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Exp - 1

SERIES AND PAREALLEL RESONANCE
AIM: To determine the performance of the series and parallel circuit at resonance. SERIES RESONANCE GIVEN CIRCUIT: MODEL GRAPH:

PARALLEL RESONANCE

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:

FOR SERIES RESONANCE :

FOR PARALLEL RESONANCE:

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APPARATUS:S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 THEORY: Name of the apparatus Signal generator Decade inductance Box Voltmeters Capacitor Resistors Ammeter Experimental board C.R.O Connecting wires Range (0 – 1M)Hz, (0-20) VPP (0-40mH) (0-30V) 0.1uf 30 Ω (0-200m) A 30 MHz Type digital MI MI Quantity 01No 01No 03No 01No 01No 01No 1No 1No Required Number

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Resonance is a particular type of phenomenon inherently found normally in every kind of system, electrical, mechanical, optical, Acoustical and even atomic. There are several definitions of resonance. But, the most frequently used definition of resonance in electrical system is studied state operation of a circuit or system at that frequency for which the resultant response is in time phase with the forcing function. Series resonance: A circuit is said to be under resonance, when the applied voltage ‘V’ and current are in phase. Thus a series RLC circuit, under resonance behaves like a pure resistance network and the reactance of the circuit should be zero. Since V & I are in phase, the power factor is unity at resonance. The frequency at which the resonance will occur is known as resonant frequency. Resonant frequency, fr =

Thus at resonance the impedance Z is minimum. Since I = V/Z. The current is maximum . So that current amplification takes place.

Parallel Resonance: The parallel circuit consisting branches with single pure elements R,L & C is an ideal circuit. How ever the performance of such a circuit is of interest in the general subject of resonance. This ideal parallel circuit is of interest in the general subject of resonance. Lower cut-off frequency is above the resonant frequency at which the current is reduced to

times of it’s minimum value. Upper cut-off frequency is above.

Quality factor is the ratio of reactance power inductor (or) capacitor to its resistance. Selectivity is the reciprocal of the quality factors.

PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.

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2. By varying the frequency note down the corresponding values of current in both cases and note down f, VC, VL and VR. 3. At a particular value of frequency the current reaches its Maximum /minimum in Series/Parallel resonance. That instant of frequency VC = VL and VR = VS in series Resonance circuit. THEORITICAL CALCULATIONS: For Series Resonance circuit: 1. Resonant frequency fr =

=2516 Hz 2. Lower cut-off frequency fl = +

= 2457.85 Hz 3. Upper cut-off frequency f2 = 4. Band width = f2-f1 = 119.66 Hz
.

+

= 2576.14 Hz

5.

Quality factor Q =

=

= 21.07

6. Current at Resonance Io = VRo/R

TABULAR FORMS: FOR SERIES RESONANCE : S.NO FREQUNCY 1 2 ... V(L) V(C) V(R) I(mA)

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TABULAR FORMS: FOR PARALLEL RESONANCE:

S.NO FREQUNCY 1 2

V(L)

V(C)

V(R)

I(mA)

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For parallel Resonance circuit: 1. Resonant frequency fr = = 2514 Hz

2. Lower cut-off frequency fl =

= 2456. 77 Hz

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3. Upper cut-off frequency f2 = 4. Band width = = 120.07 Hz = 0.0474 Hz =2577.6 Hz

5. Quality factor Q =

6. Current at resonance Io = VRo/R PRECAUTIONS: • Meter reading should be taken with out parallax error. • Connection should be made tight. RESULT:Series Resonant circuit S.No 1 2 3 Parameter Resonant Frequency, fr Band width Quality factor Theoretical Values 2516 Hz 119.66 Hz 21.07 Practical Values Parallel Resonant circuit Theoretical Values 2514 Hz 120.07 Hz 0.0474 Hz Practical Values

Review Questions:1. Definition of resonance? 2. Define the series resonance? 3. Define the parallel resonance? 4. Applications of resonance? 5. What is the condition of voltage &current at the resonance condition?

CONCLUSIONS:
1. Since the current at resonance is maximum, the series resonant circuit is called as acceptor circuit. 2. As the resistance of the circuit decreases, the Q-factor increases and selectivity of the circuit will be better. 3. Since the current at resonance is minimum, the parallel resonant circuit is called as rejector circuit. 4. The variation of the resistance does not affect the resonant frequency. Exp - 2

TWO PORT NETWORK PARAMETERS
AIM:

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To determine open circuit impedance parameters (Z) and short circuit admittance parameters (Y) of the given two port network . . GIVEN CIRCUIT:

APPARATUS:

S. No Name of the apparatus 1 2 3 4 5 6

Range

Type

Quantity 01 01 01 01 01 01 01 Required Number

Regulated power supply (0 – 30) V/2A digital Voltmeters Ammeters Resistors Experimental board Connecting wires (0-30) V (0-200m)A 330 Ω 470Ω 630Ω MC MC -

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS: BASIC CIRCUIT

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WHEN V1=0

WHEN I1=0

WHEN V2=0

WHEN I2=0

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THEORY: A port is normally referred to a pair of terminals of a network though which we can have access to network of calculating current in any part of network. Frequently the problem is move restried in nature and may be that of calculating the response at a terminal pair designated an input when excitation is applied at another terminal pair designated as input terminals. It is a problem of terminal through which it is accessible, is called “Two Port Network.“ If we relate the voltage of one port to the current of the same port, we get driving point immitance. On the other hand, if we relate the voltage of one port to the current at another port, we get transfer immittance. Immitance is a general term used to represent either the impedance or the admittance of a network. We will consider a general two-port network composed of linear, bilateral elements and no independent sources. Dependent sources are permitted. It is represented as a black box with two accessible terminals pairs as shown in. The voltage and current at port -1 are V1 and I1 and at port =II are V2 and I2. The position of V1 and V2 and the directions of I1 and I2 are customarily selected. out of four variables, I1I1V2 and I2 only two are independent. The other two are expressed in terms of the independent variable of network parameters.

PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Open the port – I i.e, I1=0 find the values of I1,I2, V1. Short circuits the port V2 =0 find the values of V2,I1, I2. Repeat steps 2,3 for port – II and find the values of V1,I1,I2 and V2,I1,I2 respectively. Find all the parameters of two port networks I,e, Z,Y, ABCD, AI BI CI DI, h, g parameters from the above data.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Initially keep the RPS output voltage knob in zero volt position. 2. Set the ammeter pointer to zero position. 3. Take the readings without parallax error. 4. Avoid loose connections. 5. Do not short-circuit the RPS output terminals.

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TABULAR FORMS: Theoritical Values
V1 (volts) V1=0 I1=0 V2=0 I2=0 I1 (mA) V2 (mA) I2 (mA)

0 11.42 20 20

61 0 107 66

20 20 0 13.2

92 57 61 0

Practical Values

V1 (volts) V1=0 I1=0 V2=0 I2=0

I1 (mA)

V2 (mA)

I2 (mA)

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Theoretical calculations: 1. When I1 = 0 (i.e.,) When port is open circuited: RL = 216.66 ohms V2 = 20 V I2= = 57 mA V1 = I2.R = 11.42 V 2. When port -2 is open circuited (I2=0): V1 = 20V Rt = 185.74 ohms I1 = = 66 mA V2 = 13.2V

3. When port -1 is short circuited ( V1=0): V2 = 20 V Rt = 216.66 ohms I2 = = 92 mA I1 = I2 - 61 mA 4. When port –II is short – circuited (V2 = 0 ) : V1 = 20 V Rt = 185.74 ohms I1 = V1/Rt = 107 mA I2 = 61 mA

calculations for parameters: Z-parameters: Z11 = / I2=0 Z12 = / I1=0 Z21 = / I2=0 Z22 = / I1=0

= = = =

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Y – Parameters Y11 = / V2=0 Y12 = Y21 = Y22 = / V1=0 / V2= 0

= = =

/ V1= 0 =

ABCD parameters: A = / I2= 0 B= C= D= / V2= 0 / I2= 0 / V1=0

= = = =

H – Parameters: h11 = / V2 =0 h12 = h21 = h22 = / I1=0 / I1 =0

= =

/ V2 =0 = =

g- parameters: g11 = / I2 =0 g12 = g21 = g22 = / V1=0 / I2=0 / V1=0

= = = =

A1B1C1D1 parameters: A1 = B1 = C =D =
1 1

/ I1=0 / I1=0 / V1=0

=

/ V1=0 = = =

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RESULT:

S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Parameter Z11 Z12 Z21 Z22 Y11 Y12 Y21 Y22

Theoretical Values 303. 199.99 200 350 5.38 m mhos 3.07 m mhos 3.05 m mhos 4.6 m mhos

Practical Values

Reviw Questions:1. Write the 2-port network equations in terms of hybrid parameter? 2. Define image impedance? 3. What is Z- parameter? 4. Write the network equations of Y- parameter

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CONCLUSIONS: 1. Since Z12 = Z21 and Y12 = Y21 the given circuit is reciprocal. 2. Since Z11 = Z22 and Y11 = Y22 the given circuit is symmetrical. 3. There is a small deviation between theoretical and practical values because internal resistances of source and meters are not considered.

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Exp - 3

SUPERPOSITION AND RECIPROCITY THEOREM

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3(a).VERIFICATION OF SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
AIM: To verify the superposition theorem.

GIVEN CIRCUIT:

STATEMENT: SuperPosition Theorem: In any linear, bilateral, multi source network the response in any element is equal to the algebraic sum of the responses obtained by each source acting separately while all other sources are set equal to zero. APPARATUS:

S. No 1 2

Name of the apparatus Dual channel regulated power supply Ammeter

Range (0 – 30) V/2A
(0 – 200m) A

Type digital MC

Quantity 01No 01No 01No 01No 01No

3

Resistors

100Ω 150Ω 200Ω

-

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4 5 Experimental board Connecting wires 01No Required number

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

WhenV1&V2 source acting(To find I):-

WhenV1 source acting(To find I1):-

WhenV2 source acting(To find I2):-

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THEORY:Superposition theorem:Superposition theorem states that in a linear bilateral network consisting N number of sources each branch current is the algebraic sum of N currents through ( branch voltage), each of which is determined by considering one source at a time and removing all other sources. In removing the sources, voltage sources are short circuited or replaced by resistances equal to their internal resistances for no ideal sources, while the ideal current sources are open circuited. PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as per the fig (1). 2. Adjust the output voltage of sources X and Y to appropriate values (Say 30V and20V respectively). 3. Note down the response (current, IL) through the branch of interest i.e. AB ammeter reading. 4. Now set the source Y (20V) to 0V. 5. Note down the response (current, ILl) through the branch AB (ammeter reading). 6. Now set the source X (20V) to 0V and source Y to 20V. 7. Note down the response (current, ILll) through the branch AB (ammeter reading). 8. Reduce the output voltage of the sources X and Y to 0V and switch off the supply.

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9. Disconnect the circuit.

TABULAR FORMS: From Fig(1) Applied voltage (V1) Volt Applied voltage (V2) Volt Current IL (mA)

S. No

From Fig(2) Applied voltage (V1) Volt Current IL (mA)

S. No

From Fig(3) Applied voltage (V2) Volt Current IL (mA)

S. No

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THEORITICAL CALCULATIONS From Fig(2) I1=V1/(R1+(R2//R3)) = 161 mA ILl =I*R2/(R2+R3) = 69 mA From Fig(3) I2=V2/(R2+(R1//R3)) = 92 mA ILl1 =I*R1/(R1+R3) = 30 mA PRECAUTIONS: ; IL
=

ILl + ILl1 =69 mA+30 mA =99mA

1. Initially keep the RPS output voltage knob in zero volt position. 2. Set the ammeter pointer at zero position. 3. Take the readings without parallax error. 4. Avoid loose connections. 5.Avoid short circuit of RPS output terminals.

RESULT:

S.No 1 2 3

Load current When Both sources are acting, IL When only source X is acting, ILl When only source Y is acting, ILll I11 L

Theoretical Values Practical Values 99 mA 69 mA 30 mA

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Review Questions:1) What do you man by Unilateral and Bilateral network? Give the limitations of Superposition theorem. 2) What are the equivalent internal impedances for an ideal voltage source and for a Current source? 3) Transform a physical voltage source into its equivalent current source. 4) If all the 3 star connected impedance are identical and equal to ZA, then what is the Delta connected resistors? CONCLUSION: 1. The given circuit is linear, since the response is algebraic sum of the individual responses. 2. Superposition theorem is not valid for power responses.

3( b) RECIPROCITY THEOREM
AIM : To verify reciprocity theorem for the given circuit . GIVEN CIRCUIT:

STATEMENT: Reciprocity theorem

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In any linear, bilateral, single source network, the ratio of excitation to the response is same even though the positions of excitation and response are interchanged. APPARATUS: S. No 1 2 3 4 5 Name of the apparatus Regulated power supply Ammeter Resistors Experimental board Connecting wires Range (0 – 30) V/2A (0 – 200m) A 100Ω 150Ω 200Ω Type digital MC Quantity 01No 01No 01 No 01No 01No 01No Required number

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:CIRCUIT – 1:

CIRCUIT -2

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THEORY:Reciprocity Theorems:This theorem permits in to transfer source from one position in the circuit to another and may be stated as under. In any linear bilateral network, if an e.m.f E acting in a branch causes a current ‘I’ in branch ‘Y’ then the same e.m.f E located in branch ‘Y’ will cause a current I in branch. However, currents in other branches will not change.

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PROCEDURE:Reciprocity Theorems:1. Connect the circuit as per the fig (1). 2. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to an appropriate value (Say 30V). 3. Note down the response (current, IL) through 150Ω resistor (ammeter reading) . 4. Reduce the output voltage of the signal generator to 0V and switch-off the supply. 5. Disconnect the circuit and connect the circuit as per the fig (2). 6. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to an appropriate value (Say 30V). 7. Note down the response (current, IL1) through 100Ω resistor (ammeter reading) . 8. Reduce the output voltage of the signal generator to 0V and switch-off the supply. 9. Disconnect the circuit.

TABULAR FORM: RECIPROCITY THEOREM : From Fig(1) Applied voltage (V1) Volt Current IL (mA)

S. No

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From Fig(2)

S. No

Applied voltage (V2) Volt

Current IL 1 (mA)

THEORITICAL CALCULATIONS :

From Fig(1) I1=V/(R1+(R2//R3)) = 161 mA IL= I1*R3/(R2+R3) = 92 mA

From Fig(2) I2=V/(R2+(R1//R3)) = 138 mA IL1= I2*R3/(R1+R3) = 92 mA

PRECAUTIONS:

1. Initially keep the RPS output voltage knob in zero volt position. 2. Set the ammeter pointer at zero position.

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3. Take the readings without parallax error. 4. Avoid loose connections. 5.Avoid short circuit of RPS output terminals. 6.If voltmeter gives (-) ve reading then interchange the terminals connections of a voltmeter.

RESULT:

S.No 1 2

Parameter
V/IL V/ILl

Theoretical Value 92 mA 92 mA

Practical Value

CONCLUSION:
1. The given circuit is bilateral, since the ratio of excitation to the response is same before and after interchanging the positions of excitation and response.

Exp - 4

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VERIFICATION OF MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER THEOREM
AIM: To verify maximum power transfer theorem on d.c circuit .

STATEMENT: It states that, maximum power will be transferred from source to load when the load resistance is the complex conjugate of source resistance.

GIVEN CIRCUIT:

APPARATUS:

S. No Name of the apparatus 1 2 3 4 5

Range

Type digital MC MC Wound Wire -

Quantity 01No 01No 01No 01No 01No Required number

Regulated power supply (0 – 30)V/2A Voltmeter Ammeter Rheostats Connecting wires (0-30) V (0-1) A 100 Ω/5A 50Ω/5A -

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:-

Fig(1) Model Graph for Maximum Power Transfer Theorem:

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THEORY: The statement of maximum power transfer is “ In d.c circuits, maximum power is transferred from a source to load when the load resistance is made equal to the internal resistance of the source as viewed from the load terminal with load removed and all e.m.f sources replaced by their internal resistance. Consider a voltage source of V of internal resistance R delivering power to aload RL. We shall prove that when RL = RS the power transferred is maximum. Circuit current = Power delivered P = I2 RL = RL =0 RL+Ri cannot be zero, Ri – RL = 0 RS ==RL PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram fig(1). 2. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to an appropriate value (Say 30V). 3. Vary the load rheostat. in steps, and note down the response (current) through the load for each step (ammeter reading) & load voltage. 4. Reduce the output voltage of the regulated power supply to 0V and switch-off the supply. 5. Disconnect the circuit. 6. Calculate the power absorbed by the load, PL for each step using the formula PL=IL2 RL. 7. Plot the graph by taking ‘RL’ on X-axis and PL on Y-axis.

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8. Get the practical value of the load resistance for which it will gain the maximum power from the source.

Tabulation for Maximum power transfer theorem:

LOAD SNO. RESISTENCE In ohms 1 2 …….

VOLTAGE VL (in Volts)

CURRENT IL (in amps)

POWER P=VL*IL(watt)

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Theoretical calculations Total current I =

P = I2 RL = 2. RL

Power is maximum dp/dRL =0 → → →
= = .

=0 =0 =0

=

Rs=RL

PRECAUTIONS: → Avoid loose connections → Ammeter should always connected in series with the circuit.

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RESULT:-

Review Questions:1. Derive the condition for maximum power transfer theorem. 2. Where and why maximum power transfer theorem is applied? 3. What is the efficiency of the circuit at the maximum power transfer Condition & why? 4. Derive the condition for maximum power transfer theorem for a.c. Circuits. 5.Define a dependent source. Exp - 5 VERIFICATION OF THEVENIN’S THEOREM AND NORTON’S THEOREM AIM: To verify Thevenin’s & Norton’s theorems for the given circuit.

GIVEN CIRCUIT:

STATEMENTS: Thevenin’s theorem It states that any linear, active network with two open terminals can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of Thevenin’s equivalent voltage source Vth in series with Thevenin’s equivalent resistance Rth. Where Vth is the open circuit voltage across the two terminals and Rth is the resistance seen from the same two terminals.

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Norton’s theorem It states that any linear, active network with two open terminals can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of Norton’s equivalent current source IN in parallel with Norton’s equivalent resistance RN. where IN is the short circuit current through the two terminals and RN is the resistance seen from the same two terminals

APPARATUS: S. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Name of the apparatus Regulated power supply Voltmeter Ammeter Resistors Experimental board Connecting wires Range (0 – 30)V/2A (0-30)V (02000m)A 100 150 200 ----Type Digital MC MC Carbon Composition -----Quantity 01 01 01 02 01 01 01 Required number

CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS:TO FIND IL:

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FIG(1) TO FIND VTH:

FIG(2) TO FIND Rth:

TO FIND IN:

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Fig(4) THEORY: Thevenin’s theorem: The values of VTh and RTh are determined as mentioned in thevenin’s theorem. Once the thevenin equivalent circuit is obtained, then current through any load resistance RL connected across AB is given by, I = Thevenin’s theorem is applied to d.c. circuits as stated below. Any network having terminals A and B can be replaced by a single source of e.m.f. VTh in series with a source resistance RRh. (i) The e.m.f the voltage obtained across the terminals A and B with load, if any removed i.e., it is open circuited voltage between terminals A and B. (ii) The resistance RTh is the resistance of the network measured between the terminals A and B with load removed and sources of e.m.f replaced by their internal resistances. Ideal voltage sources are replaced with short circuits and ideal current sources are replaced with open circuits. To find VTh, the load resistor ‘RL’ is disconnected, then VTh = To find RTh, RTh = R2 + Thevenin’s theorem is also called as “Helmoltz theorem” Χ R3

NORTON’S THEOREM:

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Nortom’s theorem is applied to d.c circuits may be stated as below. Any linear network having two terminals ‘A’ and ‘B’ can be replaced by a current source of current output IN in parallel with a resistance RN.

(i)

The output IN of the current source is equal to the current that would flow through AB when A&B are short circuited.

(ii)

The resistance RN is the resistance of network measured b/wn A and B with load removed and the sources of e.m.f replaced by their internal resistances.

Ideal voltage source are replaced with short circuits and ideal current sources are replaced with open circuits .

Norton’s theorem is converse of thevenin’s theorem in that Norton equivalent circuit uses a current generator instead of voltage generator and with generator instead of being series with it. for source current, II = = the resistance RN is parallel

for short-circuit current, IN = Χ PROCEDURE: Thevenin’s Theorem 1. Connect the circuit as per fig (1) 2. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to an appropriate value (Say 30V). 3. Note down the response (current, IL) through the branch of interest i.e. AB (ammeter reading). 4. Reduce the output voltage of the regulated power supply to 0V and switch-off the supply. =

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5. Disconnect the circuit and connect as per the fig (2). 6. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to 30V. 7. Note down the voltage across the load terminals AB (Voltmeter reading) that gives Vth. 8. Reduce the output voltage of the regulated power supply to 0V and switch-off the supply. 9. Disconnect the circuit and connect as per the fig (3). 10. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to an appropriate value (Say V = 30V). 11. Note down the current (I) supplied by the source (ammeter reading). 12. The ratio of V and I gives the Rth. 13. Reduce the output voltage of the regulated power supply to 0V and switch-off the supply. 14. Disconnect the circuit and connect as per the fig (4). 15. Adjust the output voltage of the regulated power supply to 30V 16. Note down the response (current, IN) through the branch AB (ammeter reading). 17. Reduce the output voltage of the regulated power supply to 0V and switch-off the supply. 18. Disconnect the circuit.

THEORITICAL CALCULATIONS : Thevinen’s theorem: VTH=(V/(R1+R3) )R3 = 20 V

RTH =((R1*R3)/(R1+R3))+RL = 216.6

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IL= VTH / (RTH +RL) = 63 mA Norton’s theorem: RN = R2 +(R1*R3)/(R1+R3) = 216.6

VTH = V /(R1+R3) ) R3 = 20 V

IN= VTH /RTH = 92 mA

IL = IN *RTH/(RTH+RL) = 63 mA

Tabulation for Thevinen’s theorem:

THEORITICAL VALUES

PRACTICAL VALUES

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RTH=RL= 216.6 IL=63 mA Vth=20 V

RTH=RL= IL = Vth=

Tabulation for Norton’s theorem:

THEORITICAL VALUES

PRACTICAL VALUES

RN=RL=216.6 IL=63 mA IN=92 mA

RN=RL= IL = IN=

RESULT:-

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Review Questions:1) The internal resistance of a source is 2 Ohms and is connected with an External load of 10 Ohms resistance. What is Rth ? 2) In the above question if the voltage is 10 volts and the load is of 50 . What is the load current and Vth? Verify IL? 3) If the internal resistance of a source is 5 and is connected with an External load of 25 Ohms resistance. What is Rth? 4) In the above question if the voltage is 20V and the load is of 50 Ohms, What is the load current and IN ? Verify IL ?

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Exp - 6

OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF D.C SHUNT GENERATOR
AIM: To obtain the no load characteristics of a DC shunt generator and to determine the critical field resistance. NAME PLATE DETAILS:

S.NO 1 2 3 4 5

Characteristic Voltage Current Speed Power Field current

D.C Motor 220V 19. A 1500 R.P.M 5 HP 1A

D.C Generator 220V 13.6 A 1500 R.P.M 3 KW 1A

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.NO 1 2 3 4

Description Volt meter Ammeter Tachometer Rheostat

Type M.C M.C Digital Wire wound

Range 0-300v 0-2A 0-10,000 R.P.M 300Ω/2A

Quantity 1 1 1 2

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5 Connecting wires -----------As required

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF D.C SHUNT GENERATOR

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THEORY: Magnetization curve is relation between the magnetizing forces and the flux density B. this is also expressed as a relation between the field current and the induced emf , in a D.C machine. Varying the field current and noting corresponding values of induced emf can determine this. For a self-excited machine the theoretical shape of the magnetization curve is as shown in the figure. The induced emf corresponding to residual magnetism exists when the field current is zero. Hence the curve starts, a little above the origin on yaxis. The field resistance line Rsh is a straight-line passing through the origin.

PROCEDURE: 1) All the connections are as per the circuit diagram. 2) 220V, DC supply is given to the motor by closing DPST switch. 3) Move the 3-point starter handle form ‘OFF’ to ‘ON’ position slowly and motor starts running. 4) Adjust the speed of the motor to rated value by the adjusting the field rheostat of motor. 5) By using field rheostat vary the field current of generator. 6) By varying the filed current in steps note down all the readings of generated voltages at constant speed. 7) Now the field current & field rheostat of motor is removed slowly and the power is switched OFF.

TO FIND CRITICAL FIELD RESISTANCE: 1) Draw the shunt field resistance line 2) Draw tangent to the OCC 3) The slope of this tangent gives the Rfc Critical field resistance, Rc=Eg/ IF =

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TABULAR COLUMN: Residual Voltage = S.NO Eg in Volts Speed= If in Amps

GRAPH:

Draw the graph between generated voltage at no load and field current. By taking generated voltage Eg in volts on Y axis and field current If in amps on X-axis.

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MODEL GRAPH:

TO FIND FIELD RESISTANCE:

S.NO

Voltage

Field current

Field resistance

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PRECAUTIONS:-

1) The rheostat is connected such that minimum resistance is included in field circuit of motor 2) The rheostat is connected such that maximum resistance is included in field circuit of generator. 3)Starter handle is moved slow

RESULT:

. REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1.What is meant by critical field resistance? 2.What is meant by critical speed? 3.Residual magnetism is necessary for self excited generators or not. 4.Why this test is conducted at constant speed?

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Exp – 7

SWINBURNE’S TEST ON D.C SHUNT MACHINE
AIM: To conduct the field test on two identical series machines and to find the efficiency at full load. NAME PLATE DETAILS:

S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6

Characteristic Voltage Current Speed Power Field Current Insulation

D.C Motor 220V 19A 1500 R.P.M 5 HP 0.6 A Class B

APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.NO 1 Description Voltmeter Type M.C Range 0-300V Quantity 01

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2 Ammeter M.C 0-2A 0-5 A 0-1A 0-10000 R.P.M 300Ω/2A ---01 01 01 1 01 As required

3 4 5

Tachometer Rheostat Connecting Wires

Digital Wire wound ----

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: SWINBURNS’S TEST ON D.C SHUNT MACHINE

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THEORY:
It is a simple indirect method in which losses are determined separately and from their knowledge, efficiency at any desired load can be predetermined. the only test needed is no-load test. However, this test is applicable to those machines in which flux is practically constant. The constant losses in a dc shunt machine= Wc = stray losses(magnetic & mechanical losses) +shunt field copper losses Wc = No load input – No load armature copper losses = VIL0 - Iao2 where Ra is the armature resistance and Iao=IL0-Ish PROCEDURE 1) Make all the connections are as per the circuit diagram. 2) Keep the field rheostat in minimum resistance position and armature rheostat in maximum position. 3) Excite the motor with 220V, DC supply by closing the DPST switch and start the motor by moving the handle of 3-point starter from OFF to ON position. 4) By adjusting the rheostats in motor armature and field bring the speed of the motor to its rated value. Note down the readings of Ammeter and Voltmeter at no load condition 5) The necessary calculations to find efficiency of machine as motor & generator at any given value of armature current is done.

TO FINDARMATURE RESISTANCE(RA):
1) Connect the circuit per the circuit diagram 2) Keep the rheostat in maximum position. 3) Now excite the motor terminals by 30V supply by closing DPST switch. By varying the rheostat & motor down the readings of Ammeter and voltmeter

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MODEL CALCULATIONS:For motor: IL= Ia+If No load losses = Wo =VIo – Iao2Ra Input = VI Cu losses = Ia2 Ra Total losses =No load losses + cu losses Efficiency( η) = Output/Input Output = input-total losses

For generator:-

I a = IL +If No load losses = Wo = V Io – Iao2Ra Input = VI Cu losses = Ia2 Ra Total losses =No load losses + cu losses Efficiency ( η) = Output / Input Output = input - total losses

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM TO FIND ARMATURE RESISTANCE:

TABULAR COLOUMN: S.NO Voltmeter reading V Volts Ammeter Reading I in Amps Ammeter reading If in Amps Speed in RPM

ARMATURE RESISTANCE (Ra): S.No Voltage Current

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CALCULATION TABLE: As a Motor: Ia=(IL-Ish) in A Win =Ia2 Ra in watts Total losses in w

S.NO

Load

IL in A

%Efficiency

As a Generator: Ia=(IL+Ish) in A Win =Ia2 Ra in watts Total losses in w

S.NO

Load

IL in A

%Efficiency

GRAPH: The graph is drawn between (a)Output in Watts Vs Efficiency(%η) By taking output in Watts on X axis current, Efficiency on Y-axis MODEL GRAPH:

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THEORY: Advantages: 1) It is convenient and economical method of testing of DC machines since power required to test a large machine is very small. 2) The efficiency of the machine can be predetermined at any load. Since stray losses are known. Disadvantages: 1) This test cannot be performed with dc series motors. 2) This test is only applicable to those machines in which flux and speed remain constant. 3) As the test is performed on no load it is impossible to know whether at full load commutation would be satisfactory and the temperature raise would be with in specified limits or not. 4) No account is taken for change in iron losses form no load to full load on account of distribution of flux due to armature reaction. On full load the flux distribution is very much affected due to armature reaction and is some case to an extent that iron losses become 1.5 times of iron losses at no load . PRECAUTIONS: 1.We should start the motor under no load 2.Take the reading without parallax error. 3.The connections must be tight. 4. If voltmeter gives –ve reading then interchange voltmeter terminal connecting of voltmeter.

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RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1.Why the magnetic losses calculated by this method are less than the actual value? 2.Is it applied to D.C series machines? 3.Comment on the efficiency determined by this method.

Exp – 7

BRAKE TEST ON D.C SHUNT MOTOR
AIM: To conduct the brake test on a given D.C shunt motor and to draw its performance curves .

NAME PLATE DETAILS: S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 Characteristic Voltage Current Speed Power Field current D.C Motor 220V 19A 1500 R.P.M 5 HP 0.6 A

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

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S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 Description Volt meter Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer Connecting Wires Type M.C M.C Wire wound Digital ---Range 0-300v 0-20A 300Ω/2A 0-10000 R.P.M ---Quantity 01 01 01 01 As required

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: BRAKE TEST ON D.C SHUNT MOTOR

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THEORY: The speed of a D.C motor Nα V.Ia Ra ϕ The speed of the D.C motor is inversely proportional to the flux produced by the field. Decreasing the flux the speed of the machine can be increased. The flux of the field winding can be changed by changing shunt field current with the help of shunt field rheostat. Another method for speed control is to keep a variable resistance in series with the armature. By increasing the resistance the voltage drop also increases and hence the voltage applied across the armature decreases which result in the decrease in speed of the motor.

PROCEDURE: 1. All the connections are as per the circuit diagram. 2. 220V, DC supply is given to the motor by closing DPST switch. 3. Move the 3-point starter handle form ‘OFF’ to ‘ON’ position slowly and motor starts running. 4. Vary the field rheostat and armature rheostat until the motor reaches its rated speed and take voltmeter and ammeter readings. 5. Apply the land by break drum pulley and for each applications of load the corresponding Voltmeter (V), Ammeter (I), Spring forces S1 & S2 and Speed (N) readings are noted. 6. Calculate output & efficiency for each reading. 7. Note down all the readings in the tabular form carefully. 8. Remove the load slowly and keep the rheostat as starting position and switch ‘OFF’ the supply by using DPST switch

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Tabular column
Voltmet er Reading V volts Amme ter Readi ng I amps Forces in KG S1 S2 Torque = f*r*9.81 (N-M)

S.NO

Input = VI watts

Net forces F = S1~S2
in kg

Speed in RPM (N)

O/p= 2πNT/60 (Watts)

%ή= (o/p)/(i/p)*100

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MODEL GRAPH:

FORMULAE: Torque=:F*Re*9.81 N Power output=[(2*Π*N*T) /60] W

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This PDF was made with the DEMO version of PDFtypewriter. The full version will not PRECAUTIONS: add this text to your PDFs. You can purchase the full version at http://ctdeveloping.com 1. Initially 3-point starter should be kept at ‘OFF’ position and later it must be varied slowly and uniformly from ‘OFF’ to ‘ON’ position. 2. The field regulator must be kept at its minimum output position. 3. The brake drum of the motor should filled with cold water. 4. The motor should be started without load.

APPLICATIONS: • • • Essentially for constant speed applications requiring medium starting torque. May be used for adjustable speed not greater than 2:1 range. For lathes, centrifugal pumps, reciprocating pumps, fans, blowers, conveyors, wood working machines, machine tools, printing presses, spinning and weaving machines etc.

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1 .Why a 3-point starter is used for starting a D.C shunt motor? 2 . If a 3-point starter is not available ,how can a D.C motor be started? 3 . Explain the function of overload release coil in 3-point starter .

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OC & SC TESTS ON 1 – PHASE TRANSFORMER
AIM: To conduct Open circuit and Short circuit tests to pre-determine the performance of the single phase transformer

NAME PLATE DETAILS: Voltage Current KVA RATING 230 V (HV), 115 V (LV) 26 A(HV) ,13.04 A (LV) 3KVA

APPARATUS:

S.NO 1

Name Ammeter

Type MI MI

Range (0- 5) A, (0- 20) A (0- 300 )V, (0- 50 )V 150 V/ 20 A 300 V/5 A 230 V / (0- 270) V/ 15 A

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2

Voltmeter

MI MI

3 4 5

Wattmeter Wattmeter Auto Transformer

UPF LPF 1-Φ

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S.No. Vo (V) Io (A) Wo = W x M.F (w)

Where M. F. = Multiplication factor = FSD Full scale divisions
VI cos φ FSD

SC Test Observations
S VSC (V) ISC (A) WSC = W x M.F (w)

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1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram 2. Initially variac should be kept in its minimum position 3. Close the DPST switch 4. By varying Auto transformer bring the voltage to rated voltage 5. When the voltage in the voltmeter is equal to the rated voltage of LV winding note down all the readings of the meters 6. After taking all the readings bring the variac to its minimum position 7. Now switch off the supply by opening the DPST switch

PROCEDURE (SC TEST):

1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram 2. Short the LV side and connect the meters on HV side 3. Before taking the single phase, 230 V, 50 Hz supply the variac should be in minimum position 4. Now close the DPST switch so that the supply is given 5. By varying the variac when the ammeter shows the rated current then note down all the readings 6. Bring the variac to minimum position after taking the readings and switch off the supply

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(a)Calculation of Equivalent circuit parameters:
Let the transformer be the step-up transformer Primary is L. V. side.(V1) , Secondary is H. V. side (V2) (i) Parameters calculation from OC test cos φ0 =
Wo = Vo I o

Iw = I0 cos φ0
R0 = V1 Iw

=

1 Iw = Iw / K

=

= =

1 R0 = R0

K2 =

Iµ = I0 sin φ0
X0 = V1 Iµ
V2 V1

=

1 X0 = X0

K2 =

K=

=

(ii) Parameters calculation from SC test

R02 =
Z 02 =

WSC I sc
2

= =

X 02 = Z 02 − R02

2

2

=

VSC I SC

X 01 = X 02 / K 2 R01 = R02 / K 2 Z 01 = Z 02 / K 2

= =

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(a)

Efficiency at different loads and P.f s
cosφ2 = ___________ φ

cos φ1 = ___________

S.N Load o.

Cu.lo ss (W)

Outp ut (W)

Inp ut (W)

η X (% x )

S.N o.

Loa d

Cu.lo ss (W)

Outp ut (W)

Inp ut (W)

η (% )

1. 2. 3. 4.

¼ F. L. ½ F. L. ¾ F. L. F. L.

1. 2. 3. 4.

¼ F.L . ½ F.L . ¾ F.L . F.L .

(b) Regulation at full load

Lagging Pf S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. P.F. 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 % Reg. S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Leading Pf P. F. 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 % Reg.

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7. Unity 7. Unity

(b)

Calculations to find efficiency:

For ½ full load Cupper losses = Wsc x (1/2)2 watts = where Wsc = full – load copper losses Constant losses = W0 watts = Output = ½ KVA x cos φ = [cos φ may be assumed]

Input = output + Cu. Loss + constant loss = Output x 100 = Input

% efficiency =

(C)Calculation of Regulation at full load:

I2 = Load (KVA) X 103 / V2 =

% Re gulation =

I 2 R02 cos φ ± I 2 X 02 sin φ x 100 = V2

‘+’ for lagging power factors

‘-‘ for leading power factors

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PRECAUTIONS:

1. Loose connections should be avoided 2. Variac should be in minimum position initially 3. During the SC test make sure that constant current is supplied

MODEL GRAPHS:

1) Load Vs Efficiency

2) Pf Vs Regulation

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RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1) The regulation calculated is exact or approximate? 2) Is it direct or indirect test? 3) What are the parameters to be calculated by using this test? 4) What are the conditions for maximum regulation and zero regulation?

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Exp – 9

BRAKE TEST ON 3 -PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR
AIM: To perform Brake test on 3- phase Slip ring induction motor to determine performance characteristics.

NAME PLATE DETAILS: Voltage Current Power Speed 415 V 7A 3 H.P 1500 Rpm

APPARATUS:

S.NO 1 2 3

NAME Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter

TYPE MI MI Dynamometer

RANGE 0-600 V 0-10 A 600 V/ 10 A UPF(F/R)

QUANTITY 01No 01No 02No

4 5

Tachometer Connecting Wires

Digital ----

(0-10000)RPM ----

01NO Required number

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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This PDF was made with the DEMO version of PDFtypewriter. The full version will not PROCEDURE: add this text to your PDFs. You can purchase the full version at 1. Connect the circuit as http://ctdeveloping.com per the circuit diagram 2. Insert the proper rating fuses
3. Initially we place the rotor rheostat in maximum position 4. Initially there is no load on the motor 5. Close the TPST switch by giving 415 V, 50 Hz AC supply using 3-phase Auto Transformer 6. Measure no load voltage, current and power 7. Apply the load by tightening the brake drum measure the values of voltage, current , wattmeter, speed, weights reading i.e. S1 and S2. 8. After taking the values make brake drum in initial position(voltage 415 to 0 position) then switch off the supply (Remove TPST switch) 9. Tabulate the results and draw the graphs.

MODEL CALCULATION:

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This PDF was made with the DEMO version of PDFtypewriter. The full version will not MODEL GRAPHS: add this text to your PDFs. You can purchase the full version at http://ctdeveloping.com 1. Output Vs Efficiency
2. Output Vs Torque 3. Slip Vs Torque

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1. While starting the motor the load should not be there on the drum 2. The applied load on the brake drum does not exceed its rated value 3. The readings should be noted without parallelex errors 4. Always the drum should be kept cool

RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1) Is it possible to realize maximum torque at starting of induction motor? 2) What should be the frequency of injected emf in rotor circuit?

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OC & SC TESTS ON 3 – PHASE ALTERNATOR
AIM: To conduct Open circuit and Short circuit tests on a three- phase Alternator and to determine the voltage regulation and synchronous impedance using EMF and MMF methods

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

DC SHUNT MOTOR VOLTAGE (0-220 )V CURRENT: 2.8 A SPEED: 1500 RPM POWER: 7.5 HP EXCITATION CURRENT: 2 A

ALTERNATOR VOLTAGE: 415 V CURRENT: 7 A SPEED: 1500 RPM POWER: 7.5 HP EXCITATION CURRENT: 1.55 A

APPARATUS: S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 NAME Voltmeter Voltmeter Ammeter Ammeter Rheostat TYPE MI MC MI MC Wire Wound 6 Connecting Wires 7 Tachometer (0Digital 10,000)RPM 01No ---RANGE 0-600 V 0-50 V 0-10 A 0-2 A 300 Ω/ 2 A 100Ω/ 5 A ----QUANTITY 01No 01No 01No 01No 01No 01No Required number

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This PDF was made with the DEMO version of PDFtypewriter. The full version will not Tabulation: add this text to your PDFs. You can purchase the full version at http://ctdeveloping.com a) OC & SC Test:

O. C. Test Speed = S.No. Field current (A) Phase voltage (V)

S. C. Test Speed = S.No. Field Short circuit current, current (ISC), (A) (If) (A)

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b) Armature Resistance:
S.No. I (A) V (volts) Rdc = V/I Ω

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1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2. Bring the D.C shunt motor to rated speed by varying rheostat (say field). 3. Alternator is brought to the synchronous speed by using shunt motor. 4. Initially the stator terminals are open circuited. 5. Now increase (Potential divider) the field current of alternator and note the values of ammeter, voltmeter. 6. Slowly reduce the (Potential divider ) excitation and field rheostat of shunt motor to their initial positions. switch off supply

(SC TEST):

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2. The Stator terminals are short circuited using a switch 3. Now close the DPST switch and by varying the field rheostat bring DC shunt motor to its rated speed 4. Alternator is synchronized using shunt motor 5. Now vary the DC excitation of alternator in steps to field current rated value and note A1 and A2 values 6. Bring back the excitation and field rheostat to their initial positions

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From Graph Z S = Ra = (1.6) RdC =
2 2 X S = Z S − Ra

VOC for the same If and speed: = I SC

=

Assume p.f. (CosΦ) = Assume armature current (Ia) = Generated emf of alternator on no load is E0 =

(v cos φ

+ I a Ra ) 2 + (v sin φ ± I a X S ) =

2

+ for lagging p.f. - for leading p.f. The percentage regulation of alternator for a given p.f. is

% Re g =
where

E0 − V x 100 = V

E0 – Generated emf of alternator per phase voltage V – Full load, rated terminal voltage per phase.

PRECAUTIONS: 1. The excitation should not exceed the field current 2. The rheostat in shunt motor should be at minimum position 3. Take the readings without parallelox errors

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ThisMODEL GRAPHS: the DEMO version of PDFtypewriter. The full version will not PDF was made with add this text to your PDFs. You can purchase the full version at http://ctdeveloping.com 1. Field current ( If ) Vs Generated EMF ( E )
2. Field current ( If ) Vs Short circuit current ( I sc ) 3. Power factor Vs % Regulation

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RESULT:

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1) What is meant infinite bus bar? 2) How to minimize hunting effect? 3) At what condition frequency collapses?

4) What is synchroscope?

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