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© Marie-Christine Sclifet 25/9/2002
Según los indios (de la India) su astrología tiene más de 5000 años de antigüedad, y los Vedas, que son los escritos más antiguos, llamados “revelaciones” son aún anteriores..... Los “hindúes” sitúan las fechas de su Historia 3000 años AC, 5000 años AC, 7000 años AC, e incluso fechas anteriores...hasta 100.000 años AC y más.... ¿Qué es... mito o realidad?
Ya que el Rig-Veda (el primero y el más antiguo de los Vedas) es el texto más viejo (1) de la Humanidad (tanto desde el punto de vista hindú como occidental), solo hace falta poner fecha al Rig-Veda para tener una referencia temporal en la cual basarse para datar los otros textos védicos, e igualmente la astrología, cuyos fundamentos están en los Vedas, y sobretodo en el Rig-Veda.
Datar el Rig-Veda
Comenzaré por explicar la datación de los textos védicos según la versión tradicional hindú, y según la versión oficial “de la escuela de Müller”. Después de haber expuesto sus respectivos puntos de vista y teorías, intentaré demostrar la validez o la no validez de sus afirmaciones.
1º ¿De cuando datan los Vedas?
Según lo que nos enseñan en la escuela y lo que se puede encontrar en los diccionarios y enciclopedias, un pueblo nómada que provenía del Cáucaso invadió la India en el 2do. milenio AC y dejo unos escritos, los Vedas. Este pueblo de nómadas, de piel clara, seria igualmente el responsable de la diseminación de las lenguas indo-europeas de las que forma parte el Sánscrito, el Griego y el Latín.
Según la cronología de Müller sobre los textos védicos, el más antiguo de ellos, el RigVeda, dataría de 1200 años AC. El problema de la datación de la astrología védica, de los textos védicos y de los Vedas reside en la edad que Müller atribuyó a los Vedas (máx. 1200 años AC según su teoría, que se convirtió en la versión “oficial”) En efecto, si el Rig-Veda, que es el texto védico más antiguo (1), data de 1200 años AC, es difícil de creer que la astrología védica, que proviene de los Vedas, haya podido ser anterior a esta fecha.
2º La antigüedad atribuida a los Vedas, según la versión oficial (máx. 1200 años AC),
no está de acuerdo con la cronología hindú, que da fechas más antiguas (hasta 3900 años AC y más) ¿De donde proviene esta diferencia y quien tiene razón?
3º Versión oficial de la época de los Vedas = 1200 años AC como máximo
La datación más antigua de los Vedas (1200 años AC) tiene como origen la “teoría de la invasión aria” (versión oficial) Esta teoría, introducida en el siglo XIX, explica que el pueblo que dio origen a los Vedas, y en consecuencia a la cultura védica, emigró del Cáucaso para invadir el subcontinente Indio a partir del 1500 AC. Müller es un orientalista del siglo XIX que “inventó” la “teoría de la invasión aria” y que la sitúa hacia el 1500 AC, para que coincidiese con la cronología bíblica (3) La teoría de la invasión aria nace así: la hipótesis del abad Dubois (4) de una emigración a la India de un pueblo que provenía del Asia central fue retomada por Müller, que lo transformó en “la teoría de la invasión aria” Müller traduce la palabra “arya” que significa “noble por su nacimiento y su forma de actuar” por la palabra “ario” que él interpreta como una raza de piel clara, y Müller da seguidamente el nombre de “Dravidianos” a la población de piel oscura que ocupaba la India antes de esta pretendida invasión aria.
La teoría de estas “razas” proviene de una interpretación errónea de “la guerra entre las fuerzas de la luz y la oscuridad” indicada en las escrituras védicas antiguas, y que se transformó en “el combate entre pueblos de piel clara y pueblos de piel oscura” Y fue así como nació esta parte de la Historia, y es la que explica como los poblados indo-europeos provenientes del Asia central invadieron el sub-continente indio hacia el 1500 AC y dejaron la literatura védica. Esto es lo que se explica desde hace más de un siglo en nuestras escuelas occidentales, ¡pero también de la misma manera en las escuelas hindúes! Max Müller determina después, según el estilo gramatical sánscrito utilizado en cada texto, que el Rig-Veda era el texto más antiguo y que los Upanishads estaban entre los más recientes. Müller toma el nacimiento de Buda +/- 600 años AC como el final de la época védica. A partir de esta fecha, y remontándose al pasado, decide añadir un intervalo arbitrario de 200 años entre las diferentes categorías de escritos. Así según la teoría de Müller, la cronología de los textos védicos seria la siguiente:
Rig-Veda: 1200 años AC Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Atarva-Veda: 1000 años AC Bramanas: 800 años AC Upanisads, Aranyakas: 600 años AC
Las escrituras más antiguas de la India fueron fechadas de esta forma como consecuencia de la teoría de Müller sobre la invasión aria, en 1200 años AC como mucho.
4º Los hindúes dicen que partes del Rig-Veda, el texto más antiguo (1), tiene una antigüedad de 3900 años AC o más...
¿De que tiempo es...? ¿y cual es la antigüedad de la literatura védica? Primero es importante saber que la mayoría de los textos védicos están unidos entre ellos por una cronología. Por esto, cuando se quieren fechar los textos védicos es importante tener presente esta cronología.
Los Vedas fueron compuestos en el siguiente orden: El Rig-Veda, el Sama-Veda, el Yajur-Veda y el Atarva-Veda. Los Vedangas y los Upa-Vedas fueron compuestos después de los Vedas, al igual que las epopeyas del Mahabarata y del Ramayana, los Upanishads y los Puranas. (1) La cronología tradicional hindú sitúa la epopeya de Mahabarata 3100 años AC, la del Ramayana 4300 años AC, y la de Manu 6776 años AC. Los textos védicos contienen numerosas referencias astronómicas (eclipses, configuraciones planetarias, etc...) que corresponden al momento preciso en que estos diferentes textos fueron compuestos. Estas referencias permiten hoy determinar la época de la composición de estos textos. Nota: antes de la era de los ordenadores, era absolutamente imposible falsificar este tipo de información, => los sucesos astronómicos indicados en estos textos eran vividos por los que los describieron. Como:
• En el Rig-Veda 5:40:5-9 se describe un eclipse solar 3928 años AC:
Era una eclipse central pero no total, que tuvo lugar durante la tarde en el meridiano de Kurushetra, un día dado después del solsticio de verano...Según P.C. Sengupta, una sola fecha satisface todas las condiciones: el 26 de Julio del 3928 AC. Fuentes: (5)
• Herman G. Jacobi:
En 1894 fechó el Rig-Veda (cálculos basados en la precesión) entre el 5º y 4º milenio AC. Fuentes: (6)
• El Yajur-Veda y el Atarva-Veda contienen elementos fechados en el 2400 AC.
El Yajur-Veda y el Atarva-Veda hablan del equinoccio vernal situándolo en el Nakshatra Krittika (Las pléyades -de 26º40’ de Aries a 10º de Tauro), y del solsticio de verano (ayana) situándolo en el Nakshatra Magha (de 0º a 13º 20’ de Leo) Esto da la fecha de +/- 2400 años AC. Fuente: (7) En vista de lo precedente, el Rig-Veda puede ser fechado como mínimo unos 3900 años AC.
5º Análisis del punto de vista hindú:
¿Cuales son las pruebas arqueológicas que pueden apoyar las fechas astronómicas de los textos védicos?
1 La india posee vestigios arqueológicos que están entre los más extensos y los más antiguos del mundo.
La India de Harapa o la India de la pretendida “civilización del valle del Indo” era la civilización urbana más grande en el mundo durante el tercer milenio AC. (3300-1900 AC) (8) Cronología general del la civilización del “Valle del Indo” (9): Fase Harapa más reciente: 1900 a 1300 AC Fase Harapa: 2600 a 1900 AC Harapa más antigua (varias fases): 5500 a 2600 AC Mehrgarh: 7000-5500 AC
Más de mil lugares arqueológicos han revelado una cultura antigua impresionante. Ver especialmente los descubrimientos (realizados desde el inicio del siglo XX) en Mohenjodaro y en Harapa (en la orillas del Sindhu o “Indo”). http://www.harappa.com/indus/map1.html (nota : Harapa esta indicada en los Vedas) Las excavaciones arqueológicas y los análisis científicos concluyen que la civilización Sindhu-Sarasvati conoció su periodo de gloria en el 3er. milenio AC. En su apogeo, esta civilización se extendía en un territorio desde el río Ganges al Este hasta Afganistán al Oeste, y de la frontera de Irán hasta cerca de Bombay
ver el sitio : 'The Ancient Indus Valey' (¡muy completo!)
2. Los vestigios testimonian una riqueza cultural sin comparación,
tanto espiritualmente como materialmente: planificación urbana notable (calles orientadas según los puntos cardinales y en ángulos rectos), esplendor arquitectónico, templos, casas de varios pisos construidas con ladrillos, almacenes, depósitos, baños públicos y privados (10), sofisticados sistemas de alcantarillado (¡muy raros en la época!), objetos artesanales, uso de la cerámica (!!), porcelanas, metales, joyas (11), utilización de unidades de medida y peso estandarizadas (12), primera escritura (!!), etc..
y « re-excavations » Prensa (BBC) (13) . ciudades que son intermediarias entre las de la civilización Harapa y las de la India más antigua..Fuentes (14) .R. etc.Prensa: BBC & Indian Express: (18) . por las piedras preciosas que se han encontrado.. Recientemente. Rao y el Instituto Nacional de Oceanografía de la India.Otras fotos del manuscrito de Harapa (15) 4.. Fuentes & imágenes: (17) . hay señales de civilización humana... como los emplazamientos de Dwaraka y alrededores.« 16 tablets » . El manuscrito de “Harapa” ha revelado recientemente sus secretos: Actualmente la lengua es definitivamente reconocida como de origen sánscrita (un “proto” brahmi). en el valle de Cambay.harappa. Por la estructura de la “ciudad”.com/indus2/index. Los manuscritos más antiguos de Harapa datan de 5500 años. Los recientes descubrimientos de la arqueología submarina de la India han sacado a la luz lo que podría ser la “ciudad” más antigua del mundo. Fuentes & imágenes: (16) 5. muy cerca de la civilización Sarasvati-Sindhus.. (nota: los textos védicos hablan de Dwaraka).3. Esta “ciudad” es de una antigüedad de 7000 años como mínimo (5000 AC) Ha sido encontrado un vestigio fechado en 9500 años (7500 AC). por S.html (pulsar en « early writing » .. un nuevo conjunto de ciudades ha sido encontrado en la India. Fotos del manuscrito de “Harapa” : : http://www. revelada por los sonars.
geológicas. Y en consecuencia. hay impedimentos políticos. antropológicas y genéticas de estos 2 últimos decenios.. En Merhgarh (7000-5500 AC). leyendas y cuentos míticos. y la de otros textos védicos como posteriores a él reposan sobre fundamentos científicos y/o arqueológicos? Pues bien.. Fuentes & imágenes: (19) 7. los textos védicos.y. un inmenso río que su anchura alcanza en ciertos lugares 7km. Pero.. que esta en el origen de la cronología de Müller y de su datación del Rig Veda en 1200 años AC. como parecía que no existía ninguna señal del legendario río. como un cierto numero de ellos están situados en el Pakistán y en Afganistán.... Y además. . Posteriormente recientes fotografías por satélite han demostrado la existencia del curso seco de un río que parece ser el Sarasvati... en el curso de estos últimos decenios.. no. Además de un gran numero de ubicaciones arqueológicas del Norte de la India han revelado. 6º Análisis del punto de vista occidental: ¿la datación del RigVeda en 1200 años AC. Solamente alrededor del 30% de las ubicaciones arqueológicas han sido objeto de excavaciones.. El Rig Veda (el primer Veda) alaba a Saraswati (o Sarasvati). los vestigios de ciudades védicas que se extendían a lo largo de las orillas del Sarasvati. esta en contradicción con los descubrimiento y evidencias arqueológicas. Así pues. . 1. Sarasvati fue tomado por un mito durante más de dos siglos por la comunidad académica.. la teoría de la invasión aria (TIA). a 300 kilómetros al norte del Mohenjo-Daro han descubierto los vestigios de una comunidad de más de 8500 años de antigüedad. fueron igualmente considerados como una colección de poesías.6.
.. De donde se deduce que la teoría de la invasión aria 1500 años AC no es valida. y se sitúa en la India. hasta agotarse completamente hacia el 1900 AC. ríos.. milenio AC según la TIA. entonces los Vedas describen bien la realidad de la época en que fueron consignados... ya que los Vedas. y que se desarrolla a lo largo del Sarasvati durante muchos milenios. ha sido verificado por las excavaciones arqueológicas.. Así pues el Rig Veda debió ser escrito mucho antes de aquella época. si hubieran sido los autores de los Vedas.. Osamentas de caballos de una antigüedad de 5000 años AC han sido encontrados en la India. Y los antiguos dioses védicos son dioses que provienen del océano. 2. lo que describen los Vedas. Los Vedas además no indican ninguna procedencia extranjera: todo viene de la India. que son citados como los escritos dejados por los “invasores” arios del Cáucaso entre el 1200 al 1000 AC. el Sarasvati se fue secando durante un periodo de varios siglos. Los arios habrían introducido el caballo en la India en el 2do.. Los nómadas del Cáucaso.. una floreciente civilización a los largo del Sarasvati..- El río del que habla el Rig-Veda ha existido. Además. ... no mencionaron jamás nada sobre su país de origen.. incluso el Rig-Veda hace referencia al océano (samudra) unas cien veces. 3.. Todas las montañas y los 7 ríos ampliamente descritos y glorificados en los textos védicos corresponden exclusivamente a los ríos y montañas de la India. y también a los barcos. Desgraciadamente. describen una civilización que existió antes del 1900 AC.
la evolución de los lenguajes humanos se efectúa mucho más lentamente. Los altares descubiertos en las ubicaciones Indo-Sarasvati (3000 AC) fueron construidos según cálculos muy precisos preconizados por los Shulva Sutras=> estos textos son anteriores a la construcción de los altares. La cronología de Max Müller de la composición de los diversos textos védicos basada en el desarrollo de la gramática sánscrita es muy verosímil. 8. que existe desde hace 2500 años. 9. La sabiduría espiritual de los textos védicos es ignorada desde el punto de vista que dice que los Vedas son solamente la poesía de los invasores bárbaros. la continuidad de la cultura védica (vestigios de diferentes épocas + continuidad cultural entre la civilización Shindu-Sarasvati y la sociedad hindú medieval ) contradice a la TIA 7. En efecto. Y esto a pesar del hecho de que los Vedas eran la base de grandes tradiciones yógicas y místicas de Asia. No solamente la literatura védica ha sido ignorada. El arbitrario intervalo sugerido de 200 años entre los textos védicos es demasiado corto. 6. 5.4. . han habido más modificaciones lingüísticas en el Sánscrito védico clásico que el Sánscrito clásico de Panini. sino que la literatura védica ha sido separada de los grandes vestigios arqueológicos de Harapa. pero los intervalos de tiempo sugeridos (200 años) solo son suposiciones de Müller. Y además. Existe una continuidad en la morfología de la escritura: de la escritura de Harapa pasando por la Brahmi hasta llegar a la escritura Devanagari (el Sánscrito escrito tal como lo conocemos).
. su enseñanza se impartía exclusivamente por tradición oral (y actualmente aún se hace así). siendo un conocimiento “sagrado”. durante el periodo védico..... 10. Y los objetos y manuscritos sacados a la luz por las excavaciones arqueológicas del valle del Indo muestran que se trataba de una cultura védica: estatuillas de dioses védicos(20). La astrología. que habría podido caer en manos de cualquiera. (Era demasiado “peligroso” dejar rastros escritos de ese saber. de maestro a discípulo. una especie de forma de control intelectual de los conocimientos. Imágenes (20) & (21) Fuentes: (22) & (23) & (24) 7º Datación de la astrología védica: Es importante saber que.. y del Rig Veda: el Rig-Veda puede ser fechado en 3900 años AC Como los Vedas son compilaciones de varias revelaciones.como si en la India hubiera “una literatura sin civilización”.. estaba expresamente prohibido escribir el saber.) 1. astrología védica basada en Parasara BPHS de Parasara = compilación de la época de la astrología hindú védica (antes=tradición oral) . figuras en posturas de yoga (20-21). y “una civilización sin literatura”. como los descritos en los “Brahmanas” védicos. - los principios de base de la astrología védica se encuentran el Jyotisha Vedanga. altares y objetos utilizados en los rituales. un texto que desarrolla los conceptos que ya están incluidos en los Vedas =>¿las bases de la astrología védica serian también anteriores al 3900 AC? 2. que han sido precedidas de una larga transmisión oral => Rig-Veda data de mucho antes del 3900 AC. etc. Svásticas.. La astrología védica proviene de los Vedas..
el Brighu Samhita. En 1790. Nakshatras: Los nakshatras son un sistema único en la India. la fecha de los sucesos históricos (como la guerra del Mahabarata) . Parasara existió hacia el 3100 AC => la astrología védica existe desde hace 5100 años como mínimo. etc. y la comparación entre estas diferentes informaciones. El astrónomo francés Jean-Sylvain Bailly (finales del siglo XVIII) dijo: “los movimientos de las estrellas calculados por los hindúes hace 4500 años no han variado ni un solo minuto de las tablas (modernas) de Cassini y de Meyer.. 3. su creación data del Rig-Veda (4º milenio AC) Fuentes: (23) & (24) & (25) 5..- A partir de la cronología védica. Las tablas indias dan la misma variación anual de la Luna que la descubierta por Tycho Brahé una variación desconocida en la escuela de Alejandría y también por los Árabes” Fuentes: (24) & (27) . el matemático escocés John Playfair demostró que la fecha más antigua registrada de observaciones astronómicas en las efemérides en curso (en el siglo XVIII) entre los astrólogos hindúes era de 4300 años AC Fuentes: (24) & (26) 6. Otros textos antiguos de astrología hindú : Los Upadesa sutras de Jaimini. 4.
El Vedanga Jyotisha (VJ) esta disponible en varias versiones: - El Rig-VJ. y significa el estudio del Tiempo. El Yajur-VJ comenta un suceso astronómico (29) datado entre el 1550 y el 1350 AC => el Rig-VJ data de mucho antes del 1500 AC: Fuente: (30) Quiero añadir que en el momento actual. . miles de textos astrológicos en sánscrito esperan siempre a ser traducidos. el más antiguo. El Atarva-VJ. tiene 36 versos. Hora se divide en diferentes secciones: - Jataka. en el año 560 AC. examinando el tema natal del Príncipe Sidharta (Gautama Buda). El Vedanga Jyotisha de Somakhara (comentador de los Vedas) El yajur-VJ. o astrología horaria Muhurta. La astrología “horoscópica” tiene sus bases en el Rig-Veda (3900 años AC): El Jyotish comprende 3 partes: Siddhanta. +/. Hay 6 Vedangas (apéndices de los Vedas) del Jyotisha Vedanga (28)..162 versos.. que él seria “el rey de reyes o el emperador de los “ascetas”? 8. Samhita y Hora. tiene 43 versos. Si la astrología “horoscópica” nació en Alejandría en el 332 AC. Cada Veda posee su propio Vedanga Jyotisha.. ¿como pudieron los astrólogos de la Corte predecir.. 1-4) Hora es la astrología predictiva. o astrología “horoscópica” Prasna. o astrología eleccional. (Narada Samhita.7.
En el Rig-Veda (RV 1:164:11) se dice que “ La rueda del Sol en el cielo tiene 12 rayos. Virgo (Kanya) esta asociada a Chitra. Esta cifra 360 es la misma base de la división del circulo en 360º. y esta subdividida en 360 pares de “hijos”. lo sitúa en el 4º milenio AC. La división en 12 ya sugiere el zodiaco. Este mismo verso une este mes de Tauro con su opuesto “Jyeshtha” (nakshatra de 16º 40’ a 30ª de Escorpión. Los 12 signos del zodiaco. llamada división “babilónica”. así como los 7 planetas y los nodos están indicados repetidas veces en el Rig-Veda (3900 AC): El Zodiaco: Por muy asombroso que pueda parecer a ciertos occidentales. Chitra es el nakshatra (asterismo) que contiene Spica (la espiga de la Virgen). Estos “hijos” son los días (compuestos de días y noches). disipando así toda duda al hecho de que Kanya (Virgo) significa la sexta constelación del zodiaco. La referencia al equinoccio de primavera en el signo sideral de Tauro (Vrishabha). El origen del zodiaco de 12 signos se atribuye habitualmente a Babilonia alrededor del año 600 AC.9. confirmado con esto que la denominación Vrishabha (Tauro) es empleada aquí en un sentido astronómico y calendario. Esto significa que el zodiaco es tan antiguo como el Veda más antiguo. como: - Vrishabha (Tauro) (RV 6:47:5 y 8:93:1) Mithuna (Geminis) (RV 3:39:3) Simha (Leo) (RV 5:83:3 y 9:89:3) Kanya (Virgo) (RV 6:49:7) Aquí también. pero ciertos signos (siderales) del zodiaco son igualmente mencionados en el Rig-Veda. se encuentra la presencia del Zodiaco en el Rig-Veda.¡ y que fue inventado en la India mucho antes que en Babilonia! Fuentes: (23) . coincidiendo con el equinoccio de Otoño). la datación de los sucesos astronómicos relativos a estos signos siderales se sitúa hacia 4000 años AC.
harappa.com/script/maha9.com/script/parpola8.html .harappa.Saturno..harappa.com/indus/56. Escorpión http://www.harappa. y que los signo y planetas ya eran mencionados + los vestigios estelares y el manuscrito de Harapa =>¡ los 12 signos y los 7 planetas tienen su origen en la India y no en Mesopotámia o Grecia! Conclusión .rootsweb.html http://www.com/script/parpola10. de los planetas..html http://www.com/~catshaman/121Indus/02Indussym4.harappa.com/script/parpola7.com/script/parpola12.harappa. Harapa: Los “signos” del zodiaco y los planetas ya existían en el 3er. Pléyades.Aries http://www.com/script/maha10.Las Pléyades http://www.html .harappa.harappa.com/script/parpola7. Aldébaran (Rohini).com/indus/54.html La interpretación de los manuscritos de « Harapa » indican que sabían muy bien las referencias estelares. Mercurio.htm . de las constelaciones. Vénus.Acuario http://www.html . milenio AC: (los links remiten a imágenes) .html http://www..html http://freepages.harappa.harappa. http://www. Fuentes: (31) Visto que el Rig-Veda puede ser datado casi con certeza unos 4000 años AC como mínimo.html http://www.com/indus/34.html http://www.Piscis http://www.com/script/parpola9.html http://www.harappa.history. etc.harappa.html http://www.html ..harappa.Tauro.10.com/figurines/38.com/indus/27.
yahoo.com/Shyama_site/what_is_jyotish/etc.. fuentes. Según los Puranas.. Escribió "Hindu Manners. lista que ya era conocida por los embajadores griegos en la corte de Chandragupta en el siglo 4º AC. imágenes e información suplementaria: (1) Exceptuando los Puranas. si se consulta la lista de los reyes mencionados en las listas de las dinastías de los Puranas.. El mito de la Atlántida tiene probablemente un origen parecido. tanto a nivel de la datación astronómica de los textos védicos como de su contenido. la de Manu.com/articles/a/a0006073_p0.La Teoría de la invasión aria no se sostiene. Manu era el patriarca que estableció su reino en la India del Norte después de haber sobrevivido al diluvio y. . ---------------(4) Abad Dubois: evangelista francés del inicio del siglo XIX. Así.shyamasundaradasa.. como los vestigios de Harapa y de lo que han revelado el descifrado de los escritos de Harapa. entonces la supuesta “datación” (versión oficial) de los Vedas y de otros textos védicos no es valida. © Marie-Christine Sclifet 25/9/2002 actualización el 3/10/2002 Notas. + leer también (23) (2) http://fr. solo puedo concluir que la astrología védica tiene una antigüedad de unos 5000 años o mas. Customs and Ceremonies" con prefacio de Friedrich Max Müller. que han sido transcritos más recientemente que los Vedas.html ---------------(3) La « creación » del mundo en el 40004 AC y el diluvio en el 2500 AC. Lo importante es establecer paralelismos entre el estudio del contenido de los textos védicos (contenido “comprendido” a la luz de nuestra comprensión actual).. Manu debería haber vivido en el 7º milenio AC. que residió muchos años en la India. Puranic Time and the Archeological Record [PDF] : http://www. no es menor la compilación de la tradición oral de la historia hindú más antigua. y la realidad de los recientes descubrimientos arqueológicos y científicos. en vista de lo que precede.encyclopedia.
Society for Indic Studies . Koenraad Elst : "Astronomical data and Aryan question" [PDF] http://pws. reeditado por K.Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal Letters .html .html ---------------(12) En la India.Studies in Indology.99 ---------------(7) Dr.Quebec 1995.com/indus/8. pg 217-224 N. eds : Rtambhara .harappa. pg 91.html ---------------(10) http://www.html ---------------(5) 1ª datación del eclipse por P.S. como indican los pesos y medidas encontrados en Harapa: http://www. Sengupta : The solar eclipse in the Rgveda and the Date of Atri" .C.com/indus/79.yahoo.Motilal Banarsidass . "On the Date of the Rigveda" (1894).Jacobi.yahoo.C.http://shop.C.harappa. pg 106 ---------------(6) Hermann G.com/~chbrugmans/articles/uk_pdf/astronomy. pg 92-113P.com/indus3/e2.com/doverpublications/0486421155.html http://fr. Verma et al.Delhi 1992. el sistema decimal era vigente durante el periodo de Harapa.store. Frawley : "Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization" WH Press .harappa. Sarma: "A Solar Eclipse Recorded in the RgVeda" Haribhai Pandya et al.1941/7. : "Issues in Vedic Astronomy and Astrology" .the-ecorp.Ghaziabad 1986.pdf ---------------(8) Yahoo! .html ---------------(11) http://www.encyclopedia.yahoo. Rajaram & D.html ---------------(9) http://www.Encyclopédie / la civilisation de l'Indus : http://fr.com/indus/21.com/articles/ni/ni_2232_p1.encyclopedia. Sengupta : "Ancient Indian Chronology" Calcutta 1947 K.V.harappa.com/articles/ni/ni_2232_p0.
stm ---------------(14) http://www.res.harappa.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/334517.harappa.harappa.R.html http://www.vedamsbooks.htm o presse : http://www.htm ---------------- .harappa.harappa. and David Frawley : "Vedic Aryans and the Origins of Civilization : A Literary and Scientific Perspective" .harappa.fi/~aparpola/index. Rao (S.com/indus/30.harappa.com/seal/14.2e édition.By S.co. India) : http://www. N.ernet.html http://www. 1999 : http://news.harappa.S.html http://www.com/seal/1.html http://www.html http://www.com/indus/37.in/m3/arch/index.com/no14243.harappa. He is the discoverer of a large number of Harappan sites including the port city of Lothal in Gujarat).html http://www.html (livres et liens) Rajaram. New Delhi 1997.---------------(13) BBC May 4.com/indus3/206.html http://www.com/script/scriptres.niot. http://www. Rao served the Archaeological Survey of India for over 32 years.bbc.com/script/parpola0.html http://www.com/indus/25.com/indus/31.indian-express.helsinki.com/indus/28.html http://www.niot.html http://www.html ---------------(17) National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT.com/seal/15.harappa.R.html ---------------(16) Dwaraka : o The Lost City of Dvaraka .com/ie/daily/20000714/ina14051.html http://www.com/indus/29.in/ Marine Archaeology (NIOT) : http://www. ---------------- (15) Fotos del manuscrito de Harapa : http://www.harappa.harappa. Voice of India.
---------------(23) The genesis of India according to Bernard Sergent .co.com/rivendell/ultima/419etc.a review By Koenraad Elst.html http://www..web. 31 August 1999.harappa.html o http://www.com/proof_of_vedic_culture's_etc.Delhi.com/figurines/32.harappa.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1345150.harappa..stm ---------------(19) Mehrgarh : o http://fr.com/indus/indus4.uk/hi/english/world/south_asia/newsid_1763000/1763950.com/ Underworld: Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age .com/script/parpola8.asp o Asthana : Pre-Harappan cultures of India and the Borderlands .By David Frawley http://www.stephen-knapp.stm o presse : Indian Express January 17.com/indus/33.com/script/parpola0.travel.harappa. Proof of Vedic Culture's Global Existence .encyclopedia. Leuven (belgium).pk/destinations/archaeological_sites/mehrgarh.html ---------------(22) Dr. David Frawley : http://www. 2002 : http://news.com/indus/56.harappa.by David Frawley The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India . 2002 : http://www.html http://www.stm o presse : BBC 22 May.harappa.by Stephen Knapp (livre) : http://www.(18) presse : BBC 19 January.co. 2002 : http://news.com/indus/54.html http://www.harappa.com/indus3/e3.html o Neolithic Mehrgarh : http://www.html o http://www.harappa. (document PDF) .html o presse : BBC 16 January.html o http://www.co.vedanet.html http://www.com/articles/m/m0002936_p0.indian-express. 1985 ---------------(20) http://www.bbc.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/1768109..yahoo.com/indus3/e5.fortunecity.com/ie20020117/top6. 2001: http://news.bbc..A Vedic and India Perspective .harappa. Books and Books.bbc.html ---------------(21) http://www.
.Aditya Prakashan.html ---------------(26) Playfair’s argumentation. ) ---------------(27) S.com/~chbrugmans/articles/uk_pdf/sergent.html http://freepages.) http://pws. Aditya Prakashan. Edinburg 1790. de 3900 años AC como mínimo.harappa. Navabharati.com/~catshaman/etc.32.com/rcombes/bailly.burillier-uranie.rootsweb.htm ---------------(28) “Vedanga Jyotisha” significa literalmente “Compilaciones / explicaciones de los procedimientos astronómicos y astrológicos utilizados en los Vedas”. Sathe: In Search for the Year of the Bharata War.(shorter version of a chapter of Koenraad Elst's new book: Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate. is reproduced in Dharampal: Indian Science and Technology in the Eighteenth Century.com/script/maha8.pdf ---------------(24) Dr Koenraad Elst's : "Update on the Aryan Invasion Debate" .com/script/parpola7. http://rcombes. Delhi 1971).ifrance. p. p.org/books/ait/ ---------------(25) nakshatras (astérismos) dans le script Harappa : http://www.. “Remarks on the astronomy of the Brahmins”.harappa.69-124. . ---------------(29) El Vedanga Jyotisha comenta un momento donde el equinoccio de primavera se situaba en medio del Nakshatra de Alesha (23º 20’ Cancer) ---------------(30) article "Exegesis of Hindu Cosmological Time Cycles" de Dwight William Johnson) ---------------(31) Fishes and Stars: evidence for astral divinities : http://www.the-ecorp.htm http://www. Academy of Gandhian Studies. => las bases astronómicas y astrológicas datan del Rig-Veda. Hyderabad 1982.bharatvani. New Delhi http://www. Delhi.history.com/ehistoire. Hyderabad 1983 (Impex India. del Atar-veda y del Ayur-Veda.
The Saraswati-Sindhu Culture 10. The antiquity and continuity of this culture has been faithfully recorded in the oldest and grandest annals of mankind: the Rg Veda. Dasharadnya War 8. Vedics World-wide 9. Bibliography The Vedic culture has been pervading the Indian subcontinent for a few thousand years back from today. Evidence has come forth entirely contradicting the present held "aryan invasion" of India. Vedic Homeland 7. Ramayanic Era 12. Mahabharata Era 11. Archaeological excavations and other findings confirm the inception of the Indus Valley civilization as Vedic. The Mahabharata and Ramayanic . The Myth Of The Aryan Invasion 4. Chandragupta. Introduction 2. Aadi Shankara 17. Swayambhuva Manu 6. Ashoka Priyadarshi 14. Canada Index Preface 1. Summary 19. Chronology 18. the Sandrocottus 13. Background 3. RgVedic Era 5.---------------© Marie-Christine Sclifet 25/9/2002 página actualizada el 05-Oct-2002 16:29 Contactar con la autora Antiquity and Continuity of Indian History (From Swayambhuva Manu to Gupta Dynasty) by Prasad Gokhale Fredericton. New Brunswick. Mahaveer Jain 16. Gautam Buddha 15.
and 500 B. Inspite of the honest and genuine commencement of its study. the quintessence of philosophy thought and civilizational aspects of India had already been accomplished. The effects of European religio-political thought also creeped into this investigation. Western scholars have done commendable and untiring work in the field of oriental studies. starting from Swayambhuva Manu to the kings of the Gupta dynasty. and put forth theories based merely on speculation and pre-conceived beliefs. This construction and arrangement of historical facts and figures is therefore necessary to effectively hold together and guide forward a particular society.C respectively. Without this backbone. An outline of the antiquity and continuity of Vedic history is estimated. The "golden age" in India was ushered in with the rise of the Gupta dynasty. It is to the credit of Sir William Jones that a systematic study and examination of this problem was first initiated in the late 18th century. The antiquity of a culture's history and the achievements of its peoples provide the nation with an identity and a sense of self-esteem.C. the political situation in India changed and this sincere study of history then became. Introduction. a time when Macedonian Alexander had invaded India. including literary and archaeological. it is attempted to derive the datelines of ancient Indian (alias Vedic) events and heroes. And history without chronology is like a person without a backbone. until now. The result was that the antiquity of many events were highly underestimated and .. in a way. was to construct an agreeable framework of chronology. The most difficult part of this study. In this article. However. intentionally or by accident. It was Chandragupta of the Guptas who reigned over the Indian empire around 325 B. Evidence testifies that The Buddha and Aadi Shankara lived in 1800 B. The study of history forms an important part in providing an understanding and in giving a clearer perspective of the present mental setup and cultural state of a nation of peoples. a weapon to subjugate and win the people of India. The history of India entered the medieval ages almost 5000 years ago.civilizations flourished in the ancient past. 1. The chronological establishment of Indian history has been a matter of academic contention for the past two centuries. within decades.C. substantiating the events with a variety of evidence. The researches well-recorded by them are of utmost importance even today. The study of history tells us the story of how a particular society behaved and reacted in the wake of varying and trying circumstances. it is quite unfortunate that the western indologists misinterpreted the historical data available. and even before the advent of Christ. the person feels helpless and hopeless.
The invading hordes settled down on the banks of river Sindhu (Indus). However.C. The date when Gautam Buddha prospered was calculated from this sheetanchor to be around 500 B.) of the Greeks with Chandragupta Maurya by Sir Jones was considered to be the "sheet anchor" and based on this assumption.C. Subsequently. an attempt is made to present briefly a chronology of events based on newly available archaeological data.). For example. were placed in the 4th century A. whose reign ushered a Golden Age in India. The identification of Sandrocottus (325 B. continuity and spread of Indian history and culture. the European Indologist Max . at times. methods and evidence that have become newly available however have provided numerous definite and conclusive statements that have compelled historians.C. However. the mistakes of an era bygone. Puranas and numerous other scriptures were composed. a chronology of Indian history was constructed. Where does the Ramayana and Mahabharata fit in? Some say that the Ramayana follows Mahabharata and some opine otherwise. the Brahmanas. the dating of some important events and personalities is presented here and it is hoped that the readership gets a clearer and beneficial perspective on the matter. 2.its continuity and greatness undermined. Compelling observations from a variety of sources and opinions of different scholars have been used in the course of the attempted construction. Samhitas. The Gupta Dynasty.to 300 B. since these dates contradicted the prevalent views of European historians. Examination of the Rg Veda. In this article.C.D.. which ruthlessly and forcefully subdued the original inhabitants of the land.C. Puraan and other texts provide dates of events that took Indian history. Modern researches. Nevertheless. it is quite futile to harp over the numerous shortcomings of early historical research.. the Sanskrit texts were academically attacked in an attempt to disprove the authenticity of the contents. complied the Vedas.D. The listing and review of evidences presented here are by no means exhaustive and the problem of this historical compilation is definitely more complicated that it might appear. archaeologists and academicians to ponder judiciously over the antiquity. and the dateline of Aadi Shankara was put in 800 A. and within few centuries (1200 B. the probable date of Mahabharata ranges between 1000 B. In all this anarchy of Indian histography. imposing upon them a alien language and culture. back to thousands of years.C. Background The currently established chronology of India initiates with the invasion of the so-called aryan race in 1500 B.
However. other references in the Rg Veda (10:1:11. When the Rg Veda (2:20:10.Muller. that is. "pious frauds" created by the cunning Brahmanas. the slayer of Vritra.. that is. The hypothesis of an aryan invasion is apparently based on the conflicts between light-skinned aryans and dark race of dasyus described in Vedic literature. as will be presented in the paragraphs to follow. raised objections and rejected the theory of aryan invasion since its inception in the early 19th century. Numerous references which were anachronous to the particular time-frames were considered as unauthentic and unreliable. Many a scholar and historian have acknowledged the discrepancies. i. 8:85:3. it is held as a proof that the "invading arryans" exterminating the "dar aboriginals". It is now seen that the history of India and its sub-continent can be continuously traced back to thousands of years. the word dasyu derives from the word "das". the invasion of the aryans from outside) is described briefly in the following section.. The barbaric aryan race then destroyed an already existing and advanced Harappan civilization. conquered it and laid the foundations of a foreign imposition of language and culture on India.e.( which apparently is the genesis of Indian history. According to this theory. destroying the Krishna Yoni Dasyus". and at times. The Rg Veda (6:22:10.) prays to Indra to give glory by which the dasyus can become arya's. the light-skinned aryan people wandered into India in the 2nd millennium B. a period when the Gupta dynasty ruled over India.) refers to "Indra.C. "one who harms". This supposedly marked the beginning of the development of a Vedic culture. incisive arguments have been presented for and against it. 2:3:9.) suggest that the Indians were a mixed race and also. changing the dasyus to ideal and cultured human beings. Therefore to imagine the invading aryans to be a white race is suspicious.. from Central Asia. One of the main erred events. According to historian Wheeler (in his "Civilization of . or what is called Hinduism today. tried the interpret the astronomical evidences to prove that the observations recorded in the Hindu scriptures are imaginary. This article examines the evidence leading to the dating to many events that occurred at different times: right from the Rg Vedaic age to the pre-christian golden-age of the Hindus. This aspect is said to have been strengthened by the skeletal findings in the excavated sites in the Indus Valley. 3. The Myth of the Aryan Invasion The theory of the aryan invasion of India has been a matter of debate. According to Saayana. No attempt was made to re-check and re-evaluate the presumptions and a basis on which the present chronological structure was built. no stigma was attached to any non-white complexion.
". The unobservant reading of the Rg Veda and its subsequent misinterpretation led to the doctrines of "class" and "colour" struggles among the ancient Indians. It indeed becomes evident that the harappan culture was a part and parcel and continuation of an earlier Vedic age: an age that existed much prior to 3000 B. Recent advances in archaeological. along the coast of Gujarat. candour. it is amusing to know how academics held on to this dogma.Indus Valley and Beyond"). This doctrine of aryan invasion has been used as a perfect tool to divide the Hindu society and the Indian state. Murrow in his book "The Sanskrit Language" comments." For the IndoAryan invasion of India no direct evidence is available. provides authenticity for the existence of the Mahabharata civilization (3000 B.C. an appropriate tool to justify marxist ideals and european racial theories. . In the text of the Rg Veda itself. Tilak and Sri Arvind had already rejected the aryan invasion theory based mostly on literary analysis.R.. The north-indian aryans were then pit against the south-indian dravidians. the word "arya" is a honorific title and was used for people who were cultivated in mind and character. a person whose way of life aims at elevating the individual soul through a disciplined life to godhood(Mukhti).Rao shows a amazing affinity with the Sanskrit family and analysis of the seals have put forth numerous words and names from the Vedic age. The excavated ruins of the submerged city of Dwaraka by Dr.the [Aryan Invasion] cannot be proved and may be quite incorrect". there is no reference anywhere to the fact of the migration.. In spite of having no evidence to support this doctrine. Vedic orthodoxy against the "native" heterodox sects and later. nor any definite indication that it was still remembered." Indian Vedic scholars like Dayanand Saraswati. The deciphering of the Indus script by S.Rao and his team in 1985 (Marine Archaeological Unit).. Sri Arvind in his celebrated book "The Supramental Manifestation and Other Writings" explains : ". As opposed to any racial connotation. B.R. to neutralize Hindu criticism of forced Islamic occupation as "Hindus themselves have entered the same way as Muslims have". Till today.G. although historical allusions are not uncommon. linguistic and astronomical research have also compelled the abandoning of the current view of the aryan invasion and the falsely speculated antiquity of the Vedic civilization. Also.C. The study also showed that the river flow discontinued much earlier than 3000 B.).the word Arya expressed a particular ethical and social ideal. the Marxist and "secularist" forces continue to promote this theory and extract propagandist capital out of it.C.. which appears extensively in the Vedic literature. mainstream Hindus against the tribals. an ideal of well-governed life. S. high-castes against low-castes. Satellite data combined with field archaeological studies have discovered now disappeared river Saraswati.
" Rama and Krishna have been addressed as arya." According to Dr. August 2. B. nobility.G.C. There is no word in human speech that has a nobler history. was termed un-aryan or anarya (colloq. Sidhartha. as are many other people in the Rg Vedic era. mean. observance of social duty. to the origin of the Rg Veda.compassion.) by poets who had inherited their knowledge or contents thereof from their antediluvian forefathers".000 B.C. 1993). cruel or false. at least. everything that tended towards the ignoble. The evaluation of these annals enable the determination of the periods when the particular configurations occured.C. The Aiteriya Brahmana points to dates to the order of 6000 B. Rg Vedic Era The Rg Veda is not a work of the original and the descendants of the aryan nomads. and supported by archaeological excavations in south eastern Turkey. eagerness of knowledge.C. B. gentleness.C. straight dealing. Everything that departed from this ideal. Tilak has done some extraordinary work of deciphering the concealed astronomical allusions in the ancient Vedic texts. the Taiteriya Samhita provides dates that reach as far as 22000 B.. The Rg Veda. where Brushaspati (Jupiter) crossed the Pushya constellation.C (Ref: Vartak. was a product of a well-settled civilization going back to 8000 B. humanity. but exhibits a great degree of philosophical thought and advanced knowledge about astronomy. courage. " The Vedic hymns were sung in post-glacial times (8000 B. the social accomplishments. the antiquity of which is considered in the next section. In his book "Are the Gathas pre-vedic" H." (TOI. Astronomical configurations are also chronicled. protection of the weak... director of the Birla Science Center. rude..... the more antique date of 10. Tilak). . Samhitas and other related Vedic literature have documented the seasons and related changes occurring over a certain epoch in time.Spencer quotes another scholar stating that "Dhanista was the first of the naskshatras in the Rg Vedic times and this takes us back to 21788 B. "Rg Veda .M. From the calculation of the vernal equinox cycle. proposed for Rg Veda or Vedic culture seemed more plausible in view of the epi-paleolithic agricultural and proto-agricultural civilizations going back to the same period . Examinations of the recent archaeological findings also appear to support these datelines. liberality.S. obscure. 4. It was the combined ideal of the Brahmana and the Kshatriya.C. gives a date of 4650 B.. and beyond on the basis of astronomical dating .courtesy. anari). These datelines were already proposed by Tilak when he says. respect for the wise and learned. The analysis of astronomical references in the Taiteriya Brahman (3:1:15). purity.
. when the great law-giver Swayambhuva Manu. However. 14 Manu's will appear. and as such.C. Carbon 14 tests indicate that it was cast around 3700 B. the Puraan have multiplied the above period by 360.C.C. p. It is also worthy to note that the Indian history can be traced continuously from 29.C) has been reckoned based from references in the Mahabharata as well as from the literature provided by Varahamihira.C. or the self-born Man. fixing this date becomes necessary. Now the Rg Veda speaks of a mighty Saraswati and it is in much later literature that we hear of the disappearance of the river. More and more archaeological findings are coming forth that place the Vedic age to remote antiquity.The geological discovery of the mighty Vedic river Saraswati. 1990. with an error in either direction of upto 800 years . which begins with a Manu..) This establishes that the Rg Veda itself could not be later than the 4th millennium B. "According to the astronomical calculations of the Hindus. on 20th February. Count Bijornstierna in his "The Theogony of Hindus". only 3102 B. starting from the early period of the Rg Veda (23. Kalhana. Vruddha Garga and also the Puranic annals. flourished. to get 4320000 "divine" years. commenced 3102 years before the birth of Christ. to denote the endlessness of Lord's creation.000 B.) upto the occurance of the Mahabharata War. has aptly summarized on the calculation of Kali Yuga Thus. The period of one chatur-yuga cycle. an age also confirmed by independent metallurgical tests" (J." However. comprises of 12000 human years. the present period of the world. of Indo-European Studies.. In this particular Kalpa.C.18. . An assessment of the Vedic literature thus provides a chronology of events in steps of 2000 years.. dried up around 2000 B. one of the Rishis who composed parts of Rg Veda . who revived and established the Veda.C is assumed. A paper presenting technical evidence concerning a newly discovered bronze idol states. v. for the sake of convenience in calculations.. which originally flowed somewhat parallel to Indus. The current Varaaha Kalpa (one period of time) begins with the reign of Swayambhuva Manu. the Manavantara period is calculated... a period when Vedvyas compiled the scattered Vedic knowledge into four parts.C. " The life sized head has a hair style which the Vedas describe as being unique to Vasishtha. It is definitely known that the Vedas are much older than the Mahabharata period (3100 B. And further multiplying these by 71.425-46). Swayambhuva Manu A majority of events available in the chronicles provide ages from the beginning of the Kali yuga. Kali Yugaa. Arya Bhatta. 27 minutes and 30 seconds . 5. at 2 hours. The precise moment for advent of the Kali Yuga (3102 B.000 B.
Chakshusha Manu. These datelines for Vaivasvata and Swayambhuva Manu are corroborated from the Matsya Puraan (129-76.e. a time when Vaivasvata Manu (leader of the present chatur-yuga) flourished.G. from whom this earth "Pruthvi" derives its name. One very famous king Pruthu. the beginning for this chaturyuga period (2400 for Dwaapar. They were the pace-setters of the time. One divya-yuga is 360 human years.Tilak is his "The Arctic Home in the Vedas" has provided an incredible understanding and presentation of the Rg Vedic geography and argues for a polar home for the Vedic aryans before the advent of glaciation. it is now conclusively proved that before the advent of a glacial and . however. 3600 for Treta and 4800 for Kruta = 10. i.e.800) would be 10.C. i.C. a stature with which they even influenced the rulers of the time. His date therefore comes to roughly 16050 B... The Puraan however do not record any Manu's appearing after Vaivasvata Manu. over a period of 15200 years. the span of ancient Vedic culture has primarily been limited to Punjab. Vedic Homeland The exact location and expanse of the Vedic culture is still a matter of speculation and discussion. and therefore Swayambhuva Manu's date is calculated to be about 31000 years before present (360*71 + 3102 + 1996). we find that an equable climate and uniform climate prevailed over the whole surface of the globe . the following section on "Vedic Homeland" may provide some clues in that regard.G. lived 71 (divya) yuga before (Kali yuga). the king for the current Kalpa. B. when the Alps were low and the Himalayas not yet upheaved . 6. his date can be calculated to be about (14000 + 12290) 17500 B. as the time when Swayambhuva Manu existed. Their geographical locations are a matter of further research. approximately.C. 77) as well. this fact does not exclude its existence elsewhere. The Brahmanda Puraan (1:2:9) states that Swayambhuva Manu. which tallies remarkably with the date suggested by the Puraan. re-establish and promote ethical and moral principles amongst humanity. The institution of Manu was to revive.. is known to be 5th in line from Chakshushu.C.C.. "in the early geological ages. at 13902 B. using astronomical data. Tilak notes. however.Therefore. is said to be 12 generations elder to Vaivasvata and therefore going backwards. As of today's theory. going backwards from 3102 B. According to the Puraan's.Tilak in his "Orion" has calculated 29101 B. the sixth descendent of Swayambhuva.800 years before Kali. from geological evidence of fossil and fauna. 52 generations had elapsed between Swayambhuva and Vaivasvata. Each generation must therefore be 290 years long. B.. It is beyond any doubt that the Vedic culture existed in the land of Punjab.. the five-river region of northwest India.
and even a cursory examination of the text suggests that the Vedics lived on the banks of the "great goddess stream". both in the Vedaand Avesta. when the course of this river was already on its decline. This takes the Vedic age to remote antiquity. According to geological evidence the post-glacial epoch commenced in about 8000 B. flourished in the high latitude of the polar regions where the Sun goes below the horizon from November till march. The Vendidad contains a picturesque description of different regions to which these people seem to have moved. Therefore based on the internal evidence appearing in the Rg Veda and Avesta. The river Saraswati. the land where the Vedics had their hey-day is a Sapta-Sindhu Pradesh or the Hapta-Hindu . It is therefore apparent that the Saraswati in the pre-Indus era must be flowing west from present-day Afghanistan-Iran area towards the west. It is stated in the Rg Veda (10:75:6) that river Kubha (Kabul) joins river Saraswati along with other rivers.. Ahur Mazdeo (Asur Mahadeo) is said to have created sixteen such regions. The river Saraswati is also identified as the modern river Syr-Darya joining the Aral Sea to the North. When the original land near the arctic regions was found unsuitable for human habitation. hence Arya-Varta). is regarded as the most central and is intimately mentioned in the Rg Veda. the central-land of the Vedic aryans can now be located in Afghanistan. Most of the sites of the Indus-Valley Culture fall to the east of river Sindhu and appear to be found on the banks of the Saraswati. the survivors of the glacial tragedy appear to have moved down to the south of their earlier home. at least to a few thousand years. For the river to change course four times must have taken at least a few thousands of years. it has now be found that Saraswati changed its course at least four times and originally flowed into the sea through what is now known as Rajasthan.73). According to David Frawley (G. called the Aryas. So the ancient Brahmanas and Parsis were two tribes of one nation. Tilak quotes many passages from the Vedic as well as Avestan literature which show acquaintance with these polar characteristics. thus showing that a warm climate prevailed in the Arctic regions in those days". The original population appears to have split into different groups which moved in different directions. According to the Rg Veda (8:24:27).. Harahwati of Avesta. The freshness of Siberian fossils also testify to this event.C. Iran and other regions to their north and east. S & K. Scholars concur that the verses in the Avesta are full of aryan glory. until the river reduced to a insignificant tributary at the time of Mahabharata (3138 B. The Lord of the Avesta.).inter-glacial periods a luxuriant forest vegetation . the "best region" created by the Lord was the Sapta-Sindhu region: a vast region stretching to the east and west of the river Sindhu (Indus. Of the sixteen lands.C. and are composed in the same meters as the Rg Veda. pp.
etc. and even the language. Helmand and one more river to the west of Sindhu. till the advent of Islam in these regions. son of Divodasa. who presided over a kingdom to the east of Sindhu. whose impact later spread eastwards and southwards. The incidents depicted in the Rg Veda. The Vedics in Afghanistan however maintained their relations with those to their east. the Vedics settled in the Sapta-Sindhu region. After having established their stronghold along the Sindhu region. after his victory over Chayamana. It is of no dispute that the Zarathustran people of Iran (and also the Greeks) are closely linked or lived together with the Vedics in the past. the Iranians appear to have developed a particular way of life under the advise of Sage Zarathustra. Thus the land watered by the rivers Saraswati. was perhaps the home of the Vedic people for a long time. The Vedics appear to have migrated on the banks of Sindhu after the mighty Saraswati began to desiccate. . Oxus. Also. appears to have caused a further separation between the Vedics living in the Sapta-Sindhu region. 7. Dasharadnya War The Dasharadnya war (War of ten kings) took place between Chayamana.and King Sudas. brother of Sage Vasistha. The influence of these triumphant Bharatas (Sudas) over the Iranian (Chayamana) counterparts subsequently weakened in course of time. which forms a considerable part of the globe. which also included the present-day Iran. until a recent past. After the migration from the north.Pradesh of the Avesta. another major event. is reputed to be the first colonizer of the South. Sharayu. It should be realized that the Vedas are a heritage of mankind which record and preserve the human development for at least a few thousand years. However. Vishwamitra and others. The landmarks occurring in the Vedic lore. as recorded in the Rg Veda. Sindhu. As far as the Vedic evidence goes. territory covering regions to the west of Sindhu. Rasa. Turkey region) peoples to the west of river Sindhu show a close affinity to the Vedics.identified in south-eastern Iran . the names and customs of Mittani and Hittite (Iraq. customs and language extend in the east from Ganga-Yamuna to Oxus river which joins the Aral sea in the west. they moved further to the east to the Ganga-Yamuna region and later to the South. Sudas founded an empire on the banks of the Ganga along with Vashistha. king of Abhivarta . shows a remarkable similarity with the Persian Avesta. A clay tablet found near Ankara invokes gods like Indra. improving on the Vedic sacrificial religion and yet retaining fire worship. There are references of people migrating to the east of Sindhu and not the other way around. Thereafter. thought and expression. Varun. Rishi Agastya.
in 9844 B. On the basis of astronomy. Spencer gives details from Malcom's "History of Ancient Persia" and states that for 2598 years some four dynasties ruled over Persia from Yama Vivanghao (Yama Vaivaswat in Sanskrit) in whose time the Deluge commenced. that this sea and the nearby mountain Caucasus got their names from Sage Kaspios. These 'Asur'ians however were in turn the residents of Mesopotamia (Assyria) situated on the banks of river Euphrates. the Dasyus were believing in false gods and were inhuman (7:59:11) and it is that Zarathustra. on the east spreading over an area a little beyond Hindukush and the eastern most tributary of the Sindhu .the Shatudri (Sutlej) and the Ganga and on the south. and so his period can be fixed to about 7100 B. Therefore. after leaving their original habitat in the North.e. Sumer. Fr.Bharuca (quoted by Hodivala). who appear to have become Zarathustra's followers.Yashta. South. Spencer determines Zarathustra's date to be in between 7388 to 7052 B.as opposed to Asur. East and West directions. spread downwards settling down in various parts of the earth.90). Right from Turkey and Egypt. This War also appears to have set the Vedics living in the Sapta-Sindhu homeland towards the North. a very respectable people. the Arabian sea. Ur.C.. Iranian Zarathustra was a contemporary of king Vishtaspa. By this time.S. obviously a reference to Sage Kashyapa of the Rg Veda) and on the North the mountain ranges Pamir. Kai Vishtaspa became ruler of Persia. Vedics World-Wide From the foregoing discussion.the learned .The Dasyus were then the residents of some mountainous regions in Iran.C. This king is supposed to have ruled for 120 years. it is now realized that the Vedics. the pious and learned one. based on the internal evidence from the Rg Veda and Avesta. i. This apparently is also the approximate date for the occurrence of the Dasharadnya War. Kassite . It is notable that he is called Suro (Sur) . was trying to bring these people into the aryan way of life. coinciding with the dates determined above. the Caspian Sea and the river Oxus . According to the Rg Veda.C.C.one of the sapta-sindhu rivers now named as Amu-darya (as the Greeks Herodotus and Strabo lay down.. The rule of these four dynasties ended therefore in approximately 7200 B. Palestine and the ancient Persian kingdoms of Babylon. since the latter is referred to as Dakhyuma (the temporal Lord) and Dakhyuma Suro (in Avesta. and therefore his date can be worked out to be around 7100 B. the Vedics covered the region between the Caucasian mountains and Caspian Sea down to Syria. 8. the boundaries of Chayamana's kingdom were: on the west. Sage Kaksivan (RV 1-122-13) speaks of one Istasva who is identified with Vishtaspa by E.C.
. sent a colony of emigrants who carried their arts and high civilization into what is now known to us as Egypt. now prove beyond all dispute than the latter countries are the colonies of the former". obviously a reference to Sage Kashyapa of the Rg Veda). p.e.European Languages. "Bharat: As seen and known by foreigners").Venkatachalam in "Age of Buddha". S. and literature of Egypt and of Greece. "The early civilization.and towards Afghanistan. Prof. the indubitably early literature of India are equally the civilization of. arts. The Greeks (and Egyptians) derived their cosmogony from the Hindus is apparent from their respective literature (Deshpandey. the early arts. who were worshippers of the Sun (Mitra). Hor. It is there (i. Renfrew allows a date as early as 6000 B. Azerbaizan and then crossing the Hindukush mountains towards east into the present day India. eight thousand years ago. 1989). These perhaps were the people who moved westwards from the Caspian sea (as the Greeks Herodotus and Strabo lay down. that this sea and the nearby mountain Caucasus got their names from Sage Kaspios. p.76) that "We have a right to more than suspect that India. etc. the arts. An impetus to the spread and severance between the sapta-sindhu homeland of Vedics then came about after the Dasharadnya War . for the migration of Vedic aryans into Europe ("The Origins of Indo.M. to the pervasive influence of the Vedic aryan thought.75). It is clear from the reference to Nile in the Vayu Purana". Sc. Tilak in "Orion" mentions that the Greeks. Pococke writes in "India in Greece" (quoted in Age of Buddha..Amer. philosophy.C. according to their records. Aryavarta) we must seek the cradle for the brahmin .C. for geographical references conjoined to historical facts and religious practices. An assessment of the spread of the Vedic culture in conjunction with the study of the ancient literature. by K." These statements justify the "Aryam Krunwanto Vishwam" (We will spread the Arya culture through out the world) slogan of the Vedic people.Venkatachalam. Hathor (Brahma.. Brugsch Bey writes aboutthe Egyptian civilization in "History of Egypt" (quoted by K. Oct. separated from their Vedic brethren about 3500 B.. The Egyptians came. cosmogony.Ali in his "Geography of the Puranas" writes that "they (Vedics) had knowledge of the geography of the then known world. of peoples worldwide inculcates sufficient doubt.168) rightly judges and summarizes. Count Bjornstierna in his book "The Theogony of the Hindus" (p. Rudra). Also. history. led by Amen. and perhaps an cogent argument. "No nation on earth can vie with the Hindus in respect of the antiquity of their religion.the spread towards Greece and northwards. Hari. from a mysterious land (now known to lie on the shores of the Indian ocean) . That the Vedics had migrated to Egypt is also suggested from the geographical references in the Puraan.
in the south to Ceylon. However. The Saraswati-Sindhu Culture (SSC) A flourishing civilization along the banks of Indus (Sindhu) river. There are a number of references and admittances to the antiquity of the Vedic culture. to Java and to Sumatra. and it carries us back to times of which we have no records anywhere". in the east to Siam. Charles Vallency quotes Sir William Jones as saying "It has been proved by clear evidence and plain reasoning that a powerful monarchy was established in Iran. as was observed earlier. whence it came to Greece and to Rome and at length to the remote abode of the Hyperboreans".465). p.religion but for the cradle of high civilization of the Hindus. to Egypt. p. had an empire in the regions of Punjab. which gradually extended itself in the west to Ethiopia. and finally. . father of Sudas. "that a system of Hinduism pervaded the whole Babylonian and Assyrian empires" (India in Greece.).Brown quoted in Bharat: As seen and known by foreigners". an examination of the artifacts located at the unearthed sites present an different opinion. The expanse and pervasiveness of the Vedic thought is simply amazing and remarkable. and in the north to Persia. that the world thought was influenced by Hindu philosophy... Divodasa. that is subsisted many centuries.N. called the Indus-valley civilization. It is obvious that west asia. In spite of the intensive research conducted. The mountains of Himalayas and the land of Kashmir are praised in the Rg Veda. destroyed by the invading aryans. long before the Assyrian or Pishdadi government. 9. has been an enigma after its excavation in the early 20th century. that the Hindus were the parent of the literature and theogony of the world (W.D. P. However. was very much a part of the massive Vedic empire.C. it has been maintained that this advanced culture had a non-aryan identity. p.. The Vedic settlements on the fertile banks of the Saraswati-Sindhu rivers.178). many questions about this civilization yet remain to be answered. The Vedics seem to have settled in northern (and even in the South) India long before the Dasharadnya War (7000 B.13). to Chaldia and to Colchis. to China and to Japan. to Phoenicia." (Collectania De Rebus Hibernicus... according to Max Muller (in "History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature") the Vedas are the oldest books in existence . and their influence has reached to the far-east and south of India as well. that it was in truth a Hindu monarchy . Pococke observes.Oak in his celebrated book "World Vedic Heritage" provides an exhaustive account of the vedics worldwide.
This shows that Lord Krishna was popular at least prior to this date. In Mohenjodaro. a tablet dated 2600 B. these . Archaeologist Dales points that there is no destruction level covering the latest period of Mohenjodaro. These sites have been marked by a presence of planned township. The disappearance of these settlements seems to have caused by natural calamities. He states. no armour-clad warriors and no weapons are conspicuously absent. This culture was in continuity with the Vedic culture prevalent on the banks of river Saraswati and Sindhu from ancient times. He has been identified as Rudra. At Mehrgrah. 1953). Indra and the barbarian hordes are exonerated" (quoted by Possehl in "Ancient Cities of the Indus". "Enemy of the Harappans was nature and abetted by Harappans themselves.. A full set of terracotta figures in Yogic and greeting postures in the Indian posture are found at Mohenjo-daro and Harapppa. by earthquakes. Small settlements and a few city-centers of enormous size are also seen. 1979). change in course of rivers. the finding of cotton seeds forming part of cultivated crops is notable. attributed to Pashupati himself. whether they were aryans or non-aryans has been addressed. barley and oats have been found along with milling stones. An Atharvavedic hymn (2:34). Due to mutual cultural and trade contacts. suggesting a continuity of from the Vedic culture. There was no aryan invasion and therefore no massacre of the population at Mohenjodaro. no sign of extensive burning. The invasion theory does not stand an anthropological scrutiny.The ethnic identity of the SSC folks. and also that the Indus Valley culture was not destroyed by any outsiders. flooding and perhaps. Sacrificial firealters and geometric designs are found in most sites suggesting a Vedic religio-ritualistic lifestyle of the people. The picture of the SSC that emerges is of huge dimensions. does not speak of any "formidable civilization" presenting an extensive fortified front to the aryan invaders. and Swastika which are supposed to be religious are found in some preSS sites. V. a human figure with headgear of horns in seated in a contemplative yogic posture and surrounded by animals. It is assumed that these cities succumbed to the invasions of the so-called aryans and that the Vedic god Indra carried out all the destruction. charred remains of wheat. a superb religiouscultural and trade empire spanning area of continental sizes. exactly describes this seal. which attained deification in the later stages of the Veda.C.S. since studies of the SSC population prove the genetic and somatic homogeneity of all. typical pottery and other artifacts. Among floral remains. the later Mahadeva.Thus ended one of the three civilizations of antiquity. "India in the days of Panini". One famous seal found at the sites is that of Pashupati. The Vedic literature even though details many other things. who accelerated the spoliation of the landscape . The motifs like Pipal leaf. is found which depicts Lord Krishna in his childhood days (Agrawal.
The conclusion appears to fit in the logic since the Harappa culture is only in continuance with the earlier Vedic culture. it is still a living force in the life of the Indian masses. during the period between 3000 B. Due to a belief in aryans overriding the "dravida" culture. European scholars have maintained that the events described in the ancient Sanskrut texts are imaginary and subsequently. Various dates have been estimated referring to astronomical recordings. Dr. 1979). lineagial references. etc. Ancient Cities of the Indus. (Possehl. The migration of indo-europeans along with the Indians from their common habitat explains the close relationship between different scripts. Phoenicians. archaeological findings and other evidences. The Mahabharat. a form of Brahmi from which the current devanagari script has evolved. The SSC culture was anything but a part and parcel of the earlier Vedic civilization. perhaps. originally written by Sage Ved Vyas in Sanskrut. at least for now. Encoding of .. The most enigmatic and baffling aspect of the Saraswati-Sindhu culture has been their script. Dating back to "remote antiquity".Rao has convincingly deciphered the script and it is a form of Sanskrit beyond any doubt. can only be estimated from the Mahabharata epoch. For events prior to Mahabharat. 10. gathered from C14 dating techniques of various objects at different sites. has been translated and adapted into numerous languages and a variety of expressions and interpretations have been derived from it. Recently. the Mahabharata derives to be a fictitious tale of a war fought between two rivalries. an antecedent to the Hindu culture that followed. Kish and some parts of Sumeria. and also. It is with this consideration that the time for the Mahabharata era is established.SSC seals. The datelines for the Mahabharata age have been well researched by numerous scholars. only estimated dates are available and those like Ramayana . However. Mahabharata Era The Mahabharata has exercised a continuous and pervasive influence on the Indian mind for millennia. weights and beads have been found in Ur. a little later than the Mahabharata civilization. Ed. This view is being accepted by many scholars.C. is possible that the SS script contains alphabetics from the semitic scripts. attempts have been made to decipher SS symbols into some form of a dravidian script. The Saraswati-Sindhu phase represents a stage of development. The dating of the Mahabharata has been a topic of research for the past several years. to about 2100 B. even though Ramayanic era is known to have occurred prior to Mahabharat. since there was continuous contact between the Vedic folks and Sumerians.C.
which is said to have submerged into the sea around 2500 B. an important city during the Mahabharata era and Krishna's abode. 3102 B. Bharat (India) has shown. sixth in line from Parikshit which has been mentioned in the . One scholar. River Saraswati).C. the only way to provide time precision upto a day. the time for which is precisely known to be 2:27':30". This finding confirms two things: Mahabharata must have definitely occurred before that date. dated to 3000 B. Nidhanpur). Vartak from Pune.C. Dr. many others have calculated dates many years before 3100 B. Lal. have been performed by numerous mathematicians in the past. P. February 20. one scholar Dr. Archaeologists have been successful in excavating Dwaraka. and that the people of the Saraswati-Sindhu culture knew of Lord Krishna.C..C. the coronation of Yudhisthira can be determined to be 36 years before Kali Yuga. have been discovered at Hastinapur. A tablet found in the Mohenjodaro sites depicts Lord Krishna and is dated to be 2600 B. 3138 B. Greek records.C. inscriptions found at various places (Aihole.the astronomical recordings in the text. i. etc. There are other pointers in the epic text itself that lead to the same date (Udyog Parva: 142-18).C (Mackay's report. However.B. has evaluated the opinions of numerous experts on the dating of the Mahabharat. From internal evidences from the Mahabharata text. navani ghrunnati naro parani" (Nava Bharat Times. Patnaik has done commendable work in this regard. However. date. is found engraved a verse from the Bhagavad Geeta "vasanvsi jeernani yatha vihaya. The remote antiquity of the Great War leads to a paucity or unavailability of archaeological records.113) it is known that the Kali Age started with the death of Shree Krishna of the Mahabharata Age. Belgaum.e. vestiges of the Ashwamedh.C. He has calculated the date of the starting of the Mahabharata War to be October 16. Among others. Mahabharat therefore precedes this date.C. Greek records (Megasthenes).V. from textual references available in the epic text. or even less. horse bones. 18-4-67). From the Vishnu Puraan (4:24:108. On one of the excavations obtained from the Egyptian Pyramid.C.C. seems quite correct.C. archaeological evidence (Dwaraka. like the ancestral links of Megasthenes to Shree Krishna. a majority of whom appear to concur with the 3100 B. Dr. also provide some corroborating evidence to the 3100 B. 3138 B. and 3100 B. according to B. provide interesting clues to the dateline of the Mahabharat. Shriram Sathe. Part 1). There is further stratigraphical evidence at Hastinapur showing the flood level at the times of Nichakshu. dateline and therefore this time frame can be safely accepted. Also. in his book "Swayambhu" that the Great War to have initiated on 16th October 5561 B.
the Sankhya Yoga. "Swayambhu"). Thus calculating backwards.C therefore becomes the approximate dateline. Also. The basis of yogic school of thought. However. "Indian Philosophy"). which when traced back can provide an estimate of Shree Rama's era. It is known that the end of the Vedic school of thought was marked by the composition of the Vedanta by Sage Ved Vyas. Kuru) and not otherwise. Taitiriya) also fall into the same period of ancient history (Vartak. which antecedes Dwaapar period when the Mahabharata took place. Since the age of the Mahabharata War is now quite correctly known. The chronological span of Indian history finishes its ancient epoch with the Mahabharata War and 5000 years have elapsed subsequently into the "new" age. 11. Ramayanic Era Ramayana precedes the Mahabharata by simple reason that the genealogies of the personalities in the Mahabharata can be traced back to those in the Ramayanic Era (Ikshwaku. However. the famous Bhagavad Geeta and the Brahma Sutras. Shreemad Bhagwat etc. it may very well serve as a convincing benchmark to relate and date other and related events in Indian history. Samhitas (eg. Pandav).Taitiriya) and Brahmanas (eg. This philosophy of Sankhya and other five schools of thought. All these schools known to have been inspired by the Vedic teachings. were 'composed' after the Mahabharata War. the exact dating of the Rama's accomplishments has been unattempted and undecided as of today. It is unfortunate that not much work has been done of the dating of Ramayanic events. Many other Brahmanas (eg. Shatpath). and were extant much prior to 3100 B. definitely preceded the Upanishadic alias Vedantic expositions. the illustrious author of the Mahabharata text (Rajgopalachari. the date of Yudhisthira/Mahabharata can be determined. The dating of the Mahabharata is also significant in fixing the dates of the Vedantic (Upanishadic) texts. it is suggested that it may have occurred 2 millennia before the Mahabharata (from available lineages) and 5100 B. the Ramayana is known to have occurred in the Treta Yug(a). The conservative date of that era falls to about . The Mahabharata contains list of kings and family histories of the heroes of that era (eg. has been mentioned by Lord Krishna in the famous Bhagavad Geeta discourse. were also composed by the illustrious Ved Vyas during the Mahabharata Era.Puranas. Some Samhitas (eg. The Brahma Sutras.Sushrut). Detailed genealogical connections of the characters in the Ramayanic Era to those in the Mahabharata Era are also known.C. which propound the essence of the Vedantic thought.
we see that Ramayana falls at about 5350 B. assuming Kali Yuga began in 3102 B. Assuming his lineage determinations are a correct estimate. which is altogether not impossible a date. Vartak. Indra) are similar to those (mentioned) in the Vedas. Rudra. has reckoned Rama's birth date to be 4th December 7323 B.C.000 years and Dwaapar two times that. These deities are altogether different from those during the Mahabharata time. Marutgan. Assuming 40 years for each generation (people lived longer at that time).C. Now. which is closer to Shree Ram's date estimated above.C. etc. The deities in the Ramayanic era (eg: Varun.. Dr.) 75th in Ikshwaku lineage and that 60 generations passed between Shree Rama and Shree Krishna. about 1500 years beyond the Mahabharata age. using astronomical recordings in the Ramayana.C. Dr. the beginning of Dwapaar concludes to be around 5300 B.C. 3600 for Treta. and the genealogies can be followed to determine Shree Rama's Era. However. Isin and Kish chronicles which approximate the date of the first king (Ukhu == Iksh-vaku) of the first dynasty of Sumeria to be 8350 B.C. This suggests the antiquity of the Solar dynasty. have calculated the last phases of Rg Veda to be between 6000-4000 B. Ramayana could have occurred during this time. Ramayana therefore must have occurred when the Rg Veda (one of its stages) was being composed. . Dwapaar has 2000 years. Subtracting the "sandhee" between Dwaapar and Treta.C. and assuming the first Ikshwaku king at 8350 B. Tradition informs that Mahabharata occurred at the end of Dwaapar Yuga and Ramayana at the end of Treta Yuga.C and Mahabharata at 3000 B.C. with 200 years of "sandhee" period on either sides. if the Kali Era itself spans 432. approximately 1800 years prior to the Mahabharata dateline which he calculates (5561 B. Some clues from Sumerian clay tablets. might have occured between 5000-6000 B. It is known from Shrimad Bhagvat that Shree Rama was (approx. Ketkar. how can then Ramayana occur in 5500 B. from astronomical calculations. an approximate age when the Ramayana flourished can be reckoned to be around 5000 B. 2400 for Dwappar and 1200 years for Kali (cycle of 12000*2 years=24000 years). or even earlier. the latter which is known.C ? One theory by Swami Yukteshwar (derived from Hindu texts) gives 4800 years for the Satya Yuga..C. and knowing that Mahabharata occurred in 3100 B. the end of Treta comes to around 5500 B.C. Tilak. Waddell states that the names of kings in the above records remarkably tally to those of Indian Solar and Lunar dynasties.4500 B.C. Tilak summarizes (in "Orion") other researches stating that the Ramayana ..Vartak's calculations have been presented in his celebrated book "Vastav Ramayana ".C.. Ramayanic date therefore falls at about 5300 B.C.).C.
the Greek chronicles are strangely silent on the names of Chanakya (Chandragupta's Guru) who managed to install the Maurya on the Magadha throne. who is known to invade India in 325 B." Indeed. was the contemporary of Alexander. was very powerful and had a long history but is nowhere mentioned by the Greeks. This construction of geography puts us in endless trouble. Sandrocottus of the Greek records. the situation becomes unnecessarily complicated and tortuous. dravid Ravana is known to the Ramayana to be a very intelligent Brahamana.C. also known as the Magadha empire. The empire of Chandragupta. This imbroglio has been challenged by various scholars and is precisely summarized by K. However. due to their dark hue. Rama being the ugly aryan engaged in subjugating Ravana's dravidasthan.C. In that case. Seminar Papers". apparently.. the very identification of Sandrokotus with Chandragupta Maurya is questioned. The Greek records mention Xandramas and Sandrocyptus as the kings immediately before and after Sandrocottus. the Sandrocottus of the Greeks was not a Maurya. the Ramayana has been conveniently linked with the premise of the aryan invasion of India. the Sandrocottus Modern history tends to put Buddha around 500 B. 12. Chandragupta. The datelines of Maurya Chandragupta and his grandson. Bindusar (his son) and even Ashoka (his grandson) whose empire extended far wider than that of Chandragupta. In the second one. Mohenjodaro and Kishkinda (the above of the Vaanara community) therefore may be placed somewhere in Pakistan. and the time he prospered is determined below. 1982). Rama must have been an Iranian invading Lanka. a story of the aryan conquests of south India..Incidently. However. i.e. They strove for the upliftment of humanity with a prime objective of establishing righteousness and morality through the globe. "There are difficulties in calculating the date of the coronation of Asoka . the date of Asoka based on it cannot be accurate. Rajaram (in "A Peep into the Past History. Like wise. the date of the death of the Buddha has not been fixed accurately and therefore. This date apparently comes from the assumption that Chandragupta Maurya. are considered in the following two sections. These names in any way are not . Rama and Krishna are classified as dravidians and strangely. Sage Buddha is also considered as yet another avataar. an aryan. to determine the age when Buddha flourished requires finding dates of some other events in the course of history. Madras. Indeed. On the other hand. Shri Rama of the Ramayanic age and Krishna from the Mahabharata age are considered to the incarnations (avataar) of the Supreme Godhead. In the first instance. Even Buddha bhikkus and the flourishing religion of the Buddha are not mentioned in their literature. Maurya Ashoka.
However. corresponding to 328 B.phonetically similar to Mahapadma Nanda and Bindusar. and the political and social conditions in India at that time. if Sandrocottus refers to Chandragupta "Gupta". His date is currently placed in the fourth century A. The phonetic similarity becomes quite apparent and also. as admitted by Wheeler and V. i. the Buddhist histories recorded centuries later create a good deal of confusion in .. Smith. This identification of "priyadarshin" with Maurya Ashoka was entirely based upon Ceylonese Buddhist chronicles. and who flourished at the time of Alexander. and that is in year 1534 B. the Xandramas reckons to be his predecessor Chandrashree alias Chandramas and Sandrocyptus to be Samudragupta. of the last Shishunaga emperor. Also.A. the grandson of Maurya-Chandragupta. respectively. undeserved credit is given to ceylonese records which have been nothing but a hinderance of ancient Indian history.C. This date can be arrived and confirmed using many independent accounts. has led to further chronological fallacies in the dating of Ashoka Maurya. After this. an illegitimate son.D. and ending with 1634 B. was Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty. confirms the identity of Sandrocottus to Chandragupta Gupta.C. and the only person who bore the name similar to Sandrocottus of the Greeks. which obviously does not stand. 13. with the assistance of other evidence. Mahapadma-Nanda. It is interesting to note that these edicts are summoned in the name of one "Devanam Priyadarshi Raja" and the name Maurya Ashoka is nowhere mentioned. Mahanandi. beginning from 1994 B. With this observation. with the assistance of Arya Chaanakya.. In the Puranic and other literature.C. which also is considered to be the "sheet anchor" of Indian chronology. It is also interesting to note that the accounts in the life of Sandrokotus of the Greeks. This Ashoka supposedly became a Buddhist as is confirmed from a variety of inscriptions and rock edicts found. The ten kings of Shishunaga dynasty ruled for 360 years. it is therefore that the Greek and Puranic accounts unanimously agree on the issue of the identity Chandragupta Gupta and Sandrocotus. However. who established a mighty empire on the ruins of the already decayed Andhra dynasty and existing 2811 years after the Mahabharata War. At this time. came to the throne of Magadha. Chandragupta Maurya ascended the throne of Magadha. The total regal period of this Nanda dynasty was 100 years. who were the predecessor and successor of Chandragupta Maurya.C. match to those of in the era Chandragupta Gupta.e. there is no allusion anywhere to an invasion or inroad into India by foreign peoples upto the time of Andhra kings. Ashoka Priyadarshi This misplaced identification of this Sandrocottus with Chandragupta Maurya.
which then appears to be the approximate date of Priyadarshi Ashoka: the grandson of Maurya Chandragupta. a compelling inference needs to be drawn. However. Tulamaya. He was a peaceful ruler who had lost all his land and wealth because of his innate pacifism.C.C.C.101-102) provides details of one Ashoka of the Kashmiri Gonanda dynasty who is said to have freed himself from sins by embracing the faith of Gautam Buddha and by constructing numerous Vihar and Stupa and by building the town Shrinagari with its 96 lakhs of houses resplendent with wealth. writes in . Kalhan's Rajatarangini (1. he is not recorded to have become a follower of Buddha. etc. it is therefore possible to bring about the datelines of Lord Buddha's life.. etc. Amtiyoka.) and those on the conversion of Buddhism are those of Gonanada Ashoka (1448-1400 B. are ascribed to distant lands (Syria. It should also be noted that there is also no evidence of the time when these edicts were inscribed. Maurya Ashoka is known be respectful and supportive of Brahmana and Shramana. 1979). Egypt.). Delhi. Amtiyoka was a Bharatiya prince ruling Afghanistan around 1475 B. The names of kings found on Ashokan inscriptions namely. Kota Venkatachalam. Now that the correct identifications of Sandrocottus of the Greeks and Ashoka of the inscriptions are determined. as known from the Girnar rock edicts. Gautam Buddha Modern history tends to inform readers that Sri Gautam Siddharta was born around 550 B. These alien kings are definitely not what they are construed to be. Also. "In the Piyadassi inscriptions.the genealogies and family of Ashoka.C. It is therefore very difficult to get a confirmed statement from these annals. It is known that the kings mentioned bordered Ashoka's own lands. according to Hultzsuch opinion. the major rock and pillar edicts differ in tone and message from those of the 8 minor rock inscriptions. Strangely enough.). 14. If studied and analyzed carefully. equally alike and favoured none. The edicts with the proclamations in morality belong to Maurya Ashoka (1482-1446 B. all 26 inscriptions appear to be carved out during the same period. According to Agarwal. and nowhere it appears that he erected great stupas and vihar. the five names which are believed to the of the Greek kings are of the Jana-rajyas of the very country beyond the Indus. Then the question of the Ashoka who had embraced Buddha's path arises. and died after about 80 years. This description of Gonandiya Ashoka matches with one of the inscriptional Ashoka." (Age of Bharata War.
C. The Buddha was 72 years old when the coronation of Ajatashatru tookplace. This date also explains the possibility of the existence of Buddhism in the second millennium B. profess to describe the Magadha royal dynasties starting from the Bruhadratha to the Andhra lineages.). i. "Due to his wrong identification of Maurya Chandragupta as the contemporary of Alexander.Chap 2). Prof.C (ref: Dates in Ancient History of India). According to different accounts.his book "The Age of Buddha. the list of Ikshwaku kings are not available. after which the Magadha empire disintegrated.. All the Puranas and another historical compilation titled Kali Yugarajavruttanta. . A brief chronology of the events in Buddha's life:Born in 1887 B. Milinda and King Amtiyoka and Yuga Purana" that. Lord Buddha's antiquity has been underestimated by about 1200 years.. This puts the Buddha three centuries earlier.C. (instead of 550 B.C. Now that Chandragupta Maurya reigned in 1550 B. K. it is necessary to find the contemporary kings in the Magadha genealogy.C..C...C.e. Thyagaraja Aiyer in his book "Indian Architecture" observes. Age of Buddha).C. Bindusar and Ajatashatru. the time when the latter flourished can be calculation to be around 1850 B.. in between 2621-1661 B. In his book "Chronology of Ancient Bharat" (Part 4. the Buddha must have left the body in 1807 B. This date can also be confirmed by purely referring to astronomical calculations. and what is correctly and exactly obtained as the date for Gautam Siddharta's nirvana is 27-3-1807 (Sathe." Here lies Indian Sramanacharya from Bodh Gaya. then Gautam Siddharta must have lived at least a few centuries earlier. The astronomical computations of the indologist-astronomer Swami Sakhyananda suggests that Gautam Siddharta belonged to the Kruttika period. the 31st-33rd kings of the Shishunaga dynasty. the Buddha was a contemporary of Kshemajita. Since he lived for 80 years.C. (instead of 325 B.Srinivasaraghavan states the approximate time of Gautam Siddharta to be 2259 years after the Bharata War (3138 B.C. Renunciation in 1858 B. which turns out to be 1880 B.C.C.C." If the Buddhist monk went to Greece in 1000 B. However. a Shakya monk taken to Greece by his Greek pupils and the tomb marks his death about 1000 B.e. the history of Bharat has been shifted by 12 centuries (and) it is the Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty who belongs to 327-320 B.C. It is known from the Bhagavad Puraan that Gautam Siddharta was 23rd in the Ikshwaku lineage.C. Somayajulu places Chandragupta Maurya in the 14th century B. i.C. due to the confusion in pinpointing properly the "sheet anchor" of Indian history.C. Going backwards. in the 17th century B. In order to determine the date of Siddharta." Thus.). Penance during 1858-52 B.C. as was rejected earlier.C and Death in 1807 B. the date of Buddha's birth becomes 1887 B. that is in 1814 B.C.).
at least for this article. After determining these dates. The Pauranic and other traditions also give dates that are somewhat nearer to the above date. this is totally incorrect. i. However. in words as well as on the battle-field. They attempted to stop the killing of animals being wantonly sacrificed in rituals. there is much confusion among their traditional accounts on the dating of all these earlier prophets and any convincing datelines could not be asserted. the Buddha and Jaina.C. . and since Mahaveer lived for a span of 72 years. in 1792 B.. the time location of yet another savant of ancient India. he must have been born in 1864 B. it is apparent that the date of Shankara would be recalculated to be around 600 B. between the relevant sects and Vedic peoples. The extent of the Vedic culture is broad enough to accept. during the time when Aadi Shankara was born. Buddha never found any new religion nor his teachings. The date of Shankara. Indeed. Mahaveer Jain The chronological frame of the last theerthankar of the Jainas is a matter of debate among scholars since only a few arbitrary references are available.C. date. perhaps. Mahaveer. that is. the presentation made above suffices to convince and ascertain the date of Gautam Siddharta. lived as a Hindu and left the mortal coil as a Hindu. as per the current chronology. the last of the teerthankaar's of their respective sects. However. The Jaina tradition holds that Mahaveer left this world 15 years after the death of Bhagawan Buddha (1807 B. 15. Shankara refers to the Buddhist thought in his commentaries of the Brahma Sootra only to refute them by elaborate arguments. is maintained to be 788-820 A. Buddhism had reached a very decadent stage in the next 1000 years.D. the great Kashtriyas. in the form of arya-ashtangamarga or the eight-fold path. it is believed that.). The Buddha and Jaina Mahaveer were. maintain and cultivate on itself different thought and modes of worship.C.e. becomes easy.C.There are various other calculations and evidences which point to the 1800 B.. Buddha was born a Hindu. This has led to an historical analysis proposing a confrontation. What Buddha or Mahaveer preached was existent for ages before their time. since the "sheetanchor" is displaced backwards by about 12 centuries. Incidently. were in antithesis to the Hindu thought. However. have been all along considered to be separate religions contradicting in thought and character from the main body of Vedic or Hindu philosophies.C.
Aadi Shankara The current date of Shankara.R. a variety of dates were calculated.e. were conveniently considered to be worthless of any historical content. the late Narayana Shastri of Madras wrote a book titled "Acharya Kaala" in which the date 509 B.) and Sringeri (483 B. The Keraliya Shankara Vijaya also provides a verse with astronomical details of Shankara's birth. which itself could be unreliable.e.) . dateline was accepted. As he was 5 years elderto Shankara. It is therefore clear that Sadananda gives Shankara's date relying on some other source. the date of 788 A. 788-820 A. five of which confirm one date.C.C.D. the 788 A. The verse found in the manuscript of Belgaum also appears in the treatise Shankara Digvijaya Sara (SDS). This tallies with the dates assigned and maintained in the lists of Aacharyas maintained in the establishments at Dwaraka (490 B.. A chronogram relating to Aadi Shankara and appearing in Prachina Shankara Vijaya is quoted by Atma Bodha gives the 509 B. date. i. On the basis of "Shankara Satpatha". written by Sadananda.C. even though it is outspokenly hostile to Shankara.D. as years rolled on. Jyotirmath (485 B. Upadhya in his book "Sri Shankaracharya". Puri (484 B. However. can be considered to be authorative. i. including the Puraan. is in conflict with traditional dates. Numerous compositions with the title "Shankara Vijaya" describing the exploits of Shri Shankara are available. has been derived to be Shankara's date of birth. One written by Chitsukhacharya. who was senior contemporary to Shankara by 48 years.D.C.C. BSV gives a date of 509 B. four do not mention any date at all and only one gives the date of 788 A.C. . This date also was agreed with the internal evidence evinced from the works of Shankara himself. This chronogram is supported and corroborated by Jina Vijaya.C. (Antarkar's thesis. a Jain scripture.D. BORI). those held by the Mathas found by Shankara himself. a summary of Brihat Shakara Vijaya (BSV). M. was first derived from a manuscript found at Belgaum. a childhood companion of Shankara from the age of 5.C. Also. Chitsukhacharya's "Brihat Shankara Vijaya" states that Shankara was born Vaishakha Shukla Panchami in the constellation and lagna of Dhanu.).). and were ignored.C. (3102 . the latter's date comes to be (514 . that is. Although. since all traditional accounts of Indian history.C. This date was also calculated by Prof. This verse also verifies the unmistakable 509 B.D. Jina Vijaya gives the date of Kumarila Bhatta (557 B. in the year Nandana of 2593 Kali. Since the verse in both the Belgaum manuscript and SDS appears to come from the same source.16. SDS mentions a date of 788 A.C. dateline.2593) in 509 B.5) 509 B.C).Bodas in his "Shankaracharya aani tyancha sampradaaya" published in 1923 gives the date of Chitsukhacharya as 514-416 B. However.
17.C. i. In his "Short History of Kashmir". It is noted that dates prior to the Mahabharata (3138 B.050 B.000 B.000 B.000 B.138 B. 14.000 B. 13.000 B. 3.C.C.. until further investigation puts forth any convincing evidence.C. 22.C..C. 4.) founded agraharas and built temples of Jyeteshwara and Shankaracharya".500 B. 7.) from Alberuni's accounts.) are approximate. Chronology Here under is provided a chronological table of events from the beginning of this "Kalpa" right upto the rule of the Gupta dynasty. The date of Vrishadeva is again confirmed relating Harsha Shaka (457 B.It is stated in the Nepal Rajavamshavali that "Aadi Shankara came from the South and destroyed the Buddha faith" and this occurred during the reign of Vrishadeva Varma (Kali 2615 to 2654). However.C. Gavshalal writes.C. That Shankara must have visited Kashmir before 417 B. 17. The Vedic culture continues to flourish in India.C.000 B. Event/Person/Text Swayambhuva Manu Veda (early stages) Samhita (Taitiriya) Manu Chakshushu King Pruthu Manu Vaivasvata Indra-Skanda dialogue (Mahabharat) Glaciation period Dasharadnya War Ramayana Orion period Greeks separate Rajatarangini begins Gonanda-I of Kashmir Mahabharata Datelines 29. His life-span of 32 years was that of a superhuman in which he travelled to all parts of Bharatvarsha.000 B. The observations and references stated above sufficiently and unmistakably prove that Aadi Shankara was born in 509 B.000 B.e. 8. 5. . the cradle of human civilization. 3.C.C. when Greek Alexander invaded the western borders of India.C.C.C. spreading the thought and philosophies of Vedic wisdom and strength. 3.C. Gopaditya (417-357 B. K.finally departing from his earthly abode in 477 B. then becomes quite obvious. even today. to 448 B.238 B.e. 4.C. during 487 B. only the events before the advent of Common Era are listed in the following table.Venkatachalam). i. 23.C.450 B. "The 70th ruler in the list of Kashmir Kings.500 B.C.C.C. Pt. He removed the confrontations existing between the followers of different modes of worship presenting a message of unity among all .C. (Chronology of Nepal History.C.C. 16.720 B.
C. irrespective of class.862 B. 1. 457 B. 550 B.C.C. colour or creed. 625 A. It also renders an idea of the required magnitude of research.C. 78 A.C. 557 B.C.482 B.100 B.C. 57 B.294 B.448 B.534 B.C. 1.076 B. 1. 3. 1. 3.C. sincerely and faithfully preserved by the ancient Hindus and passed on to their subsequent generations.C. understand and decipher the language and expression in the ancient texts which may further deliver the secrets and accomplishments of the bygone civilizations.C. 433 B.000 B.C.C. This world's most ancient text records the happenings of many peoples.D.Veda (last stages) Saptarsi era begins Saraswati-Sindhu Culture Gautam Siddharta born Gautam Siddharta Nirvana Mahaveer Jain born Chandragupta Maurya Ashoka Maurya Ashoka Gonanda Kanishka Kumarila Bhatta Vruddha Garga Aadi Shankaracharya born Harsha Vikramaditya Shatkarani Gautamiputra Chandragupta Gupta Shakari Vikramaditya Shalivahan Huen-Tsang Kalhana (Kashmiri historian) 3.D.D The continuity of Vedic culture from the distant past until today is preserved in the Rg Veda. the Rg Veda belongs to all humanity.807 B. The mystery of the common traits in the cultures and literatures of the world may also be solved by recognizing the genesis and unity in the thought of all peoples. imperative to evaluate the older version of Indian history and rewrite it. The Puranas also hold many geographical and historical annals of great kings and heroes who assisted in ushering principles of truth and righteousness around the globe. recognizing the latest developments in archaeological and literary findings. Summary The word "arya" was used for people who cultivated the mind and character.887 B.C. It is only the Hindus who have preserved authentically the records of the bygone era. 1. 509 B. It is hoped that the above exercise is sufficiently convincing to indicate the necessity to study.C.C.C. . 1. 327 B. a matter that they have a right to be proud about.148 A. sincere and apolitical. 1. 1.
flourished is calculated to be roughly 29000 B. and accordingly. It may be matter of a few decades until fresh literary. expressions and traditions of the Greek. even before the advent of Christ. seeking answers to the common history of humanity.C roughly that the great Ramayanic civilization appears to have flourished and the great Mahabharata War was fought. The rule of the Guptas is recorded as the "Golden Age" in the history of India. The annals of astronomical configurations in the Rg Veda and Samhitas indicate a date of 23000 B. causing the destruction of property and massacre of the aboriginals and of the so-called Dravidian people. when the early stages of the these texts were composed. Sandrocottus of the Greeks. the Dravidians were the early offshoots of the Vedic people through Sage Agastya. archaeological and experimental evidence is brought out that may provide further insight into the culture of the ancients. was born in 509 B. in 3138 B. Aadi Shankaracharya. Thus.C. art and architecture. From these and other records. The end of the Andhra dynasty. It is hoped that this article will benefit the readership in providing abetter understanding of the history of ancient nations and cultures. After separating from their original homeland in the arctic regions. It was in 5500 B. from the regions of Caspian Sea. who spoke Sanskrit and practised the Vedic culture along the banks of the rivers Saraswati and Sindhu. the grandfather of Maurya Ashoka. the date when Swayambhuva Manu. as calculated from literary.C. and the rise of the Gupta dynasty began in 328 B. Egyptians with that of the Vedics is also apparent from the evidence presented in the preceding article. with the assistance of Arya Chanakya captured power and was coronated as the emperor of India in 1534 B. when all the facets of civilization. It was an era when Gupta Chandragupta.C. The foremost of all philosophers and the greatest proponents of the Advaita school of thought. . Iranians. Chandragupta Maurya.The "aryans" were the inhabitants of India for at leasta few thousand years in the past. ruled India. the civilization and thought in India.C. The Sage Buddha attained Nirvana in 1807 B. polity and politics.C. This explains the commonality and affinity of the most ancient languages with Sanskrit. the first king of this Kalpa.C.C. archaeological and astronomical examinations. the Vedics appear to have migrated across the globe. wealth and wisdom flourished side by side. and later. their genealogies and ancestries. the Vedic culture had reached a state of supreme high idealism which the arya people wanted to propagate and share with rest of the world. after living a saintly life of 80 years propagating the Vedic tenets. Hindus have maintained the oldestand most authentic records of the ancient world. in the Vedas and Puraan.. The customs. There was no invasion of the aryan-race in India. The literary works on ancient India provide long lists of kings.
. "The Mahabharata Chronology". The Study of Indian History and Culture. Sathe Sriram. Tilak B. Vartak P. Dates of the Buddha. Ed.. 1982. The Orion or Researches into the antiquity of the Vedas. 1991. New Delhi. 1987. Zarathustra and His Contemporaries in the Rg Veda. Beginnings of Life History and Culture. 1993. Pune. The Age of Buddha. The Study of Indian History and Culture. Vastav Ramayana (in Marathi). Pune.22. India. Sethna.swordoftruth.D. Ed. Are the Gathas pre-Vedic?. Bombay. S.G. 1984.S. Sages and Kings.. A Peep into the Past History.7. History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature.51-62. The Aryan Invasion and Indian Nationalism." Indian J. Madras.... of History and Science. The Secret of the Veda.R. S. Sathe S. Rao. 1993. p. Venkatachalam.G..K.G. "On the decipherment if the Indus Script . Kulkarni. The Problem of Aryan Origins. Thane.. World Vedic Heritage. Hodivala S. Indian Philosophy Ramachandran. Vallency C. 1993. Milinda and Amtiyoka and Yuga Purana.. Age of Shankara.. 1973. 5. Aadi Shankara. Pune.. New Delhi.A preliminary Study of its Connection with Brahmi. Tilak B.N. 1993. Annual Research J. K. India. 1993.. K.. Dublin.html Bibliography Aurobindo. Satyartha Prakash Elst. 1987. India.. Kulkarni. K. Vartak P. Utah.S. Search for the Bharata War. S.. Thane. New Delhi.. of the Institute of Rewriting Indian History. Frawley David. 1804. Hyderabad. Spencer H.. 1983. Indigenous Indians (Agastya to Ambedkar)..V. S. Bombay. V. India. 1990. Maxmuller F. 1987.See Myth of Aryan Invasion and The Demise of Aryan Invasion/Race Theory http://www.com/swordoftruth/articles/revelation/revelation. 1965. India.D.. Talgeri. India. Collectania De Rebus Hibernicus. The Arctic Home in the Vedas. 1968. Oak P. Pococke E.V. V. Kak. Ed. Kulkarni. 1987.S. Patnaik K. 1913. 1993.N. Madras. S. Bharat. 1994. India. Pondicherry. Vijaywada.1.. India. S. Lothal and the Indus Valley Civilization. Gods.D. 1992. 1988. New Delhi. India in Greece Rajagopalachari C. Swayambhu. Narayana Shastri T. Pune. Bharat. Dayanand Saraswati...D.. India. Pune... 1916. . 1956. USA. Glorious Epoch.
and the Kumaras to Narada Muni?" Suta Gosvami replied. Sukadeva recited Bhagavatam to Pariksit. 3102 BC (around): Krsna's disappearance. "About thirty years after Lord Krsna's departure to His abode. Thirty years later.e 3072 BC: Sukadeva Goswami speaks Bhadra Navami Bhagavatam to Maharaj Pariksit 200 years later i. 2842 BC: Kumaras recited to Narada Muni on Karttika Navami Around 2000 BC: Suta Goswami recited to the sages at Naimisaranya (long after the battle of Kuruksetra) 1000 BC: Compiling of Mahabharata . Los Angeles. The Aryan Pages.." SUMMARY 3150 BC: Battle of Kuruksetra February 18. The Vedic institute Of Aryan Studies When was Bhagavatam written by Vyasadeva? Nayana-ranjana Das From Bhagavata Mahatmya. Sri. 2872 BC: Gokarna recited Bhagavatam to Dhundhukari on Asadha Navami 30 years later i.e. Two hundred years later in the month of Asadha. when did Sukadeva recite the Bhagavatam to Pariksita.e. in the month of Karttika on the ninth day of the bright fortnight. 1984. Civilization of the Indus Valley and Beyond Yukteshwar. on the ninth day of the bright fortnight in the month of Bhadra. Padma Purana. Uttara Khanda: Saunaka asked. on the ninth day of the bright fortnight Gokarna recited Bhagavatam to Dhundhukari. Gokarna to Dhundhukari. The Holy Science. the Kumaras recited it to Narada Muni.Wheeler. beginning of Kali Yuga (Thus Krsna was present for around 125+48 = 173 years) 30 years after i. "O Suta Gosvami. M.
. Coahuila. and Mahabharata. Graduate in Linguistics and Literature at U A de C and M. mentions Bhagavata Purana.krishna... he leaves it upto the reader to accept it or not. the work Tahqiq-i-Hind by Alberuni. third-grade people may lose all faith and consider it a recent work. The critics claim that the Bhagavatam mentions Hunas and thus it had to be written after their invasion to India in 5th century CE. He gives the date of the writing of the Srimad Bhagavatam as being around 900 AD in the opinion of modern scholars and goes on to give very foolproof evidences regarding this which the modern scholars give.com/encyclopedia/sastras-studies3.500 BC: Compiling of Ramayana 900 AD: Vyasadeva completed writing the 12 Canto of the Bhagavatam The first and the the last three dates have been picked up from the Introduction of Sri Krsna-samhita by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. the jewel of all scriptures. "The exact date of the Bhagavata Purana has not still settled down. Though Bhaktivinoda Thakura himself put a lot of effort into writing this Intro. in Gaudiya Vaisnava philosophy and Theology in IBCH. exact source unknown) 13th century CE as a date for Srimad Bhagavatam was accepted by scholars until the half of 20th century.B. van Buitenen..htm#9 Dating Srimad Bhagavatam Horacio Francisco Arganis Juarez. .veda. Therefore they should read this section.A. a recognized archaic work. Nevertheless." (J. Nowadays the date 9th century CE predominates. Reseacher Professor in Saltillo. the Hunas are mentioned also in older texts such as Lalitavistara. Nevertheless.. And he writes while trying to figure out a date of compiling of the Bhagavatam as per the modern scholars: "Now we will consider the modern scholars view on the date of the appearance of Srimad Bhagavatam. Northeast of Mexico." http://www. Not understanding our statements.A. a Buddhist work dated to 3rd century CE. a Muslim who made a study of the India in the 10th century CE.
She even insists that in the Mathara-vritti translated into Chinese by Buddhist monk Paramartha in 5th century CE the texts of the Bhagavata contained in the commentary of Gaudapada don't appear. The source of inspiration of the Vritti of Gaudapada was Mathara-vritti which contains the same two verses of the Bhagavatam. Sahasrabuddha tend to verify that those texts are of Gaudapada and that Sankya-karika-vritti and Uttara-gita don't only mention verses but the latter mentions directly the Bhagavata Purana. which gives a list of writings prohibited by their academy. Desai disagrees. its compiler.6. Sankhya-karika. as he belongs to a school opposing the Bhagavata school.These evidences indicate that this race was known before the invasion and its mention in the Bhagavatam doesn't suggest any occupation. Purana-Bhagavatam. to show that there are no such verses. But Gaudapada. This was corroborated in another. or. teacher of Govinda who was teacher of Sankara.35) indicates fundamental points of the Bhagavata doctrine. Others argue that Bhagavatam was influenced by the philosopher Sankara (commonly accepted: 8th century CE) because of similarity of ideas and of the language. etc. There was an attempt to discredit those references under the supposition that it could be another. . But one would have to show some historical reference that endorses that another author existed with such a name and he wrote these works. independent work known as Nandi-sutra. This treaty was dated to 4th century CE under the notion that Vallabhi. leaning on Belvekar who appeals to an argument of textual criticism which presupposes a contamination and alteration of the manuscripts. Sushila S. mentions the Bhagavatam in his Uttaragita-bhasya and in his commentary on Sankhya-karika makes reference to other two verses. Ramayana. which the philologists like Alberto Blecua call the Collatio Codicum. But it requires a series of specimens of the manuscripts. lived 980 years after Jain Mahavira (commonly accepted: 5th century BCE). a core text of the Jaina school. later author of the same name or that Bhagavatam took the verses from the work of Gaudapada. It mentions directly Mahabharata. Nevertheless. T. he could have removed them since one of these texts (1. the studies of experts like M. It only indicates that in the manuscript that Paramartha used they could have been missing. Mathara-vritti.
Nrsimhadeva etc.1 in his poem "Meditations on the Gita" (text 9) and makes reference to the Bhagavata school in his Sariraka-bhasya.. Actually. Chatterji confirms: "Even Sankara crediting [the doctrine of] 'Advaita Vedanta'. they appear in the author's heart and then they are written..veda. as well as the conception that God is ultimately impersonal and amorphous ." Like other scriptures SB is either manifested or unmanifested (as the Lord is sometimes seemingly born and sometimes He appears independently .krishna.. has taken into account the influence of the Bhagavata Purana. similarly.this is the core of Sankara's philosophy but Sankara quoted Bhagavatam 12.Bhagavatam rejects the monist theory of the unity of souls and God.com/encyclopedia/sb. A. They don't contain (and they are not limited by) history of certain yuga or Brahma's day.htm#3 . N. They are inaccessible to fools and rascals just as Krsna Himself.13. the scriptures seem to be written by somebody because it is the common way of their origin. http://www. Discoveries by Prasada Gokhale suggest that Sankara lived in the 6th century BCE and Mahavira least in the 1000 BCE.
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