their men. The wondering crowds the downward level trod. And lo! the turrets nod. A sudden road! a long and ample way. and hands. Before them flamed the shield.BOOK XV." Furious he said. The hosts rush on. Confused. Then with his hand he shook the mighty wall. Sweeps the slight works and fashion'd domes away: Thus vanish'd at thy touch. Who stops to plunder at this signal hour. and the dogs devour. The sportive wanton. The birds shall tear him. threats. the bulwarks fall: Easy as when ashore an infant stands. the smoking chariot bounds. the towers and walls. with praises. 455 [277] The Grecians gaze around with wild despair. And weeps his country with a father's eyes. with voices. the smarting scourge resounds. And urge the gods. . and march'd the god. And draws imagined houses in the sands. The coursers fly. planted at the trench's bound. Experienced Nestor chief obtests the skies. O'er the dread fosse (a late impervious space) Now steeds.

Fierce on the ships above. But when he saw. He sprinkles healing balms. and its ribs they rend: Thus loudly roaring. the storm of arrows flies. Presumptuous Troy mistook the accepting sign. the medicine of the mind. And save the relics of the Grecian name. the cars below. The roaring deeps in watery mountains rise. One Greek enrich'd thy shrine with offer'd gore. Mount the thick Trojans up the Grecian wall. Its womb they deluge. Above the sides of some tall ship ascend. ascending up the fleet. he beats his manly breast. And catch'd new fury at the voice divine. and those the javelin throw. While thus the thunder of the battle raged. in hope our country to behold. Legions on legions from each side arise: Thick sound the keels. And peals of thunder shook the firmament. And labouring armies round the works engaged. on his native shore. to anguish kind. He wrings his hands. If e'er. his wounded friend." Thus prayed the sage: the eternal gave consent. And adds discourse. Victorious Troy. starting from his seat.456 The Iliad of Homer "O Jove! if ever. then. We paid the fattest firstlings of the fold. and o'erpowering all. . These wield the mace. If e'er thou sign'st our wishes with thy nod: Perform the promise of a gracious god! This day preserve our navies from the flame. As. Still in the tent Patroclus sat to tend The good Eurypylus. With bitter groans his sorrows he express'd. when black tempests mix the seas and skies.

with like skill and care. The son of Clytius in his daring hand. I haste to urge him by his country's care To rise in arms. high-towering o'er the fleet. For one bright prize the matchless chiefs contend. and. pierced by Telamon's huge lance. At one proud bark. And every ship sustained an equal tide. and one the vessel trod. and the directing line: The martial leaders. 457 [278] . swifter than the wind Sprung from the tent. Nor this the ships can fire. The voice is powerful of a faithful friend. But. Perhaps some favouring god his soul may bend. and left the war behind. and levels every part. and drops the extinguish'd fires. and godlike Hector meet.BOOK XV. shakes a flaming brand. "Though yet thy state require redress (he cries) Depart I must: what horrors strike my eyes! Charged with Achilles' high command I go. Preserved their line. Great Hector view'd him with a sad survey. That fix'd as fate. though numerous. By the just rule. through that firm array. Smooths the rough wood. With equal hand he guides his whole design. The deck approaching. But strive. A mournful witness of this scene of woe. Ajax the great. As when a shipwright. with Palladian art. to repulse in vain: Nor could the Trojans. nor that defend: One kept the shore. The embodied Greeks the fierce attack sustain. Brave deeds of arms through all the ranks were tried. expires: Thundering he falls. Force to the fleet and tents the impervious way. this acted by a god. and equal kept the war. speaking." He spoke. and shine again in war.

458 The Iliad of Homer As stretch'd in dust before the stern he lay. maintain this arduous space: Lo! where the son of royal Clytius lies. all of Lycian race! Stand to your arms. With anguish Ajax views the piercing sight. and war. Revenge. revenge it on the cruel foe. From the high poop he tumbles on the sand. It stretch'd in dust unhappy Lycophron: An exile long. "Oh! all of Trojan. his eager javelin sought the foe: But Ajax shunn'd the meditated blow. he died. for ever at his side. Not vainly yet the forceful lance was thrown. In peace. sustain'd at Ajax' board. This death deplored. Where are those darts on which the fates attend? And where the bow which Phoebus taught to bend?" . A faithful servant to a foreign lord. Ah. our loved companion! now no more! Dear as a parent. secure his obsequies!" This said. Near his loved master. And lies a lifeless load along the land. as he lived. save his arms. with a parent's care To fight our wars he left his native air. And thus inflames his brother to the fight: [279] "Teucer. to Hector's rage we owe. behold! extended on the shore Our friend.

in his country's cause. But Hector was not doom'd to perish then: The all-wise disposer of the fates of men (Imperial Jove) his present death withstands. Then. The astonish'd archer to great Ajax cries. Thy fall. renown'd in fame. At its full stretch as the tough string he drew. and on the dust lay dead. The headlong coursers spurn his empty car. Once more bold Teucer. at distance far. Clytus. Before the chief his ample bow display'd. propitious to the Trojan foe. Nor was such glory due to Teucer's hands. Pisenor's son. Down dropp'd the bow: the shaft with brazen head Fell innocent. Impatient Teucer. The well-stored quiver on his shoulders hung: Then hiss'd his arrow. and shook his eager reins. "Some god prevents our destined enterprise: Some god. Hurl'd from the lofty seat. As all on glory ran his ardent mind. And gave. Till sad Polydamas the steeds restrain'd. it burst in two. The pointed death arrests him from behind: Through his fair neck the thrilling arrow flies. great Trojan! had renown'd that day. hastening to his aid. and the bowstring sung. In youth's first bloom reluctantly he dies. (To thee. and strengthen'd every blow.BOOK XV. At Hector's breast a chosen arrow draws: And had the weapon found the destined way. fired to vengeance. to thy careful hand. Astynous. 459 . Struck by an arm unseen. Polydamas! an honour'd name) Drove through the thickest of the embattled plains The startling steeds. rush'd amidst the foe: Rage edged his sword.

deserted. and thus express'd his joy: "Ye troops of Lycia. ye warriors. and his great brother joins. struck the bow. Asks toil. Thy brave example shall the rest inflame. and exert your powers. From the proud archer strike his vaunted bow: Indulgent Jove! how plain thy favours shine. and blood: their utmost might Shall find its match—No more: 'tis ours to fight. or even a ship to gain. Death is the worst. A dart. your ancient fame. Strong to impel the flight of many a dart. Fierce as they are. but now. And broke the nerve my hands had twined with art." [280] Then Teucer laid his faithless bow aside. and sweat. With nodding horse-hair formidably graced. by long successes vain. from my arm unfailing. Jove is with us. Dardanus.460 The Iliad of Homer Has. whose point with brass refulgent shines. In the first ranks indulge thy thirst of fame. When happy nations bear the marks divine! How easy then." "Since heaven commands it (Ajax made reply) Dismiss the bow. On his brave head a crested helm he placed. and Troy! Be mindful of yourselves. To force our fleet. and lay thy arrows by: Thy arms no less suffice the lance to wield. I saw his hand. The warrior wields. . reprobate! Such is the fate of Greece. This Hector saw. and such is ours: Behold. The fourfold buckler o'er his shoulder tied. And spread your glory with the navy's flame. a fate which all must try. And quit the quiver for the ponderous shield. to see the sinking state Of realms accursed.

how near they fall. To your own hands are trusted all your fates. One day should end our labour or our life. If once your vessels catch the Trojan fire? Make how the flames approach. all his race succeed. 'Tis now no time for wisdom or debates. 'tis a bliss to die. His own brave friends shall glory in his fate. (To generous Argos what a dire disgrace!) How long on these cursed confines will ye lie. and all the rage of fights. Yet undetermined. and press'd by such inglorious hands. ye warriors of the Argive race. though slain in fight he be. Entails a debt on all the grateful state." . Than keep this hard-got inch of barren sands. And late posterity enjoy the deed!" 461 This roused the soul in every Trojan breast: The godlike Ajax next his Greeks address'd: "How long. It calls to death. The gallant man. And better far in one decisive strife. and Troy obeys his call! Not to the dance that dreadful voice invites. his children free. How Hector calls. or to live or die? What hopes remain.BOOK XV. And for our country. what methods to retire. His wife live honour'd. Still press'd. Yet leaves his nation safe.

Phyleus' ample breastplate wore. His radiant arms triumphant Meges bore. (That valued life. Polydamas laid Otus on the sand. rushes on. and now saves the son. Sprung from the race of old Laomedon. And stood by Meges' side a sudden aid. Had saved the father. And issued at his breast. sunk Laodamas. extended on the ground. and firm with many a jointed scale) Which oft. [281] . With thundering sound The warrior falls.462 The Iliad of Homer The listening Grecians feel their leader's flame. And famed for prowess in a well-fought field. Full at the Trojan's head he urged his lance. For king Euphetes gave the golden mail. and battles won. the son of Lampus. The fierce commander of the Epeian band. Where the high plumes above the helmet dance. the purple honours glow. of old Antenor's race. in cities storm'd. Dolops. Then mutual slaughters spread on either side. Through Dolops' shoulder urged his forceful dart. The victor. His lance bold Meges at the victor threw. Meantime their fight the Spartan king survey'd. Which held its passage through the panting heart. By Hector here the Phocian Schedius died. from the death withdrew. stooping. O Phoebus! was thy care) But Croesmus' bosom took the flying spear: His corpse fell bleeding on the slippery shore. He pierced the centre of his sounding shield: But Meges. Compact. pierced by Ajax. (Well-known in fight on Selle's winding shore. Shorn from the crest. New ting'd with Tyrian dye: in dust below. There. And every kindling bosom pants for fame. Chief of the foot.

as his troops he led. For this. Fierce Melanippus. On valour's side the odds of combat lie. Him Hector singled. pointing to the dead. and learn an honest shame: Let mutual reverence mutual warmth inspire. And lo! they bear the bloody arms away! Come on—a distant war no longer wage. But when oppress'd.BOOK XV. And catch from breast to breast the noble fire. Heaved from the lowest stone. gallant. from Hicetaon sprung. And thus inflamed him. Melanippus! lo. The wretch that trembles in the field of fame. and worse than death. to two at once a prey. in Priam's court. In rush the conquering Greeks to spoil the slain: But Hector's voice excites his kindred train. one common fall. The brave live glorious. The hero most. and excell'd in war. he held his place. and bury all In one sad sepulchre. And is it thus our royal kinsman dies? O'ermatch'd he falls. eternal shame. and young. brave. his country claim'd his care." Hector (this said) rush'd forward on the foes: With equal ardour Melanippus glows: Then Ajax thus—"O Greeks! respect your fame. where Dolops lies. Meets death." 463 [282] . or lamented die. Respect yourselves. "Lo. He (ere to Troy the Grecians cross'd the main) Fed his large oxen on Percote's plain. Or Ilion from her towery height descend. and all her glory end. Return'd to Ilion. But hand to hand thy country's foes engage: Till Greece at once. Beloved no less than Priam's royal race.

" He said. Bold as he was. Warms the bold son of Nestor in his cause. nor attempt a deed? Lift the bold lance. And round the black battalions cast his view. he glares around. Beyond the foremost ranks. The fiery Spartan first. Observing Hector to the rescue flew. ranging o'er the plain. in order blaze above. And his broad buckler rings against the ground. they thicken at his call. Shields touching shields. Timely he flies the yet-untasted food. . And rends his side. The victor leaps upon his prostrate prize: Thus on a roe the well-breath'd beagle flies. or shepherd's swain. While conscious of the deed. they throng. though impell'd by Jove. And hears the gathering multitude resound. So strong to fight. Has torn the shepherd's dog. fresh-bleeding with the dart The distant hunter sent into his heart. It sunk. Forth rush'd the youth with martial fury fired. So when a savage. Antilochus withdrew. with loud applause. "Is there (he said) in arms a youth like you. And flank the navy with a brazen wall. and felt it in his heart: Thundering he falls. and rooted in the Grecian hearts: They join. and backward to the lines retired. his falling arms resound.464 The Iliad of Homer His generous sense he not in vain imparts. his lance he threw. The troops of Troy recede with sudden fear. and make some Trojan bleed. And stop the Trojans. Advancing Melanippus met the dart With his bold breast. While the swift javelin hiss'd along in air. so active to pursue? Why stand you distant.

all Troy with shouts pursue. On Ida's top he waits with longing eyes. The Grecian ardour quench'd in deep despair. like a lightning. and with new fury burns. Due to stern Pallas. While stones and darts in mingled tempest flew. and Pelides' spear: Yet Jove deferr'd the death he was to pay. He foams with wrath. So Mars. the honours of a day! 465 [283] .BOOK XV. Swells all their hearts. But lifts to glory Troy's prevailing bands. And gave what fate allow'd. and strengthens all their hands. and lightens as he turns: For Jove his splendour round the chief had thrown. nor till then. Shakes his huge javelin. And gains the friendly shelter of the wood: So fears the youth. beneath his gloomy brow Like fiery meteors his red eye-balls glow: The radiant helmet on his temple burns. the scale of war shall turn. Unhappy glories! for his fate was near. and involves the poles. and conquer'd Ilion burn. Now on the fleet the tides of Trojans drove. Bids him with more than mortal fury glow. Waves when he nods. Not with more rage a conflagration rolls. on the foe. And cast the blaze of both the hosts on one. And drives him. The Trojans fly. and whole armies fall. These fates revolved in his almighty mind. when human crimes for vengeance call. he turns His manly breast. Wraps the vast mountains. To view the navy blazing to the skies. Fierce to fulfil the stern decrees of Jove: The sire of gods. He raises Hector to the work design'd. confirming Thetis' prayer. But enter'd in the Grecian ranks. Then.

the thickest fight. rushing from his den. by billows beat in vain. trembling. as at ease they feed. At large expatiate o'er the ranker mead) Leaps on the herds before the herdsman's eyes. on the ship descends. the sailors freeze with fears. And instant death on every wave appears. and bursts upon them all: Bursts as a wave that from the cloud impends. vii. Still at the closest ranks. above. . and exerts his might. and so shakes the fleet.466 The Iliad of Homer Now all on fire for fame. The Grecian phalanx. and the sounding tides. a rock that braves The raging tempest. yet resists his power: So some tall rock o'erhangs the hoary main. he seems to fall Like fire from Jove. The trembling herdsman far to distance flies. 809. And sees the watery mountains break below. and single every prize. his breast. the winds aloud Howl o'er the masts." Dryden's Virgil. (Where numerous oxen. Unmoved it hears. The chief so thunders. So pale the Greeks the eyes of Hector meet. And.241 By winds assail'd. Some lordly bull (the rest dispersed and fled) 241 —So some tall rock. tired. On all sides batter'd. He points his ardour. White are the decks with foam. and the rising waves— Propp'd on himself he stands: his solid sides Wash off the sea-weeds. and sing through every shroud: Pale. [284] As when a lion. moveless as a tower. the tempest blow. "But like a rock unmov'd. Girt in surrounding flames. swell'd with tempests. his eyes Burn at each foe. Amidst the plain of some wide-water'd fen.

in arms well known to fame. Wall'd round with sterns. or of peace or war: But doom'd to Hector's stronger force to yield! Against the margin of his ample shield He struck his hasty foot: his heels up-sprung. Now fear itself confines them to the fight: Man courage breathes in man. but one he seized. arrests. fled. adjures. And by their parents. receding toward the main: Wedged in one body at the tents they stand.BOOK XV. The minister of stern Eurystheus' ire Against Alcides. Now manly shame forbids the inglorious flight. Supine he fell. and slew: Mycenian Periphes. a gloomy. or shared his fate. On the fallen chief the invading Trojan press'd. but Nestor most (The sage preserver of the Grecian host) Exhorts. A son as generous as the sire was base. And plunged the pointed javelin in his breast. Thus from the rage of Jove-like Hector flew All Greece in heaps. by themselves implores. His circling friends. to guard these utmost shores. Copreus was his sire: The son redeem'd the honours of the race. a mighty name. In wisdom great. the Grecian train Now man the next. He singles out. who strove to guard too late The unhappy hero. 467 Chased from the foremost line. and lays him dead. desperate band. O'er all his country's youth conspicuous far In every virtue. . his brazen helmet rung.

and now to that he flies. and the main: Hector they saw. They ask their safety. and with mutual shame! Think of your hopes. The scene wide-opening to the blaze of light. fix'd to certain stands But looks a moving tower above the bands. and your parents share: Think of each living father's reverend head. if you desert the day. So when a horseman from the watery mead (Skill'd in the manage of the bounding steed) Drives four fair coursers. Absent. all the care Your wives. [285] . like others. by me they speak. And all are lost. To some great city through the public way.468 The Iliad of Homer "Oh friends! be men: your generous breasts inflame With mutual honour. The godlike hero stalks from side to side. or fight." He spoke. and his ample size: A ponderous mace with studs of iron crown'd. and round him breathed heroic fires. practised to obey. Safe in his art. restoring all the war to view. The mist of darkness Jove around them threw She clear'd. A sudden ray shot beaming o'er the plain. Minerva seconds what the sage inspires. and their fame. And show'd the shores. by me they sue. he swings around. your infants. High on the decks with vast gigantic stride. And now to this. Full twenty cubits long. Think of each ancestor with glory dead. and vaults from one to one. as side by side they run. and all who fly. the navy. Nor fights. your fortunes. from you: The gods their fates on this one action lay. His port majestic. He shifts his seat. First of the field great Ajax strikes their eyes.

so furious was their fire. as his were all the war. And breathes fierce spirits in his following band. The warring nations meet. and no toil could tire. yet unconquer'd. And the long battle was but then begun. darkens with his wings the flood. As if new vigour from new fights they won. Greece. while they light for food. stooping. confiding in despair: Troy in proud hopes already view'd the main Bright with the blaze. So the strong eagle from his airy height. No less the wonder of the warring crew. 469 From ship to ship thus Ajax swiftly flew. the battle roars. Who marks the swans' or cranes' embodied flight. And each contends. [286] . Stoops down impetuous. And rush'd enraged before the Trojan crowd. Admiring numbers follow with their eyes. Hector thunder'd threats aloud. and from despair. No force could tame them. Thou wouldst have thought. Then swift invades the ships. whose beaky prores Lay rank'd contiguous on the bending shores. Thick beats the combat on the sounding prores. kept alive the war. bold Hector! whose resistless hand First seized a ship on that contested strand. As furious.BOOK XV. And. "Twas thou. Secure of death. and red with heroes slain: Like strength is felt from hope. Jove leads him on with his almighty hand.

axes sound. shields rattle. and shorten'd darts. swords. on Lycophr. 528. . Still raging. near the city of Plagusa. slain by Hector. Tzetz. as he leaped from the vessel to the Trojan shore. He was buried on the Chersonese. And bathed their generous breasts with mutual blood. they wound. Hygin Fab. ciii. But hand to hand.242 The first that touch'd the unhappy Trojan shore: For this in arms the warring nations stood. axes. With streaming blood the slippery shores are dyed. No room to poise the lance or bend the bow. Hector with his ample hand Grasps the high stern. 245. and seek each other's hearts With falchions.470 The Iliad of Homer The same which dead Protesilaus bore. There is a most elegant tribute to his memory in the Preface to the Heroica of Philostratus. 242 Protesilaus was the first Greek who fell. The falchions ring. and man to man. they grow: Wounded. And slaughter'd heroes swell the dreadful tide. and gives this loud command: AJAX DEFENDING THE GREEK SHIPS. Swords flash in air. or glitter on the ground.

(so thick the javelins fly. far from hence: your fates are in your hands. What aids expect you in this utmost strait? What bulwarks rising between you and fate? No aids. The coward-counsels of a timorous throng Of reverend dotards check'd our glory long: Too long Jove lull'd us with lethargic charms. and now protends. "Haste." He spoke—the warriors at his fierce command Pour a new deluge on the Grecian band. Amidst attacks. Once sons of Mars. he stands to wait What chief approaching dares attempt his fate: Even to the last his naval charge defends. "O friends! O heroes! names for ever dear. the Greeks with piercing shouts inspires. no bulwarks your retreat attend." 471 [287] . and doubted or to live or die. But now in peals of thunder calls to arms: In this great day he crowns our full desires. Your great forefathers' virtues and your own. and fires. and the day desired appears! This happy day with acclamations greet. and darts. and deaths. where the oars are placed. Yet. This spot is all you have. your native lands Far. now lifts. and thunderbolts of war! Ah! yet be mindful of your old renown. There stand the Trojans. Even Ajax paused. and seconds all our fires. bring the flames! that toil of ten long years Is finished. no city to defend. No friends to help. Now shakes his spear. 'Tis hostile ground you tread. Even yet. to lose or keep. Wakes all our force. Bright with destruction of yon hostile fleet.) Stepp'd back.BOOK XV. and here rolls the deep.

with flaming brands. CASTOR AND POLLUX. Against the sable ships. nor further wastes his breath. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. .472 The Iliad of Homer Raging he spoke. But turns his javelin to the work of death. the boldest. So well the chief his naval weapon sped. Whate'er bold Trojan arm'd his daring hands. in a moment fell. The luckless warrior at his stern lay dead: Full twelve.

and Hector kills him. ARGUMENT THE SIXTH BATTLE. Meantime Patroclus to Achilles flies. neglecting the orders of Achilles. Divine Pelides. which concludes the book. . Hector himself flies. without further pursuit of the enemy. While the black vessels smoked with human gore. The Trojans. where Apollo repulses and disarms him. trickling to the plains below. though Jupiter was averse to his fate. at the sight of Patroclus in Achilles' armour. soldiers. but at the same time charges him to content himself with rescuing the fleet. From the tall rock the sable waters flow. with compassion moved. The streaming tears fall copious from his eyes Not faster. horses. THE ACTS AND DEATH OF PATROCLUS Patroclus (in pursuance of the request of Nestor in the eleventh book) entreats Achilles to suffer him to go to the assistance of the Greeks with Achilles' troops and armour. Sarpedon is killed. in the heat of which. Achilles offers a libation for the success of his friend. pursues the foe to the walls of Troy. after which Patroclus leads the Myrmidons to battle. Euphorbus wounds him. So warr'd both armies on the ensanguined shore. he beats them off from the vessels. taking him for that hero.[288] BOOK XVI. He agrees to it. Several other particulars of the battle are described. The armour. are cast into the uttermost consternation. Patroclus. and officers are described.

i. vol. and this is a feature no less prominent in the earliest than in later times. say. Diomedes and Sthenelus. 176. is manifestly viewed by the poet in the same light. But the mutual regard which united Idomeneus and Meriones. It was indeed connected with the comparatively low estimation in which female society was held. Not more the mother's soul. were grounded on the same feeling. with fonder passion weeps."—Thirlwall. to what end Thy melting sorrows thus pursue thy friend? his unequalled prowess. That flows so fast in these unmanly tears? No girl. Greece. it is kept more in the back-ground. but the devotedness and constancy with which these attachments were maintained. what grief thy bosom bears.474 The Iliad of Homer Thus spoke. vol. indulgent. seem to have but one heart and soul. to his best beloved:243 [289] "Patroclus. with scarcely a wish or object apart. without such a brother in arms by his side. and reaching at her arms. Than thou hast mine! Oh tell me. while it often adds a peculiar charm to the poetical . no infant whom the mother keeps From her loved breast. The following elegant remarks of Thirlwall (Greece. but this is a circumstance which. though. is the readiness with which it lent itself to construct intimate and durable friendships. seq. 243 —His best beloved. as the persons themselves are less important. 176 seq. p. The idea of a Greek hero seems not to have been thought complete. It is true that the relation between them is not always one of perfect equality. The heroic companions whom we find celebrated partly by Homer and partly in traditions which. and only to live as they are always ready to die for one another. p.) well illustrate the character of the friendship subsisting between these two heroes— "One of the noblest and most amiable sides of the Greek character. Clung to her knees. if not of equal antiquity. i. that infant warms. was not the less admirable and engaging.

my martial band? Or come sad tidings from our native land? Our fathers live (our first. And wise Ulysses." A sigh that instant from his bosom broke. from thee shall hope redress? 475 description. Thy good Menoetius breathes the vital air. More for their country's wounds than for their own. whose love for the greater hero is only tempered by reverence for his higher birth and . detracts little from the dignity of the idea which it presents. Another follow'd. and bleeding in his tent: Eurypylus. "Griev'st thou for me. Atreus' son. Doom'd in their ships to sink by fire and sword. O great in vain! unprofitably brave! Thy country slighted in her last distress. once. May never rage like thine my soul enslave. of Orestes and Pylades. of Greeks the best! Lo! every chief that might her fate prevent. Lies pierced with wounds. And pay the forfeit of their haughty lord? Whate'er the cause. Their pain soft arts of pharmacy can ease. Tydides. of Theseus and Pirithous. Such were the friendships of Hercules and Iolaus. at the navy groan. the moral groundwork undoubtedly subsisted in the period to which the traditions are referred.BOOK XVI. The argument of the Iliad mainly turns on the affection of Achilles for Patroclus. and. And speak those sorrows which a friend would share. most tender care). reveal thy secret care. Thyself a Greek. And hoary Peleus yet extends his days. What friend. and though These may owe the greater part of their fame to the later epic or even dramatic poetry. what man. or for. and Patroclus spoke: "Let Greece at length with pity touch thy breast. Pleased in their age to hear their children's praise. Thy breast alone no lenitives appease. Or may some meaner cause thy pity claim? Perhaps yon relics of the Grecian name.

But sure thou spring'st not from a soft embrace. my sole oracles. . and desert the war. this reply: "Patroclus! thy Achilles knows no fears." Thus. Nor ever tender goddess brought thee forth: Some rugged rock's hard entrails gave thee form. my constant thought engage. stop thy arm. inspire my rage: I made him tyrant: gave him power to wrong Even my: I felt it. "O man unpitying! if of man thy race. or Thetis.476 The Iliad of Homer No—men unborn. Those. and shall feel it long. Shall curse that fierce. Nor aught a mother's caution can suggest. A soul well suiting that tempestuous kind. If aught from Jove. so untamed thy mind. blind to fate! with supplicating breath. Unfortunately good! a boding sigh Thy friend return'd. So rough thy manners. my wrongs. [290] "If some dire oracle thy breast alarm. My wrongs. And thy mere image chase her foes away. Without thy person Greece shall win the day. her o'erlabour'd train Shall quit the ships. The tyrant's pride lies rooted in my breast. Press'd by fresh forces. that unforgiving mind. and with it. Some beam of comfort yet on Greece may shine. Proud Troy shall tremble. and in his arms thy death. Nor words from Jove nor oracles he hears. and ages yet behind. Thou begg'st his arms. and Greece respire again. And raging seas produced thee in a storm. Nor ever amorous hero caused thy birth. If I but lead the Myrmidonian line: Clad in thy dreadful arms if I appear.

and mark a friend's command. Due to the toils of many a well-fought day. 477 [291] . Yon ample trench had buried half her host. How the cloud blackens. no Achilles there. Patroclus! court fair honour's charms In Troy's famed fields. The flames my eyes.BOOK XVI. the bold and brave. me. Those are not dreadful. the day I wish'd appears: How Hector to my ships his battle bears. when. 'Tis time our fury should relent at last: I fix'd its date. how the storm impends! It was not thus. at my sight amazed. Who trusts his fame and honours in thy hand. or proclaims your death. No longer flames the lance of Tydeus' son. no bulwarks now the Trojans fear. as this helmet blazed: Had not the injurious king our friendship lost. Yet now. See the thin relics of their baffled band At the last edge of yon deserted land! Behold all Ilion on their ships descends. he forced away. my black-eyed maid. But heed my words. the rising fires restrain. issue to the plain: Now save the ships. No camps. Troy saw and trembled. But bear we this—the wrongs I grieve are past. Due to the votes of all the Grecian train. And give the Greeks to visit Greece again. Patroclus. Go then. his dreadful breath Commands your slaughter. and conquer in my right. and in Achilles' arms: Lead forth my martial Myrmidons to fight. The maid. From me he forced her. Go save the fleets. the shouts invade my ears. like the meanest slave. dishonour'd. Disgraced. I hear. No more your general calls his heroes on: Hector. alone. Due to my conquest of her father's reign.

Though Jove in thunder should command the war. in quick short pantings. while on the strand Great Jove with conquest crown'd the Trojan band. Ajax no more the sounding storm sustain'd. And painful sweat from all his members flows. Spent and o'erpower'd. and forbear. Be just. he barely breathes at most. desist from further chase. Hector is my due. ever kind to Troy. Some adverse god thy rashness may destroy. and woe succeeds to woe. like Phoebus. Do her own work. Muses. Apollo. and almighty Jove! That not one Trojan might be left alive. consult my glory. Some god. Nor lead to Ilion's walls the Grecian race. His breath. And toil to toil. redeem'd from this destructive strait. How first the navy blazed with Trojan flame? . But touch not Hector. The fleet once saved. and leave the rest to fate. O! would to all the immortal powers above. Pallas. And not a Greek of all the race survive: Might only we the vast destruction shun. Say. So thick the darts an iron tempest rain'd: On his tired arm the weighty buckler hung.478 The Iliad of Homer And from thy deeds expects the Achaian host Shall render back the beauteous maid he lost: Rage uncontroll'd through all the hostile crew. And only we destroy the accursed town!" Such conference held the chiefs. Dangers on dangers all around him glow. Yet scarce an army stirs him from his post. throned above the starry frame. His hollow helm with falling javelins rung. Let Greece. comes and goes.

as in a starry zone: Achilles' shield his ample shoulders spread. Not to be poised but by Pelides' hands: . 479 [292] Divine Achilles view'd the rising flames. Arm. Then swift from all sides pour The hissing brands."—The hero said. with silver buckles bound The clasping greaves. Where furious Ajax plied his ashen spear. the blaze aspires! The glowing ocean reddens with the fires. thick streams the fiery shower. That the broad falchion lopp'd its brazen head. ere the Grecians be no more a name. He flash'd around intolerable day. then to his breast applies The flaming cuirass of a thousand dyes. and thus aloud exclaims: "Arm. and trembling at the sign. Confessing Jove. Pelides' javelin stands. He cased his limbs in brass. Great Ajax saw. His pointless spear the warrior shakes in vain.BOOK XVI. Stern Hector waved his sword. The friend with ardour and with joy obey'd. and standing near. And sheets of rolling smoke involve the skies. Patroclus! Lo. Achilles' helmet nodded o'er his head: Adorn'd in all his terrible array. Emblazed with studs of gold his falchion shone In the rich belt. arm. I haste to bring the troops. Warn'd he retreats. Alone untouch'd. Full on the lance a stroke so justly sped. and first around His manly legs. and own'd the hand divine. And smote his thigh. The brazen head falls sounding on the plain. Arm. ere our vessels catch the spreading flame. O'er the high stern the curling volumes rise.

Sprung from the wind. Buckles. and the dread of fields. and partner of the war) The winged coursers harness'd to the car. Whom the wing'd harpy. bore. Whose son's great arm alone the weapon wields. The second to his lord in love and fame. The death of heroes. in swiftness. like in strength. . and in grace. A mortal courser match'd the immortal race. of immortal breed. and shaped it for his sire. now Achilles' pride) Who. swift Podarge. The brave Automedon (an honour'd name. In peace his friend. Xanthus and Balius. and like the wind in speed.480 The Iliad of Homer From Pelion's shady brow the plant entire Old Chiron rent. By Zephyr pregnant on the breezy shore: Swift Pedasus was added to their side. (Once great Aetion's.

Such their dread strength. Has drench'd their wide insatiate throats with blood. And gorged with slaughter still they thirst for more. 479. With paunch distended. Like furious. He. 244 481 "As hungry wolves with raging appetite. of celestial birth. whose waters wash the earth. their black jaws belch the gore. around the chief they stand. Fire fills their eye. ii. ne'er fear the stormy night— Their whelps at home expect the promised food. High in the midst the great Achilles stands. Achilles speeds from tent to tent. Divine Sperchius! Jove-descended flood! A mortal mother mixing with a god. Such was Menestheus. mann'd with fifty oars: Five chosen leaders the fierce bands obey. To the black fount they rush. as in sway. and such their deathful view." —Dryden's Virgil. had launch'd for Ilion's shores Full fifty vessels. that espoused the dame. loved of Jove. Derived from thee. and the war commands. When some tall stag. Scour through the fields. fresh-slaughtered in the wood.BOOK XVI. A grim. but miscall'd by fame The son of Borus. and with lolling tongue. Directs their order. a hideous throng. All breathing death. rush'd the Myrmidonian crew. formidable band: Grim as voracious wolves. terrific. Himself supreme in valour. First march'd Menestheus. And long to temper their dry chaps in blood— So rush'd we forth at once. and warms His hardy Myrmidons to blood and arms. . that seek the springs244 When scalding thirst their burning bowels wrings.

Her sire caress'd him with a parent's care. Think what reproach these ears endured so long. The fourth by Phoenix' grave command was graced. Or if a surer. ye chiefs. bless'd in all those charms That pleased a god. And heir'd his mother's swiftness in the chase. Strong Echecleus. Soon as Achilles with superior care Had call'd the chiefs. long hid from fame. and order'd all the war. 'Stern son of Peleus. Her secret offspring to her sire she bare. return!' [294] . and crown'd his fire. sly Cellenius loved: on her would gaze. produced to-day. (thus ye used to say. Not conscious of those loves. The son confess'd his father's heavenly race. urged. The god pursued her. Laerces' valiant offspring led the last. This stern remembrance to his troops he gave: "Ye far-famed Myrmidons. Her.482 The Iliad of Homer Eudorus next. great Patroclus! thine. As with swift step she form'd the running maze: To her high chamber from Diana's quire. No hand so sure of all the Emathian line. Famed in the graceful dance. Pisander follow'd. While restless. matchless in his art To wing the spear. With gifts of price he sought and won the dame. Whose rage defrauds us of so famed a field: If that dire fury must for ever burn. in your ships you lay) Oh nursed with gall. whom Polymele the gay. What make we here? Return. ye fierce and brave! Think with what threats you dared the Trojan throng. raging. or aim the distant dart. unknowing how to yield. succeeded to her arms.

As when a circling wall the builder forms. Thus while he roused the fire in every breast. Brothers in arms. Ranks wedged in ranks. and crest to crest they throng. two bodies with one soul inspired. bathe your swords in gore! This day shall give you all your soul demands. Of strength defensive against wind and storms. There bold Automedon. Two friends. together join'd. with equal fury fired. warriors! grieve no more. And round him wide the rising structure grows: So helm to helm. and man drove man along. . Float in one sea. Shield urged on shield. Compacted stones the thickening work compose. undistinguish'd plumes. and thickens round the king. and wave before the wind. and weary all your hands!" 483 DIANA. of arms a steely ring Still grows. Glut all your hearts. Close and more close the listening cohorts press'd. Thick. Lo there the Trojans. and spreads. Such were your words—Now. Patroclus here. Far o'er the rest in glittering pomp appear.BOOK XVI.

This tinged with sulphur. and to the Greeks despair. Oh! be his guard thy providential care. Their feet unwash'd. Confirm his heart. to the dangers of the fighting field The best. of antique frame. Lo.484 The Iliad of Homer [295] But mindful of the gods. But Peleus' son. but to Jove alone. race austere! surround. sacred first to flame. Glory to me. And costly furs. and carpets stiff with gold. There lay on heaps his various garments roll'd. his feet upon the place Of sacrifice. and vapours chill. Presid'st on bleak Dodona's vocal hill: (Whose groves the Selli. Which never man had stained with ruddy wine. I stay but half behind. and Peleus' son to none Had raised in offerings. and fixing for a space His eyes on heaven. Achilles went To the rich coffer in his shady tent. Then cleansed his hands. and string his arm to war: Press'd by his single force let Hector see .) Hear. (The presents of the silver-footed dame) From thence he took a bowl. the dearest of my friends. He purged. Nor raised in offerings to the power divine. their slumbers on the ground. and wash'd it in the running stream. the purple draught he pour'd Forth in the midst. from rustling oaks. thy dark decrees. low-whispered in the breeze. I yield. Dodonaean Jove! Who 'midst surrounding frosts. to my ships confined. Who hear. at Thetis' prayer. Though still determined. And catch the fates. Patroclus gone. as of old! Thou gav'st. and thus the god implored: "O thou supreme! high-throned all height above! O great Pelasgic.

But heaven's eternal doom denies the rest. And safe return him to these eyes again!" Great Jove consents to half the chief's request. and.BOOK XVI. the winds dispersed in air. Meanwhile the troops beneath Patroclus' care. and commence the war. and call forth all their rage: All rise in arms. But when the fleets are saved from foes and fire. and buzzing progeny. Let him with conquest and renown retire. Back to his tent the stern Achilles flies. Whet all their stings. Who thus inflames them with heroic fires: "O warriors. His safe return. As wasps. partners of Achilles' praise! Be mindful of your deeds in ancient days. And add new glories to his mighty name. Preserve his arms. preserve his social train. and so keen their arms: Their rising rage Patroclus' breath inspires. And humble the proud monarch whom you save. In swarms the guiltless traveller engage. His fame in arms not owing all to me. So loud their clamours. with a general cry. Assert their waxen domes. Think your Achilles sees you fight: be brave. Your godlike master let your acts proclaim. Pour from their mansions by the broad highway. And waits the combat with impatient eyes. Thus from the tents the fervent legion swarms. provoked by children in their play. To free the fleet was granted to his prayer. Invade the Trojans." 485 [296] .

Patroclus' arm forbids the spreading fires. and vales. divine Patroclus! flew. The smiling scene wide opens to the sight. And all the unmeasured ether flames with light. involved in fire and smoke. and lets down the day: The hills shine out. and forests. that see their country's glory slain. strike the eyes. The war stood still.486 The Iliad of Homer Joyful they heard. scatter'd o'er the distant plain. The groaning warrior pants upon the ground. bold Pyrechmes stood. And loud acclaim the starry region rends. Where the war raged. Sudden the Thunderer. . In heaps on heaps the foe tumultuous flies. (Who led his bands from Axius' winding flood. The great Paeonian. At once they see. and all around them gazed. Fly diverse. Close to the stern of that famed ship which bore Unbless'd Protesilaus to Ilion's shore. with a flashing ray. they tremble. O'er heaven's expanse like one black ceiling spread. and they fly. His troops. the rocks in prospect rise. When great Achilles' shining armour blazed: Troy saw. Triumphant Greece her rescued decks ascends. and where the tumult grew. Clear'd from the smoke the joyful navy lies. Bursts through the darkness. And streams. and kindling as he spoke. Flew to the fleet. From shore to shore the doubling shouts resound. So when thick clouds enwrap the mountain's head. Then first thy spear. And from the half-burn'd ship proud Troy retires. The hollow ships return a deeper sound.) His shoulder-blade receives the fatal wound. and thought the dread Achilles nigh.

lamented youth! he lies. Thy breast. The thigh transfix'd. and transpierced his thigh. Atymnius dies. Between his arm and shoulder aims a blow. and rent the nerves away. effused with gushing gore. Sarpedon's friends. with vigour thrown. by Furies led. Now every Greek some hostile hero slew.BOOK XVI. Amisodarus. And two bold brothers of the Lycian band: By great Antilochus. abhorr'd Chimaera bred. Kind Maris. Next. received the Spartan lance. bleeding in his brother's wound. Phylides' dart (as Amphidus drew nigh) His blow prevented. Skill'd in the dart in vain. 487 [297] In equal arms two sons of Nestor stand. The brazen-pointed spear. and broke the brittle bone: Headlong he fell. Defends the breathless carcase on the ground. and scatter'd o'er the plains. Slain by two brothers. with endless darkness cover'd o'er: And vents his soul. Forced from the navy. Amisodarus' seed. thus two brothers bleed. Furious he flies. But still the foremost. Sharp in his thigh he felt the piercing wound. his murderer to engage: But godlike Thrasimed prevents his rage. But Troy repulsed. and in death. bold Patroclus flew: As Areilycus had turn'd him round. unarm'd. The bane of men. the warrior lay. Thoas was thy chance. . Tore all the brawn. yet the fight maintains. his sons expire. who. His arm falls spouting on the dust below: He sinks. And pay the forfeit of their guilty sire. In darkness. Pierced in the flank.

a living prize. Troy fled. Back from the car he tumbles to the ground: His swimming eyes eternal shades surround. Amid the ranks. unmindful of her former fame. unresisting prey: Thus on the foe the Greeks impetuous came. but his. The sword broke short. His open'd mouth received the Cretan steel: Beneath the brain the point a passage tore. Peneleus sped Full on the juncture of the neck and head: The head. Or kids. divided by a stroke so just. Beneath Oileus' arm. and fierce Peneleus came. As when the flocks neglected by the swain. the body sunk to dust. The thirsty falchion drank his reeking blood: Plunged in his throat the smoking weapon lies. with mutual thirst of fame. In vain their javelins at each other flew. and fate unpitying. On the plumed crest of his Boeotian foe The daring Lycon aim'd a noble blow. Hung by the skin. and drown'd the teeth in gore: His mouth. A troop of wolves the unguarded charge survey. met in arms. Lycon the brave. their eager swords they drew. his eyes. O'ertaken Neamas by Merion bleeds. Pierced through the shoulder as he mounts his steeds. . Crash'd the thin bones. seal his eyes. And rend the trembling. Next Erymas was doom'd his fate to feel. A living prize not long the Trojan stood. or lambs.488 The Iliad of Homer Stopp'd in the tumult Cleobulus lies. pour a flood. He sobs his soul out in the gush of blood. lie scatter'd o'er the plain. Black death. his nostrils. Now.

Where the war bleeds. along the dusky plain. pointed at his breast. with shouts Patroclus flies. and chariots he o'erthrown. Their charioteers lie foaming on the ground. and blots the golden skies: So from the ships. And shades the sun. Wedged in the trench. Clouds rise on clouds. Observed the storm of darts the Grecians pour. Thick drifts of dust involve their rapid flight. . O'er his broad shoulders spread the massy shield. In vain they labour up the steepy mound.BOOK XVI. And rolls the cloud to blacken heaven with storms. and where the thickest die. Tumultuous clamour fills the fields and skies. Scour o'er the fields. Fierce on the rear. 489 But still at Hector godlike Ajax aim'd. while the madding steeds break short their yokes. and turns. And bleeding heroes under axles groan. through heads of disarray The fiery coursers forced their lord away: While far behind his Trojans fall confused. The affrighted steeds their dying lords cast down. Loud o'er the rout was heard the victor's cry. Still. in one vast carnage bruised: Chariots on chariots roll: the clashing spokes Shock. experienced in the field. and saves his loved allies. Yet stops. Dire Flight and Terror drove the Trojan train. and heaven is snatch'd from sight. The Trojan chief. Even Hector fled. his javelin flamed. and stretch to reach the town. As when the hand of Jove a tempest forms. Dark o'er the fields the ascending vapour flies. And on his buckler caught the ringing shower: He sees for Greece the scale of conquest rise. Where horse and arms.

The tide of Trojans urge their desperate course. Hector flies. Patroclus mark'd him as he shunn'd the war. And forced the routed ranks to stand the day. nor had force to fly. Where lay the fleets. Which pierced below the shield his valiant heart. And thunders after Hector. Bore down half Troy in his resistless way. the whirling car Smokes through the ranks. the steeds of Peleus knew: From bank to bank the immortal coursers flew. And turns the slaughter on the conquering bands. Whole fields are drown'd. but fate denies. Thestor was next. betray the righteous cause. with wild and haggard eye. bribed. (When guilty mortals break the eternal laws. Shrunk up he sat. with less impetuous force. . Or judges. Than when in autumn Jove his fury pours.490 The Iliad of Homer No stop. All grim in dust and blood Patroclus stands. First Pronous died beneath his fiery dart. And trembling man sees all his labours vain! [299] And now the chief (the foremost troops repell'd) Back to the ships his destined progress held. Between the space where silver Simois flows. High-bounding o'er the fosse. who saw the chief appear. o'ertakes the flying war. Patroclus shakes his lance. And fell the victim of his coward fear. And opens all the flood-gates of the skies: The impetuous torrents from their hills obey. Loud roars the deluge till it meets the main. And earth is loaden with incessant showers.) From their deep beds he bids the rivers rise. no check. and where the rampires rose. Nor stood to combat. Not with less noise. and mountains swept away.

And with unmanly tremblings shook the car. and gasping on the field. And death involved him with the shades of hell. Evippus. a stone." . The javelin sticks. And dropp'd the flowing reins. and cleft the head in two: Prone to the ground the breathless warrior fell. inglorious. the contended plain. was by his fury thrown: Full on his crown the ponderous fragment flew. He fell. Polymelus. as the spear was shook. Who mows whole troops. and life his heartless breast forsook. And last Tlepolemus and Pyres bleed. This hand unaided shall the war sustain: The task be mine this hero's strength to try. lie. Amphoterus and Erymas succeed. Large as a rock. And burst the helm. Where'er he moves. studious of the line and cane. Then low in dust Epaltes. Ipheas. the growing slaughters spread In heaps on heaps a monument of dead. An angler. die. 491 Next on Eryalus he flies. As on a rock that overhangs the main. Some mighty fish draws panting to the shore: Not with less ease the barbed javelin bore The gaping dastard. With this reproach his flying host he warms: "Oh stain to honour! oh disgrace to arms! Forsake.BOOK XVI. Echius. When now Sarpedon his brave friends beheld Grovelling in dust. and makes an army fly. and from the chariot draws. Him 'twixt the jaws.

and further. Zeus or Jupiter is popularly to be taken as omnipotent. dearest to me of men. that although Sarpedon is said to be fated to die. we discover one important truth unconsciously involved. The desert echoes. they raise a screaming cry. whether having snatched him up from out of the lamentable battle. in the alternative. His life is owed to fierce Patroclus' hands. This seems to be the true character of the Homeric deity. my heart is divided within me while I ruminate it in my mind. I should not at once place him alive in the fertile land of his own Lycia. speaking. should be slain by Patroclus. and the rocks reply: The warriors thus opposed in arms. which was almost entirely lost from view amidst the nearly equal scepticism and credulity of subsequent ages. if he pleased. No distinct empire is assigned to fate or fortune. A strong instance in the Iliad itself to illustrate this position. the will of the father of gods and men is absolute and uncontrollable. the son of Menoetius! Indeed. What passions in a parent's breast debate! Say. they tear. Jove view'd the combat: whose event foreseen.492 The Iliad of Homer [300] He spake: and. purely Pagan as it is. and place him entirely out of the reach of any such event. and it is very necessary that the student of Greek literature should bear it constantly in mind. 'Alas me!' says he 'since it is fated (moira) that Sarpedon. long since destined by fate (palai pepromenon)? You may do it—but we.245 My godlike son shall press the Phrygian plain: Already on the verge of death he stands. is the passage where Jupiter laments to Juno the approaching death of Sarpedon.—"In the mythology. They cuff. and with equal rage. —The destinies ordain. the destinies ordain. do not sanction it. the rest of the gods. shall I snatch him from impending fate. and sternly waits the war.' Here it is clear from both speakers. engage With equal clamours. Jupiter might still. that Jupiter himself would destroy him by the hands 245 . leaps from off the car: Patroclus lights. He thus bespoke his sister and his queen: "The hour draws on. save him. As when two vultures on the mountain's height Stoop with resounding pinions to the fight. or whether I should now destroy him by the hands of the son of Menoetius!' To which Juno answers—'Dost thou mean to rescue from death a mortal man. of the Iliad. also.

to his future praise. debate would rise above. Give the bold chief a glorious fate in fight. Then touch'd with grief. Shall Jove for one extend the narrow span. seq. Before proud Ilion must resign their breath! Were thine exempt. [301] . the weeping heavens distill'd A shower of blood o'er all the fatal field: of another. 156. And send him safe to Lycia. and ratifies the doom. A marble tomb and pyramid shall raise. His fame ('tis all the dead can have) shall live. Let Sleep and Death convey. the field?" 493 Then thus the goddess with the radiant eyes: "What words are these. Assents to fate."—Coleridge. And murmuring powers condemn their partial Jove. Whose bounds were fix'd before his race began? How many sons of gods. foredoom'd to death. And lasting honours to his ashes give. overcome.BOOK XVI." She said: the cloud-compeller. O sovereign of the skies! Short is the date prescribed to mortal man. p. with celestial blood. And fatten. His friends and people. And when the ascending soul has wing'd her flight. The breathless body to his native land. by thy command. distant far From all the dangers and the toils of war. Or to his doom my bravest offspring yield.

From strong Patroclus' hand the javelin fled. Roll'd in the bloody dust. The next transpierced Achilles' mortal steed. Each axle crackled. and paw'd the slippery ground. and the chariot shook: When bold Automedon. or poplar tall. And spent in empty air its dying force. Far from the Lycian shores. and poised the lifted spear. his happy native reign. Two sounding darts the Lycian leader threw: The first aloof with erring fury flew. Or pine (fit mast for some great admiral) Nods to the axe. obedient to the rein: The car rolls slowly o'er the dusty plain. Which o'er the warrior's shoulder took its course. and freed The encumbered chariot from the dying steed: The rest move on. Each heaved the shield. The nerves unbraced no more his bulk sustain. Laments his son. Then as the mountain oak. The towering chiefs to fiercer fight advance: And first Sarpedon whirl'd his weighty lance. Not so Patroclus' never-erring dart. and falling bites the bloody plain. He falls. Now met in arms. The generous Pedasus of Theban breed: Fix'd in the shoulder's joint. till with a groaning sound . the combatants appear. Aim'd at his breast it pierced a mortal part. And pass'd the groin of valiant Thrasymed. predestined to be slain. his eyes averting from the plain.494 The Iliad of Homer The god. he reel'd around. and restrain their rage. Divides the traces with his sword. to disengage The starting coursers. His sudden fall the entangled harness broke. Where the strong fibres bind the solid heart.

to combat at their head. Then drew the weapon from his panting heart. And. and spreads its honours on the ground. thy task be first to dare The glorious dangers of destructive war. taught by great examples. Before his chariot stretch'd his form divine: He grasp'd the dust distain'd with streaming gore. and on his bosom trod. and sucks the smoking blood. "Glaucus. Defend my body. Unguided now. must Glaucus undergo. While the grim savage grinds with foamy jaws The trembling limbs. Deep groans. 495 It sinks. The reeking fibres clinging to the dart. and supply the dead." He ceased. And the soul issued in the purple flood. To lead my troops. So lies a bull beneath the lion's paws. their mighty master slain. rebellow through the wood. [302] . And his eyes darken'd with the shades of death.BOOK XVI. I charged them with my latest breath Not unrevenged to bear Sarpedon's death. If these spoil'd arms adorn a Grecian foe! Then as a friend. conquer in my right: That. Thus fell the king. pale in death. Incite the living. and hollow roars. what shame. or like me to die. the Fates suppress'd his labouring breath. lay groaning on the shore. From the wide wound gush'd out a stream of blood. all may try Like thee to vanquish. What grief. Then to the leader of the Lycian band The dying chief address'd his last command. and as a warrior fight. and laid on earth supine. Tell them. His flying steeds the Myrmidons detain. The insulting victor with disdain bestrode The prostrate prince. be bold.

Nor Jove vouchsafed his hapless offspring aid. Low in the dust is great Sarpedon laid. With ample strides he stalks from place to place.496 The Iliad of Homer All-impotent of aid. To guard the relics of my slaughter'd friend: For thou. and. thy bright presence boast. O hear me! god of every healing art! Lo! stiff with clotted blood. the hero stands. Then loudly calls on Troy's vindictive arms. O god of health! thy succour lend. and support the fight. suppliant as he stood. Now fires Agenor. And owns the assistance of immortal hands. and pierced with pain. . Unhappy Glaucus heard the dying chief: His painful arm. at distance from the glorious war. And breathed a spirit in his rising heart. Supported on his better hand he stay'd: To Phoebus then ('twas all he could) he pray'd: "All-seeing monarch! whether Lycia's coast. yet useless with the smart Inflicted late by Teucer's deadly dart. But thou. Renew'd by art divine. To head my Lycians. First to the fight his native troops he warms. He drew the dolours from the wounded part. now Polydamas: Æneas next. His heavenly hand restrain'd the flux of blood. Inflaming thus the rage of all their hosts. and shoots through every vein. That thrills my arm. I stand unable to sustain the spear. though distant. and Hector he accosts. Powerful alike to ease the wretch's smart. Or sacred Ilion." Apollo heard. transfix'd with grief. canst restore my might. And sigh.

To all his Lycians lost. they rush on. extended on the field. and be more. and lost to thee! Stretch'd by Patroclus' arm on yonder plains. Tis half the glory to maintain our prize. Or weigh the great occasion. regardless chief! thy breast employ? Oh too forgetful of the friends of Troy! Those generous friends. be men. Transfix'd with deep regret. Fired. through all her legions shook. But o'er the dead the fierce Patroclus stands. roused the listening bands: "Heroes. the slaughter round him spread. Breathe their brave souls out in another's war. See! where in dust the great Sarpedon lies. and their own. and kept his people free. be what you were before. Who guarded right. The chief who taught our lofty walls to yield. And send the living Lycians to the dead. "What thoughts. Lies pale in death. A chief. In action valiant. who led to Troy's beleaguer'd wall A host of heroes. strip his arms." 497 [303] . O save from hostile rage his loved remains! Ah let not Greece his conquer'd trophies boast. And rousing Ajax. from their country far. and in council wise. And with superior vengeance greatly glows. they view o'erthrown At once his country's pillar. Haste. To guard his body Troy in numbers flies.BOOK XVI. first Hector seeks the foes. Nor on his corse revenge her heroes lost!" He spoke: each leader in his grief partook: Troy. at the loss. and outshined them all. who.

The clash of armour rings o'er all the plain. to swell the horrors of the fight. oppose their arms. He pays due vengeance to his kinsman's shade. And. too near That arm. What grief thy heart. [304] . Thessalia there. Now Greece gives way. And round his son confounds the warring hosts. Great Jove. Agacleus' son. Sprung on the Trojan and the Lycian band. The martial squadrons close on either hand: Here Troy and Lycia charge with loud alarms. what fury urged thy hand. O'er the fierce armies pours pernicious night. A rock's large fragment thunder'd on his head. Fierce to the van of fight Patroclus came. Hurl'd by Hectorean force it cleft in twain His shatter'd helm. or at the fighting foe. Far as an able hand a lance can throw. So far the Trojans from their lines retired. drew back. and great Epigeus falls. Till Glaucus. from Budium's lofty walls. Now sent to Troy. and Hector learn'd to fear. With horrid shouts they circle round the slain. and the silver-footed dame. His fate ennobling with a crowd of ghosts. Achilles' arms to aid. O generous Greek! when with full vigour thrown. Which sunk him to the dead: when Troy. all the rest inspired. Soon as his luckless hand had touch'd the dead. and Greece. Who chased for murder thence a suppliant came To Peleus.498 The Iliad of Homer The heroes kindle at his fierce command. and stretch'd him o'er the slain. Or at the lists. turning. like an eagle darting at his game. At Sthenelaus flew the weighty stone.

His spear Aeneas at the victor threw. My spear. Sent by the great Aeneas' arm in vain. Despatch'd by Merion to the shades of death: On Ida's holy hill he made abode. The soul. and falling made the fields resound. and honour'd like his god. Between the jaw and ear the javelin went.BOOK XVI. Pierced through the bosom with a sudden wound. and riches blest in vain: Him. Then Bathyclaeus fell beneath his rage. The priest of Jove. Had fix'd thy active vigour to the ground. There yet scarce spent. exhaling. and rooted in the field. And crowd to spoil the dead: the Greeks oppose. Wide o'er the land was stretch'd his large domain. and eager to pursue The flying Lycians. The only hope of Chalcon's trembling age. And trembling struck." . it quivers on the plain. "Swift as thou art (the raging hero cries) And skill'd in dancing to dispute the prize. Glaucus met and slew. 499 Then brave Laogonus resign'd his breath. With stately seats. The lance hiss'd harmless o'er his covering shield. Who stooping forward from the death withdrew. The Achaians sorrow for their heroes slain. issued at the vent. He fell. An iron circle round the carcase grows. With conquering shouts the Trojans shake the plain. bold with youth. the destined passage had it found.

helmets rattle. And thick and heavy sounds the storm of blows. The labours of the woodman's axe resound. Not empty boasts the sons of Troy repel." This said. beseems the council." [305] "O friend (Menoetius' son this answer gave) With words to combat. While crackling forests fall on every side: Thus echoed all the fields with loud alarms. To speak. So fell the warriors.500 The Iliad of Homer "O valiant leader of the Dardan host! (Insulted Merion thus retorts the boast) Strong as you are. his thy parting ghost. Patroclus to the battle flies. and so rung their arms. 'tis mortal force you trust. ill befits the brave. but to dare In glorious action. is the task of war. And if to this my lance thy fate be given. and new shouts arise: Shields. sends thee down to Pluto's coast. or mountain ground. As through the shrilling vale. Blows following blows are heard re-echoing wide. as the warriors close. success is still from heaven: This. Great Merion follows. . Mine is the glory. Vain are thy vaunts. instant. Your swords must plunge them to the shades of hell. An arm as strong may stretch thee in the dust.

with many a soul's untimely flight. and chased return again. Nor unattended see the shades below. To crown Achilles' valiant friend with praise At length he dooms. his breast debates The vengeance due. He mounts his car.BOOK XVI. . His long-disputed corse the chiefs enclose. Then Hector's mind he fills with dire dismay. he sees decline The scales of Jove. Lies undistinguish'd from the vulgar dead. a persevering train. Fix'd on the field his sight. On every side the busy combat grows. His heavenly form defaced with dust and gore. Augment the fame and horror of the fight. and meditates the fates: Whether to urge their prompt effect. and. Sunk with Troy's heavy fates. Thick as beneath some shepherd's thatch'd abode (The pails high foaming with a milky flood) The buzzing flies. bids him drive the foe. And stuck with darts by warring heroes shed. and call The force of Hector to Patroclus' fall. and pants with awe divine. Incessant swarm. Now great Sarpedon on the sandy shore. that his last of days Shall set in glory. And eyes that flash'd intolerable day. This instant see his short-lived trophies won. and calls his hosts away. And stretch him breathless on his slaughter'd son. 501 Jove view'd the combat with a stern survey. Or yet.

And from the fight convey Sarpedon slain. And with celestial robes adorn the dead. Spoke from his throne the cloud-compelling Jove: "Descend. Patroclus' ships the glorious spoils adorn. And left their monarch with the common dead: Around. (So Jove decreed!) At length the Greeks obtain The prize contested. as the heroes fall. Veil'd in a cloud. two twins of winged race. and his form renews. Swift to the field precipitates his flight. O'er all his limbs ambrosial odours shed. in heaps on heaps. Those rites discharged. Then bathe his body in the crystal flood. his sacred corse bequeath To the soft arms of silent Sleep and Death. . His friends a tomb and pyramid shall rear: What honour mortals after death receive. and despoil the slain. There bathed his honourable wounds. a dreadful wall Of carnage rises. in the realms above. Then Sleep and Death. They to his friends the immortal charge shall bear. Those unavailing honours we may give!" [306] Apollo bows. And with perfumes of sweet ambrosial dews Restores his freshness. my Phoebus! on the Phrygian plain. and dress'd His manly members in the immortal vest. and from mount Ida's height. Then thus to Phoebus. the hardy Lycians fled. Thence from the war the breathless hero bore. nor before. and deform'd with blood. to silver Simois' shore. With dust dishonour'd.502 The Iliad of Homer Then. The radiant arms are by Patroclus borne.

and with loosen'd reins. With foaming coursers. and orders all. and confound the bold. whose counsels uncontroll'd Dismay the mighty. Ah blind to fate! thy headlong fury flew Against what fate and powerful Jove ordain. and urged thee on to fall. 503 SLEEP AND DEATH CONVEYING THE BODY OF SARPEDON TO LYCIA. but of silent pace.BOOK XVI. Vain was thy friend's command. the god. Fierce on the Trojan and the Lycian crew. Where endless honours wait the sacred shade. Meanwhile Patroclus pours along the plains. Of matchless swiftness. The corse amidst his weeping friends they laid. thy courage vain. The god who gives. at the god's command. [307] . For he. And in a moment reach'd the Lycian land. He urged thee on. Received Sarpedon. resumes.

personal prowess decided every thing. although much esteemed. Now Troy had stoop'd beneath his matchless power. were never upon a large scale. Melanippus. p.246 His blazing aegis thrice Apollo shook. Echeclus follows. And call'd to fill the number of the dead? Adrestus first. A more than mortal voice was heard aloud. The rest. bite the ground. The Trojans are in no respects blockaded. and receive assistance from their allies to the very end. Troy shall not stoop even to Achilles' hand. the night attack and the ambuscade. when." —Thrice at the battlements. bursting from the cloud.504 The Iliad of Homer Who first. it shall withstand. 246 . He tried the fourth. It was probably a vast mound of earth with a declivity outwards. 212. brave hero! by that arm was slain. next young Megas bleeds. When heaven itself thy fatal fury led. not fated yet to fall. trust their fates to flight. Who last beneath thy vengeance press'd the plain. "The art military of the Homeric age is upon a level with the state of navigation just described. The slaughter. "Patroclus! cease. and enact almost as much as the knights of romance. this heaven-defended wall Defies thy lance. The siege of Troy was as little like a modern siege as a captain in the guards is like Achilles. thy greater far. Autonous then succeeds. Elasus and Mulius crown'd: Then sunk Pylartes to eternal night."—Coleridge. The chiefs fight in advance. Epistor. But flaming Phoebus kept the sacred tower Thrice at the battlements Patroclus strook. Thy friend. There is no mention of a ditch or any other line or work round the town. and the wall itself was accessible without a ladder. dispersing. Patroclus thrice mounts it in armour.

The charioteer. Or draw the troops within the walls of Troy. in his breast debates. 505 [308] . and young. A spear his left. Or in the field his forces to employ. A valiant warrior. Perhaps Apollo shall thy arms succeed. "What a shameful sight! God! is it Hector that forbears the fight? Were thine my vigour this successful spear Should soon convince thee of so false a fear. His front. In Asius' shape. Thus while he thought. Hecuba! from Dymas sprung. While Hector." So spoke the inspiring god. brows. checking at the Scaean gates His panting coursers. eyes. a stone employs his right: With all his nerves he drives it at the foe. impatient for the fight. (Thy brother. The lash resounds.) Thus he accosts him. and with awe retires. And plunged amidst the tumult of the fight. and rough and gross below: The falling ruin crush'd Cebrion's head. haughty. Pointed above. bold. He bids Cebrion drive the rapid car. And in Patroclus' blood efface thy shame. beside him Phoebus stood. And pour'd swift spirits through each Trojan breast. The god the Grecians' sinking souls depress'd. who reigned by Sangar's flood. The Greek obeys him. And heaven ordains him by thy lance to bleed. ah turn thee to the field of fame. the coursers rush to war. Turn thee. one undistinguish'd wound: The bursting balls drop sightless to the ground. The lawless offspring of king Priam's bed. while yet he held the rein. Patroclus lights.BOOK XVI. then took his flight. So spoke the god who darts celestial fires.

The broad oaks crackle. the wild winds roar aloud In the deep bosom of some gloomy wood.506 The Iliad of Homer Struck from the car. That sweeps the field. and provokes the war. "Good heaven! what active feats yon artist shows! What skilful divers are our Phrygian foes! Mark with what ease they sink into the sand! Pity that all their practice is by land!" Then rushing sudden on his prostrate prize. Stern Hector fastens on the warrior's head. falls headlong on the plain. And the whole forest in one crash descends. Two lordly rulers of the wood engage. [309] . and fright. depopulates the fold. confusion. Defends the body. Darts shower'd on darts. terrible and bold. with equal rage. And from his fatal courage finds his bane. aloft in air are blown. Mix the contending hosts in mortal fight. the rattling thicket bends. And echoing roars rebellow through the shades. rage. To the dark shades the soul unwilling glides. Stung with fierce hunger. now round the carcase ring. Pierced through the dauntless heart. In dreadful shock the mingled hosts engage. Thus for some slaughter'd hind. and trees. Not with less noise. So pent by hills. This way and that. then tumbles slain. each the prey invades. While the proud victor thus his fall derides. and the Sylvans groan. Leaves. And by the foot Patroclus drags the dead: While all around. At once bold Hector leaping from his car. with less tumultuous rage. arms. To spoil the carcase fierce Patroclus flies: Swift as a lion.

His bounding helmet on the champaign rung. But when his evening wheels o'erhung the main. and numbers sank to hell. some clatter on the fields. 507 . The weighty shock his neck and shoulders feel. black remnant of so bright a line: Apollo dreadful stops thy middle way. That plume which never stoop'd to earth before. Sol had driven His fervid orb through half the vault of heaven. And shade the temples of the mad divine. shake the sounding shields. Death calls. forgets the guiding reins! Now flaming from the zenith. But where the rising whirlwind clouds the plains. and heaven allows no longer day! For lo! the god in dusky clouds enshrined. Approaching dealt a staggering blow behind. Thrice on the press like Mars himself he flew. Then from amidst the tumult and alarms. And breathing slaughter. and heavy. Then rash Patroclus with new fury glows. far to distance flung. in fighting fields to shine. There ends thy glory! there the Fates untwine The last. They draw the conquer'd corse and radiant arms. Sunk in soft dust the mighty chief remains. Some hard. Glad conquest rested on the Grecian train. And thrice three heroes at each onset slew. His eyes flash sparkles. Long used. stretch'd in death. untouch'd. his stunn'd senses reel In giddy darkness. Now flights of arrows bounding from the string: Stones follow stones. And. Achilles' plume is stain'd with dust and gore. While on each host with equal tempests fell The showering darts.BOOK XVI. pours amid the foes.

With him all Greece was sunk. Stupid he stares. though disarm'd. in vain. The roaming lion meets a bristly boar. He falls. And flies the fate. and matchless in the course: Full twenty knights he tumbled from the car. Not long—for fate pursues him. as the bleeding chief he views. his ample shield Drops from his arm: his baldric strows the field: The corslet his astonish'd breast forsakes: Loose is each joint. well known to fame. Skill'd in the dart. but he durst no more. and all-assistless stands: Such is the force of more than mortal hands! A Dardan youth there was. Patroclus yields to fear. Famed for the manage of the foaming horse. Stern Hector. Euphorbus was his name. and the god. that moment all Her yet-surviving heroes seem'd to fall. and his arms resound. Nor. earth thunders. and herded in the crowd. Fast by the spring.508 The Iliad of Homer Jove dooms it now on Hector's helm to nod. and his retreat pursues: The lance arrests him with a mortal wound. at once. by an arm divine. And turn'd him short. Retires for succour to his social train. His venturous spear first drew the hero's gore. and mortal spear. they both dispute the flood. [310] . Patroclus' fury stood: But swift withdrew the long-protended wood. Thus. His spear in shivers falls. he wounded. He struck. each nerve with horror shakes. While yet he learn'd his rudiments of war. Wounded. which heaven decreed. So. Breaks through the ranks. along the desert score. From Panthus sprung. scorch'd with heat.

and jaws besmear'd with blood. So many lives effused. Thy own Achilles cannot lend thee aid. As dying now at Hector's feet he lies. this important day. At length the sovereign savage wins the strife. With flaming eyes. expiring breath. The fancied scenes of Ilion wrapt in flames.BOOK XVI. He sternly views him. And the torn boar resigns his thirst and life. Patroclus march'd. 'Return not. so many chiefs o'erthrown. Patroclus thus. of subverting Troy." Supine. And thy soft pleasures served with captive dames. Without the bloody arms of Hector dead. Patroclus! and with thee. And much enjoin thee. and thus he sped. Though much at parting that great chief might say.' He spoke. expires his own. And guard that beauteous race from lords like thee: But thou a prey to vultures shalt be made. my brave friend (perhaps he said). the chief replies: . and triumphant cries: 509 "Lie there. the joy Thy pride once promised. With faint. and wildly gazing on the skies. Unthinking man! I fought those towers to free.

thou shalt be soon as I. The immortal coursers were the gift of Jove. the third mean part thy own. wandering. Far from his rage the immortal coursers drove. as his eyes he fed On the pale carcase. Had twenty mortals. then pressing as he lay His breathless bosom. melancholy ghost! Then Hector pausing. (The beauteous body left a load of clay) Flits to the lone." He faints: the soul unwilling wings her way. and know the powers divine! Jove's and Apollo's is this deed. A naked. not thine. and it sounds thy death: Insulting man. Opposed me fairly. But thou. and thy hour draws nigh. Euphorbus next. tore the lance away. . But swift Automedon with loosen'd reins Rapt in the chariot o'er the distant plains. and charges the bold charioteer. or why denounced to me? Why not as well Achilles' fate be given To Hector's lance? Who knows the will of heaven?" Pensive he said. thus address'd the dead: "From whence this boding speech. Black fate o'erhangs thee. and by Achilles' hand. they had sunk in fight: By fate and Phoebus was I first o'erthrown. imperious! hear my latest breath. I see thee fall. uncomfortable coast. And upwards cast the corse: the reeking spear He shakes. To heaven is owed whate'er your own you call.510 The Iliad of Homer [311] "Vain boaster! cease. And heaven itself disarm'd me ere my fall. the stern decree Of death denounced. each thy match in might. Even now on life's last verge I see thee stand. The gods inspire it.

511 .BOOK XVI.

.512 The Iliad of Homer ÆSCULAPIUS.

bear off the body to the ships. Aeneas and Hector Attempt the chariot of Achilles. Hector advancing. though attacked with the utmost fury. Great Menelaus. This. where. Menelaus sends Antilochus to Achilles. and drives him off. but soon returns with Ajax. Fruit of her throes. THE SEVENTH BATTLE. Springs to the front.[312] BOOK XVII. Menelaus. FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. which is borne off by Automedon. with the news of Patroclus' death: then returns to the fight. Lies pierced with wounds among the vulgar dead.—THE ACTS OF MENELAUS. and renews the battle. who thereupon puts on the armour he had won from Patroclus. Glaucus objects to Hector as a flight. he and Meriones. Thus round her new-fallen young the heifer moves. Menelaus retires. ARGUMENT. and first-born of her loves. assisted by the Ajaces. and bare) . and guards him from the foe. The time is the evening of the eight-and-twentieth day. upon the death of Patroclus. And anxious (helpless as he lies. On the cold earth divine Patroclus spread. is slain. till Ajax rallies them: Aeneas sustains the Trojans. The scene lies in the fields before Troy. who attempts it. The horses of Achilles deplore the loss of Patroclus: Jupiter covers his body with a thick darkness: the noble prayer of Ajax on that occasion. touch'd with generous woe. The Greeks give way. defends his body from the enemy: Euphorbus.

" . Nor panther braves his spotted foe in fight. beneath my conquering steel This boaster's brother.) Man only vaunts his force. When mortals boast of prowess not their own? Not thus the lion glories in his might. These eyes beheld him on the dust expire. His broad shield glimmers. These sons of Panthus vent their haughty mind. avoid the threaten'd fate. wait thy brother to the Stygian gloom. and re-turns her. No more to cheer his spouse. But far the vainest of the boastful kind. Go. and are wise too late. Vain was his vigour. Fools stay to feel it. Yet 'twas but late. and his lances flame. Eyes the dead hero. Against our arm which rashly he defied. while thou may'st. Presumptuous youth! like his shall be thy doom. and insults the friend. and vaunts in vain. or glad his sire. Opposed to each that near the carcase came. laid Patroclus low.514 The Iliad of Homer Turns. The son of Panthus. Jove! from thy superior throne. Warrior! desist. Atrides. Nor thus the boar (those terrors of the plain. and leave the glory mine" [313] The Trojan thus: the Spartan monarch burn'd With generous anguish. nor tempt an equal blow: To me the spoils my prowess won. with a mother's care. Or. and as vain his pride. and in scorn return'd: "Laugh'st thou not. "This hand. skill'd the dart to send. fell. Hyperenor. resign: Depart with life.

innoxious falls. As the young olive. Instarr'd with gems and gold. Crown'd by fresh fountains with eternal green. Affrighted Troy the towering victor flies: 515 [314] . Euphorbus thus: "That action known. Come. His weeping father claims thy destined head. Wide through the neck appears the grisly wound." Swift as the word the missile lance he flings.BOOK XVII. Which even the Graces might be proud to wear. Prone sinks the warrior. The shining circlets of his golden hair. It lies uprooted from its genial bed. and glorious in the prize. Let heaven decide our fortune. bestrow the shore. thus beautiful. Lifts the gay head. To soothe a consort's and a parent's woe. On these thy conquer'd spoils I shall bestow. But blunted by the brass. A lovely ruin now defaced and dead: Thus young. Euphorbus lay. fame. Nor flies the javelin from his arm in vain. a widow in her bridal bed. in snowy flowerets fair. And plays and dances to the gentle air. With dust dishonour'd. Proud of his deed. The well-aim'd weapon on the buckler rings. No longer then defer the glorious strife. On Jove the father great Atrides calls. And spouse. and withers all its shades. and life. and bent him to the plain. and deform'd with gore. and his arms resound. Unmoved. for my brother's blood repay thy own. in some sylvan scene. When lo! a whirlwind from high heaven invades The tender plant. It pierced his throat. While the fierce Spartan tore his arms away.

Apollo wing'd his flight. (In Mentes' shape. and. and fired the nations as it went. They stoop not. through cleaving ranks he flies. When o'er the slaughter'd bull they hear him roar. They shout incessant. beneath whose martial care The rough Ciconians learn'd the trade of war. these. And mix'd with mortals in the toils of fight: His words infix'd unutterable care Deep in great Hector's soul: through all the war He darts his anxious eye.516 The Iliad of Homer Flies. as prone he lay) And in the victor's hands the shining prey. Atrides from the voice the storm divined.)247 "Forbear (he cried) with fruitless speed to chase Achilles' coursers. (Forth welling from the wound. It flew. Meanwhile Apollo view'd with envious eyes. Sheath'd in bright arms. and the vales resound. Turn.—A people of Thrace. Or stoop to none but great Achilles' hand. to mortal man's command. near the Hebrus. By Sparta slain! for ever now suppress'd The fire which burn'd in that undaunted breast!" Thus having spoke. And see his jaws distil with smoking gore: All pale with fear. of ethereal race. instant. And urged great Hector to dispute the prize. at distance scatter'd round. and behold the brave Euphorbus slain. And sends his voice in thunder to the skies: Fierce as a flood of flame by Vulcan sent. view'd The breathless hero in his blood imbued. 247 —Ciconians. as before some mountain lion's ire The village curs and trembling swains retire. . Too long amused with a pursuit so vain.

nor the god. no more The time allow'd: Troy thicken'd on the shore. and with new fury burn'd. should give me fear. And through the cloud the godlike Ajax knew. 'Tis not to Hector. still battle on the plains. A sable scene! The terrors Hector led. Did but the voice of Ajax reach my ear: Still would we turn. With heart indignant and retorted eyes. the relics. Slain in my cause. of my friend? Or singly. Forced by loud clamours. O'er all the black battalions sent his view. but threatens as he flies. And give Achilles all that yet remains Of his and our Patroclus—" This. All grim in arms. Now enter'd in the Spartan ranks. nor heaven. and a storm of darts. And thus explored his own unconquer'd mind: 517 "Then shall I quit Patroclus on the plain. Slow he recedes. Yet. he turn'd His manly breast. So from the fold the unwilling lion parts. Hector and his troops attend? Sure where such partial favour heaven bestow'd.BOOK XVII. but to heaven I yield. and for my honour slain! Desert the arms. [315] . where the god of day Had sunk each heart with terror and dismay. and cover'd o'er with blood. if once I quit the field. and sighing quits the dead. He flies indeed. There breathing courage. Where labouring on the left the warrior stood. To brave the hero were to brave the god: Forgive me. Greece.

Already had stern Hector seized his head. and provoke the war. Meanwhile great Ajax (his broad shield display'd) Guards the dead hero with the dreadful shade. But soon as Ajax rear'd his tower-like shield. And Hector glories in the dazzling prize. But Glaucus. and measured back the field." He said. alas. Dark o'er the fiery balls each hanging eyebrow lours. The raging pair Pierced the thick battle. beset by men and hounds. Elate her heart. On Hector frowning. thus his flight upbraids: . With many a step. To stand a trophy of his fame in war. the lioness surrounds Her tawny young. His train to Troy the radiant armour bear. he lies. and rousing all her powers. oh my friend! Haste. And doom'd to Trojan gods the unhappy dead. we can no more! For naked now. and Patroclus' loved remains defend: The body to Achilles to restore Demands our care.518 The Iliad of Homer To him the king: "Oh Ajax. And now before. Fast by his side the generous Spartan glows With great revenge. leader of the Lycian aids. and touch'd his heart. and now behind he stood: Thus in the centre of some gloomy wood. Sprung to his car. and feeds his inward woes. despoiled of arms.

you left him there. Say. and give up Troy to fate. thy thoughts employ What other methods may preserve thy Troy: 'Tis time to try if Ilion's state can stand By thee alone. On my command if any Lycian wait. and all the fowls of air. And Hector trembles and recedes with fear. And lo! already thou prepar'st to fly. we might obtain Sarpedon's arms and honour'd corse again! Greece with Achilles' friend should be repaid. And thus due honours purchased to his shade. A feast for dogs. nor ask a foreign hand: Mean. Thou dar'st not meet the terrors of his eye. While unreveng'd the great Sarpedon falls? Even where he died for Troy. O chief! a hero's boasted fame? How vain. Did such a spirit as the gods impart Impel one Trojan hand or Trojan heart. Hence let him march." 519 [316] . empty boast! but shall the Lycians stake Their lives for you? those Lycians you forsake? What from thy thankless arms can we expect? Thy friend Sarpedon proves thy base neglect. without a manly mind. But words are vain—Let Ajax once appear. is the name! Since battle is renounced. Is this. "Where now in Hector shall we Hector find? A manly form. and his country's cause) Even yet our mutual arms we might employ. And drag yon carcase to the walls of Troy.BOOK XVII. shall our slaughter'd bodies guard your walls. without the merit. Oh! were Patroclus ours. (Such as should burn in every soul that draws The sword for glory.

If yet a Greek the sight of Hector dread. Hector in proud Achilles' arms shall shine. Lycians." . But ill this insult suits a prudent mind. And thou be witness. through yon squadrons let us hew the way. But Jove's high will is ever uncontroll'd. Or yet their hero dare defend the dead. and sedate replied: "Say. and now Strikes the fresh garland from the victor's brow! Come." Then turning to the martial hosts. I shun great Ajax? I desert my train? 'Tis mine to prove the rash assertion vain. Now crowns with fame the mighty man. if I fear to-day. And yet be mindful of your ancient fame. that Hector's ear From such a warrior such a speech should hear? I deem'd thee once the wisest of thy kind. I joy to mingle where the battle bleeds. he cries: "Ye Trojans. The strong he withers. And hear the thunder of the sounding steeds. Dardans. and allies! Be men. my friends. my friend. and confounds the bold. is it just. by right of conquest mine. Torn from his friend. in action as in name.520 The Iliad of Homer The Trojan chief with fix'd resentment eyed The Lycian leader.

as apart he sat. Which once the greatest of mankind had worn. By aged Peleus to Achilles given. 521 . that on the sandy shore The radiant spoils to sacred Ilion bore. conscious. He strode along the field. One instant saw. Thou from the mighty dead those arms hast torn. The work and present of celestial hands. "Ah. Olympus trembled. For ah! no more Andromache shall come With joyful tears to welcome Hector home. and armies tremble at thy sight. wretched man! unmindful of thy end! A moment's glory. Yet live! I give thee one illustrious day. and the godhead said. as thus he said: (The sable plumage nodded o'er his head:) Swift through the spacious plain he sent a look. one instant overtook The distant band. with endearing charms. proud in triumph. The god whose thunder rends the troubled air Beheld with pity. and what fates attend! In heavenly panoply divinely bright Thou stand'st. A blaze of glory ere thou fad'st away. glittering from afar. Now blazing in the immortal arms he stands. Forbid by fate to reach his father's years. There his own mail unbraced the field bestrow'd. His train to Troy convey'd the massy load. Him.BOOK XVII. He shook the sacred honours of his head. As first to Peleus by the court of heaven: His father's arms not long Achilles wears. look'd through all the scene of fate. And. No more officious. As at Achilles' self! beneath thy dart Lies slain the great Achilles' dearer part.

Exhorting loud through all the field he strode. Now then. With Hector's self shall equal honours claim. To boast our numbers. in augury renown'd. unnumber'd bands Of neighbouring nations. and the pomp of war: Ye came to fight. the sanction of the god. Chromius. or of distant lands! 'Twas not for state we summon'd you so far. and Hippothous fires. you enjoy. Glaucus. With Hector part the spoil. Achilles. and our future race. Tor this. And Mars himself came rushing on his soul. and hear. The great Thersilochus like fury found. our products. our wealth. he inspires. Whoe'er shall drag him to the Trojan train. a valiant foe to chase. And look'd. The blood in brisker tides began to roll. and moved. to conquer or to die prepare." [318] . and share the fame. Whatever hand shall win Patroclus slain. The stubborn arms (by Jove's command disposed) Conform'd spontaneous. Through all his veins a sudden vigour flew. To save our present. and around him closed: Fill'd with the god. all ye hosts. And glean the relics of exhausted Troy. And Ennomus. Now Mesthles.522 The Iliad of Homer From thy tired limbs unbrace Pelides' arms!" Then with his sable brow he gave the nod That seals his word. To die or conquer are the terms of war. "Hear. Now Phorcys. Asteropaeus kindled at the sound. enlarged his members grew. Medon. or a god.

Condemn'd to vultures on the Trojan plain. And lo! it bursts. And all our wars and glories at an end! 'Tis not this corse alone we guard in vain. All. perhaps. What victims perish round the mighty dead! 523 Great Ajax mark'd the growing storm from far. And save Patroclus from the dogs of Troy. "O chiefs! O princes. Come all! let generous rage your arms employ. Fired by his words. on all. whose glory is from heaven! Whom with due honours both Atrides grace: Ye guides and guardians of our Argive race! All. whom this well-known voice shall reach from far. on me. whom I see not through this cloud of war. The bravest Greeks: this hour demands them all. alas! is come. They join. my friend. my friend.BOOK XVII. to whose hand is given The rule of men. And each from Ajax hopes the glorious prey: Vain hope! what numbers shall the field o'erspread. if any hear the call. Full on the Greeks they drive in firm array. and wide around The field re-echoed the distressful sound. And thus bespoke his brother of the war: "Our fatal day. See what a tempest direful Hector spreads. they thicken." . it thunders on our heads! Call on our Greeks. We too must yield: the same sad fate must fall On thee. the troops dismiss their fears. they protend their spears." The warrior raised his voice.

Conceals the warriors' shining helms in night: To him.524 The Iliad of Homer Oilean Ajax first the voice obey'd. Whole Troy embodied rush'd with shouts along. Nor dooms his carcase to the birds of air. The long-succeeding numbers who can name? But all were Greeks. to revenge led on By the swift rage of Ajax Telamon. Nor less resolved. the firm Achaian band With brazen shields in horrid circle stand. for he lived a friend: Dead he protects him with superior care. Full in the mouth is stopp'd the rushing tide. Repulsed. So through the thicket bursts the mountain boar. And distant rocks re-bellow to the roar. Jove. more slow with age. the chief for whom the hosts contend Had lived not hateful. Thus. In graceful stature next. for a distance round. [319] The first attack the Grecians scarce sustain. (Ajax to Peleus' son the second name. when a mountain billow foams and raves. The river trembles to his utmost shore. and eager all for fame. Where some swoln river disembogues his waves. and ready was his aid: Next him Idomeneus. Fierce to the charge great Hector led the throng. The boiling ocean works from side to side. And rudely scatters. the Trojans seize the slain. they yield. And Merion. burning with a hero's rage. pouring darkness o'er the mingled fight. . Swift was his pace. Then fierce they rally. and next in fame) With headlong force the foremost ranks he tore.

Now lies a sad companion of the dead: Far from Larissa lies. The Grecian marking. Shunn'd the descending death. his native air. 525 FIGHT FOR THE BODY OF PATROCLUS. the feet he bound With thongs inserted through the double wound: Inevitable fate o'ertakes the deed. The son of Lethus. Hippothous. and o'er him spread. Stretch'd in the dust the great Iphytus' son. Once more at Ajax Hector's javelin flies. brave Pelasgus' heir. The sinewy ankles bored. The shatter'd crest and horse-hair strow the plain: With nerves relax'd he tumbles to the ground: The brain comes gushing through the ghastly wound: He drops Patroclus' foot. which hissing on. Sent by great Ajax to the shades of hell. as it cut the skies. dragg'd the carcase through the war. The frighted hunter and the baying hound. Doom'd by great Ajax' vengeful lance to bleed: It cleft the helmet's brazen cheeks in twain. Lamented youth! in life's first bloom he fell. [320] .BOOK XVII. And ill requites his parents' tender care.

the weapon drank his blood. Revered for prudence. had turn'd the scale of fate: But Phoebus urged Æneas to the fight. Plunged in his throat. And through the wound the rushing entrails broke: In strong convulsions panting on the sands He lies. and with prudence bold. and grasps the dust with dying hands. recede the Trojan train: The shouting Argives strip the heroes slain. as slain Hippothous he defends. And deep transpiercing through the shoulder stood. Phorcys. of all the Phocian kind The boldest warrior and the noblest mind: In little Panope. In clanging arms the hero fell and all The fields resounded with his weighty fall. Fled to her ramparts. by Greece compell'd to yield. in her native fortitude elate. and resign'd the field. Greece. He held his seat. The Telamonian lance his belly rends.) . He seem'd like aged Periphas to sight: (A herald in Anchises' love grown old. and ruled the realms around. And now had Troy. for strength renown'd.526 The Iliad of Homer Schedius the brave. With Jove averse. Struck at the sight. The hollow armour burst before the stroke.

numbers. And tells me. Descends. Have forced the powers to spare a sinking state. though heaven its fall ordain? There have been heroes. By valour. And gain'd at length the glorious odds of fate: But you. Rank within rank. Leocritus beneath him bled. And hemm'd with bristled spears. Jove asserts the Trojan arms. my bosom warms. with vigorous force address'd." He spoke. the Grecians stood. by virtuous care. and foremost to the combat flew: The bold example all his hosts pursue. To save your Troy. Then. and. In vain beloved by valiant Lycomede. O chief! remain. and pants in Apisaon's breast. And force the unwilling god to ruin Troy. Your shameful efforts 'gainst yourselves employ. Swift to revenge it sent his angry lance.BOOK XVII. and thus to Hector cries: "Oh lasting shame! to our own fears a prey. when fortune smiles. From rich Paeonia's vales the warrior came. around the dead. and assists your wars." Æneas through the form assumed descries The power conceal'd. 527 [321] . when Jove declares His partial favour. And rush'd to combat. and desert the day. A god. Who view'd his fall. who. We seek our ramparts. Asteropeus with grief beheld the slain. A brazen bulwark. first. Asteropeus! in place and fame. and by arts of war. Next thee. grieving at the chance. The whirling lance. and an iron wood. Thus he—"What methods yet. but he rush'd in vain: Indissolubly firm. on buckler buckler spread. nor is he less.

528 The Iliad of Homer Great Ajax eyes them with incessant care. by fits they fight. rise the hills of dead. Unclouded there. Greece. The sun. the moon. and open light. The youthful brothers thus for fame contend. and sways the wavering fight. The golden sun pour'd forth a stronger ray. Such o'er Patroclus' body hung the night. (Their fellows routed. . thickening round them. And in an orb contracts the crowded war.) toss the distant spear. And skirmish wide: so Nestor gave command. And stands the centre and the soul of all: Fix'd on the spot they war. Meanwhile the sons of Nestor. now it sinks by turns. No vapour rested on the mountain's head. Fierce as conflicting fires the combat burns. wound A sanguine torrent steeps the reeking ground: On heaps the Greeks. the aerial azure spread. in close order. And all the broad expansion flamed with day. And all heaven's splendours blotted from the skies. Nor knew the fortune of Achilles' friend. And now it rises. And. and all the ethereal host Seem'd as extinct: day ravish'd from their eyes. in the rear. There burn'd the war. In one thick darkness all the fight was lost. and there the mighty bled. Close in their ranks commands to fight or fall. Yet suffers least. When from the ships he sent the Pylian band. Dispersed around the plain. And here and there their scatter'd arrows light: But death and darkness o'er the carcase spread. and wounded. The rest in sunshine fought. and collected might. on heaps the Trojans bled.

in pity to her son. In thought they view'd him still. Not Pallas' self. conceal'd. Nor knew the fatal fortune of the day. such rage. to make proud Ilion bend Was more than heaven had destined to his friend. The mangled body bathed in sweat and blood. Nor he whose anger sets the world in arms. the clouds on clouds arise. And for his wish'd return prepares in vain. and dealing death to Troy. and darkness fills their eyes. and gore. and labour o'er The extended surface. [322] . In dust extended under Ilion's wall. such horror reign'd. and tugg'd from side to side. Such.BOOK XVII. with dust. And thick and heavy grows the work of death: O'erlabour'd now. Achilles in his ships at distance lay. He. their feet. Expects him glorious from the conquered plain. Though well he knew. Glorious in arms. their legs. The brawny curriers stretch. As when a slaughter'd bull's yet reeking hide. Perhaps to him: this Thetis had reveal'd. Jove to honour the great dead ordain'd. Now to the ships to force it. yet unconscious of Patroclus' fall. and sweat. The rest. Could blame this scene. now to Troy. Drops follow drops. While Greeks and Ilians equal strength employ. her breast when fury warms. Strain'd with full force. 529 But round the corse the heroes pant for breath. And carnage clogs their hands. Their knees. with martial joy. drunk with fat and gore: So tugging round the corse both armies stood. are covered o'er.

"Cursed be the man (even private Greeks would say) Who dares desert this well-disputed day! First may the cleaving earth before our eyes Gape wide. sunk in sorrow. hangs his languid head. "Nothing is heard upon the mountains now. Is led. the clangours rise. and shared in human miseries. and our glory lost!" Thus they: while with one voice the Trojans said. Æthon.248 248 [323] —They wept." Dryden's Virgil.530 The Iliad of Homer Still raged the conflict round the hero dead. "To close the pomp. Jove! or heap us on the dead!" Then clash their sounding arms. Straggling and comfortless about they rove. Weeps his associates and his master slain. and the big tears run rolling down his face. But pensive herds that for their master low. And shake the brazen concave of the skies. with a sullen pace He walks. 3. ii . ibid. parodied. Stripp'd of his trappings. "Fast by the manger stands the inactive steed. He stands. The pensive steeds of great Achilles stood: Their godlike master slain before their eyes. the steed of state. id. the funeral of his lord to wait. and careless of his golden grain." Moschus. bk. Unmindful of their pasture and their love. And heaps on heaps by mutual wounds they bled. at distance from the scene of blood. First perish all." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. v. 18-24. And. ere haughty Troy shall boast We lost Patroclus. and drink our blood for sacrifice. They wept. "Grant this day. Meantime.

as stands A marble courser by the sculptor's hands. What wretched creature of what wretched kind. now in vain. and soothes and threats in vain. And prone to earth was hung their languid head: Nor Jove disdain'd to cast a pitying look. Exempt from age. and waved in state. Automedon your rapid flight shall bear Safe to the navy through the storm of war. Nor to the fight nor Hellespont they go. While thus relenting to the steeds he spoke: "Unhappy coursers of immortal strain. For yet 'tis given to Troy to ravage o'er 531 . never to be moved. and obstinate in woe: Still as a tombstone. and deathless. Only. Along their face The big round drops coursed down with silent pace. Did we your race on mortal man bestow. Ourself will swiftness to your nerves impart. Now plies the lash. Ourself with rising spirits swell your heart. Restive they stood. That breathes or creeps upon the dust of earth. Placed on the hero's grave. On some good man or woman unreproved Lays its eternal weight. calamitous. that late Circled their arched necks. Trail'd on the dust beneath the yoke were spread. Conglobing on the dust. Than man more weak. alas! to share in mortal woe? For ah! what is there of inferior birth. In vain Automedon now shakes the rein.BOOK XVII. or fix'd. and blind? A miserable race! but cease to mourn: For not by you shall Priam's son be borne High on the splendid car: one glorious prize He rashly boasts: the rest our will denies. Their manes.

532 The Iliad of Homer The field. And call'd Æneas fighting near his side. and Hector wields Achilles' arms triumphant in the fields. urged them to the course. and breathing in the immortal horse Excessive spirit. But now Patroclus is an empty name! To thee I yield the seat. The chief of Troy descried. in the thickest war? Alas! thy friend is slain. Now plies the javelin. unaided. Alcimedon. Approach'd the chariot. No Greek like him the heavenly steeds restrains. From danger now with swiftest speed they flew. and the chief address'd: "What god provokes thee rashly thus to dare. while he lived. and spread her slaughters to the shore. and bear The kindling chariot through the parted war: So flies a vulture through the clamorous train Of geese." He said. And now to conquest with like speed pursue. The sun shall see her conquer. Alone. with active heat. now directs the reins: Him brave Alcimedon beheld distress'd. their rage could tame. and vaults into the seat. Or holds their fury in suspended reins: Patroclus. and scatter round the plain. Sole in the seat the charioteer remains. to thee resign The ruling charge: the task of fight be mine." "In happy time (the charioteer replies) The bold Alcimedon now greets my eyes. till his fall With sacred darkness shades the face of all. [324] . Snatches the reins. His friend descends. that scream." He said. From their high manes they shake the dust.

Achilles' car. Unmov'd. encircled by his friends. Automedon attends the fight. and we prevail. The dead." 533 . With great Atrides. Unhelp'd we stand." Then through the field he sends his voice aloud. to my sight. War knows no mean. with glorious hopes ye burn. Aretus succeeds. Then turning to his friend.) Turn where distress demands immediate aid. Then o'er their backs they spread their solid shields: With brass refulgent the broad surface shined. deserted of its lord! The glorious steeds our ready arms invite. In vain advance! not fated to return. and Æneas' rage: Yet mighty as they are. Them Chromius follows. forego. For hard the fight. And save the living from a fiercer foe. (he said. Implores the Eternal. 'Tis Hector comes: and when he seeks the prize." The son of Venus to the counsel yields. "Lo. he wins it or he dies. Scarce their weak drivers guide them through the fight. And calls the Ajaces from the warring crowd. determined is the foe. my force to prove Is only mine: the event belongs to Jove. Each hopes the conquest of the lofty steeds: In vain. with dauntless mind: "Oh keep the foaming coursers close behind! Full on my shoulders let their nostrils blow. unequal to engage The force of Hector. beyond our hope restored. "Hither turn.BOOK XVII. my friend. Can such opponents stand when we assail? Unite thy force. And thick bull-hides the spacious concave lined. brave youths. and collects his might.

Which pass'd the shield of Aretus the young: It pierced his belt. Now at Automedon the Trojan foe Discharged his lance. "Accept. Cleaves the broad forehead of some brawny bull:249 Struck 'twixt the horns. he springs with many a bound. emboss'd with curious art. at the moment when the fatal blow Hath struck him. Poor as it is. some offering to thy shade. And hiss'd innoxious o'er the hero's head. As when a ponderous axe. With clashing falchions now the chiefs had closed. descending full. Nor longer Hector with his Trojans stood. And the spear trembled as his entrails heaved." —Carey's Dante: Hell. Then tumbling rolls enormous on the ground: Thus fell the youth. this mean sacrifice: Thus have I soothed my griefs. Deep rooted in the ground. Patroclus." 249 —Some brawny bull. and interposed. that with impetuous spring Darts. "Like to a bull. Stooping. the javelin idly fled. he shunn'd. Then in the lower belly struck the dart. and cries. . xii.534 The Iliad of Homer [325] He spoke. But left their slain companion in his blood: His arms Automedon divests. and high the sounding javelin flung. c. But each brave Ajax heard. the forceful spear In long vibrations spent its fury there. but unable to proceed Plunges on either side. the air his soul received. and thus have paid. the meditated blow.

535 And now Minerva from the realms of air Descends impetuous. like the rage of fire. and horrible with gore. And o'er his seat the bloody trophies hung. and to the battle flew. O father! (Atreus' son replies) O full of days! by long experience wise! What more desires my soul. And in his well-known voice to Sparta calls: "And lies Achilles' friend. And Jove's own glories blaze around his head!" [326] .) The drooping cattle dread the impending skies. The lord of thunders sent the blue-eyed maid. For. Or from the rage of man. we dread. Assuming Phoenix' shape on earth she falls. And from his half-till'd field the labourer flies: In such a form the goddess round her drew A livid cloud. would Minerva send me strength to rear This wearied arm. As when high Jove denouncing future woe. O'er the dark clouds extends his purple bow. All grim with rage. beloved by all. To thee the greatest in whose cause he fell!" "O chief. A prey to dogs beneath the Trojan wall? What shame 'o Greece for future times to tell. So looks the lion o'er a mangled boar. pleased at length the Grecian arms to aid. and ward the storm of war! But Hector. (In sign of tempests from the troubled air. destructive war. and renews the war. High on the chariot at one bound he sprung.BOOK XVII. than here unmoved To guard the body of the man I loved? Ah.

and his guest. By Hector loved. (Bold son of air and heat) on angry wings Untamed. Sudden at Hector's side Apollo stood.) "Oh prince! (he cried) Oh foremost once in fame! What Grecian now shall tremble at thy name? Dost thou at length to Menelaus yield. The friend of Hector. She breathes new vigour in her hero's breast. There stood a Trojan.536 The Iliad of Homer Pleased to be first of all the powers address'd. appear'd the god. Asius' son. who held his wealthy reign In fair Abydos. and stings. And. unrevenged. (Asius the great. untired. And fills with keen revenge. ponderous as he falls. with fell despite. A chief once thought no terror of the field? Yet singly. Desire of blood. the long-disputed prize He bears victorious. Like Phaenops. Rage lifts his lance. and Podes was his name: With riches honour'd. and rage. is dead!" This heard. while our army flies: By the same arm illustrious Podes bled. So burns the vengeful hornet (soul all o'er). attacks. Aetion's son. and lust of fight. and with courage bless'd. his comrade. and drives him on the foe. Repulsed in vain. not unknown to fame. Fired with like ardour fierce Atrides flew. And sent his soul with every lance he threw. Through his broad belt the spear a passage found. . he turns. his arms resound. and thirsty still of gore. o'er Hector spreads a cloud of woe. now. by the rolling main.

BOOK XVII. But the brave squire the ready coursers brought. For as the brave Boeotian turn'd his head To face the foe. Between his cheek and ear the weapon went. And blaze beneath the lightnings of the god: At one regard of his all-seeing eye The vanquish'd triumph. The affrighted hills from their foundations nod. On foot bold Merion fought. the impetuous spear Struck to the dust the squire and charioteer Of martial Merion: Coeranus his name. and now laid low. Had graced the triumphs of his Trojan foe. the thunder roar'd aloud. That shaded Ide and all the subject field Beneath its ample verge. As Hector follow'd. Exulting Troy with clamour fills the fields: High on his chariots the Cretan stood. The brittle point before his corslet yields. The son of Priam whirl'd the massive wood. A rolling cloud Involved the mount. Then trembled Greece: the flight Peneleus led. 537 [327] . Pierced through the wrist. And with his life his master's safety bought. and raging with the pain. But now the Eternal shook his sable shield. Idomen address'd The flaming javelin to his manly breast. Leitus quits the plain. Who left fair Lyctus for the fields of fame. The teeth it shatter'd. and the tongue it rent. Grasps his once formidable lance in vain. But erring from its aim. And razed his shoulder with a shorten'd spear: By Hector wounded. Polydamas drew near. and the victors fly. Prone from the seat he tumbles to the plain.

Then thus begun. the armies. scarce rescued from their fates. For sure he knows not. all are lost In general darkness—Lord of earth and air! Oh king! Oh father! hear my humble prayer: Dispel this cloud. Deserted of the god. He suffers every lance to fall in vain. May glad the fleets that hope not our return. in triumph borne. And the swift chariot to the navy flies. distant on the shore. incessant though they rain. But such a chief I spy not through the host: The men. Not Ajax less the will of heaven descried. the godlike Telamon: "Alas! who sees not Jove's almighty hand Transfers the glory to the Trojan band? Whether the weak or strong discharge the dart. Who tremble yet. And conquest shifting to the Trojan side. and Ajax asks no more: If Greece must perish. His friend. the steeds. his loved Patroclus. Give me to see. yet let us try What human strength and prudence can supply. If yet this honour'd corse. Turn'd by the hand of Jove. And still hear Hector thundering at their gates. He guides each arrow to a Grecian heart: Not so our spears. the lash applies. we thy will obey. is no more. And urges to desert the hopeless war: Idomeneus consents. the light of heaven restore. But let us perish in the face of day!" .538 The Iliad of Homer His dying hand forgets the falling rein: This Merion reaches. To Atreus's seed. Some hero too must be despatch'd to bear The mournful message to Pelides' ear. bending from the car.

Atrides! cast around thy sight. as in life a friend!" .BOOK XVII. but with unwilling pace. The blaze of armour flash'd against the day. In death a hero. and quits the untasted prey. And the red terrors of the blazing brands: Till late. Long gall'd by herdsmen. now. "Now. The darts fly round him from a hundred hands. So moved Atrides from his dangerous place With weary limbs. Forth burst the sun with all-enlightening ray. much adjured his train: "O guard these relics to your charge consign'd. he fear'd. 539 [328] So turns the lion from the nightly fold. at the dawn of day Sour he departs. and long vex'd by hounds. might yet Patroclus gain. alas! but fate decreed his end. How skill'd he was in each obliging art. And bear the merits of the dead in mind. The foe. Though high in courage. The mildest manners. If yet Antilochus survives the fight. reluctant. With tears the hero spoke. and fretted sore with wounds. And much admonish'd. and at his prayer The god relenting clear'd the clouded air. and the gentlest heart: He was. Stiff with fatigue. Let him to great Achilles' ear convey The fatal news"—Atrides hastes away. and with hunger bold.

and spreading deaths around: To him the king: "Beloved of Jove! draw near. on the shore Now pale and dead." The youthful warrior heard with silent woe. From his fair eyes the tears began to flow: Big with the mighty grief. With tearful eyes. [329] . he strove to say What sorrow dictates. And round on all sides sent his piercing view. this instant fly. and tell The sad Achilles. near him wheeling. Then stoops. endued with sharpest eye Of all that wings the mid aerial sky. Fly to the fleet. who despoil'd the slain. how his loved-one fell: He too may haste the naked corse to gain: The arms are Hector's. The sacred eagle. Thy eyes have witness'd what a fatal turn! How Ilion triumphs. This is not all: Patroclus. he found. and with dejected heart. Cheering his men. but no word found way. his exerted sight Pass'd this and that way. Snatches his life amid the clouds of air. drove his steeds along. shall succour Greece no more. Who. Then ran the mournful message to impart. and the Achaians mourn. Not with less quickness. and sees the distant thicket move. For sadder tidings never touch'd thy ear. and sousing on the quivering hare. from his walks above Looks down. through the ranks of fight: Till on the left the chief he sought. To brave Laodocus his arms he flung.540 The Iliad of Homer So parts the chief. from rank to rank he flew. As the bold bird.

and their javelins shower: But Ajax turning. and this way rolls our fate. Have tried it. unbounded be his woe. With Merion's aid. he fights not with the Trojan foe. With rage insatiate." The hero said. And save ourselves. 541 . High from the ground the warriors heave the dead. What Troy can dare. to their fears they yield. Voracious hounds. and have stood. for Achilles' aid: Though fierce his rage. Not fiercer rush along the gloomy wood. Myself. "Gone is Antilochus (the hero said). Wave their thick falchions. fighting side by side. They howl aloof.BOOK XVII. Swift fled the youth: nor Menelaus stands (Though sore distress'd) to aid the Pylian bands. Himself returns to his Patroclus slain. be it then thy care. A general clamour rises at the sight: Loud shout the Trojans. and my bold brother will sustain The shock of Hector and his charging train: Nor fear we armies. and with thirst of blood." "'Tis well (said Ajax). 'Tis our own vigour must the dead regain. the weighty corse to rear. But bids bold Thrasymede those troops sustain. and renew the fight. that many a length before Their furious hunters. But if the savage turns his glaring eye. while with impetuous hate Troy pours along. But hope not. warriors. Thus on retreating Greece the Trojans pour. Unarm'd. we have already tried. 'Tis in our hands alone our hopes remain. drive the wounded boar. All pale they tremble and forsake the field. and round the forest fly.

And breaks the torrent of the rushing bands. along the rugged road. Aeneas storms. and all the way. The enormous timber lumbering down the hill: So these—Behind. horror. while the falcon. .542 The Iliad of Homer [330] While thus aloft the hero's corse they bear. chariots. tumult. Now crack the blazing temples of the gods. Still close they follow. the bulk of Ajax stands. big drops of sweat distil. From the steep mountain with exerted strength Drag some vast beam. And breaks its force. Some interposing hill the stream divides. Now sink in gloomy clouds the proud abodes. steeds. close the rear engage. thick retreat maintains. and Hector foams with rage: While Greece a heavy. hung High on poised pinions. Thus when a river swell'd with sudden rains Spreads his broad waters o'er the level plains. and still the battle bleeds. And sheets of smoke mount heavy to the poles. The heroes sweat beneath their honour'd load: As when two mules. threats their callow young. Strow'd in bright heaps. So from the Trojan chiefs the Grecians fly. The rumbling torrent through the ruin rolls. Such the wild terror. their arms and armour lay. urged the rout along: Less fierce the winds with rising flames conspire To whelm some city under waves of fire. without the trench. like a flight of cranes. Wedged in one body. Inly they groan. Such horror Jove impress'd! yet still proceeds The work of death. That shriek incessant. Behind them rages all the storm of war: Confusion. o'er the throng Of men. and the mingled cry: Within. and turns the winding tides. or mast's unwieldy length.



The speeches of the mother and son on this occasion. lastly.nymphs to comfort him. The news of the death of Patroclus is brought to Achilles by Antilochus. where Hector and Polydamas disagree in their opinions: but the advice of the former prevails. to remain encamped in the field. from whence it changes to the palace of Vulcan. and the night ensuing.[331] BOOK XVIII. The sight of him turns the fortunes of the day. The description of the wonderful works of Vulcan: and. ARGUMENT. and the body of Patroclus is carried off by the Greeks. THE GRIEF OF ACHILLES. and orders him to show himself at the head of the intrenchments. 250 . the regular narrative being interrupted by the message of Antilochus and the lamentations of Achilles. Thetis goes to the palace of Vulcan to obtain new arms for her son. Thetis.250 And now it rises. where Hellespont's broad waters flow. The grief of Achilles over the body of Patroclus. This is connected with the earlier part of last book. now it sinks by turns. The latter part of the nine-and-twentieth day. The Trojans call a council. that noble one of the shield of Achilles. hearing his lamentations. take up this book: the scene is at Achilles' tent on the sea-shore. Meanwhile. AND NEW ARMOUR MADE HIM BY VULCAN. Iris appears to Achilles by the command of Juno. Thus like the rage of fire the combat burns. comes with all her sea.

now to quit the plains? Is this the day. And wrapp'd his senses in the cloud of grief. as to earth he grew. and Patroclus he! In vain I charged him soon to quit the plain. On hoisted yards extended to the gales. On the hard soil his groaning breast he threw. . for all that fate design'd Rose in sad prospect to his boding mind. the unwilling messenger! Dead is Patroclus! For his corse they fight. Thus to his soul he said: "Ah! what constrains The Greeks. late victors. son of Peleus! thou must hear. And tells the melancholy tale with tears. Antilochus appears. and gathering round. And roll'd and grovell'd." A sudden horror shot through all the chief. the messenger of woe: There sat Achilles. Fallen is the warrior. His naked corse: his arms are Hector's right. And warn'd to shun Hectorean force in vain!" [332] Thus while he thinks. His purple garments. or by Patroclus' arms. Cast on the ground. shaded by his sails. Pensive he sat.) when by a Trojan hand The bravest of the Myrmidonian band Should lose the light! Fulfilled is that decree. Those he deforms with dust. with furious hands he spread The scorching ashes o'er his graceful head. which heaven so long ago Ordain'd.546 The Iliad of Homer Stood Nestor's son. "Sad tidings. and these he tears.) Rush'd from their tents with cries. and his golden hairs. with disorder'd charms. The virgin captives. (Won by his own. to sink me with the weight of woe? (So Thetis warn'd. And wretched I.

Amphinome.BOOK XVIII. Panope appear. Beat their white breasts. The mother-goddess from her crystal throne Heard his loud cries.251 With hoary Nereus. And mourns the warrior with a warrior's heart. And oft prevents the meditated blow. and answer'd groan for groan. And all the sea-green sisters of the deep. All these. and silver Spio came: Cymothoe and Cymodoce were nigh. These Orythia. Melita. in the play of Æschylus. Glauce (every watery name). Dexamene the slow. Pherusa. Doto. Thoa. and Amphithoe gay: Next Callianira. Agave gentle. And black Janira. and comes from the depths of the sea to comfort him. And the blue languish of soft Alia's eye. the glimmering grotto fill'd. Callianassa show Their sister looks. and the watery train. and fainted on the ground: While Nestor's son sustains a manlier part. 547 [333] —Far in the deep. and Janassa fair. Nesaea mild. Hangs on his arms. amidst his frantic woe. Doris. Far in the deep abysses of the main. the train extend. Their locks Actaea and Limnoria rear. And Amatheia with her amber hair. So Oceanus hears the lamentations of Prometheus. now cut the tides: Iaera now the verdant wave divides: Nemertes with Apseudes lifts the head. Clymene. And swift Dynamene. and all that deep in ocean held Their sacred seats. Then Proto. Thalia. Maera. attend. The circling Nereids with their mistress weep. Bright Galatea quits her pearly bed. 251 .

The immortal mother. by my careful hand He grew. And thus the silver-footed dame began: "Why mourns my son? thy late preferr'd request The god has granted. were I mortal. the melancholy train Attend her way. And mourn my loved-one with a mother's heart." . Reveal the cause. The bravest far that ever bore the name. were my fate! How more than wretched in the immortal state! Sprung from my bed a godlike hero came. he flourish'd and adorn'd the land To Troy I sent him: but the fates ordain He never. two by two. and the Greeks distress'd: Why mourns my son? thy anguish let me share. never must return again. ye sisters of the main! How just a cause has Thetis to complain! How wretched. All bathed in tears. Approaching now. they touch'd the Trojan land. to his sighs replied. standing close beside Her mournful offspring. So short. I go at least to bear a tender part. While the long pomp the silver wave divides.548 The Iliad of Homer Each beat her ivory breast with silent woe. and judge. Along the coast their mingled clamours ran. and trust a parent's care. Till Thetis' sorrows thus began to flow: "Hear me." She said. and left the caverns of the main. Then. So short a space the light of heaven to view. Like some fair olive. ascended up the strand. alas! and fill'd with anguish too! Hear how his sorrows echo through the shore! I cannot ease them. but I must deplore. Wide-opening part the tides.

a sister of the main. He. a hundred ghosts demand 549 [334] . since from this miserable day I cast all hope of my return away. less ambitious. at this. and woes to come. On these conditions will I breathe: till then. loved of all my martial train. For soon. Hector bears the glorious load. Achilles hates to live. goddess. new sorrows. Let his last spirit smoke upon my dart. beyond myself is slain! Lost are those arms the gods themselves bestow'd On Peleus. the goddess shed: "Ah then. I see thee dying. see thee dead! When Hector falls. when all the powers above Thy charms submitted to a mortal love: O hadst thou still. Ah then. And let me fall! (Achilles made reply) Far lies Patroclus from his native plain! He fell. 'Tis not in fate the alternate now to give. Patroclus dead. Cursed be that day. Not even the Thunderer's favour brings relief. deeply groaning—"To this cureless grief. and falling. Patroclus—Ah!—say.BOOK XVIII. led A mortal beauty to his equal bed! Ere the sad fruit of thy unhappy womb Had caused such sorrows past. Beyond mankind. Pursued the pleasures of the watery reign: And happier Peleus. Patroclus. Since. Let me revenge it on proud Hector's heart. wish'd my aid in vain."—"Let Hector die. New woes. I blush to walk among the race of men. unrevenged. shall create again." A flood of tears. thou diest. alas! that wretched offspring slain. can I boast A pleasure now? revenge itself is lost.


The Iliad of Homer

The fate of Hector from Achilles' hand; Since here, for brutal courage far renown'd, I live an idle burden to the ground, (Others in council famed for nobler skill, More useful to preserve, than I to kill,) Let me—But oh! ye gracious powers above! Wrath and revenge from men and gods remove: Far, far too dear to every mortal breast, Sweet to the soul, as honey to the taste: Gathering like vapours of a noxious kind From fiery blood, and darkening all the mind. Me Agamemnon urged to deadly hate; 'Tis past—I quell it; I resign to fate. Yes—I will meet the murderer of my friend; Or (if the gods ordain it) meet my end. The stroke of fate the strongest cannot shun: The great Alcides, Jove's unequall'd son, To Juno's hate, at length resign'd his breath, And sunk the victim of all-conquering death. So shall Achilles fall! stretch'd pale and dead, No more the Grecian hope, or Trojan dread! Let me, this instant, rush into the fields, And reap what glory life's short harvest yields. Shall I not force some widow'd dame to tear With frantic hands her long dishevell'd hair? Shall I not force her breast to heave with sighs, And the soft tears to trickle from her eyes? Yes, I shall give the fair those mournful charms— In vain you hold me—Hence! my arms! my arms!— Soon shall the sanguine torrent spread so wide, That all shall know Achilles swells the tide." "My son (coerulean Thetis made reply, To fate submitting with a secret sigh,)

BOOK XVIII. The host to succour, and thy friends to save, Is worthy thee; the duty of the brave. But canst thou, naked, issue to the plains? Thy radiant arms the Trojan foe detains. Insulting Hector bears the spoils on high, But vainly glories, for his fate is nigh. Yet, yet awhile thy generous ardour stay; Assured, I meet thee at the dawn of day, Charged with refulgent arms (a glorious load), Vulcanian arms, the labour of a god." Then turning to the daughters of the main, The goddess thus dismiss'd her azure train: "Ye sister Nereids! to your deeps descend; Haste, and our father's sacred seat attend; I go to find the architect divine, Where vast Olympus' starry summits shine: So tell our hoary sire"—This charge she gave: The sea-green sisters plunge beneath the wave: Thetis once more ascends the bless'd abodes, And treads the brazen threshold of the gods.



And now the Greeks from furious Hector's force, Urge to broad Hellespont their headlong course; Nor yet their chiefs Patroclus' body bore Safe through the tempest to the tented shore. The horse, the foot, with equal fury join'd, Pour'd on the rear, and thunder'd close behind: And like a flame through fields of ripen'd corn, The rage of Hector o'er the ranks was borne. Thrice the slain hero by the foot he drew; Thrice to the skies the Trojan clamours flew: As oft the Ajaces his assault sustain;



The Iliad of Homer

THETIS ORDERING THE NEREIDS TO DESCEND INTO THE SEA. But check'd, he turns; repuls'd, attacks again. With fiercer shouts his lingering troops he fires, Nor yields a step, nor from his post retires: So watchful shepherds strive to force, in vain, The hungry lion from a carcase slain. Even yet Patroclus had he borne away, And all the glories of the extended day, Had not high Juno from the realms of air, Secret, despatch'd her trusty messenger. The various goddess of the showery bow, Shot in a whirlwind to the shore below; To great Achilles at his ships she came, And thus began the many-colour'd dame: "Rise, son of Peleus! rise, divinely brave! Assist the combat, and Patroclus save: For him the slaughter to the fleet they spread, And fall by mutual wounds around the dead.

BOOK XVIII. To drag him back to Troy the foe contends: Nor with his death the rage of Hector ends: A prey to dogs he dooms the corse to lie, And marks the place to fix his head on high. Rise, and prevent (if yet you think of fame) Thy friend's disgrace, thy own eternal shame!"


"Who sends thee, goddess, from the ethereal skies?" Achilles thus. And Iris thus replies:

"I come, Pelides! from the queen of Jove, The immortal empress of the realms above; Unknown to him who sits remote on high, Unknown to all the synod of the sky." "Thou comest in vain (he cries, with fury warm'd); Arms I have none, and can I fight unarm'd? Unwilling as I am, of force I stay, Till Thetis bring me at the dawn of day Vulcanian arms: what other can I wield, Except the mighty Telamonian shield? That, in my friend's defence, has Ajax spread, While his strong lance around him heaps the dead: The gallant chief defends Menoetius' son, And does what his Achilles should have done."

"Thy want of arms (said Iris) well we know; But though unarm'd, yet clad in terrors, go! Let but Achilles o'er yon trench appear, Proud Troy shall tremble, and consent to fear; Greece from one glance of that tremendous eye Shall take new courage, and disdain to fly."


The Iliad of Homer


She spoke, and pass'd in air. The hero rose: Her aegis Pallas o'er his shoulder throws; Around his brows a golden cloud she spread; A stream of glory flamed above his head. As when from some beleaguer'd town arise The smokes, high curling to the shaded skies; (Seen from some island, o'er the main afar, When men distress'd hang out the sign of war;) Soon as the sun in ocean hides his rays, Thick on the hills the flaming beacons blaze; With long-projected beams the seas are bright, And heaven's high arch reflects the ruddy light: So from Achilles' head the splendours rise, Reflecting blaze on blaze against the skies. Forth march'd the chief, and distant from the crowd, High on the rampart raised his voice aloud; With her own shout Minerva swells the sound; Troy starts astonish'd, and the shores rebound. As the loud trumpet's brazen mouth from far With shrilling clangour sounds the alarm of war, Struck from the walls, the echoes float on high, And the round bulwarks and thick towers reply; So high his brazen voice the hero rear'd: Hosts dropp'd their arms, and trembled as they heard: And back the chariots roll, and coursers bound, And steeds and men lie mingled on the ground. Aghast they see the living lightnings play, And turn their eyeballs from the flashing ray. Thrice from the trench his dreadful voice he raised, And thrice they fled, confounded and amazed. Twelve in the tumult wedged, untimely rush'd On their own spears, by their own chariots crush'd: While, shielded from the darts, the Greeks obtain The long-contended carcase of the slain.

BOOK XVIII. A lofty bier the breathless warrior bears: Around, his sad companions melt in tears. But chief Achilles, bending down his head, Pours unavailing sorrows o'er the dead, Whom late triumphant, with his steeds and car, He sent refulgent to the field of war; (Unhappy change!) now senseless, pale, he found, Stretch'd forth, and gash'd with many a gaping wound. Meantime, unwearied with his heavenly way, In ocean's waves the unwilling light of day Quench'd his red orb, at Juno's high command, And from their labours eased the Achaian band. The frighted Trojans (panting from the war, Their steeds unharness'd from the weary car) A sudden council call'd: each chief appear'd In haste, and standing; for to sit they fear'd. 'Twas now no season for prolong'd debate; They saw Achilles, and in him their fate. Silent they stood: Polydamas at last, Skill'd to discern the future by the past, The son of Panthus, thus express'd his fears (The friend of Hector, and of equal years; The self-same night to both a being gave, One wise in council, one in action brave):



"In free debate, my friends, your sentence speak; For me, I move, before the morning break, To raise our camp: too dangerous here our post, Far from Troy walls, and on a naked coast. I deem'd not Greece so dreadful, while engaged In mutual feuds her king and hero raged; Then, while we hoped our armies might prevail


The Iliad of Homer


We boldly camp'd beside a thousand sail. I dread Pelides now: his rage of mind Not long continues to the shores confined, Nor to the fields, where long in equal fray Contending nations won and lost the day; For Troy, for Troy, shall henceforth be the strife, And the hard contest not for fame, but life. Haste then to Ilion, while the favouring night Detains these terrors, keeps that arm from fight. If but the morrow's sun behold us here, That arm, those terrors, we shall feel, not fear; And hearts that now disdain, shall leap with joy, If heaven permit them then to enter Troy. Let not my fatal prophecy be true, Nor what I tremble but to think, ensue. Whatever be our fate, yet let us try What force of thought and reason can supply; Let us on counsel for our guard depend;

BOOK XVIII. The town her gates and bulwarks shall defend. When morning dawns, our well-appointed powers, Array'd in arms, shall line the lofty towers. Let the fierce hero, then, when fury calls, Vent his mad vengeance on our rocky walls, Or fetch a thousand circles round the plain, Till his spent coursers seek the fleet again: So may his rage be tired, and labour'd down! And dogs shall tear him ere he sack the town." "Return! (said Hector, fired with stern disdain) What! coop whole armies in our walls again? Was't not enough, ye valiant warriors, say, Nine years imprison'd in those towers ye lay? Wide o'er the world was Ilion famed of old For brass exhaustless, and for mines of gold: But while inglorious in her walls we stay'd, Sunk were her treasures, and her stores decay'd; The Phrygians now her scatter'd spoils enjoy, And proud Maeonia wastes the fruits of Troy. Great Jove at length my arms to conquest calls, And shuts the Grecians in their wooden walls, Darest thou dispirit whom the gods incite? Flies any Trojan? I shall stop his flight. To better counsel then attention lend; Take due refreshment, and the watch attend. If there be one whose riches cost him care, Forth let him bring them for the troops to share; 'Tis better generously bestow'd on those, Than left the plunder of our country's foes. Soon as the morn the purple orient warms, Fierce on yon navy will we pour our arms. If great Achilles rise in all his might, His be the danger: I shall stand the fight.


558 Honour, ye gods! or let me gain or give; And live he glorious, whosoe'er shall live! Mars is our common lord, alike to all; And oft the victor triumphs, but to fall."

The Iliad of Homer

The shouting host in loud applauses join'd; So Pallas robb'd the many of their mind; To their own sense condemn'd, and left to choose The worst advice, the better to refuse. While the long night extends her sable reign, Around Patroclus mourn'd the Grecian train. Stern in superior grief Pelides stood; Those slaughtering arms, so used to bathe in blood, Now clasp his clay-cold limbs: then gushing start The tears, and sighs burst from his swelling heart. The lion thus, with dreadful anguish stung, Roars through the desert, and demands his young; When the grim savage, to his rifled den Too late returning, snuffs the track of men, And o'er the vales and o'er the forest bounds; His clamorous grief the bellowing wood resounds. So grieves Achilles; and, impetuous, vents To all his Myrmidons his loud laments. "In what vain promise, gods! did I engage, When to console Menoetius' feeble age, I vowed his much-loved offspring to restore, Charged with rich spoils, to fair Opuntia's shore?252 But mighty Jove cuts short, with just disdain, The long, long views of poor designing man! One fate the warrior and the friend shall strike, And Troy's black sands must drink our blood alike:


Opuntia, a city of Locris.

BOOK XVIII. Me too a wretched mother shall deplore, An aged father never see me more! Yet, my Patroclus! yet a space I stay, Then swift pursue thee on the darksome way. Ere thy dear relics in the grave are laid, Shall Hector's head be offer'd to thy shade; That, with his arms, shall hang before thy shrine; And twelve, the noblest of the Trojan line, Sacred to vengeance, by this hand expire; Their lives effused around thy flaming pyre. Thus let me lie till then! thus, closely press'd, Bathe thy cold face, and sob upon thy breast! While Trojan captives here thy mourners stay, Weep all the night and murmur all the day: Spoils of my arms, and thine; when, wasting wide, Our swords kept time, and conquer'd side by side."


He spoke, and bade the sad attendants round Cleanse the pale corse, and wash each honour'd wound. A massy caldron of stupendous frame They brought, and placed it o'er the rising flame: Then heap'd the lighted wood; the flame divides Beneath the vase, and climbs around the sides: In its wide womb they pour the rushing stream; The boiling water bubbles to the brim. The body then they bathe with pious toil, Embalm the wounds, anoint the limbs with oil, High on a bed of state extended laid, And decent cover'd with a linen shade; Last o'er the dead the milk-white veil they threw; That done, their sorrows and their sighs renew.


The Iliad of Homer

Meanwhile to Juno, in the realms above, (His wife and sister,) spoke almighty Jove. "At last thy will prevails: great Peleus' son Rises in arms: such grace thy Greeks have won. Say (for I know not), is their race divine, And thou the mother of that martial line?"

"What words are these? (the imperial dame replies, While anger flash'd from her majestic eyes) Succour like this a mortal arm might lend, And such success mere human wit attend: And shall not I, the second power above, Heaven's queen, and consort of the thundering Jove, Say, shall not I one nation's fate command, Not wreak my vengeance on one guilty land?"

So they. Meanwhile the silver-footed dame Reach'd the Vulcanian dome, eternal frame! High-eminent amid the works divine, Where heaven's far-beaming brazen mansions shine. There the lame architect the goddess found, Obscure in smoke, his forges flaming round, While bathed in sweat from fire to fire he flew; And puffing loud, the roaring billows blew. That day no common task his labour claim'd: Full twenty tripods for his hall he framed, That placed on living wheels of massy gold, (Wondrous to tell,) instinct with spirit roll'd From place to place, around the bless'd abodes Self-moved, obedient to the beck of gods: For their fair handles now, o'erwrought with flowers, In moulds prepared, the glowing ore he pours. Just as responsive to his thought the frame





The Iliad of Homer

Stood prompt to move, the azure goddess came: Charis, his spouse, a grace divinely fair, (With purple fillets round her braided hair,) Observed her entering; her soft hand she press'd, And, smiling, thus the watery queen address'd:


"What, goddess! this unusual favour draws? All hail, and welcome! whatsoe'er the cause; Till now a stranger, in a happy hour Approach, and taste the dainties of the bower."


BOOK XVIII. High on a throne, with stars of silver graced, And various artifice, the queen she placed; A footstool at her feet: then calling, said, "Vulcan, draw near, 'tis Thetis asks your aid." "Thetis (replied the god) our powers may claim, An ever-dear, an ever-honour'd name! When my proud mother hurl'd me from the sky, (My awkward form, it seems, displeased her eye,) She, and Eurynome, my griefs redress'd, And soft received me on their silver breast. Even then these arts employ'd my infant thought: Chains, bracelets, pendants, all their toys, I wrought. Nine years kept secret in the dark abode, Secure I lay, conceal'd from man and god: Deep in a cavern'd rock my days were led; The rushing ocean murmur'd o'er my head. Now, since her presence glads our mansion, say, For such desert what service can I pay? Vouchsafe, O Thetis! at our board to share The genial rites, and hospitable fare; While I the labours of the forge forego, And bid the roaring bellows cease to blow." Then from his anvil the lame artist rose; Wide with distorted legs oblique he goes, And stills the bellows, and (in order laid) Locks in their chests his instruments of trade. Then with a sponge the sooty workman dress'd His brawny arms embrown'd, and hairy breast. With his huge sceptre graced, and red attire, Came halting forth the sovereign of the fire: The monarch's steps two female forms uphold, That moved and breathed in animated gold; To whom was voice, and sense, and science given




The Iliad of Homer

Of works divine (such wonders are in heaven!) On these supported, with unequal gait, He reach'd the throne where pensive Thetis sate; There placed beside her on the shining frame, He thus address'd the silver-footed dame:

"Thee, welcome, goddess! what occasion calls (So long a stranger) to these honour'd walls? 'Tis thine, fair Thetis, the command to lay, And Vulcan's joy and duty to obey."


BOOK XVIII. To whom the mournful mother thus replies: (The crystal drops stood trembling in her eyes:) "O Vulcan! say, was ever breast divine So pierced with sorrows, so o'erwhelm'd as mine? Of all the goddesses, did Jove prepare For Thetis only such a weight of care? I, only I, of all the watery race By force subjected to a man's embrace, Who, sinking now with age and sorrow, pays The mighty fine imposed on length of days. Sprung from my bed, a godlike hero came, The bravest sure that ever bore the name; Like some fair plant beneath my careful hand He grew, he flourish'd, and he graced the land: To Troy I sent him! but his native shore Never, ah never, shall receive him more; (Even while he lives, he wastes with secret woe;) Nor I, a goddess, can retard the blow! Robb'd of the prize the Grecian suffrage gave, The king of nations forced his royal slave: For this he grieved; and, till the Greeks oppress'd Required his arm, he sorrow'd unredress'd. Large gifts they promise, and their elders send; In vain—he arms not, but permits his friend His arms, his steeds, his forces to employ: He marches, combats, almost conquers Troy: Then slain by Phoebus (Hector had the name) At once resigns his armour, life, and fame. But thou, in pity, by my prayer be won: Grace with immortal arms this short-lived son, And to the field in martial pomp restore, To shine with glory, till he shines no more!"



And stubborn brass. In hissing flames huge silver bars are roll'd. what Vulcan can. The work of Vulcan. Or with these hands the cruel stroke repel.253 253 Quintus Calaber. the sun. A few extracts from Mr.. 104. lib. now low. p. the father of the fires To the black labours of his forge retires. the eternal anvils stand. and tin. Then first he form'd the immense and solid shield. has attempted to rival Homer in his description of the shield of the same hero. as well. They raise a tempest. [345] "In the wide circle of the shield were seen Refulgent images of various forms. His left with tongs turns the vex'd metal round. the ether.) may here be introduced. now loud. Just as the god directs. And thick. O could I hide him from the Fates. v. is ever thine. deep fix'd. the gaze Of wondering ages. or they gently blow. and where the furnace burn'd. As I shall forge most envied arms. and the world's amaze!" Thus having said. strong strokes. the moon. Dyce's version (Select Translations.566 The Iliad of Homer To her the artist-god: "Thy griefs resign. And twenty forges catch at once the fires. The winds. Secure. Soon as he bade them blow. and solid gold. The ponderous hammer loads his better hand. seq. Resounding breathed: at once the blast expires. Rich various artifice emblazed the field. the doubling vaults rebound. who had there described The heaven. Its utmost verge a threefold circle bound. the bellows turn'd Their iron mouths. and you there might view The stars that gem the still-revolving heaven. . the clouds. apart In different stations. and the earth and sea. Before.

And solemn dance. Around the shield the waves of ocean flow'd. The unwearied sun. there heaven. revolving. In which.BOOK XVIII. the long-beak'd bird Winnow'd the gale. the vast expanse of air. The starry lights that heaven's high convex crown'd. to the nuptial bed: The youthful dancers in a circle bound To the soft flute. with outstretch'd wings. And. Here sacred pomp and genial feast delight. there ocean he design'd. and hymeneal rite. the moon completely round." . as if instinct with life. Still shines exalted on the ethereal plain. and one of war. And great Orion's more refulgent beam. Five ample plates the broad expanse compose. Nor bathes his blazing forehead in the main. And godlike labours on the surface rose. In azure mazes rolling o'er the earth. To which. The Pleiads. A silver chain suspends the massy round. 567 Two cities radiant on the shield appear. The Bear. and enjoy the show. The realms of Tethys. under them. with the northern team. points his golden eye. Seem'd to augment. Along the street the new-made brides are led. There shone the image of the master-mind: There earth. and cithern's silver sound: Through the fair streets the matrons in a row Stand in their porches. which unnumber'd streams. The image one of peace. With torches flaming. around the axle of the sky. Hyads.

On the independence of the judicial office in The heroic times. p. And Gorgons. with sceptres in their hands: On seats of stone. or that. note. Discord to the fatal strife Inciting men. That shot their forky tongues incessant forth. each his sentence spoke Two golden talents lay amidst. Through charging ranks. p. smear'd with reeking gore. ii. "Several of the old northern Sagas represent the old men assembled for the purpose of judging as sitting on great stones. whose long locks were twisting snakes. Such were the horrors of dire war. Another part (a prospect differing far)255 —On seats of stone. The prize of him who best adjudged the right. 255 —Another part. And bade the public and the laws decide: The witness is produced on either hand: For this. Alternate. a townsman slain: One pleads the fine discharged. Their limbs distilling plenteous blood and sweat. "And here Were horrid wars depicted. 100. And Terror. The subject of debate. each the attesting sceptre took. round whom did Battles throng. 254 . within the sacred place. and the tall shape Of ghastly Death. in a circle called the Urtheilsring or gerichtsring"— Grote. which one denied. beside her Rout was seen.568 The Iliad of Homer There in the forum swarm a numerous train. grimly pale Were heroes lying with their slaughter'd steeds Upon the ground incarnadin'd with blood. And form a ring. And rising solemn. and Furies breathing flames: Nor absent were the Fates. Stern stalked Bellona. &c.254 The reverend elders nodded o'er the case. in sight." —Dyce's Calaber. i. the partial people stand: The appointed heralds still the noisy bands. see Thirlwall's Greece. 166. vol.

there Contention stood confess'd. another dragg'd a dead. grim with human gore. And steers slow-moving. And. all amidst them. on the turrets stand. superior by the head! A place for ambush fit they found. They rise. they fall. A secret ambush on the foe prepare: Their wives. There Tumult. arm'd with silent care. Whole flocks and herds lie bleeding on the plains. And the whole war came out. Meantime the townsmen. that freshly bled With new-made wounds. Two spies at distance lurk. approach. and watchful seem If sheep or oxen seek the winding stream. and met the eye. Two mighty hosts a leaguer'd town embrace. the carcases they tore: Fate stalk'd amidst them. And one would pillage. and the watchful band Of trembling parents. their radiant garments gold. One rear'd a dagger at a captive's breast. take horse. their children. the shepherd swains! The bellowing oxen the besiegers hear. Soon the white flocks proceeded o'er the plains. now there. dead. and horrid war. and two shepherd swains. by Pallas and by Mars made bold: Gold were the gods. They fight. They march. One held a living foe. August. Behind them piping on their reeds they go. divine. and stood. The waving silver seem'd to blush with blood.BOOK XVIII. Now here. And gold their armour: these the squadron led. In arms the glittering squadron rising round Rush sudden. and meet the war. Cover'd with shields. 569 [346] . beside a silver flood. Glow'd with refulgent arms. hills of slaughter heap the ground. Nor fear an ambush. nor suspect a foe. beside the silver flood. one would burn the place.

reapers in a row. and. And sable look'd. Each with a sharp-tooth'd sickle in his hand. though form'd of molten gold. The gatherers follow. Work'd busily. in whose arms are borne (Too short to gripe them) the brown sheaves of corn. while with goading wand The active youths impell'd them. 256 —A field deep furrowed. With bended sickles stand the reaper train: Here stretched in ranks the levell'd swarths are found.570 The Iliad of Homer And each bold figure seem'd to live or die. and the furrow'd glebe Was black behind them. Others were ready still to bind the sheaves: Yoked to a wain that bore the corn away The steers were moving. And last the children. The shining shares full many ploughmen guide. Another field rose high with waving grain. sturdy bullocks here The plough were drawing. The rustic monarch of the field descries. Sheaves heap'd on sheaves here thicken up the ground. The master meets them with his goblet crown'd. Then back the turning ploughshares cleave the soil: Behind. [347] A field deep furrow'd next the god design'd. and collect in bands. With sweeping stroke the mowers strow the lands. And turn their crooked yokes on every side. The hearty draught rewards. ." —Dyce's Calaber. the rising earth in ridges roll'd. as the harvest fell. Here a feast Was graved: to the shrill pipe and ringing lyre A band of blooming virgins led the dance.256 The third time labour'd by the sweating hind. As if endued with life. renews their toil. "Here was a corn field. Still as at either end they wheel around.

Whose tender lay the fate of Linus sings. and seem to low in gold. ripe in yellow gold. and answer to the strain. Bent with the ponderous harvest of its vines. Where march a train with baskets on their heads. 571 [348] . A ready banquet on the turf is laid. in order glow: A darker metal mix'd intrench'd the place. And seized a bull. the heaps around him rise. a vineyard shines. And speed to meadows on whose sounding shores A rapid torrent through the rushes roars: Four golden herdsmen as their guardians stand.BOOK XVIII. one pathway gently winding leads. With silent glee. A deeper dye the dangling clusters show. erect and bold. and drank his sable blood. The dogs (oft cheer'd in vain) desert the prey. And pales of glittering tin the inclosure grace. And curl'd on silver props.) that smiling bear The purple product of the autumnal year. Dread the grim terrors. the men withstood. They tore his flesh. To this. the woman's care. The reaper's due repast. Two lions rushing from the wood appear'd. and at distance bay. Rear high their horns. To these a youth awakes the warbling strings. Beneath an ample oak's expanded shade. And nine sour dogs complete the rustic band. Next. Tune soft the voice. In measured dance behind him move the train. The victim ox the sturdy youth prepare. Here herds of oxen march. the master of the herd: He roar'd: in vain the dogs. (Fair maids and blooming youths.

Now all at once they rise. now low. they spring. Form'd by Daedalean art. that whiten all the scene. and folds. the moving maze: Now forth at once. from silver belts depend. a comely band Of youths and maidens. in giddy circle toss'd. the eye the art of Vulcan leads Deep through fair forests. A figured dance succeeds. . The gazing multitudes admire around: Two active tumblers in the centre bound. at once descend. With well-taught feet: now shape in oblique ways. Now high. That glittering gay. Of these the sides adorn'd with swords of gold.572 The Iliad of Homer Next this. bounding hand in hand. Thus the broad shield complete the artist crown'd With his last hand. And stalls. And fleecy flocks. and a length of meads. and bound the whole. The youths all graceful in the glossy vest: Of those the locks with flowery wreath inroll'd. the single spokes are lost. The maids in soft simars of linen dress'd. rapid as it runs. Confusedly regular. and pour'd the ocean round: In living silver seem'd the waves to roll. and scatter'd cots between. And. their pliant limbs they bend: And general songs the sprightly revel end. such once was seen In lofty Gnossus for the Cretan queen. And beat the buckler's verge. And undistinguish'd blend the flying ring: So whirls a wheel. too swift for sight.

and the fisherman on the shore with his casting net. And bears the blazing present through the skies. there is this curious peculiarity. the leading remark is. waking the echoes of Olympus to celestial harmonies. the helm impress'd With various sculpture. p. the superiority of Homer is decisive—while in those of war and tumult it may be thought. are minutely represented. the cuirass that outshone the fires." . As to the Hesiodic images themselves. and the golden crest.BOOK XVIII. perhaps.) has diligently compared this with the description of the shield of Hercules by Hesiod. seq.— but the gap is wide indeed between them and Apollo with the Muses. whate'er a warrior's use requires He forged. we are hurried back to Perseus. over an arm of the sea. the fugitive fishes. and the difference of arrangement in the Shield of Hercules is altogether for the worse. in which the sporting dolphins. whence however.257 573 257 Coleridge (Greek Classic Poets. The Hesiodic images are huddled together without connection or congruity: Mars and Pallas are awkwardly introduced among the Centaurs and Lapithae. "with two or three exceptions. This done. that. and at sublimity by exaggeration. 182. that the Hesiodic poet has more than once the advantage. The natural consecution of the Homeric images needs no exposition: it constitutes in itself one of the beauties of the work. as a falcon cuts the aerial way. Swift from Olympus' snowy summit flies. the Gorgons. The greaves of ductile tin. in the description of scenes of rustic peace. and upon the untenable supposition of the genuineness of this poem. the imagery differs in little more than the names and arrangements. At Thetis' feet the finished labour lay: She. He remarks that. and other images of war. that they catch at beauty by ornament.


(With new-born day to gladden mortal sight. He addresses himself to his horses. presents. Minerva descends to strengthen him. He arms for the fight: his appearance described. rushes with fury to the combat. and gives himself up to lamentations for his friend. Thetis brings to her son the armour made by Vulcan.) The immortal arms the goddess-mother bears Swift to her son: her son she finds in tears . and reproaches them with the death of Patroclus. And gild the courts of heaven with sacred light. and inspired to prophesy his fate: but the hero. One of them is miraculously endued with voice. The hero obstinately refuses all repast. to declare his resentment at an end. Agamemnon and Achilles are solemnly reconciled: the speeches. and commands him to assemble the army. The scene is on the sea-shore. She preserves the body of his friend from corruption. ARGUMENT. and ceremonies on that occasion. The thirteenth day. The presents are conveyed to the tent of Achilles. that blush'd with early red. where Briseis laments over the body of Patroclus. THE RECONCILIATION OF ACHILLES AND AGAMEMNON. by the order of Jupiter. not astonished by that prodigy. Soon as Aurora heaved her Orient head Above the waves. Achilles is with great difficulty persuaded to refrain from the battle till the troops have refreshed themselves by the advice of Ulysses.[349] BOOK XIX.

pollute the dead?" "That unavailing care be laid aside. A ray divine her heavenly presence shed. Achilles. that shine With matchless art. confess the hand divine. "Goddess! (he cried. Fresh as in life. my son. Behold what arms by Vulcan are bestow'd. while all the rest Their sovereign's sorrows in their own express'd. From his fierce eyeballs living flames expire. uninjured shall remain. And from the broad effulgence turn their eyes.) Whole years untouch'd. Thetis said: "Suppress. Now to the bloody battle let me bend: But ah! the relics of my slaughter'd friend! In those wide wounds through which his spirit fled. (The azure goddess to her son replied. this rage of grief. his hand soft touching. that gave the blow. Arms worthy thee. And flash incessant like a stream of fire: He turns the radiant gift: and feeds his mind On all the immortal artist had design'd.) these glorious arms. or fit to grace a god. And feels with rage divine his bosom glow. But go. Back shrink the Myrmidons with dread surprise. Clang the strong arms. as affairs require." Then drops the radiant burden on the ground.576 The Iliad of Homer Stretch'd o'er Patroclus' corse. but heaven. and worms obscene. and know It was not man. And thus. And heaven with strength supply the mighty rage!" [350] . the carcase of the slain. Before the Grecian peers renounce thine ire: Then uncontroll'd in boundless war engage. and ring the shores around. Shall flies. Unmoved the hero kindles at the show.

and leaning on the spear. and sacred from decay. These on the sacred seats of council placed. Then in the nostrils of the slain she pour'd Nectareous drops. Untouch'd it rests. The king of men. Atrides. at the well-known sound. Studious to see the terror of the plain. transported.BOOK XIX. and all the naval train That tend the ships. Tydides and Ulysses first appear. Lame with their wounds. Achilles to the strand obedient went: The shores resounded with the voice he sent. The flies forbid their prey. or guide them o'er the main. Frequent and full. and rich ambrosia shower'd O'er all the corse. the great assembly crown'd. Long lost to battle. shine in arms again. Alarm'd. 577 THETIS BRINGING THE ARMOUR TO ACHILLES. came the last: He too sore wounded by Agenor's son. The heroes heard. Achilles (rising in the midst) begun: [351] .

when this arm he knows. And even as Greece has bled. and all-compelling Fate. and try if in our sight Troy yet shall dare to camp a second night! I deem. and with joy repose. If (ere the day when by mad passion sway'd. their mightiest. When thus. And let your rash. ye sons of Greece! with silence hear! And grant your monarch an impartial ear: Awhile your loud. Nor charge on me. And sad posterity repeat the tale. and shout Pelides' name. alas. Burn with a fury that can never die? Here then my anger ends: let war succeed. Rash we contended for the black-eyed maid) Preventing Dian had despatch'd her dart. Now call the hosts. But this. of me. not rising from his lofty throne. no more the subject of debate.578 The Iliad of Homer "O monarch! better far had been the fate Of thee. a mortal man. Long. injurious clamours end: Unruly murmurs. let Ilion bleed. Why should. long shall Greece the woes we caused bewail. . angry Jove. And shot the shining mischief to the heart! Then many a hero had not press'd the shore. and the justest cause." He said: his finish'd wrath with loud acclaim The Greeks accept. as I. and resign'd to fate. of all the Grecian state. or ill-timed applause. Wrong the best speaker. the king of men begun: "Hear me. Shall 'scape with transport. Is past. ye Greeks. untimely joy suspend. Nor Troy's glad fields been fatten'd with our gore. In state unmoved. forgotten. the dire debate: Know.

And fix dominion on the favour'd youth.BOOK XIX. What then could I against the will of heaven? Not by myself. Pronounced those solemn words that bind a god. Fated to rule. And Jove expected his immortal son. 'A youth (said she) of Jove's immortal kind Is this day born: from Sthenelus he springs. She push'd her lingering infant into life: Her charms Alcmena's coming labours stay. fated to infest The race of mortals. urged my wrath that day When from Achilles' arms I forced the prey. Deceived by Juno's wiles. and female art: For when Alcmena's nine long months were run. to vouch the truth. And Jove himself. Not on the ground that haughty fury treads. just issuing to the day. inextricable woes! Of old. enter'd in my breast. inflicting as she goes Long-festering wounds. And claims thy promise to be king of kings. Jove's dread daughter. Swift to Achaian Argos bent her flight: Scarce seven moons gone. The Thunderer. With fell Erinnys. (he said) this day an infant springs. But prints her lofty footsteps on the heads Of mighty men. but vengeful Ate driven. and vaunted of his matchless boy: 'From us. And stop the babe. She. from Olympus' height.' Saturnia ask'd an oath. The joyful goddess. The world's great ruler. felt her venom'd dart. and born a king of kings. unsuspicious of the fraud. she stalk'd amid the bright abodes. the sire of men and gods. lay Sthenelus's wife. Then bids Saturnius bear his oath in mind. To gods and goddesses the unruly joy He show'd.' 579 [352] .

Ordain'd with man's contentious race to dwell. 258 . "This legend is one of the most pregnant and characteristic in the Grecian Mythology. it explains. 'tis equal: all we ask is war. Resume thy arms. and in secret groan'd. for ever driven From bright Olympus and the starry heaven: Thence on the nether world the fury fell. by his oath engaged. Stung to the soul. when his afflicting trials are brought to a close: he is then admitted to the godhead. propitious to our prayer. according to the religious ideas familiar to the old epic poets. And whirl'd her headlong down. the most renowned subjugator of all the semi-divine personages worshipped by the Hellenes. While raging Hector heap'd our camps with dead. vol. and shine again in war. where perch'd she sate.580 The Iliad of Homer Grief seized the Thunderer.258 Even thus. To us. be thy care. 128. Cursed the dire fury. yet condemned constantly to labour for others and to obey the commands of a worthless and cowardly persecutor. and receives in marriage Hebe."—Grote. p. The immortal seats should ne'er behold her more. i. the irrevocable oath he swore. he sorrow'd. and he raged. was I misled. He snatch'd the fury-goddess of debate. His recompense is reserved to the close of his career. Full oft the god his son's hard toils bemoan'd. like Jove himself." [353] " O king of nations! whose superior sway (Returns Achilles) all our hosts obey! To keep or send the presents. both the distinguishing attributes and the endless toil and endurances of Heracles. my treasures are thy own: This instant from the navy shall be sent Whate'er Ulysses promised at thy tent: But thou! appeased. From his ambrosial head. The dread. What can the errors of my rage atone? My martial troops. and especially beloved by Zeus.—a being of irresistible force.

Strength is derived from spirits and from blood. ebbing out his strength. Pure from his arms. what I act survey. but. our glorious work remains undone. and give command. Dismiss the people. a sumptuous banquet shall be made. And the full price of injured honour paid. With emulation. That done. and guiltless of his loves. O prince. Ithacus the wise: "Though. or but an instant shun The fight.BOOK XIX. godlike. and with toils declined. and thus replies The great in councils. Mere unsupported man must yield at length. Shrunk with dry famine. But let the presents to Achilles made. Let every Greek. In full assembly of all Greece be laid. When by the gods inspired. then. With strong repast to hearten every band. Stretch not henceforth. The son of Peleus thus. and deal destruction round. And solemn swear (observant of the rite) That. And those augment by generous wine and food: What boastful son of war. spotless.! thy sovereign might 581 . Can last a hero through a single day? Courage may prompt. and led by thee. without that stay. as she came. thou art by no toils oppress'd. At least our armies claim repast and rest: Long and laborious must the combat be. And learn from thence the business of the day. the maid removes. The king of men shall rise in public sight. The drooping body will desert the mind: But built anew with strength-conferring fare. who sees my spear confound The Trojan ranks. While yet we talk. he tires a war. With limbs and soul untamed.

" To him the monarch: "Just is thy decree. the firm compact made. And Jove attesting. when the day's complete. [354] . this instant.582 The Iliad of Homer Beyond the bounds of reason and of right. burns my breast no more. their faces to the sky. By Hector slain. be thy care: In order rank'd let all our gifts appear. glad your weary souls. And the fair train of captives close the rear: Talthybius shall the victim boar convey. And heaven regard me as I justly swear! Here then awhile let Greece assembled stay. A train of noble youths the charge shall bear. shall commence the fight: Then. Thy words give joy. Sacred to Jove. and yon bright orb of day. 'Tis the chief praise that e'er to kings belong'd. extinguish'd. Ulysses. Till from the fleet our presents be convey'd. And his cold feet are pointed to the door. Each due atonement gladly I prepare. with wounds disfigured o'er. Let not my palate know the taste of food." "For this (the stern Æacides replies) Some less important season may suffice. Nor great Achilles grudge this short delay. Till my insatiate rage be cloy'd with blood: Pale lies my friend. now. And wrath. All grim with gaping wounds. Now. our heroes lie: Those call to war! and might my voice incite. These to select. And copious banquets. let generous bowls. To right with justice whom with power they wrong'd. When the stern fury of the war is o'er. and wisdom breathes in thee. Revenge is all my soul! no meaner care.

and mortal wounds. and to reason yield.) The best and bravest of the warrior kind! Thy praise it is in dreadful camps to shine. and agonizing sounds. Yet a short interval. And pour new furies on the feebler foe. Destruction be my feast. Eternal sorrows what avails to shed? Greece honours not with solemn fasts the dead: Enough. The bravest soon are satiate of the field. Interest. And scenes of blood. And all at once on haughty Troy descend. Embodied. And endless were the grief. Then hear my counsel. If trembling in the ships he lags behind.BOOK XIX. when death demands the brave. the dire effects shall find. Who waits for that. to the battle let us bend. has room to harbour there. to weep for all. the bold. by thousands daily fall. and the victor dies! The great. Our care devolves on others left behind. One chief with patience to the grave resign'd. (Ulysses thus rejoin'd. to pay The tribute of a melancholy day. But old experience and calm wisdom mine. The bloody harvest brings but little gain: The scale of conquest ever wavering lies." 583 "O first of Greeks. or thought. Let rising spirits flow from sprightly juice. Let generous food supplies of strength produce. Let their warm heads with scenes of battle glow. and none shall dare Expect a second summons to the war." . Great Jove but turns it. Though vast the heaps that strow the crimson plain.

"Witness thou first! thou greatest power above. and horrid woes prepare For perjured kings. Who rule the dead. His hands uplifted to the attesting skies. the golden talents bore: The rest in public view the chiefs dispose. The eighth Briseis. And twice the number of high-bounding steeds: Seven captives next a lovely line compose. the youths obey'd: Twice ten bright vases in the midst they laid. And Melanippus. On heaven's broad marble roof were fixed his eyes. all-wise. A row of six fair tripods then succeeds. thunderbolts of war. and offering meditates his vow. like the blooming rose. . First of the train. All-good. heaven all its vengeance shed. Phyleus' valiant heir. If this be false. Closed the bright band: great Ithacus. To bear the presents from the royal tent: The sons of Nestor.584 The Iliad of Homer [355] And now the delegates Ulysses sent. And Greece around sat thrill'd with sacred awe. and heaven's revolving light. form'd the chosen train. and all who falsely swear! The black-eyed maid inviolate removes. before. And ye. With Lycomedes of Creiontian strain. and all-surveying Jove! And mother-earth. Pure and unconscious of my manly loves. fell furies of the realms of night. The solemn words a deep attention draw. A splendid scene! then Agamemnon rose: The boar Talthybius held: the Grecian lord Drew the broad cutlass sheath'd beside his sword: The stubborn bristles from the victim's brow He crops. Thias and Merion. Swift as the word was given.

ye Greeks! and know Whate'er we feel. The sacred herald rolls the victim slain (A feast for fish) into the foaming main. Patroclus lay. unwilling. and expects the fight. 'tis Jove inflicts the woe. His train before March'd onward. and thus she cries: [356] . Achilles sought his tent. Slow as she pass'd. force the dame. radiant as the queen of love. ye chiefs! indulge the genial rite. 'Twas Jove's high will alone. beheld with sad survey Where. and doom'd the Greeks to fall. Prone on the body fell the heavenly fair. And levell'd thunder strike my guilty head!" 585 With that. and tore her golden hair. Then thus Achilles: "Hear. Those in the tents the squires industrious spread: The foaming coursers to the stalls they led. Not else Atrides could our rage inflame. her humid eyes Shining with tears she lifts. Beat her sad breast. The bleeding savage tumbles to the ground. gash'd with cruel wounds. Achilles waits ye. That doom'd our strife. To their new seats the female captives move Briseis.BOOK XIX. All beautiful in grief. Nor from my arms. Go then. his weapon deep inflicts the wound. o'erruling all." The speedy council at his word adjourn'd: To their black vessels all the Greeks return'd. bending with the gifts they bore.

The leaders press'd the chief on every side. Once tender friend of my distracted mind! I left thee fresh in life. irremeable way: Thy friendly hand uprear'd me from the plain. That rites divine should ratify the band. but their own. Now find thee cold. he sorrows from his soul. in beauty gay. Ulysses sage. Nor mourn'd Patroclus' fortunes. Unmoved he heard them. he raves. Achilles' care you promised I should prove. For thee. and from the warriors turn'd his face: Yet still the brother-kings of Atreus' race. And make me empress in his native land. for ever kind. He groans. strive to calm his grief and rage: His rage they calm not. never doom'd to end! The first loved consort of my virgin bed Before these eyes in fatal battle bled: My three brave brothers in one mournful day All trod the dark. And dried my sorrows for a husband slain. that ever felt another's woe!" Her sister captives echoed groan for groan. youth for ever dear. let me pay To grief and anguish one abstemious day. Idomeneus. whose care Is bent to please him. ah. . nor his grief control." He spoke. "If yet Achilles have a friend. Nestor.586 The Iliad of Homer "Ah. Till yonder sun descend. Accept these grateful tears! for thee they flow. inanimated clay! What woes my wretched race of life attend! Sorrows on sorrows. The first. and with sighs denied. the dearest partner of his love. And Phoenix. this request forbear.

rushing to the war. Once stay'd Achilles." 587 [357] Sighing he said: his grief the heroes join'd. Or drags a wretched life of age and care. What more. Fate claim'd Achilles. wage a hateful war. But till the news of my sad fate invades His hastening soul. and sinks him to the shades. (I distant far. I hoped Patroclus might survive. this cruel stroke attend. And thus with pity to his blue-eyed maid: . My only offspring. and drops a tender tear. should Neoptolemus the brave. From Scyros' isle conduct him o'er the main. perhaps. What banquet but revenge can glad my mind? What greater sorrow could afflict my breast. and the large domain. "Thou too. For Peleus breathes no more the vital air. alas! to death's cold arms resign'd.) I could not this. to rear My tender orphan with a parent's care. Each stole a tear for what he left behind. but might spare his friend. sink into the grave? If yet that offspring lives. thy winning care. in Phthia dreads to hear His son's sad fate. But now. Their mingled grief the sire of heaven survey'd. What more if hoary Peleus were deceased? Who now. Patroclus! (thus his heart he vents) Once spread the inviting banquet in our tents: Thy sweet society. Of all neglectful. The lofty palace.BOOK XIX. And glad his eyes with his paternal reign.

sought the bright abodes. and brighten all the fields. And like a deluge pour'd upon the plain. (refection of the gods!) Then. As when the piercing blasts of Boreas blow. And pour'd divine ambrosia in his breast.588 The Iliad of Homer "Is then Achilles now no more thy care.259 With nectar sweet. With splendour flame the skies. Whose dazzling lustre whitens all the skies: So helms succeeding helms. The wide air floating to her ample wings. Haste and infuse ambrosia in his breast." He spoke. swift ascending. Shot the descending goddess from above. so shields from shields. Mix in one stream. where yon sails their canvas wings extend. To great Achilles she her flight address'd. From dusky clouds the fleecy winter flies. Catch the quick beams. and laugh the fields around. Broad glittering breastplates. and sudden. spears with pointed rays. and wails his friend: Ere thirst and want his forces have oppress'd. And dost thou thus desert the great in war? Lo. . And scatter o'er the fields the driving snow. All comfortless he sits. Thick beats the centre as the coursers bound. Now issued from the ships the warrior-train. So swift through ether the shrill harpy springs. reflecting blaze on blaze. at the word of Jove.

589 Full in the midst. the broad refulgent shield Blazed with long rays. Arms which the father of the fire bestow'd. Forged on the eternal anvils of the god. vi. "The blue-eyed maid. like the moon. pale with fears. That. a light appears.BOOK XIX. In ev'ry breast new vigour to infuse. His limbs in arms divine Achilles dress'd. 259 —Ambrosia. and drives them o'er the main. hung glittering at his side. starr'd with gems. Brings nectar temper'd with ambrosial dews. Grief and revenge his furious heart inspire. So to night-wandering sailors. 249. and gaze again. and furious with delay O'erlooks the embattled host. Then o'er his breast was braced the hollow gold. Wide o'er the watery waste. high-towering o'er the rest." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. and hopes the bloody day. Which on the far-seen mountain blazing high. And. and gleam'd athwart the field. Streams from some lonely watch-tower to the sky: With mournful eyes they gaze. . The silver cuishes first his thighs infold. His glowing eyeballs roll with living fire. He grinds his teeth. Loud howls the storm. The brazen sword a various baldric tied.

And thunders to his steeds these dread commands: . which not a Greek could rear. Trembled the sparkling plumes. So stream'd the golden honours from his head. All bright in heavenly arms. and the loose glories shed. (The silver traces sweeping at their side. High o'er the host. and war. and shaped it for his sire. The charioteer then whirl'd the lash around. The death of heroes. and sets the field on fire. And feels a pinion lifting every limb. The ivory-studded reins. his high head the helmet graced. return'd behind. above his squire Achilles mounts. And swift ascended at one active bound. and restores the day.590 The Iliad of Homer Next. From Pelion's cloudy top an ash entire Old Chiron fell'd. all terrible he stands. Not brighter Phoebus in the ethereal way Flames from his chariot. Automedon and Alcimus prepare The immortal coursers. A spear which stern Achilles only wields. he seems to swim. Waved o'er their backs. behind The sweepy crest hung floating in the wind: Like the red star. pestilence. and his motions tries. that from his flaming hair Shakes down diseases. The chief beholds himself with wondering eyes. and the dread of fields. And now he shakes his great paternal spear. and to the chariot join'd. Buoy'd by some inward force. and the radiant car.) Their fiery mouths resplendent bridles tied. His arms he poises. Ponderous and huge.

No—could our swiftness o'er the winds prevail. All were in vain—the Fates thy death demand. "Achilles! yes! this day at least we bear Thy rage in safety through the files of war: But come it will. and droop'd his head: Trembling he stood before the golden wain. be mindful of the load ye bear. Due to a mortal and immortal hand. strange to tell! (so Juno will'd) he broke Eternal silence. And bow'd to dust the honours of his mane. Nor. but God decrees thy doom. Not ours the fault. I know my fate: to die. to see no more My much-loved parents. or slowness in the course. When. as the words he said. (Unless ye boast that heavenly race in vain. Fell thy Patroclus." Then ceased for ever. the fatal time must come. but by heavenly force. and my native shore— Enough—when heaven ordains. Not through our crime. Seem'd sensible of woe. leave your lord.BOOK XIX. by the Furies tied." The generous Xanthus. Or beat the pinions of the western gale. And learn to make your master more your care: Through falling squadrons bear my slaughtering sword. and portentous spoke. The bright far-shooting god who gilds the day (Confess'd we saw him) tore his arms way. His fateful voice. as ye left Patroclus.) Be swift. . 591 "Xanthus and Balius! of Podarges' strain. The intrepid chief replied With unabated rage—"So let it be! Portents and prodigies are lost on me. I sink in night: Now perish Troy!" He said. and rush'd to fight.

592 The Iliad of Homer HERCULES. .

not a rural power That haunts the verdant gloom. in long procession come To Jove's eternal adamantine dome. or rosy bower. ARGUMENT. but Apollo conveys him away in a cloud. and is upon the point of killing Hector. but Æneas is preserved by the assistance of Neptune. The terrors of the combat described. After a long conversation. to call The gods to council in the starry hall: Swift o'er Olympus' hundred hills she flies. Troy's black battalions wait the shock of fight. Thus round Pelides breathing war and blood Greece. Jupiter. AND THE ACTS OF ACHILLES. THE BATTLE OF THE GODS. While near impending from a neighbouring height. Achilles falls upon the rest of the Trojans. Not one was absent. Achilles pursues the Trojans with a great slaughter. upon Achilles' return to the battle. These shining on. The scene is in the field before Troy. sheathed in arms. when the deities are engaged. beside her vessels stood. these two heroes encounter.[360] BOOK XX. Then Jove to Themis gives command. calls a council of the gods. And summons all the senate of the skies. The same day continues. Each fair-hair'd dryad of the shady wood. and permits them to assist either party. Apollo encourages Æneas to meet Achilles. .

your succour lend To either host. And as your minds direct.594 The Iliad of Homer Each azure sister of the silver flood. and forsook the main. the louring hosts appear." "'Tis true (the cloud-compelling power replies) This day we call the council of the skies In care of human race. And grasps the thunder in his awful hands. if in his rage he rise? Assist them. And death stands ardent on the edge of war. Far on Olympus' top in secret state Ourself will sit. On marble thrones." . All but old Ocean. gods! or Ilion's sacred wall May fall this day. Celestial powers! descend. What can they now. Troy soon must lie o'erthrown. hoary sire! who keeps His ancient seat beneath the sacred deeps. Even he whose trident sways the watery reign Heard the loud summons.) sat the powers around. even Jove's own eye Sees with regret unhappy mortals die. though fate forbids the fall. Thus to convene the whole ethereal state? Is Greece and Troy the subject in debate? Already met. And question'd thus the sire of men and gods: [361] "What moves the god who heaven and earth commands. and see the hand of fate Work out our will. Assumed his throne amid the bright abodes. If uncontroll'd Achilles fights alone: Their troops but lately durst not meet his eyes. with lucid columns crown'd. (The work of Vulcan.

his terror shrouds In gloomy tempests. Now through the trembling shores Minerva calls. The vessels tremble as the gods alight. whose streams in golden currents flow. Dreadful he stood in front of all his host. Hermes. And Vulcan. Phoebus came. Each Argive bosom swell'd with manly joy. the black sovereign of the fire: These to the fleet repair with instant flight. And trembling see another god of war. And the chaste huntress of the silver bow. While great Achilles (terror of the plain). and seem'd already lost. But when the powers descending swell'd the fight. the laughter-loving dame. Latona. and a night of clouds: Now through each Trojan heart he fury pours With voice divine. and the nations rush to arms. And now she thunders from the Grecian walls. Mars fiery-helm'd. shone in arms again. Then tumult rose: fierce rage and pale affright Varied each face: then Discord sounds alarms. from her beauteous hill. On adverse parts the warring gods engage: Heaven's awful queen. the rapid stream stood still. Earth echoes. Ere yet the gods their various aid employ. In aid of Troy. the maid in arms renown'd. 595 . Pale Troy beheld. and fired their heavenly breasts with rage. of profitable arts the sire.BOOK XX. He said. Xanthus. from Ilion's topmost towers: Now shouts to Simois. The mountain shook. Long lost to battle. Mars hovering o'er his Troy. Her bravest heroes pant with inward fear. and he whose azure round Girds the vast globe.

261 Such war the immortals wage. sister of the day. 261 260 "Swift from his throne the infernal monarch ran. And from their sources boil her hundred floods. He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds. and led by Hermes' rod. "Hell is naked before him. Beneath. And pour in light on Pluto's drear abodes. stern Neptune shakes the solid ground. monarch of the main. Through all their summits tremble Ida's woods. Troy's turrets totter on the rocking plain. Leap'd from his throne. 769. Against Latona march'd the son of May. The forests wave.260 The infernal monarch rear'd his horrid head. when the gods contend First silver-shafted Phoebus took the plain Against blue Neptune." Job xxvi. And the toss'd navies beat the heaving main. 6-8. He stretcheth out the north over the empty place. lest Neptune's arm should lay His dark dominions open to the day. Slain by Jove's wrath. and destruction hath no covering. such horrors rend The world's vast concave. lest the race of man. Abhorr'd by men. sqq. Opposed to Pallas. And peals on peals redoubled rend the poles." Merrick's Tryphiodorus. The god of arms his giant bulk display'd. . The quiver'd Dian. and hangeth the earth upon nothing. the sire of gods his thunder rolls. war's triumphant maid. vi.596 The Iliad of Homer [362] Above. the mountains nod around. Deep in the dismal regions of the dead. Should fill (a countless throng!) his dark abode. and the cloud is not rent under them. All pale and trembling. and dreadful even to gods.

in search of Hector turn'd His eyes around. Apollo wedged him in the warrior's way. Like young Lycaon. (Her golden arrows sounding at her side. And burst like lightning through the ranks. [363] . for Hector only burn'd.BOOK XX. While thus the gods in various league engage.) Saturnia. how late with scorn In distant threats he braved the goddess-born. But called Scamander by the sons of earth. Achilles glow'd with more than mortal rage: Hector he sought. But swell'd his bosom with undaunted might. majesty of heaven. Æneas was the first who dared to stay. Xanthus his name with those of heavenly birth. And bade the chief reflect. seem'd the power divine. and vow'd To glut the god of battles with his blood. With fiery Vulcan last in battle stands The sacred flood that rolls on golden sands. In voice and aspect. of the royal line. Half-forced and half-persuaded to the fight. defied. 597 THE GODS DESCENDING TO BATTLE.

Through the thick troops the embolden'd hero press'd: His venturous act the white-arm'd queen survey'd. Pedasus in ashes lay. Where'er he moved. And thus. Nor fear the vaunting of a mortal foe. And suffer not his dart to fall in vain. From Ida's woods he chased us to the field. nor void of fear Observed the fury of his flying spear. Lyrnessus. Though strong in battle as a brazen tower. Were God my aid. An aged sea-god father of his line. What mortal man Achilles can sustain? The immortals guard him through the dreadful plain. this arm should check his power.598 The Iliad of Homer Then thus the hero of Anchises' strain: "To meet Pelides you persuade in vain: Already have I met. Our force he scattered. From heavenly Venus thou deriv'st thy strain. But (Jove assisting) I survived the day: Else had I sunk oppress'd in fatal fight By fierce Achilles and Minerva's might. assembling all the powers." To whom the son of Jove: "That god implore. and our herds he kill'd. And be what great Achilles was before. And bathed his brazen lance in hostile gore." This said. the goddess shone before. Then lift thy weapon for a noble blow. And he but from a sister of the main. and spirit breathed into his breast. But Jove himself the sacred source of thine. she said: .

but never wholly set aside. Hereafter let him fall. and add to his renown. See Exod. That spun so short his life's illustrious line:262 But lest some adverse god now cross his way. let some power descend. To guard his life. to attend Our favour'd hero. Yield to our conquering arms the lower world. But if the armipotent. if not fatal." 262 These words seem to imply the old belief. shall the conflict end. I doubt not. Give him to know what powers assist this day: For how shall mortal stand the dire alarms. Restrain his bold career. 20. or commence the fight. 263 It was anciently believed that it was dangerous. . We. Why should celestial powers exert their own? Suffice from yonder mount to view the scene. the great armament of heaven. or god of light. When heaven's refulgent host appear in arms?"263 599 Thus she. Lo great Æneas rushing to the war! Against Pelides he directs his course. Judg. gods! that claims your care. that the Fates might be delayed. "Behold an action. to behold a deity. and thus the god whose force can make The solid globe's eternal basis shake: "Against the might of man. And leave to war the fates of mortal men. Obstruct Achilles. Phoebus impels. And these.BOOK XX. in ruin and confusion hurl'd. so feeble known. came down. 22. and Phoebus gives him force. xxxiii. Thence on the gods of Troy we swift descend: Full soon. at least. xiii. as Fates design.

600 The Iliad of Homer Thus having said. and chiefs in armour bright. with Minerva's aid. Such the lion's rage. though Jove on high Gives the loud signal. and a veil of air: The adverse powers. his javelin flamed before. With towering strides Aeneas first advanced. Who viewing first his foes with scornful eyes. by some brave youth defied. Here Neptune and the gods of Greece repair. wall'd. Crown the fair hills that silver Simois shade. Meanwhile the rushing armies hide the ground. And. The gleaming champaign glows with brazen light. In elder times to guard Alcides made. and the heavens reply. rose. Stalks careless on. [365] . and drove him to the plain. In circle close each heavenly party sat. Though all in arms the peopled city rise. so he moved. around Apollo laid. But mix not yet in fight.) What time a vengeful monster of the main Swept the wide shore. bold Æneas. There great Achilles. He rush'd impetuous. with unregarding pride. Coerulean Neptune. the tyrant of the sea. Intent to form the future scheme of fate. With clouds encompass'd. Advanced upon the field there stood a mound Of earth congested. Not so Pelides. and led the way. The trampled centre yields a hollow sound: Steeds cased in mail. here. Till at the length. The nodding plumage on his helmet danced: Spread o'er his breast the fencing shield he bore. furious to engage. and trench'd around. Amid both hosts (a dreadful space) appear. (The work of Trojans.

Or. But can Achilles be so soon forgot? Once (as I think) you saw this brandish'd spear And then the great Æneas seem'd to fear: With hearty haste from Ida's mount he fled. Defrauded of my conquest once before. he grinds his teeth. till he reach'd Lyrnessus. So stands Æneas.BOOK XX. in ruins laid: In Grecian chains her captive race were cast. he rolls his eyes around Lash'd by his tail his heaving sides resound. the great Aeneas fled too fast. Nor. 601 . those thy pride may quell: And 'tis his fault to love those sons too well. and arable for grain? Even this. He murmurs fury with a hollow groan. Pallas. Jove. In hope the realms of Priam to enjoy. turn'd his head. Resolved on vengeance. Those. Her lofty walls not long our progress stay'd. in reward of thy victorious hand. will hardly prove thy lot. and his force defies. And prove his merits to the throne of Troy? Grant that beneath thy lance Achilles dies. perhaps. The partial monarch may refuse the prize. and we. or resolved on death. Ere yet the stern encounter join'd. He grins. or a fair domain. he foams. begun The seed of Thetis thus to Venus' son: "Why comes Æneas through the ranks so far? Seeks he to meet Achilles' arm in war. To his bold spear the savage turns alone. Of hills for vines. 'Tis true. He calls up all his rage. Sons he has many. Has Troy proposed some spacious tract of land An ample forest. So fierce Achilles on Æneas flies.

264 From Dardanus great Erichthonius springs. or Venus' offspring dies. avoid the threaten'd fate. 'Tis not in words the glorious strife can end. enamour'd of the sprightly train. and are wise too late. iii. Unworthy the high race from which we came Proclaim'd so loudly by the voice of fame: Each from illustrious fathers draws his line. 150. thus derived. some unwarlike boy. Three thousand foals beside their mothers fed.602 The Iliad of Homer What then I lost. Thetis' this day. the best may be defied With mean reproaches. Boreas. If yet thou further seek to learn my birth (A tale resounded through the spacious earth) Hear how the glorious origin we prove From ancient Dardanus. In humble vales they built their soft abodes. contend. Such we disdain. while thou may'st. then. The natives were content to till The shady foot of Ida's fountful hill. 264 [366] "Ere Ilium and the Trojan tow'rs arose. half divine. Fools stay to feel it. for Ilion. and unmanly pride. Conceal'd his godhead in a flowing mane." To this Anchises' son: "Such words employ To one that fears thee. Each goddess-born." Dryden's Virgil. of Asia's wealthy kings. The richest. once. Go. the first from Jove: Dardania's walls he raised. Three thousand mares his spacious pastures bred. half human.) Was not. the gods this day restore. . And tears shall trickle from celestial eyes: For when two heroes. (The city since of many-languaged men.

But Jove alone endues the soul with worth: He. Flew o'er the field. and Ganymed: The matchless Ganymed. and. Three sons renown'd adorn'd his nuptial bed. Ilus. vii. enamour'd. now in cares grown old. To bear the cup of Jove (ethereal guest. Nor plied the grass. And when along the level seas they flew. Such Erichthonius was: from him there came The sacred Tros. 265 603 [367] —Along the level seas. These lightly skimming. and Anchises me. And Priam. who "Outstripp'd the winds in speed upon the plain. divinely fair. ever-honour'd pair. and father wind. Her flying feet unbathed on billows hung. brave and bold. Compare Virgil's description of Camilla. And coursed the dappled beauties o'er the mead: Hence sprung twelve others of unrivall'd kind. bless'd with Hector. From him Tithonus. The two remaining sons the line divide: First rose Laomedon from Ilus' side. And Hicetaon. With voice dissembled to his loves he neigh'd." Dryden. nor bent the tender grain. as she skimm'd along. nor hurt the bearded grain: She swept the seas. Whom heaven. Assaracus. Such is our race: 'tis fortune gives us birth. All human courage gives.265 Scarce on the surface curl'd the briny dew. The grace and glory of the ambrosial feast). of whom the Trojan name.BOOK XX. source of power and might! with boundless sway. Swift as their mother mares. 1100. thunderbolt of war. From great Assaracus sprang Capys. snatch'd to upper air. Clytius and Lampus. when they swept the plain. he Begat Anchises. or takes away. .

That trembled as it stuck. of brass each outward fold. To all those insults thou hast offer'd here. when in the streets they jar. right or wrong. Five plates of various metal. Receive this answer: 'tis my flying spear. With all his force the javelin flung. and the middle gold: There stuck the lance. For every man has equal strength to rail: Women alone. Perhaps excel us in this wordy war. Where the shrill brass return'd a sharper sound: Through the thin verge the Pelean weapon glides. various mould.604 The Iliad of Homer Long in the field of words we may contend. Far on his outstretch'd arm. the immeasurable spear. So voluble a weapon is the tongue. The forceful spear of great Achilles flew. and neither side can fail. Then rising ere he threw. Arm'd or with truth or falsehood. but to prove our might. Composed the shield. Fix'd deep. nor void of fear Saw. But stopp'd. Through two strong plates the point its passage held. And pierced the Dardan shield's extremest bound. by the third repell'd." He spoke. Wounded. and knows no end. and rested. And vent their anger impotent and loud. And the slight covering of expanded hides. Of tin each inward. and loudly in the buckler rung. Pelides held (To meet the thundering lance) his dreadful shield. encompass'd with the crowd. . ere it fell. His fears were vain. Cease then—Our business in the field of fight Is not to question. Reproach is infinite. we wound. Like us they stand. impenetrable charms Secured the temper of the ethereal arms.

605 [368] —The future father. At length are odious to the all-seeing mind. p. chills his soul with fright. in the Æneas of Virgil. 427."—Grote. heaves a mighty stone: A mass enormous! which in modern days No two of earth's degenerate sons could raise. and Priam's faithless kind. and at Æneas flies: Æneas rousing as the foe came on. though he wars for Troy. i. With force collected. through its parting plates. Fate wills not this. 266 . Sure. An instant victim to Achilles' hands. And o'er him high the riven targe extends. And swims before his eyes the many-colour'd light. "Æneas and Antenor stand distinguished from the other Trojans by a dissatisfaction with Priam.—a suspicion indirectly glanced at. And can ye see this righteous chief atone With guiltless blood for vices not his own? To all the gods his constant vows were paid. whose earthquakes rock the ground. By Phoebus urged. Achilles. but Phoebus has bestow'd His aid in vain: the man o'erpowers the god. rushing in with dreadful cries. which is by Sophocles and others construed as treacherous collusion. nor thus can Jove resign The future father of the Dardan line:266 The first great ancestor obtain'd his grace. And at his back perceives the quivering spear: A fate so near him.BOOK XX. and moved the powers around: "Lo! on the brink of fate Æneas stands. Sees. and a sympathy with the Greeks. Æneas his contracted body bends. But ocean's god. Saw the distress. he claims our aid. though emphatically repelled. the upper air. And still his love descends on all the race: For Priam now. Draws his broad blade.

Through all the whistling darts his course he bends. and of bounding steeds: 267 [369] Neptune thus recounts his services to Æneas: "When your Æneas fought. Till her last flame be quench'd with her last gore. with force divine he snatch'd on high The Dardan prince." The great earth-shaker thus: to whom replies The imperial goddess with the radiant eyes: "Good as he is. when I sought with joy The vow'd destruction of ungrateful Troy. 1058.606 The Iliad of Homer On great Æneas shall devolve the reign. and bore him through the sky. Sustain'd the vanquish'd. and unequal gods: I spread a cloud before the victor's sight. And sons succeeding sons the lasting line sustain. Pallas and I. by all that gods can bind. And casts thick darkness o'er Achilles' eyes. O Neptune! be thy care. And even her crumbling ruins are no more. and secured his flight— Even then secured him. That done. Not even an instant to protract their fate." Dryden's Virgil. Smooth-gliding without step. to immolate or spare The Dardan prince. Or save one member of the sinking state. Have sworn destruction to the Trojan kind. Swift interposed between the warrior flies." The king of ocean to the fight descends. above the heads Of warring heroes.267 From great Æneas' shield the spear he drew. . And at his master's feet the weapon threw. but fought with odds Of force unequal. v.

man to man. nor antedate thy doom. The scene of war came rushing on his sight. Content for once. and arms to arms! 'Tis not in me. But when the day decreed (for come it must) Shall lay this dreadful hero in the dust. Great as he is. to fly. he left him wondering as he lay. To mow whole troops. Let then the furies of that arm be known. Then from Achilles chased the mist away: Sudden. But powers celestial sure this foe defend. "What wonders strike my mind! My spear.BOOK XX. that parted on the wings of wind. nor great Minerva's rage. 607 . vanish'd from my sword! I thought alone with mortals to contend. Till at the battle's utmost verge they light." This said. with all his gods. O prince! with force inferior far. Now then let others bleed. The godhead there (his heavenly form confess'd) With words like these the panting chief address'd: "What power. though favour'd by the sky. and every rank alarms) Join battle. Where the slow Caucans close the rear of fight. and make whole armies fly: No god can singly such a host engage. returning with a stream of light. aloud He vents his fury and inflames the crowd: "O Greeks! (he cries. Defrauding fate of all thy fame to come. Secure no Grecian force transcends thy own. our arms he scarce will try. Not Mars himself. Laid here before me! and the Dardan lord. Then thus." With that. amazed. Urged thee to meet Achilles' arm in war? Henceforth beware. That fell this instant.

Not though his heart were steel. they throng. Greeks! is yours to-day. A wood of lances rises round his head. And. . Whate'er this heart can prompt. obedient to the god of light. Deeds must decide our fate. But Phoebus warns him from high heaven to shun The single fight with Thetis' godlike son. Through yon wide host this arm shall scatter fear. The godlike Hector warm'd the troops of Troy: "Trojans. they thicken to the war. Nor from yon boaster shall your chief retire. That fire. who tremble at their swords: The weakest atheist-wretch all heaven defies. He hears. More safe to combat in the mingled band. Hector leads you on." He said: nor less elate with martial joy. Nor dread the vaunts of Peleus' haughty son. that steel. that dreadful hand.608 The Iliad of Homer But whatsoe'er Achilles can inspire. Whate'er of active force. or hand obey. to war! Think. or acting fire. And thin the squadrons with my single spear. plunged within the ranks. All. E'en these with words Insult the brave. They join. And brave that vengeful heart. his hands were fire." [370] Thus (breathing rage through all) the hero said. But shrinks and shudders when the thunder flies. Nor tempt too near the terrors of his hand. all Achilles. awaits the fight. your Hector should withstand. Clamours on clamours tempest all the air.

Otryntides! the Trojan earth Receives thee dead. Antenor's offspring. And plenteous Hermus swells with tides of gold. Fierce as he springs. First falls Iphytion. He groans away his soul: not louder roars.BOOK XX. 609 . shouting to the skies. Then fierce Achilles. Are thine no more. At Neptune's shrine on Helice's high shores. From Hyde's walls he ruled the lands below. the sword his head divides: The parted visage falls on equal sides: With loud-resounding arms he strikes the plain. of the flood. crown'd with snow. and seized with fright. And left him sleeping in eternal shade. and brave the host he led. Brave was the chief. laid Breathless in dust. Beneath the shades of Tmolus. On Troy's whole force with boundless fury flies. While thus Achilles glories o'er the slain: "Lie there. at his army's head. The rolling wheels of Greece the body tore. The impatient steel with full-descending sway Forced through his brazen helm its furious way. Deserts his chariot for a swifter flight: The lance arrests him: an ignoble wound The panting Trojan rivets to the ground. This sees Hippodamas. And dash'd and mingled all the brains with gore. From great Otrynteus he derived his blood. Resistless drove the batter'd skull before. And dash'd their axles with no vulgar gore."—The insulting hero said. though Gygae boast thy birth. Demoleon next. the price of rashness paid. Those beauteous fields where Hyllus' waves are roll'd. His mother was a Nais.

But vaunts not long. the dearest. The rushing entrails pour'd upon the ground His hands collect."— Then with revengeful eyes he scann'd him o'er: "Come. with joy possess'd. Then fell on Polydore his vengeful rage. The son of Peleus sees.610 The Iliad of Homer [371] The victim bull. "And. all ghastly in his gore. lo! the man on whom black fates attend. Thus sadly slain the unhappy Polydore. . And shook his javelin like a waving flame. To the forbidden field he takes his flight. the rocks re-bellow round. and that he was treacherously murdered by his host for the sake of the treasure sent with him. and receive thy fate!" He spake no more. for protection. His soul no longer brook'd the distant fight: Full in Achilles' dreadful front he came. and darkness wraps him round. Euripides. In the first folly of a youthful knight. When Hector view'd. is his friend! No more shall Hector's and Pelides' spear Turn from each other in the walks of war. And on his knees with piercing shrieks he fell. To vaunt his swiftness wheels around the plain. Virgil. The man. with all his swiftness slain: Struck where the crossing belts unite behind. His heart high-bounding in his rising breast. And golden rings the double back-plate join'd Forth through the navel burst the thrilling steel. relate that Polydore was sent into Thrace. to the house of Polymestor. 268 —On Polydore.268 The youngest hope of Priam's stooping age: (Whose feet for swiftness in the race surpass'd:) Of all his sons. and others. that slew Achilles. and the last. And ocean listens to the grateful sound. A cloud of sorrow overcast his sight. being the youngest of Priam's sons.

Hector. and exclaims aloud: "Wretch! thou hast 'scaped again. Achilles closes with his hated foe. His heart and eyes with flaming fury glow: But present to his aid. Fly then inglorious! but thy flight this day Whole hecatombs of Trojan ghosts shall pay. But heaven alone confers success in war: Mean as I am. And at the feet of its great master lies. He foams with fury. Apollo shrouds The favour'd hero in a veil of clouds. But long thou shalt not thy just fate withstand. once more thy flight Has saved thee. Thrice in impassive air he plunged the dart. If any power assist Achilles' hand. defying and defied. Mean intercourse of obloquy and pride! I know thy force to mine superior far." [372] . Thrice struck Pelides with indignant heart. thus: "Such words employ To one that dreads thee. the gods may guide my dart. and the partial god of light.BOOK XX. some unwarlike boy: Such we could give. The spear a fourth time buried in the cloud. undaunted. And give it entrance in a braver heart." 611 Then parts the lance: but Pallas' heavenly breath Far from Achilles wafts the winged death: The bidden dart again to Hector flies.

Both in one instant from the chariot hurl'd. expecting fate: . And stood all impotent. Nor less unpitied. an unassisting weight. great Philetor's heir. young Alastor bleeds. E'er bent that fierce. Warm'd in the brain the smoking weapon lies. Gigantic chief! deep gash'd the enormous blade. Then brave Deucalion died: the dart was flung Where the knit nerves the pliant elbow strung. He dropp'd his arm. he gluts his rage on numbers slain: Then Dryops tumbled to the ensanguined plain. The valiant sons of an unhappy sire. The ruthless falchion oped his tender side. To spare a form. In vain he begs thee.612 The Iliad of Homer With that. And stopp'd Demuchus. inexorable heart! While yet he trembled at his knees. The purple death comes floating o'er his eyes. Thy life. Deep though the front the ponderous falchion cleaves. Echeclus! next the sword bereaves. The panting liver pours a flood of gore That drowns his bosom till he pants no more. Pierced through the neck: he left him panting there. and cried. Through Mulius' head then drove the impetuous spear: The warrior falls. transfix'd from ear to ear. no moving art. and one the sword. in vain his beauty pleads. Laoganus and Dardanus expire. Sunk in one instant to the nether world: This difference only their sad fates afford That one the spear destroy'd. with a suppliant's moan. And for the soul an ample passage made. an age so like thy own! Unhappy boy! no prayer. In vain his youth.

scarce turn'd. as the chariot rolls. Full on his neck the falling falchion sped.) Succeeds to fate: the spear his belly rends. (The son of Pierus. Around him wide. lies Ceres' sacred floor. whose race from fruitful Thracia came. who saw expiring on the ground His prostrate master. From his broad shoulders hew'd his crested head: Forth from the bone the spinal marrow flies. Dash'd from their hoofs while o'er the dead they fly. Fires the high woods. Black. with never-wearied pain. sunk in dust. the corpse extended lies. Then o'er the stubble up the mountain flies. the spreading torrent roars: So sweeps the hero through the wasted shores. As when a flame the winding valley fills. bloody drops the smoking chariot dye: The spiky wheels through heaps of carnage tore. an illustrious name. And thick bestrewn. rein'd the steeds around. And thick the groaning axles dropp'd with gore. the Pelian javelin gored. Rhigmas.BOOK XX. All grim with dust. immense destruction pours And earth is deluged with the sanguine showers As with autumnal harvests cover'd o'er. The squire. and blazes to the skies. still with rage on flame. The trampling steers beat out the unnumber'd grain: So the fierce coursers. And stretch'd the servant o'er his dying lord. Prone from his car the thundering chief descends. and crush out heroes' souls. His back. Tread down whole ranks. When round and round. Such is the lust of never-dying fame! 613 [373] . This way and that. all horrible in blood: Yet still insatiate. And runs on crackling shrubs between the hills. And. High o'er the scene of death Achilles stood.

.614 The Iliad of Homer CENTAUR.

by the instigation of Juno. the other gods engage each other. i. The overwhelming fury of the stream finds the natural interpretation in the character of the mountain torrents of Greece and Asia Minor. shingly beds are in summer comparatively dry. vol. and kills Lycaon and Asteropeus. Yet the subsiding of the flood at the critical moment when the hero's destruction appeared imminent.[374] BOOK XXI. But a thunder-shower in the mountains. he has brought the river god Scamander. drives the rest into Troy: Agenor only makes a stand. when summoned by Juno to the hero's aid. Their wide. "Perhaps the boldest excursion of Homer into this region of poetical fancy is the collision into which. ARGUMENT. sq. almost dries up the river. may suddenly immerse him in the flood of a mighty river. others to the river Scamander: he falls upon the latter with great slaughter: takes twelve captives alive. some towards the town. and afterwards with Vulcan. p. unobserved perhaps by the traveller on the plain. The rescue of Achilles by the fiery arms of Vulcan scarcely admits of the same ready explanation from physical causes. to sacrifice to the shade of Patroclus. in the twenty-first of the Iliad."—Mure. gives the Trojans an opportunity of retiring into their city. so as to be easily forded by the foot passenger. This Combat ended. first with Achilles. might. THE BATTLE IN THE RIVER SCAMANDER.269 The Trojans fly before Achilles. 269 . who (to delude Achilles) takes upon him Agenor's shape. Scamander attacks him with all his waves: Neptune and Pallas assist the hero: Simois joins Scamander: at length Vulcan. and while he pursues him in that disguise. 480. by a slight extension of the figurative parallel. and is conveyed away in a cloud by Apollo. Meanwhile Achilles continues the slaughter. be ascribed to a god symbolic of the influences opposed to all atmospheric moisture.

The scene is on the banks and in the stream of Scamander. And now to Xanthus' gliding stream they drove. The river here divides the flying train. Where late their troops triumphant bore the fight. And the warm purple circled on the tide. In shoals before him fly the scaly train. Part to the town fly diverse o'er the plain. While fast behind them runs the blaze of fire. And rolls behind the rout a heap of clouds:) Part plunge into the stream: old Xanthus roars. As the scorch'd locusts from their fields retire.616 The Iliad of Homer The same day continues. immortal progeny of Jove. His bloody lance the hero casts aside. the rapid billows braves. and there. and trembling in ignoble flight: (These with a gathered mist Saturnia shrouds. Driven from the land before the smoky cloud. like a god. now he whirls it round. The flashing billows beat the whiten'd shores: With cries promiscuous all the banks resound. Repeated wounds the reddening river dyed. (Which spreading tamarisks on the margin hide. And close in rocks or winding caverns lie: So the huge dolphin tempesting the main. Roars the resounding surge with men and horse. plunged in Xanthus by Achilles' force. Arm'd with his sword.) Then. [375] . in eddies whirling round. Deep groan'd the waters with the dying sound. Confusedly heap'd they seek their inmost caves. The clustering legions rush into the flood: So. Now chased. high brandish'd o'er the waves: Now down he plunges. And here. Xanthus. Swift through the foamy flood the Trojans fly. The flouncing steeds and shrieking warriors drown'd.

Where Jason's son the price demanded gave. 617 [376] . since in his father's reign He felt the sweets of liberty again. from the Trojan band Twelve chosen youths he drags alive to land. panting.BOOK XXI.) As trembling. and dropp'd upon the field His useless lance and unavailing shield. The young Lycaon in his passage stood. that god whom men in vain withstand Gives the same youth to the same conquering hand Now never to return! and doom'd to go A sadder journey to the shades below. but now their chains). Sad victims destined to Patroclus' shade. The ransom'd prince to fair Arisbe bore. The son of Priam. "Ye mighty gods! what wonders strike my view! Is it in vain our conquering arms subdue? Sure I shall see yon heaps of Trojans kill'd Rise from the shades. His well-known face when great Achilles eyed. touching on the shore. tired with slaughter. The next. and brave me on the field. (The helm and visor he had cast aside With wild affright. And knock'd his faltering knees. These his attendants to the ships convey'd. Ten days were past. Or pant and heave beneath the floating waves. Then. the hero said. from the stream he fled. his sounding steel Lopp'd the green arms to spoke a chariot wheel) To Lemnos' isle he sold the royal slave. With their rich belts their captive arms restrains (Late their proud ornaments. Now. whom the hero's hand But late made captive in his father's land (As from a sycamore. But kind Eetion. as once more he plunged amid the flood.

whom so late I bound And sold to Lemnos. And scarce twelve morning suns have seen me here. if the grave can hold the wanderer. While thus these melting words attempt his heart: "Thy well-known captive. Now sums immense thy mercy shall repay. Achilles raised the spear. Once more Lycaon trembles at thy knee. one stopp'd the dart. Scarce respited from woes I yet appear. Longing to dip its thirsty point in blood. That bar such numbers from their native plain. (Old Altes' daughter. He kiss'd his feet. the spear suspended stood. extended on the ground: And while. and Lelegia's heir. And his soul shivering at the approach of death.618 The Iliad of Homer As now the captive. her victim cruel Fate demands! I sprang from Priam. One hand embraced them close. Far from his father. at length this active prince can seize. stalks on Trojan ground! Not him the sea's unmeasured deeps detain. great Achilles! see. then. Try. . Some pity to a suppliant's name afford. prepared to wound. above. Whom late thy conquering arm to Lemnos bore. Earth." Thus while he spoke. A hundred oxen were his price that day. whose strong grasp has held down Hercules. and Laothoe fair. and sought his knees with suppliant tears Loth as he was to yield his youthful breath. Again. my flying spear! Try. Lo! he returns. Lo! Jove again submits me to thy hands. friends. the Trojan pale with fears Approach'd. Who shared the gifts of Ceres at thy board. and native shore. If earth.

or by design. from a goddess born? The day shall come (which nothing can avert) When by the spear. While all his trembling frame confess'd his fear: Sudden. And buried in his neck the reeking blade. whom nature's gifts adorn. For ah! one spear shall drink each brother's gore. Sprung from a hero. And I succeed to slaughter'd Polydore. by force. Die then. The fainting stripling sank before the stroke: His hand forgot its grasp. And thou. who wrought thy loved Patroclus' death."—He said. The youth address'd to unrelenting ears: "Talk not of life. Impending death and certain fate are mine! Die then. dies: In vain a single Trojan sues for grace." These words. 619 [377] . far thy better. whoever meets me. By night. or the dart. dost thou bewail mortality? Seest thou not me. And ruled the fields where silver Satnio flow'd. Who held in Pedasus his famed abode.BOOK XXI. or day. But least. the good Patroclus is no more! He.) Two sons (alas! unhappy sons) she bore. my friend! what boots it to deplore? The great. How from that arm of terror shall I fly? Some demon urges! 'tis my doom to die! If ever yet soft pity touch'd thy mind. Achilles his broad sword display'd. the arrow. the sons of Priam's hateful race. attended with a shower of tears. and as the word he spoke. and left the spear. was foredoom'd to die. With his. or ransom (he replies): Patroclus dead. Ah! think not me too much of Hector's kind! Not the same mother gave thy suppliant breath.

What boots ye now Scamander's worshipp'd stream. [378] . So perish Troy. and all the Trojan line! Such ruin theirs. What means divine may yet the power employ To check Achilles. with this bitter fate. stream divine! (Fair Peribaea's love the god had crown'd. And shook two spears.620 The Iliad of Homer Prone fell the youth. he fearless stood. And thus insults him. The son of Pelagon. advancing from the flood. The gushing purple dyed the thirsty sand. The victor to the stream the carcase gave. whose lofty line Flows from the source of Axius. and panting on the land. to dare The great Asteropeus to mortal war. and suck thy gory wound: There no sad mother shall thy funerals weep. and to rescue Troy? Meanwhile the hero springs in arms. To feast unpunish'd on the fat of kings. Your living coursers glut his gulfs in vain! Thus he rewards you. till the Grecian vengeance is complete: Thus is atoned Patroclus' honour'd shade. Lycaon! let the fish surround Thy bloated corpse. and immortal name? In vain your immolated bulls are slain. With all his refluent waters circled round:) On him Achilles rush'd. floating on the wave: "Lie there. But swift Scamander roll thee to the deep. Thus." These boastful words provoked the raging god. Whose every wave some watery monster brings. His earthly honours. With fury swells the violated flood. And the short absence of Achilles paid. and such compassion mine.

the Vulcanian shield. my native band. At once Asteropeus discharged each lance. Then from his side the sword Pelides drew. The foe thrice tugg'd. whose spear much glory won: Now lift thy arm. One razed Achilles' hand. The flood impell'd him. and shook the rooted wood. he tries to break the spear in vain. Bent as he stands. Like lightning next the Pelean javelin flies: Its erring fury hiss'd along the skies. the spouting blood Spun forth. but pierced not.BOOK XXI. and try that hero's son!" Threatening he said: the hostile chiefs advance. boldest of the race of man? Who. in earth the fasten'd weapon stood. Begot my sire. Even to the middle earth. And wide around the floated region fills. (For both his dexterous hands the lance could wield.) One struck. Repulsive of his might the weapon stood: The fourth. And on his foe with double fury flew. and quiver'd there. who swells with all the neighbouring rills. he tumbles to the plain. 621 . or from whence? Unhappy is the sire Whose son encounters our resistless ire." "O son of Peleus! what avails to trace (Replied the warrior) our illustrious race? From rich Paeonia's valleys I command. Near as they drew. Achilles thus began: "What art thou. Now shines the tenth bright morning since I came In aid of Ilion to the fields of fame: Axius. Deep in the swelling bank was driven the spear. on Pelides' head To avenge his waters choked with heaps of dead. Arm'd with protended spears.

622 The Iliad of Homer His belly open'd with a ghastly wound. Astyplus. And in his deep abysses shakes with fear. But Jove he dreads. Thrasius. The floating tides the bloody carcase lave. What rivers can. am I. [379] . The reeking entrails pour upon the ground. didst thou boast thy line? But great Saturnius is the source of mine. His radiant armour tearing from the dead: "So ends thy glory! Such the fate they prove. Scamander might have shown. And beat against it. And left the breathless warrior in his gore. wave succeeding wave. And all the roaring billows of the main. Who strive presumptuous with the sons of Jove! Sprung from a river. nor wars against his son. He vents his fury on the flying crew. Till. All scatter'd round the stream (their mightiest slain) The amazed Paeonians scour along the plain. the rivers. As he that thunders to the stream that flows. Beneath the hero's feet he panting lies. and the springs below. and Jove. and fishes of the flood. And his eye darkens. it lies the food Of curling eels. and Mnesus slew. How durst thou vaunt thy watery progeny? Of Peleus. The race of these superior far to those. and his spirit flies. The thundering voice of Jove abhors to hear. While the proud victor thus triumphing said. The eternal ocean. roll'd between the banks. Æacus. from whose fountains flow The seas. Even Achelous might contend in vain." He said: then from the bank his javelin tore.

And make her conquer. 'Tis not on me thy rage should heap the dead. Then to the godhead of the silver bow The yellow flood began: "O son of Jove! Was not the mandate of the sire above Full and express. and drove with fury on the foe. Nor roll their wonted tribute to the deep. confess'd before his eyes. But from the bottom of his gulfs profound Scamander spoke. or see Achilles fall." In human form. with Ænius. And numbers more his lance had plunged to hell." He said. Thersilochus. 623 "O first of mortals! (for the gods are thine) In valour matchless. and thus the chief replies: "O sacred stream! thy word we shall obey. See! my choked streams no more their course can keep. Not till proud Hector. till Hyperion's fall In awful darkness hide the face of all?" . Not till within her towers the perjured train Shall pant. fell. that Phoebus should employ His sacred arrows in defence of Troy.BOOK XXI. Turn then. and tremble at our arms again. the shores return'd the sound. guardian of her wall. Or stain this lance. impetuous! from our injured flood. The river thus. Mydon. thy slaughters could amaze a god. Content. and in force divine! If Jove have given thee every Trojan head. But not till Troy the destined vengeance pay.

(A watery bulwark. that "the circumstance of a falling tree. At every bound his clanging armour rings: Now here. and raised upon his hand. now there. and regain'd the land. affords a very just idea of the breadth of the Scamander. And round the banks the ghastly dead are toss'd. upborne. Loud flash the waters to the rushing fall Of the thick foliage. From all his deep the bellowing river roars. ambitious to destroy The man whose fury is the fate of Troy. the billows ranged on high. Far as a spear can fly.624 The Iliad of Homer [380] He spoke in vain—The chief without dismay Ploughs through the boiling surge his desperate way. Sliddering. The falling deluge whelms the hero round: His loaded shield bends to the rushing tide.270 Heaving the bank. The plant uprooted to his weight gave way. his steps to stay. and undermining all. He seized a bending bough. The large trunk display'd Bridged the rough flood across: the hero stay'd On this his weight. which is described as reaching from one of its banks to the other. and staggering. Achilles springs. that overhung the flood. His feet. He like the warlike eagle speeds his pace (Swiftest and strongest of the aerial race). Huge heaps of slain disgorges on the coast. Now bursting on his head with thundering sound. Then rising in his rage above the shores. scarce the strong flood divide. Then blacken'd the wild waves: the murmur rose: The god pursues. he turns on every side. Wood has observed. Leap'd from the channel. a huger billow throws. And bursts the bank.) screen the bands who fly. On the border stood A spreading elm. While all before." 270 .

Yet dauntless still the adverse flood he braves. wheresoe'er he wheels. And shine in mazy wanderings o'er the plains. Tired by the tides. So when a peasant to his garden brings Soft rills of water from the bubbling springs. in watery mountains spread. Wash'd from beneath him slides the slimy soil. The waves flow after. And bravely try if all the powers were foes.BOOK XXI. his knees relax with toil. down the hills. And still indignant bounds above the waves. And winds his course before the following tide. And feed with pregnant streams the plants and flowers: Soon as he clears whate'er their passage stay'd. they prevent his pains. When thus (his eyes on heaven's expansion thrown) Forth bursts the hero with an angry groan: [381] . but before his eyes Still swift Scamander rolls where'er he flies: Not all his speed escapes the rapid floods. And marks the future current with his spade. And gather fast. Swift o'er the rolling pebbles. and murmur at his heels. Before him scattering. 625 Still flies Achilles. The first of men. to bless his bowers. Oft as he turn'd the torrent to oppose. or bursts upon his head. Louder and louder purl the falling rills. Beats on his back. And calls the floods from high. So oft the surge. but not a match for gods.

Propitious Neptune. O Jove! this ignominious date. And thus in human form address'd the chief: The power of ocean first: "Forbear thy fear. Of all heaven's oracles believed in vain. Drowning. nor thy sword suspend. Crossing a ford. and the furious flood shall cease to rave 'Tis not thy fate to glut his angry wave. O son of Peleus! Lo. Stretch'd like a hero. thy gods appear! Behold! from Jove descending to thy aid. attend! Nor breathe from combat. And Hector's blood shall smoke upon thy lance." Neptune and Pallas haste to his relief. Stay. And my swift soul o'ertake my slaughter'd friend.271 And make my future life the sport of fate. But thou. But most of Thetis must her son complain. till all Her routed squadrons pant behind their wall: Hector alone shall stand his fatal chance. Oh how unworthy of the brave and great! Like some vile swain. by a hero's arm! Might Hector's spear this dauntless bosom rend.626 The Iliad of Homer "Is there no god Achilles to befriend. and the blue-eyed maid. as compared with a death in the field of battle. 271 . the counsel heaven suggests. was considered utterly disgraceful. Oh! had I died in fields of battle warm. the torrent sweeps away. Ah no! Achilles meets a shameful fate. —Ignominious. whom on a rainy day. An unregarded carcase to the sea. No power to avert his miserable end? Prevent. In glorious arms before the Trojan wall. Till Troy receive her flying sons. By Phoebus' darts she prophesied my fall.

And deep beneath a sandy mountain hurl'd. and invades the field: O'er all the expanded plain the waters spread. . And lifts his billows. Charge the black surge. Thine is the glory doom'd. And boldly bids the warring gods be foes! But nor that force. With equal rage. Floating 'midst scatter'd arms. and o'erwhelms his shores. Mark how resistless through the floods he goes. Such ponderous ruin shall confound the place. and with a load of dead. Call then thy subject streams. He wades. From all thy fountains swell thy watery store." Thus spake the gods: Then swift ascended to the bright abodes. And check this mortal that controls a god. And Ilion tumble from her towery height. the parted wave resounds. my brother flood. That blaze so dreadful in each Trojan eye. Our bravest heroes else shall quit the fight. Shall aught avail him. Not a whole river stops the hero's course. by leaps and bounds. Stung with new ardour. High o'er the surging tide. and bid them roar. nor form divine to sight. thus by heaven impell'd. While Pallas fills him with immortal force. Immersed remain this terror of the world. 627 [382] Then thus to Simois! "Haste. and mounts. He springs impetuous. Heaved on the bounding billows danced the dead.BOOK XXI. and pour it on his head. while casques of gold And turn'd-up bucklers glitter'd as they roll'd. No Greeks shall e'er his perish'd relics grace. indignant Xanthus roars. With broken rocks. if our rage unite: Whelm'd under our dark gulfs those arms shall lie.

he raves. Then." ACHILLES CONTENDING WITH THE RIVERS. These his cold rites. And a foam whitens on the purple waves: At every step. and summon'd Vulcan's aid. . or inhume. murmuring from his beds. and this his watery tomb. He said. Increased with gore. She call'd aloud. before Achilles stood The crimson surge. Fear touch'd the queen of heaven: she saw dismay'd. and on the chief descends amain. he boils. and deluged him with blood. and swelling with the slain.628 The Iliad of Homer No hand his bones shall gather.

Go. short-panting. Drink the whole flood. The watery willows hiss before the fire. the fishes pant for breath. At length the river rear'd his languid head. now dive the scaly fry. by our command enjoin'd. the crackling trees devour. so whiten'd was the ground. Scorch all the banks! and (till our voice reclaim) Exert the unwearied furies of the flame!" The power ignipotent her word obeys: Wide o'er the plain he pours the boundless blaze. Pour the red torrent on the watery foe. Rush the swift eastern and the western wind: These from old ocean at my word shall blow. gasping. And instant blows the water'd gardens dry: So look'd the field. The flowering lotos and the tamarisk burn. Now glow the waves. to the god he said: . Along the margin winds the running blaze: The trees in flaming rows to ashes turn. and dries the soil And the shrunk waters in their channel boil. As when autumnal Boreas sweeps the sky. And thus. At once consumes the dead.BOOK XXI. While Vulcan breathed the fiery blast around. 629 "Rise to the war! the insulting flood requires Thy wasteful arm! assemble all thy fires! While to their aid. The eels lie twisting in the pangs of death: Now flounce aloft. mighty in thy rage! display thy power. turn their bellies to the sky. Broad elm. Or. and cypress rising in a spire. Corses and arms to one bright ruin turn. And hissing rivers to their bottoms burn. Swift on the sedgy reeds the ruin preys.

" Dryden's Virgil. with all his wasteful rage? On other gods his dreadful arm employ. "So. the heavy smoke aspires: So boils the imprison'd flood. Submissive I desist. For mightier gods assert the cause of Troy. Till Greece shall gird her with destructive flame. The bubbling waters from the bottom rise." 272 [384] —Beneath a caldron. 644. As when the flames beneath a cauldron rise. if thou command. Black vapours climb aloft. To Juno then. vii. and cloud the day. But ah! withdraw this all-destroying hand. And choked with vapours feels his bottom glow. Hear then my solemn oath. and her destined state. The burning river sends his earnest prayer: "Ah why. must thy son engage Me. to yield to fate Unaided Ilion. if fate decree— Ah—bend no more thy fiery arms on me!" He ceased. The bubbling waters yield a hissing sound. wide conflagration blazing round. . And in one ruin sink the Trojan name. only me. Saturnia. Amid the fierce embrace of circling fires The waters foam.272 To melt the fat of some rich sacrifice.630 The Iliad of Homer "Oh Vulcan! oh! what power resists thy might? I faint. Above the brims they force their fiery way. when with crackling flames a caldron fries. unequal to the fight— I yield—Let Ilion fall. I sink. imperial queen of air. forbid to flow.

And madly bathed it in celestial gore. nor in a mortal cause Infest a god: the obedient flame withdraws: Again the branching streams begin to spread. when in thy frantic mood Thou drovest a mortal to insult a god? Thy impious hand Tydides' javelin bore. and mix all heaven in fight? What wonder this. 631 While these by Juno's will the strife resign. And soft remurmur in their wonted bed. That turns the glancing bolt and forked fire. as his sport. Which bears Jove's thunder on its dreadful field: The adamantine aegis of her sire. His warm entreaty touch'd Saturnia's ear: She bade the ignipotent his rage forbear. and smote the long-resounding shield.BOOK XXI. Jove. And views contending gods with careless eyes." He spoke. Recall the flame. The power of battles lifts his brazen spear. The warring gods in fierce contention join: Rekindling rage each heavenly breast alarms: With horrid clangour shock the ethereal arms: Heaven in loud thunder bids the trumpet sound. And wide beneath them groans the rending ground. thus to disunite Ethereal minds. the dreadful scene descries. And first assaults the radiant queen of war: "What moved thy madness. .

pursue. whom thou rebellious darest withstand. scarcely breathes with pain. There fix'd from eldest times. scoffing." . if she dares. insatiate fury! known How far Minerva's force transcends thy own? Juno.632 The Iliad of Homer Then heaved the goddess in her mighty hand A stone. And partial aid to Troy's perfidious race. propp'd on her fair arm. diffused celestial day. This the bright empress of the heavens survey'd." The goddess spoke. Jove's Cyprian daughter. and turn'd her eyes away. in open view. thus to war's victorious maid: "Lo! what an aid on Mars's side is seen! The smiles' and loves' unconquerable queen! Mark with what insolence. And. Corrects thy folly thus by Pallas' hand. the limit of the neighbouring land. thus the prostrate god reviles: [385] "Hast thou not yet. Thus meets thy broken faith with just disgrace. Lent to the wounded god her tender hand: Slowly he rises. beaming round. glorying. She moves: let Pallas. black. stooping on the land. forsakes the plain. Thundering he falls. vast. And. That. craggy. a mass of monstrous size: And seven broad acres covers as he lies. And. The stunning stroke his stubborn nerves unbound: Loud o'er the fields his ringing arms resound: The scornful dame her conquest views with smiles. This at the heavenly homicide she cast.

" Thus she. And yon proud bulwarks grew beneath my hands: Thy task it was to feed the bellowing droves Along fair Ida's vales and pendant groves. . and heaven returns the sound: Shall. And slightly on her breast the wanton strook: She. and Juno with a smile approved.BOOK XXI. and the prize denied: Mad as he was. On earth together lay the lovers spread. to our Olympian sire? Come.) And guard the race of proud Laomedon! Hast thou forgot. "And like these heroes be the fate of all (Minerva cries) who guard the Trojan wall! To Grecian gods such let the Phrygian be. Suits not my greatness. the pair o'ertook. Minerva smiling heard. 633 Meantime. at the monarch's prayer. (Forgetful of my wrongs. So dread. ignominious. we with shame retire. he threaten'd servile bands. so fierce. how. to mix in more than mortal fight. unresisting. as Venus is to me. We shared the lengthen'd labours of a year? Troy walls I raised (for such were Jove's commands). Then from the lowest stone shall Troy be moved. No deed perform'd. or superior age: Rash as thou art to prop the Trojan throne. prove thy arm! for first the war to wage. The god of ocean dares the god of light. when the fields around Ring with conflicting powers. and of thy own. fell (her spirits fled). "What sloth has seized us. With menace stern the fraudful king defied Our latent godhead. But when the circling seasons in their train Brought back the grateful day that crown'd our pain.

To their own hands commit the frantic scene. And yields to ocean's hoary sire the prize? How vain that martial pomp. And not. and dreadful show Of pointed arrows and the silver bow! Now boast no more in yon celestial bower. Like us. afford proud Ilion grace." "This tale of the temporary servitude of particular gods. we heavenward fled with swiftest wing. And from the senior power submiss retires: Him thus retreating. that now. 156."—Grote. now. vol. wither on the ground. They owe their life and nourishment to earth. 273 . Nor mix immortals in a cause so mean. recurs not unfrequently among the incidents of the Mythical world. like us. p. And destined vengeance on the perjured king. Dost thou. For what is man? Calamitous by birth. by order of Jove. i. Artemis upbraids. Smile on the sun. The quiver'd huntress of the sylvan shades: "And is it thus the youthful Phoebus flies.273 Incensed. far-beaming heavenly fires." Then turns his face. their present. with beauty crown'd. Thy force can match the great earth-shaking power.634 [386] The Iliad of Homer And doom'd us exiles far in barbarous lands. Like yearly leaves. as a punishment for misbehaviour. infest the faithless race. for this. And from its deep foundations heave their Troy?" Apollo thus: "To combat for mankind Ill suits the wisdom of celestial mind. future sons destroy.

Drop round. when the falcon wings her way above. Now here. The scattering arrows. rattling from the case. Swift from the field the baffled huntress flies. who gives delight To him whose thunders blacken heaven with night? Go. To her Latona hastes with tender care. with a tiger's heart? What though tremendous in the woodland chase Thy certain arrows pierce the savage race? How dares thy rashness on the powers divine Employ those arms. To the cleft cavern speeds the gentle dove. These in her left hand lock'd. About her temples flies the busy bow. And scarce restrains the torrent in her eyes: So. no more unequal war to wage—" She said. and idly mark the dusty place. (Not fated yet to die. and its plumy pride. Thy sex's tyrant. thus declines the war: "How shall I face the dame. or match thy force with mine? Learn hence. And boast my conquest. the quiver. now there. while I yield the prize. matchless goddess! triumph in the skies. Yet still her heart against the marble beats.) there safe retreats.BOOK XXI. her right untied The bow. The wretched matron feels thy piercing dart. Whom Hermes viewing. she winds her from the blow." 635 [387] . and seized her wrists with eager rage. Silent he heard the queen of woods upbraid: Not so Saturnia bore the vaunting maid: But furious thus: "What insolence has driven Thy pride to face the majesty of heaven? What though by Jove the female plague design'd. Fierce to the feeble race of womankind.

from the war's alarms. And take their thrones around the ethereal sire. Back to Olympus. The sire superior smiled. stooping low. And the pale crescent fades upon her brows. and bade her show What heavenly hand had caused his daughter's woe? Abash'd. O'er slaughter'd heroes. . Some proud in triumph.636 The Iliad of Homer He spoke. And toils. though fate forbade her fall. And the red vapours purple all the sky: So raged Achilles: death and dire dismay. swiftly gliding down. Apollo enters Ilion's sacred town. some fly. Weeping. and panted on her breast. Achilles still proceeds. fill'd the dreadful day. lay here and there Dishonour'd relics of Diana's war: Then swift pursued her to her blest abode. Return the shining bands of gods in arms. As when avenging flames with fury driven On guilty towns exert the wrath of heaven. The guardian-god now trembled for her wall. she names his own imperial spouse. Collects the scatter'd shafts and fallen bow. Thus they above: while. and pass'd: Latona. And fear'd the Greeks. Where. glittering on the dust. some fall. The pale inhabitants. and terrors. she sought the sovereign god. and o'er rolling steeds. That. through death. Through blood. some with rage on fire. she grasp'd his knees: the ambrosial vest Shook with her sighs. all confused.

) 637 [388] . with unresisted sway. and shut out death. insatiable of war. he sighing quits the walls. But he. Views. no aid! With feeble pace. Phoebus rush'd forth. the god who darts ethereal flame. Thither. (Antenor's offspring. all parch'd with thirst. labour on With heavier strides. and redeem her fame: To young Agenor force divine he gave. fainting. And gladsome see their last escape from fate. He comes. and desolation marks his way! But when within the walls our troops take breath." Thus charged the reverend monarch: wide were flung The opening folds. And the near hero rising on his sight! No stop. Set wide your portals to the flying throng: For lo! he comes. the Trojans' scatter'd flight. a heartless train. And thus descending. the sounding hinges rung. Fast as he could. Enraged Achilles follows with his spear. the flying bands to meet. panting. Then had the Greeks eternal praise acquired. Wild with revenge. on the guards he calls: "You to whose care our city-gates belong. Struck slaughter back.BOOK XXI. Hoary with dust. haughty. High on a turret hoary Priam stands. And Troy inglorious to her walls retired. And settled sorrow on his aged face. And marks the waste of his destructive hands. Shot down to save her. bold. Lock fast the brazen bars. and cover'd the retreat. and brave. that lengthen toward the town. they beat the hollow plain: And gasping. from his arm. no check. On heaps the Trojans crowd to gain the gate.

" . beside the beech he sate. ere a storm. Here. What if?—But wherefore all this vain debate? Stand I to doubt. Return in safety to my Trojan friends. And wrapt in clouds. restrain'd the hand of fate. the cooling flood. that leads To Ida's forests and surrounding shades? So may I reach. And such his valour. (So. the troubled motions rise. Howe'er 'tis better. fighting for the state.638 The Iliad of Homer In aid of him. "What. As soon as night her dusky veil extends. to meet my fate. that who stands must die. within the reach of fate? Even now perhaps. conceal'd. Yet sure he too is mortal. One only soul informs that dreadful frame: And Jove's sole favour gives him all his fame. ere yet I turn the wall. No: with the common heap I scorn to fall— What if they pass'd me to the Trojan wall. and in public view. When now the generous youth Achilles spies. 'tis in vain to fly. the waters heave and roll. and questions thus his mighty soul. and be like others slain? Vain hope! to shun him by the self-same road Yon line of slaughter'd Trojans lately trod. shall I fly this terror of the plain! Like others fly. and I fall: Such is his swiftness. he may feel (Like all the sons of earth) the force of steel. While I decline to yonder path. Thick beats his heart.) He stops. The fierce Achilles sees me. From my tired body wash the dirt and blood.

in act to throw The lifted javelin. 639 He said. in his might. that hope is vain. untamed. And the barb'd javelin stings his breast in vain: On their whole war. And all his beating bosom claim'd the fight. he hears the sounds Of shouting hunters. Apollo shrouds The god-like Trojan in a veil of clouds. Great as thou art. Not less resolved. Then fiercely rushing on the daring foe." He said: with matchless force the javelin flung Smote on his knee. Parents and children our just arms employ.BOOK XXI. and press a foreign shore. or beneath him dies. His shield (a broad circumference) he bore. Antenor's valiant heir Confronts Achilles. thus bespoke the foe: "How proud Achilles glories in his fame! And hopes this day to sink the Trojan name Beneath her ruins! Know. but safe from harms He stands impassive in the ethereal arms. and stood. And strong and many are the sons of Troy. His lifted arm prepares the fatal blow: But. though wounded. collected. jealous of his fame. And tears his hunter. a thousand toils remain. A thousand woes. So from some deep-grown wood a panther starts. even thou may'st stain with gore These Phrygian fields. Though struck. scarce perceives the pain. Roused from his thicket by a storm of darts: Untaught to fear or fly. the savage flies. and awaits the war. [389] . and of clamorous hounds. Disdainful of retreat: high held before. the hollow cuishes rung Beneath the pointed steel. Then graceful as he stood.

or who by battle fell. While all the flying troops their speed employ. And pour on heaps into the walls of Troy: No stop. no stay. Dismiss'd with fame.640 The Iliad of Homer Safe from pursuit. Now o'er the fields they stretch with lengthen'd strides. and violence of flight. and wheels about the shore. Who 'scaped by flight. Tempts his pursuit. or tell. and shut from mortal view. the favoured youth withdrew. And sudden joy confused. Meanwhile the god. Now urge the course where swift Scamander glides: The god. and mix'd affright. no thought to ask. Pale Troy against Achilles shuts her gate: And nations breathe. 'Twas tumult all. Assumes Agenor's habit. . The furious chief still follows where he flies. Flies from the furious chief in this disguise. to cover their escape. deliver'd from their fate. now distant scarce a stride before. voice and shape.

and beholds her dead husband. Their cries reach the ears of Andromache. and tries to persuade his son to re-enter the town. The gods debate concerning the fate of Hector. smit with panic fear. advancing o'er the fields Beneath one roof of well-compacted shields. She swoons at the spectacle. he stands the combat. tears. The thirtieth day still continues. and on the battlements of Troy. but at the advance of Achilles. and despair. was retired into the inner part of the palace: she mounts up to the walls. Hecuba joins her entreaties. but in vain. Hector consults within himself what measures to take. The scene lies under the walls. The Trojans being safe within the walls. Close to the walls. March. THE DEATH OF HECTOR. Priam is struck at his approach. ARGUMENT. Achilles drags the dead body at his chariot in the sight of Priam and Hecuba. his resolution fails him. Thus to their bulwarks. who.[390] BOOK XXII. at length Minerva descends to the aid of Achilles. ignorant of this. Achilles pursues him thrice round the walls of Troy. and he flies. Their lamentations. And drown in bowls the labours of the day. She deludes Hector in the shape of Deiphobus. . Hector only stays to oppose Achilles. The herded Ilians rush like driven deer: There safe they wipe the briny drops away. the Greeks' embodied powers. Her excess of grief and lamentation. and is slain. bending on.

that Troy forsook the plain? Vain thy past labour. and of fraud divine: Mean fame. What boots thee now.642 The Iliad of Homer Far stretching in the shade of Trojan towers. While here thy frantic rage attacks a god. Great Hector singly stay'd: chain'd down by fate There fix'd he stood before the Scaean gate. Unskill'd to trace the latent marks of heaven. The guardian still of long-defended Troy. Powerful of godhead. Still his bold arms determined to employ. To cheat a mortal who repines in vain. alas! for one of heavenly strain. With mortal speed a godhead to pursue? For not to thee to know the gods is given. and thy present vain: Safe in their walls are now her troops bestow'd." ." The chief incensed—"Too partial god of day! To check my conquests in the middle way: How few in Ilion else had refuge found! What gasping numbers now had bit the ground! Thou robb'st me of a glory justly mine. [391] Apollo now to tired Achilles turns: (The power confess'd in all his glory burns:) "And what (he cries) has Peleus' son in view.

. my dearest. The careful eyes of Priam first beheld. obtests the skies. Orion's dog (the year when autumn weighs). Implacable Achilles! might'st thou be 274 643 —Not half so dreadful. Full at the Scaean gates expects the war. Then wept the sage: He strikes his reverend head. and like a comet burn'd. That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In the arctic sky. now white with age." xi. While the sad father on the rampart stands. Him. With high and haughty steps he tower'd along. victor of the prize. as he blazing shot across the field. and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. Terrific glory! for his burning breath Taints the red air with fevers. So flamed his fiery mail. He calls his much-loved son with feeble cries: The son.BOOK XXII." —Paradise Lost. "On the other side. Not half so dreadful rises to the sight. Incensed with indignation. Hector! my loved. And stretch'd beneath that fury of the plain. To the near goal with double ardour flies. And thus adjures him with extended hands: "Ah stay not. stay not! guardless and alone.274 Through the thick gloom of some tempestuous night. He lifts his wither'd arms. Then to the city. Satan stood Unterrified. resolved Achilles' force to dare. And o'er the feebler stars exerts his rays. and death. terrible and strong. bravest son! Methinks already I behold thee slain. plagues. 708. So the proud courser.

my bridal bed o'erturn'd. and my city burn'd. Pity. Yet cursed with sense! a wretch. to me. thy dearer glory save. All pale they wander on the Stygian coast. And spare thyself. while yet I live. by right of birth their own. My daughters ravish'd. if not deprived of thee. And loved Lycaon. And number all his days by miseries! My heroes slain. spare us all! Save thy dear life. now perhaps no more! Oh! if in yonder hostile camp they live. and unworthy toils. What heaps of gold. Two. Yet shun Achilles! enter yet the wall. whom in his rage (All trembling on the verge of helpless age) Great Jove has placed. sold in distant isles To shameful bondage. What sorrows then must their sad mother know. less to her. my Polydore. these silver hairs. Valiant in vain! by thy cursed arm destroy'd: Or. vultures wild should scatter round the shore. worse than slaughtered. Consign'd his daughter with Lelegia's throne:) But if (which Heaven forbid) already lost. Two from one mother sprung. While yet thy father feels the woes he bears. . while I speak. thy father. How many valiant sons I late enjoy'd. Less to all Troy.644 The Iliad of Homer [392] To all the gods no dearer than to me! Thee. What anguish I? unutterable woe! Yet less that anguish. my eyes in vain explore. or. And bloody dogs grow fiercer from thy gore. sad spectacle of pain! The bitter dregs of fortune's cup to drain: To fill with scenes of death his closing eyes. if a soul so brave Neglect that thought. what treasures would I give! (Their grandsire's wealth.

reserved by angry fate. (Dire pomp of sovereign wretchedness!) must fall. late guardians of my door. Should'st thou. for in fight they fell. And thus. fast-falling the salt tears. And stain the pavement of my regal hall. With him the mournful mother bears a part. The zone unbraced. perhaps yet more! Perhaps even I. [393] . she said: 645 "Have mercy on me. Ah do not thus our helpless years forego. Or still'd thy infant clamours at this breast.BOOK XXII. Who dies in youth and vigour. the worse. this is misery! the last. Yet for my sons I thank ye. Struck through with wounds. Shall lick their mangled master's spatter'd gore. gods! 'tis well. Against his rage if singly thou proceed. Well have they perish'd. In dust the reverend lineaments deform. repel the foe. The last sad relic of my ruin'd state. Yet all her sorrows turn not Hector's heart. But when the fates. in fulness of their rage. My bleeding infants dash'd against the floor. attend a parent's prayer! If ever thee in these fond arms I press'd. And pour to dogs the life-blood scarcely warm: This. But. and acting what no words could say. That man can feel! man. fated to be cursed!" He said. Where famish'd dogs. (but Heaven avert it!) should'st thou bleed. Rent from his head the silver locks away. her bosom she display'd. These I have yet to see. by our walls secured. Spurn the hoar head of unresisting age. all honest on the breast. dies the best. O my son! revere The words of age.

Nor spouse. he stiffens with collected ire. and question'd thus his mighty mind:275 "Where lies my way? to enter in the wall? Honour and shame the ungenerous thought recall: Shall proud Polydamas before the gate Proclaim. I feel my folly in my people slain. Resolved he stands.646 The Iliad of Homer Nor must thy corse lie honour'd on the bier." So they. on his shield reclined. my country's terror laid in dust: Or if I perish. What numbers had been saved by Hector's flight? That wise advice rejected with disdain. But fix'd remains the purpose of his soul." vi. Methinks my suffering country's voice I hear. Beneath a turret. 113. the swelling snake Beholds the traveller approach the brake. nor mother. roll'd up in his den. while down their cheeks the torrents roll. When fed with noxious herbs his turgid veins Have gather'd half the poisons of the plains. let her see me fall 275 "And thus his own undaunted mind explores. return I must Glorious. Which timely follow'd but the former night. But most her worthless sons insult my ear. He stood. his counsels are obey'd too late. So. No—if I e'er return. He burns. And his red eyeballs glare with living fire. and with a fiery glance Expects the hero's terrible advance. ."—"Paradise Lost. On my rash courage charge the chance of war. And blame those virtues which they cannot share. grace thee with a tear! Far from our pious rites those dear remains Must feast the vultures on the naked plains.

and parley with the foe. or thinks he holds his prey. he leaves the wall behind: Achilles follows like the winged wind. Thus at the panting dove a falcon flies (The swiftest racer of the liquid skies). that. that injured Greece May share our wealth. And yet suppose these measures I forego. or triumph. produce. No season now for calm familiar talk. Which Troy shall. Like Jove's own lightning. And treat on terms of peace to save the town: The wife withheld. and leave our walls in peace.BOOK XXII. and grievance of the land) With honourable justice to restore: And add half Ilion's yet remaining store. Like youths and maidens in an evening walk: War is our business. His dreadful plumage nodded from on high. or the rising sun. What hope of mercy from this vengeful foe. the treasure ill-detain'd (Cause of the war. The warrior-shield. but to whom is given To die. But why this thought? Unarm'd if I should go. In field at least. and fighting for her wall. Struck by some god. But woman-like to fall. like a god the Greek drew nigh. Shot trembling rays that glitter'd o'er the land. or journeying o'er a plain. sworn. determine Heaven!" Thus pondering. The Pelian javelin. 647 [394] . as man conversing man. and fall without a blow? We greet not here. the helm. and lance. he fears. in his better hand. He leaves the gates. Met at an oak. and flies. As Hector sees. And on his breast the beamy splendour shone. Just when he holds. recedes. lay down. unusual terrors rise. Approach unarm'd.

even from the dignity of a princess. Like crystal clear. no vulgar prize they play. Where high rewards the vigorous youth inflame (Some golden tripod. in the Odyssey. One urged by fury. Next by Scamander's double source they bound. And aims his claws. one in flight: (The mighty fled. And with them turns the raised spectator's soul: The example of Nausicaa. Where two famed fountains burst the parted ground. proves that the duties of the laundry were not thought derogatory.648 The Iliad of Homer [395] Obliquely wheeling through the aerial way. Where the high watch-tower overlooks the plain. This hot through scorching clefts is seen to rise. With open beak and shrilling cries he springs. and cold as winter snows: Each gushing fount a marble cistern fills. and shoots upon his wings: No less fore-right the rapid chase they held. Now where the fig-trees spread their umbrage broad. one chasing. pursued by stronger might:) Swift was the course.276 By these they pass'd. Whose polish'd bed receives the falling rills. No vulgar victim must reward the day: (Such as in races crown the speedy strife:) The prize contended was great Hector's life. Where Trojan dames (ere yet alarm'd by Greece) Wash'd their fair garments in the days of peace. With exhalations steaming to the skies. one by fear impell'd: Now circling round the walls their course maintain. That the green banks in summer's heat o'erflows.) smoke along the road. As when some hero's funerals are decreed In grateful honour of the mighty dead. (A wider compass. in the heroic times. 276 . or some lovely dame) The panting coursers swiftly turn the goal.

The gazing gods lean forward from the sky. inglorious round yon city driven! My heart partakes the generous Hector's pain. Whose grateful fumes the gods received with joy. Behold. The sire of mortals and immortals spoke: 649 "Unworthy sight! the man beloved of heaven. whose zeal whole hecatombs has slain. Shall he prolong one Trojan's forfeit breath? A man. and blackens heaven with storms." Then Pallas thus: "Shall he whose vengeance forms The forky bolt. Exert thy will: I give the Fates their way. (Good as he is) the lot imposed on man. to his fears resign'd. And stoops impetuous from the cleaving skies. ye powers! ('tis worthy your debate) Whether to snatch him from impending fate. To whom. Or let him bear. while eager on the chase they look. pre-ordain'd to death! And will no murmurs fill the courts above? No gods indignant blame their partial Jove?" "Go then (return'd the sire) without delay. Swift at the mandate pleased Tritonia flies. Consult.BOOK XXII. by stern Pelides slain. close behind. and the towers of Troy: Now see him flying. Thus three times round the Trojan wall they fly. And fate. Hector. and fierce Achilles. From Ida's summits. . a mortal.

where'er the Trojan wheel'd. As men in slumbers seem with speedy pace. who. One to pursue. Oft as to reach the Dardan gates he bends.) So oft Achilles turns him to the plain: He eyes the city. assisted Hector's force With fate itself so long to hold the course? Phoebus it was. lest some Greek's advance Should snatch the glory from his lifted lance. There swift Achilles compass'd round the field. nor that can overtake: No less the labouring heroes pant and strain: While that but flies. And leave untouch'd the honours of the day. Or deep beneath the trembling thicket shakes. Endued his knees with strength. o'er the vale and lawn. In vain he tries the covert of the brakes. And hopes the assistance of his pitying friends. What god. Sure of the vapour in the tainted dews. Sign'd to the troops to yield his foe the way. (Whose showering arrows. and one to lead the chase. Nor this can fly. Thus step by step. The certain hound his various maze pursues. in his latest hour. O muse. his nerves with power: And great Achilles. The well-breath'd beagle drives the flying fawn. Their sinking limbs the fancied course forsake.650 The Iliad of Homer [396] As through the forest. From the high turrets might oppress the foe. as he coursed below. and this pursues in vain. but he eyes in vain. .

651 Then Phoebus left him. and mine! nor force. Great Hector falls. nor his god of light. as brothers. and sorrow'd in thy flight: It fits us now a noble stand to make. Falls by thy hand. that Hector famed so far. Roll'd at the feet of unrelenting Jove. and her arms the same). Low sinks the scale surcharged with Hector's fate. insatiable of war. O Hector! have I borne the sight Of this distress. and triumphing. Fierce Minerva flies To stern Pelides. by hapless Hector's side Approach'd. Shall more avail him. with equal hand. that show The fates of mortal men. and greets him thus with voice belied: "Too long. their destinies. And weighs." Her voice divine the chief with joyful mind Obey'd. and things below: Here each contending hero's lot he tries. on his lance reclined While like Deiphobus the martial dame (Her face. nor flight. And urge to meet the fate he cannot shun. and rested. her gesture. where in vain he supplicates above. In show an aid. And conquest blazes with full beams on Greece. equal fates partake. And here. Heavy with death it sinks. See. and hell receives the weight. Jove lifts the golden balances.BOOK XXII. Rest here: myself will lead the Trojan on. cries: "O loved of Jove! this day our labours cease. Drunk with renown." .

Or let us stretch Achilles on the field. regardless of your own. if. Stripp'd of its arms alone (the conqueror's due) [397] . Jove by these hands shall shed thy noble life. The silence Hector broke: His dreadful plumage nodded as he spoke: "Enough.652 The Iliad of Homer Then he: "O prince! allied in blood and fame. adjured my stay. and her chief pursued. Come then. and the javelin fly. long loved: much loved." Fraudful she said. Or to his arm our bloody trophies yield. But now some god within me bids me try Thine." Again the goddess: "Much my father's prayer. or my fate: I kill thee. Yet on the verge of battle let us stay. or I die. Let the steel sparkle. and I obey. victor in the strife. Long tried. of all our numerous race alone Defend my life. But stronger love impell'd. O son of Peleus! Troy has view'd Her walls thrice circled. press'd me to forbear: My friends embraced my knees. but honoured more! Since you. Sternly they met. then swiftly march'd before: The Dardan hero shuns his foe no more. Let Heaven's high powers be call'd to arbitrate The just conditions of this stern debate. Of all that Hecuba to Priam bore. Dearer than all that own a brother's name. And faithful guardians of the treasured vow!) To them I swear. the glorious conflict let us try. (Eternal witnesses of all below. And for a moment's space suspend the day. No vile dishonour shall thy corse pursue. And much my mother's.

To such I call the gods! one constant state Of lasting rancour and eternal hate: No thought but rage. Minerva watch'd it falling on the land. by thee deprived of breath." He spoke. and never-ceasing strife.BOOK XXII. no further chance. I ask no more. The rest to Greece uninjured I'll restore: Now plight thy mutual oath. Nor oath nor pact Achilles plights with thee: Such pacts as lambs and rabid wolves combine. and launch'd his javelin at the foe. Then drew. and ought to be. Collect thy soul." 653 "Talk not of oaths (the dreadful chief replies. Each Grecian ghost. and gave to great Achilles' hand. who. Unseen of Hector. . Now hovers round. 'Tis Pallas. elate with joy. and call forth all thy power. and braves the dread of Troy. Rouse then thy forces this important hour. Detested as thou art. and life. and thought. Pallas gives thee to my lance. Such leagues as men and furious lions join. and spent its force in air. No further subterfuge. and calls thee to thy death. Till death extinguish rage. while o'er his head the flying spear Sang innocent. Now shakes his lance. But Hector shunn'd the meditated blow: He stoop'd. While anger flash'd from his disdainful eyes).

and may this dart End all my country's woes. or thy own. and kind! Then welcome fate! 'Tis true I perish. deep buried in thy heart." The weapon flew. By no dishonest wound shall Hector die. Or what must prove my fortune. Boasting is but an art. for no Deiphobus was there. To thee. I shall not fall a fugitive at least. and my hour is nigh! I deem'd Deiphobus had heard my call. Prince! you have miss'd. And with false terrors sink another's mind. its course unerring held. Unerring. But he secure lies guarded in the wall. "'Tis so—Heaven wills it. with a sigh. He calls Deiphobus. and admire!" [398] . All comfortless he stands: then. our fears to blind. presumptuous as thou art. it struck the ground. no succour from above. But first. yet I perish great: Yet in a mighty deed I shall expire. A god deceived me. unknown. My soul shall bravely issue from my breast. No refuge now. But know. My fate depends on Heaven. Hector beheld his javelin fall in vain. Propitious once. resulting with a bound From off the ringing orb. demands a spear— In vain. Great Jove deserts me. whatever fate I am to try. Nor other lance. but the heavenly shield repell'd The mortal dart. Pallas. and the son of Jove. try thou my arm. Let future ages hear it.654 The Iliad of Homer "The life you boasted to that javelin given. Death and black fate approach! 'tis I must bleed. 'twas thy deed. nor other hope remain.

Nor less Achilles his fierce soul prepares: Before his breast the flaming shield he bears. . 277 655 [399] —Hesper shines with keener light. In his right hand he waves the weapon round. And. nor took the power Of speech. Refulgent orb! above his fourfold cone The gilded horse-hair sparkled in the sun. Nodding at every step: (Vulcanian frame!) And as he moved. and meditates the wound. stern Achilles cries: "At last is Hector stretch'd upon the plain.277 Far-beaming o'er the silver host of night. Prone on the field the bleeding warrior lies. 166. One space at length he spies. on Achilles flew. Stoops from the clouds to truss the quivering hare. When all the starry train emblaze the sphere: So shone the point of great Achilles' spear. to let in fate. thus triumphing." "Paradise Lost." v. prince! you should have fear'd. While. But the rich mail Patroclus lately wore Securely cased the warrior's body o'er. Eyes the whole man. Fierce. high balanced in the air. last in the train of night. unhappy! from thy dying hour. at the word.BOOK XXII. If better thou belong not to the dawn. Where 'twixt the neck and throat the jointed plate Gave entrance: through that penetrable part Furious he drove the well-directed dart: Nor pierced the windpipe yet. "Fairest of stars. all collected. his figure seem'd on flame. As radiant Hesper shines with keener light. his weighty sword he drew. Who fear'd no vengeance for Patroclus slain: Then. So Jove's bold bird. what now you feel.

to bribe me. wretch accursed! relentless he replies. Thee birds shall mangle. Should Dardan Priam.) Not those who gave me breath should bid me spare." . And Hector's ashes in his country rest. as he spoke. Could I myself the bloody banquet join! No—to the dogs that carcase I resign. Should Troy. and his weeping dame. For ever honour'd. To soothe a father's and a mother's woe: Let their large gifts procure an urn at least. (Flames. and the gods devour." "No. with all our rites adorn'd. shot flashing from his eyes." Then Hector. offer thousands more.656 The Iliad of Homer Achilles absent was Achilles still: Yet a short space the great avenger stayed. leave me not for Grecian dogs to tear! The common rites of sepulture bestow. and for ever mourn'd: While cast to all the rage of hostile power. bring forth all her store. Nor all the sacred prevalence of prayer. And giving thousands. fainting at the approach of death: "By thy own soul! by those who gave thee breath! By all the sacred prevalence of prayer. Then low in dust thy strength and glory laid. Nor rob the vultures of one limb of thee. Drain their whole realm to buy one funeral flame: Their Hector on the pile they should not see. Ah. Peaceful he sleeps.

the great dead deface With wounds ungenerous. And cursed thee with a heart that cannot yield.) And plaintive glides along the dreary coast. musing as he roll'd his eyes O'er the dead hero. ignobler. And his eyes stiffen'd at the hand of death. replies: "Die thou the first! When Jove and heaven ordain. wandering. The thronging Greeks behold with wondering eyes His manly beauty and superior size. directed under the unerring auspices of Apollo. or with taunts disgrace: Such was his fate. The greatest efforts were made by the Trojans to possess themselves of the body. To the dark realm the spirit wings its way. and stripp'd the slain. Thetis stole away the body. just as the Greeks were about to burn it with funeral honours. cast it on the ground. While some. And stretch thee here before the Scaean gate."278 657 [400] He ceased. which was however rescued and borne off to the Grecian camp by the valour of Ajax and Ulysses. implacable! too well I knew: The Furies that relentless breast have steel'd. I follow thee"—He said. 278 . Then forcing backward from the gaping wound The reeking javelin. he was slain by an arrow from the quiver of Paris. (The manly body left a load of clay. After chasing the Trojans into the town. Then thus the chief his dying accents drew: "Thy rage. Yet think.BOOK XXII. The Fates suppress'd his labouring breath. thus unheard. A naked. a day will come. melancholy ghost! Achilles. and conveyed it away to a renewed li