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NASA STI Program

in Profile

Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. The NASA scientific and technical information (STI) program plays a key part in helping NASA maintain this important role.

The NASA STI program operates under the auspices of the Agency Chief Information Officer. It collects, organizes, provides for archiving, and disseminates NASA’s STI. The NASA STI program provides access to the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database and its public interface, the NASA Technical Report Server, thus providing one of the largest collections of aeronautical and space science STI in the world. Results are published in both non-NASA channels and by NASA in the NASA STI Report Series, which includes the following report types:

TECHNICAL PUBLICATION. Reports of completed research or a major significant phase of research that present the results of NASA Programs and include extensive data or theoretical analysis. Includes compilations of significant scientific and technical data and information deemed to be of continuing reference value. NASA counterpart of peer-reviewed formal professional papers but has less stringent limitations on manuscript length and extent of graphic presentations.

TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM. Scientific and technical findings that are preliminary or of specialized interest, e.g., quick release reports, working papers, and bibliographies that contain minimal annotation. Does not contain extensive analysis.

CONTRACTOR REPORT. Scientific and technical findings by NASA-sponsored contractors and grantees.

CONFERENCE PUBLICATION. Collected papers from scientific and technical conferences, symposia, seminars, or other meetings sponsored or co-sponsored by NASA.

SPECIAL PUBLICATION. Scientific, technical, or historical information from NASA programs, projects, and missions, often concerned with subjects having substantial public interest.

TECHNICAL TRANSLATION. English-language translations of foreign scientific and technical material pertinent to NASA’s mission.

Specialized services also include creating custom thesauri, building customized databases, and organizing and publishing research results.

For more information about the NASA STI program, see the following:

Access the NASA STI program home page at

E-mail your question via the Internet to

Fax your question to the NASA STI Help Desk at (301) 621-0134

Phone the NASA STI Help Desk at (301) 621-0390

Write to:

NASA STI Help Desk NASA Center for AeroSpace Information 7121 Standard Drive Hanover, MD 21076-1320


Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) is an online information resource listing citations and abstracts of NASA and world wide aerospace-related STI. Updated biweekly, STAR highlights the most recent additions to the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Through this resource, the NASA STI Program provides timely access to the most current aerospace-related Research & Development (R&D) results.

STAR subject coverage includes all aspects of aeronautics and space research and development, supporting basic and applied research, and application, as well as aerospace aspects of Earth resources, energy development, conservation, oceanography, environmental protection, urban transportation and other topics of high national priority. The listing is arranged first by 11 broad subject divisions, then within these divisions by 76 subject categories and includes two indexes:

subject and author.

STAR includes citations to Research & Development (R&D) results reported in:

NASA, NASA contractor, and NASA grantee reports

Reports issued by other U.S. Government agencies, domestic and foreign institution, universities, and private firms


NASA-owned patents and patent applications

Other U.S. Government agency and foreign patents and patent applications

Domestic and foreign dissertations and theses

The NASA STI Program

The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program was established to support the objectives of NASA’s missions and research to advance aeronautics and space science. By sharing information, the NASA STI Program ensures that the U.S. maintains its preeminence in aerospace-related industries and education, minimizes duplication of research, and increases research productivity.

Through the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI), the NASA STI Program acquires, processes, archives, announces and disseminates both NASA’s internal STI and world- wide STI. The results of 20th and 21st century aeronautics and aerospace research and development, a worldwide investment totaling billions of dollars, have been captured, organized, and stored in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. New information is continually announced and made available as it is acquired, making this a dynamic and historical collection of value to business, industry, academia, federal institutions, and the general public.

The STI Program offers products and tools that allow efficient access to the wealth of information derived from global R&D efforts. In addition, customized services are available to help tailor this valuable resource to meet your specific needs.

For more information on the most up to date NASA STI, visit the STI Program’s website at

NASA STI Availability Information

NASA Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI)

Through NASA CASI, the NASA STI Program offers many information products and services to the aerospace community and to the public, including access to a selection of full text of the NASA STI. Free registration with the program is available to NASA, U.S. Government agencies and contractors. To register, contact CASI at Others should visit the program at The ‘search selected databases’ button provides access to the NASA Technical Reports Server (TRS) – the publicly available contents of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database.

Each citation in STAR indicates a ‘Source of Availability’. When CASI is indicated, the user can order this information directly from CASI using the STI Online Order Form or contact or telephone the CASI Help Desk at 301-621-0390. Before ordering you may access price code tables for STI documents and videos. When information is not available from CASI, the source of the information is indicated when known.

NASA STI is also available to the public through Federal information organizations. NASA CASI disseminates publicly available NASA STI to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) and to the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) through the Government Printing Office (GPO). In addition, NASA patents are available online from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Technical Information Service serves the American public as a central resource for unlimited, unclassified U.S. Government scientific, technical, engineering, and business related information. For more than 50 years NTIS has provided businesses, universities, and the public timely access to well over 2 million publications covering over 350 subject areas. Visit NTIS at

The Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP)

The U.S. Congress established the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) to ensure access by the American public to U.S. Government information. The program acquires and disseminates information products from all three branches of the U.S. Government to nearly 1,300 Federal depository libraries nationwide. The libraries maintain these information products as part of their existing collections and are responsible for assuring that the public has free access to the information. Locate the Federal Depository Libraries

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO)

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office provides online access to full text patents and patent applications. The database includes patents back to 1976 plus some pre-1975 patents. Visit the USPTO at

Table of Contents

Subject Divisions/Categories

Document citations are grouped by division and then by category, according to the NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide.


01 Aeronautics (General)


02 Aerodynamics


03 Air Transportation and Safety


04 Aircraft Communications and Navigation


05 Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance


06 Avionics and Aircraft Instrumentation


07 Aircraft Propulsion and Power


08 Aircraft Stability and Control


09 Research and Support Facilities (Air)



12 Astronautics (General)


13 Astrodynamics

3 5

14 Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space)


15 Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations


16 Space Transportation and Safety


17 Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking


18 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance


19 Spacecraft Instrumentation and Astrionics


20 Spacecraft Propulsion and Power


Chemistry and Materials

23 Chemistry and Materials (General)


24 Composite Materials


25 Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry


26 Metals and Metallic Materials


27 Nonmetallic Materials


28 Propellants and Fuels



31 Engineering (General)


32 Communications and Radar


33 Electronics and Electrical Engineering


34 Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics


35 Instrumentation and Photography


36 Lasers and Masers


37 Mechanical Engineering


38 Quality Assurance and Reliability



42 Geosciences (General)


43 Earth Resources and Remote Sensing


44 Energy Production and Conversion


45 Environment Pollution


46 Geophysics


47 Meteorology and Climatology


48 Oceanography


Life Sciences

51 Life Sciences (General)


52 Aerospace Medicine


53 Behavioral Sciences


54 Man/System Technology and Life Support


Mathematical and Computer Sciences

59 Mathematical and Computer Sciences (General)


60 Computer Operations and Hardware


61 Computer Programming and Software


62 Computer Systems


63 Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics


64 Numerical Analysis


65 Statistics and Probability


66 Systems Analysis and Operations Research


67 Theoretical Mathematics



70 Physics (General)


71 Acoustics


72 Atomic and Molecular Physics


73 Nuclear Physics



74 Optics


75 Plasma Physics


76 Solid-State Physics


77 Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields


Social and Information Sciences


Social and Information Sciences (General)



Administration and Management



Documentation and Information Science



Technology Utilization and Surface Transportation


Space Sciences

88 Space Sciences (General)


89 Astronomy


90 Astrophysics



Solar Physics


93 Space Radiation







Two indexes are available. You may use the find command under the tools menu while viewing the PDF file for direct match searching on any text string. You may also select either of the two indexes provided for linking to the corresponding document citation from NASA Thesaurus terms and personal author names.

Subject Term Index Personal Author Index


A Biweekly Publication of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration




Includes general research topics related to manned and unmanned aircraft and the problems of flight within the Earth’s atmosphere. Also includes manufacturing, maintenance, and repair of aircraft. For specific topics in aeronautics, see categories 02 through 09. For information related to space vehicles see 12 Astronautics.

20060048307 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA

Aeroacoustic Study of a 26%-Scale Semispan Model of a Boeing 777 Wing in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel Horne, W. Clifton; Burnside, Nathan J.; Soderman, Paul T.; Jaeger, Stephen M.; Reinero, Bryan R.; James, Kevin D.; Arledge, Thomas K.; October 2004; 216 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): UPN 781-00-00 Report No.(s): NASA/TP-2003-212802; A-0410923; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A10, Hardcopy An acoustic and aerodynamic study was made of a 26%-scale unpowered Boeing 777 aircraft semispan model in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for the purpose of identifying and attenuating airframe noise sources. Simulated approach and landing configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.12 and 0.24. Cruise configurations were evaluated at Mach numbers between 0.24 and 0.33. The research team used two Ames phased-microphone arrays, a large fixed array and a small traversing array, mounted under the wing to locate and compare various noise sources in the wing high-lift system and landing gear. Numerous model modifications and noise alleviation devices were evaluated. Simultaneous with acoustic measurements, aerodynamic forces were recorded to document aircraft conditions and any performance changes caused by the geometric modifications. Numerous airframe noise sources were identified that might be important factors in the approach and landing noise of the full-scale aircraft. Several noise-control devices were applied to each noise source. The devices were chosen to manipulate and control, if possible, the flow around the various tips and through the various gaps of the high-lift system so as to minimize the noise generation. Fences, fairings, tip extensions, cove fillers, vortex generators, hole coverings, and boundary-layer trips were tested. In many cases, the noise-control devices eliminated noise from some sources at specific frequencies. When scaled to full-scale third-octave bands, typical noise reductions ranged from 1 to 10 dB without significant aerodynamic performance loss. Author Boeing 777 Aircraft; Wings; Semispan Models; Aerodynamic Characteristics; Aerodynamic Forces; Aeroacoustics; Noise Generators; Airframes



Includes aerodynamics of flight vehicles, test bodies, airframe components and combinations, wings, and control surfaces. Also includes aerodynamics of rotors, stators, fans, and other elements of turbomachinery. For related information see also 34 Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics.

20060048929 Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL USA

Hypersonic and Unsteady Flow Science Issues for Explosively Formed Penetrators Vanden, Kirk; Ellison, Steve; Wilson, James; Case, Ben; Aug 2006; 22 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): Proj-2307 Report No.(s): AD-A453699; AFRL-MN-EG-TP-2006-7405; No Copyright; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) The technology of hypersonic projectiles is becoming mature from a metal physics perspective but there are still unsolved

challenges relating to flight characteristics and aero dynamic stability. These projectiles deform under explosive loads and accelerate to hypersonic speeds in 2x10-6 seconds. In addition, these projectiles operate at sea-level conditions, a high-speed flight regime not commonly studied. The objective of this effort is to study the aerodynamics characteristics of deformable projectiles flying at hypersonic speeds and sea-level conditions. Because aerodynamic stability is critical for proper performance it is important to know what shapes should be avoided and which ones are acceptable. Since this was a short one-year IDP task the effort only focused on static body geometries, no deformable body calculations were attempted. DTIC Aerodynamic Stability; Hypersonic Flow; Penetration; Unsteady Flow; Warheads

20060048934 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

A Wind Tunnel Investigation of Joined Wing Scissor Morphing Dike, Christopher; Jun 2006; 128 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453708; AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-J02; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A07, Hardcopy The Air Force Research Laboratory’s Munitions Directorate has been looking to extend the range of its small smart bomb. Corneille [6] has conducted tests to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of joined wings on a missile and determine if joined wings are more beneficial than a single wing configuration. The concept of retrofitting wings on the bomb introduced an interesting problem: storage before deployment. This study conducted steady-state low speed wind tunnel testing of a joined wing configuration that morphed from a compact configuration for storage to a full extension. These steady-state tests examine differing sweep angles of the same joined wing configuration. The lift and drag as well as pitching moments and rolling moments were determined and analyzed for the effects of morphing. DTIC Joined Wings; Variable Sweep Wings; Wind Tunnel Tests; Wings

20060049238 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Experimental Investigation of the Aerodynamic Ground Effect of a Tailless Lambda-Shaped UCAV with Wing Flaps Mostaccio, Jason T; Jun 2006; 209 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453970; AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-J11; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) This experimental study adequately identified the ground effect region of a lambda-shaped unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV). The lambda planform used in this study was originally tested in a previous experiment to determine the stability and control characteristics generated out-of-ground-effect. The following study extends the existing database by analyzing the inherent aerodynamic behavior that is produced by employing trailing edge flap deflections while flying in-ground-effect (IGE). To accomplish this objective, static ground effect tests were performed in the AFIT 3? x 3? subsonic wind tunnel where a ground plane was used to simulate the forces and moments on the UCAV IGE. Removable aluminum flap pieces were attached to the model, in a split flap configuration, along the midboard and outboard trailing edges of the UCAV, and the corresponding IGE data was collected for symmetric and asymmetric deflections of +10o and +20o. Based on the results of this study, the ground effect region for the lambda UCAV, with flaps deployed was characterized by an increase in the lift, a reduction in the induced drag but an increase in the overall drag, and an increase in the lift-to-drag ratio. These trends were

noted in previous ground effect studies for aircraft with trailing edge flaps, and similar aspect ratios and wing sweep. Additionally, a flow visualization analysis revealed that a vortical flow pattern, that is characteristic of delta wing configurations, developed over the upper surface of the wing at high angles of attack. DTIC Aerodynamic Characteristics; Aerodynamics; Aircraft; Ground Effect (Aerodynamics); Wing Flaps; Wings

20060049266 North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC USA

Reduced Order Modeling in Control of Open Cavity Acoustics Bortz, D M; Rubio, A D; Banks, H T; Cain, A B; Smith, R C; Jul 19, 2000; 26 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): F49620-98-1-0180 Report No.(s): AD-A454028; CRSC-TR00-18; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) Aircraft with internal carriage of weapons or surveillance systems require active control strategies to limit high amplitude open bay acoustic resonances and to facilitate optimization of structure requirements and weapon/surveillance reliability. This paper focuses on communicating an investigation of the use of numerical simulation combined with Proper Orthogonal

Decomposition (POD) model reduction methods to optimize an active control system for aircraft open cavity applications. Issues ad- dressed include characterizing shear layer and wake resonant responses, optimal steady blowing rates, the effect of open loop harmonic perturbations, use of POD for post-processing data to reduce storage requirements, and the use of the Nelder-Mead optimization procedure. Comparison of the wake and shear layer responses reveals why a wake response in aircraft is undesirable. This study has focused primarily on a freestream flow at M=0.85 with a cavity of aspect ratio l/d = 4.5. The results include the use of steady blowing injection up to M = 0.9 and harmonic forcing perturbations ranging in amplitude from M=0.005 to M=0.45. In the parameter space examined, fluid displacement had the largest effect. The best observed forcing reduced the buffet loading metrics by approximately 17 db. DTIC Acoustic Resonance; Acoustics; Aerodynamic Noise; Cavities; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Mathematical Models; Noise Reduction

20060049404 Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA USA

Performance Analysis of a Wing With Multiple Winglets Smith, M J; Komerath, N; Ames, R; Wong, O; Pearson, J; Jan 2001; 11 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): F33615-00-C-3017 Report No.(s): AD-A454384; AIAA-2001-2407; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy This effort examined the potential of multi-winglets for the reduction of induced drag without increasing the span of aircraft wings. Wind tunnel models were constructed using a NACA 0012 airfoil section for the untwisted, rectangular wing and flat plates for the winglets. Testing of the configurations occurred over a range of Reynolds numbers from 161,000 to 300,000. Wind tunnel balances provided lift and drag measurements, and laser flow visualization obtained wingtip vortex information. The Cobalt60 unstructured solver generated flow simulations of the experimental configuration via solution of the Euler equations of motion. The results show that certain multi-winglet configurations reduced the wing induced drag and improved lift by 15-30% compared with the baseline 0012 wing. A substantial increase in lift curve slope occurs with dihedral spread of winglets set at zero incidence relative to the wing. Dihedral spread also distributes the tip vortex. These observations supplement previous results on drag reduction due to lift reorientation with twisted winglets set at negative incidence. DTIC Aerodynamic Configurations; Drag Reduction; Reliability Analysis; Winglets; Wings

20060049612 Surrey Univ., Guildford, UK

Nonlinear Symplectic Attitude Estimation for Small Satellites Valpiani, James M; Palmer, Philip L; Aug 2006; 17 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454632; CI04-188D; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy A novel method for efficient high-accuracy satellite attitude estimation is presented to address the increasing performance requirements of resource-constrained small satellites. Symplectic numerical methods are applied to the nonlinear estimation problem for Hamiltonian systems, leading to a new general solution that exactly preserves state probability density functions and conserves invariant properties of the dynamics when solving for the state estimate. This nonlinear Symplectic Filter is applied to a standard small satellite mission and simulation results demonstrate orders of magnitude improvement in state and constants of motion estimation when compared to extended and iterative Kalman methods particularly in the presence of nonlinear dynamics and high accuracy attitude observations. Based on numerous simulations, the authors conclude that this new method shows promise for improved attitude estimation onboard high performance, resource-constrained small satellites. DTIC Artificial Satellites; Attitude (Inclination); Nonlinearity; Probability Density Functions



Includes passenger and cargo air transport operations; airport ground operations; flight safety and hazards; and aircraft accidents. Systems and hardware specific to ground operations of aircraft and to airport construction are covered in 09 Research and Support Facilities (Air). Air traffic control is covered in 04 Aircraft Communications and Navigation. For related information see also 16 Space Transportation and Safety and 85 Technology Utilization and Surface Transportation.

20060048280 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Operational Concept for Flight Crews to Participate in Merging and Spacing of Aircraft Baxley, Brian T.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.; [2006]; 11 pp.; In English; 6th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), 25-27 Sep. 2006, Wichita, KS, USA; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 931-02-07-07; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The predicted tripling of air traffic within the next 15 years is expected to cause significant aircraft delays and create a major financial burden for the airline industry unless the capacity of the National Airspace System can be increased. One approach to improve throughput and reduce delay is to develop new ground tools, airborne tools, and procedures to reduce the variance of aircraft delivery to the airport, thereby providing an increase in runway throughput capacity and a reduction in arrival aircraft delay. The first phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept employs a ground based tool used by Air Traffic Control that creates an arrival time to the runway threshold based on the aircraft s current position and speed, then makes minor adjustments to that schedule to accommodate runway throughput constraints such as weather and wake vortex separation criteria. The Merging and Spacing Concept also employs arrival routing that begins at an en route metering fix at altitude and continues to the runway threshold with defined lateral, vertical, and velocity criteria. This allows the desired spacing interval between aircraft at the runway to be translated back in time and space to the metering fix. The tool then calculates a specific speed for each aircraft to fly while enroute to the metering fix based on the adjusted land timing for that aircraft. This speed is data-linked to the crew who fly this speed, causing the aircraft to arrive at the metering fix with the assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft in the landing sequence. The second phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept increases the timing precision of the aircraft delivery to the runway threshold by having flight crews using an airborne system make minor speed changes during enroute, descent, and arrival phases of flight. These speed changes are based on broadcast aircraft state data to determine the difference between the actual and assigned time interval between the aircraft pair. The airborne software then calculates a speed adjustment to null that difference over the remaining flight trajectory. Follow-on phases still under development will expand the concept to all types of aircraft, arriving from any direction, merging at different fixes and altitudes, and to any airport. This paper describes the implementation phases of the Merging and Spacing Concept, and provides high-level results of research conducted to date. Author Air Traffıc; Air Traffıc Control; Flight Crews; Spacing; Flight Paths; Airspace; Aircraft Approach Spacing; Aircraft Maneuvers; Approach Control

20060048290 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Monte Carlo Analysis of Airport Throughput and Traffic Delays Using Self Separation Procedures Consiglio, Maria C.; Sturdy, James L.; [2006]; 8 pp.; In English; ICAS 2006 - 25th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 3-8 Sep. 2006, Hamburg, Germany; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 23-786-10-10; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy This paper presents the results of three simulation studies of throughput and delay times of arrival and departure operations performed at non-towered, non-radar airports using self-separation procedures. The studies were conducted as part of the validation process of the Small Aircraft Transportation Systems Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) concept and include an analysis of the predicted airport capacity using with different traffic conditions and system constraints under increasing levels of demand. Results show that SATS HVO procedures can dramatically increase capacity at non-towered, non-radar airports and that the concept offers the potential for increasing capacity of the overall air transportation system. Author Air Traffıc; Air Transportation; Monte Carlo Method; Airports

20060048294 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

NAS Demand Predictions, Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) Compared with Other Forecasts

Viken, Jeff; Dollyhigh, Samuel; Smith, Jeremy; Trani, Antonio; Baik, Hojong; Hinze, Nicholas; Ashiabor, Senanu; [2006];

29 pp.; In English; 6th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration and Operations Conference (ATIO), 25-27 Sep. 2006, Wichita,

KS, USA; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 931-02-07-07-01 Report No.(s): AIAA Paper 2006-7761; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The current work incorporates the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) to predict the future demand for airline travel. TSAM is a multi-mode, national model that predicts the demand for all long distance travel at a county level based upon population and demographics. The model conducts a mode choice analysis to compute the demand for commercial airline travel based upon the traveler s purpose of the trip, value of time, cost and time of the trip,. The county demand for airline travel is then aggregated (or distributed) to the airport level, and the enplanement demand at commercial airports is modeled. With the growth in flight demand, and utilizing current airline flight schedules, the Fratar algorithm is used to develop future flight schedules in the NAS. The projected flights can then be flown through air transportation simulators to quantify the ability of the NAS to meet future demand. A major strength of the TSAM analysis is that scenario planning can be conducted to quantify capacity requirements at individual airports, based upon different future scenarios. Different demographic scenarios can be analyzed to model the demand sensitivity to them. Also, it is fairly well know, but not well modeled at the airport level, that the demand for travel is highly dependent on the cost of travel, or the fare yield of the airline industry. The FAA projects the fare yield (in constant year dollars) to keep decreasing into the future. The magnitude and/or direction of these projections can be suspect in light of the general lack of airline profits and the large rises in airline fuel cost. Also, changes in travel time and convenience have an influence on the demand for air travel, especially for business travel. Future planners cannot easily conduct sensitivity studies of future demand with the FAA TAF data, nor with the Boeing or Airbus projections. In TSAM many factors can be parameterized and various demand sensitivities can be predicted for future travel. These resulting demand scenarios can be incorporated into future flight schedules, therefore providing a quantifiable demand for flights in the NAS for a range of futures. In addition, new future airline business scenarios are investigated that illustrate when direct flights can replace connecting flights and larger aircraft can be substituted, only when justified by demand. Author Civil Aviation; Systems Analysis; Airline Operations; National Airspace System; Forecasting; Air Transportation; Mathematical Models

20060048493 Civil Aerospace Medical Inst., Oklahoma City, OK, USA

A Human Factors Review of the Operational Error Literature Schroeder, David; Bailey, Larry; Pounds, Julia; Manning, Carol; August 2006; 66 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): AM-HRR-524 Report No.(s): DOT/FAA/AM-06/21; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy This report reviews available documents concerning research and initiatives to reduce operational errors (OEs). It provides a brief history of OE investigation and reporting. It describes 154 documents published from 1960-2005 and 222 OE reduction initiatives implemented from 1986 to 2005. Materials are classified by 1) type of study and 2) human and other contributing factors (using the JANUS taxonomy). An analysis of the literature identified several consistent findings. OEs were related to the amount of traffic (measured nationally rather than by position, early time on position, and pilot/controller miscommunications (especially hearback/readback errors). Initiatives included developing national and local QA activities, providing resources to supervisors to help them perform their jobs, and skills training to address controller mental processes. Many ATO initiatives involved controller training, teamwork, and communications. Research and operations seemed to focus on the same 6 areas: a) training and experience, b) teamwork, c) pilot-ATC communications, d) Human Machine Interaction (HMI) and equipment, e) airspace/surface, and f) traffic. This review concluded that, historically, much (sometimes redundant) research was conducted that generated little new information about why OEs occurred. Similarly, many initiatives were implemented, but the lack of a systematic follow-up prevented us from learning which were effective. This cycle will continue unless relevant data are obtained that can address underlying causal dimensions typically associated with human errors. Better data will allow conducting more informative, theory-based analyses. ATO must also continually assess the effectiveness of OE mitigation strategies. Research efforts, operational initiatives, and program outcomes must be monitored to avoid wasting resources by repeatedly conducting the same analyses, re-discovering the same intervention strategies, and addressing only the easy problems. Development of a safety culture requires obtaining better data about circumstances surrounding OEs;

identifying individual, supervisory, and organizational contributions; and measuring the effectiveness of interventions. Author Air Traffıc Control; Human Factors Engineering; Aircraft Accidents; Mental Performance; Operator Performance; Literature

20060048496 Civil Aerospace Medical Inst., Oklahoma City, OK, USA

Sublimation Rate of Dry Ice Packaged in Commonly Used Quantities by the Air Cargo Industry Caldwell, Douglas C.; Lewis, Russell J.; Shaffstall, Robert M.; August 2006; 8 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): AM-B-05-TOX-204 Report No.(s): DOT/FAA/AM-06/19; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Dry ice is used as a refrigerant for the shipment of perishable goods in the aviation industry. The sublimation of dry ice can, however, lead to incapacitating levels of carbon dioxide in the aircraft cabin environment, as exemplified by the National Transportation Safety Board s (NTSB s) probable cause determination in a 1998 Brownsville, Texas, incapacitation incident. This incident prompted the NTSB to request that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) revisit the dry ice sublimation rate published in FAA Advisory Circular AC 103-4. The sublimation rate used in AC 103-4 to calculate permissible dry ice loads was based on a study conducted by Pan American Airlines where a single, large piece of dry ice (100 lb block) was used. Today, the majority of dry ice shipments contain smaller amounts of dry ice obtained in pellet form (approximately 5 lb). This study focuses on the sublimation rate of dry ice packed in such commonly encountered amounts. In this study, approximately 5 lb of dry ice, in pellet form, was added to each of 20 pre-weighed TheromoSafe shipping containers. The boxes were then weighed to obtain preflight weights and placed in an altitude chamber located at the FAA’s Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. The chamber was depressurized to an altitude of 8000 ft at a rate of 1000 ft/min. The total flight time was 6 h. The containers were then removed and immediately weighed to obtain post-flight measurements. Using the differences in weight as well as the total flight time, an average sublimation rate of 2.0 +/- 0.3%/h was determined. Results indicate that the sublimation rate is greater when dry ice is packaged in pellet form in small quantities. These results contrast the Pan American Airlines study that employed one solid 100-lb block of dry ice. The current study improves air cargo safety by providing a sublimation rate for dry ice shipped in small, more representative quantities. The updated sublimation rate can be used to calculate safe dry ice loads for containers commonly used today. Author Air Cargo; Carbon Dioxide; Sublimation; Refrigerants; Solidified Gases; Amount

20060048600 Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL USA

Control of Multiple-UAVs: A Workload Analysis Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Jan 2003; 7 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): MAAD6021-000-01 Report No.(s): AD-A446844; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Fifty-four licensed pilots carried out multiple surveillance missions on two high-fidelity simulations representing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In Experiment 1, pilots were required to operate a single UAV through three different mission conditions: a baseline condition, one that offloaded relevant information to the auditory channel, and one that provided automation of flight path control. In Experiment 2, pilots operated two UAVs simultaneously through the same three mission conditions. Pilots were responsible for the following tasks: (1) mission completion, (2) target search, and (3) systems monitoring. Results of the experiment suggest that automation and auditory offloading can be beneficial to performance by reducing interference between tasks, and thus alleviating overall workload. DTIC Drone Vehicles; Flight Simulation; Loads (Forces); Pilots; Workloads (Psychophysiology)

20060048669 Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek, The Hague, Netherlands

Overview of Sortie-Numbers in Various Operations (Overzicht Sortie-Aantallen in Diverse Operaties) Boots-Theunissen, E A; Halfhide, Y F; Mar 2005; 61 pp.; In Dutch; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453295; TNO-DV1-2004-A254; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy This report describes the results of the research of the contribution of the F-16 aircraft of the Royal Netherlands Air Force to air force operations the past ten years. Several sources of information were used: books written by the Air Force, information systems, internet sites and articles in military journals. In case of inconsistency between sources of information,

all the information and sources are mentioned. The report gives the number of sorties and number of flying hours for the F-16 aircraft of the RNLAF for eight air force operations. It also includes the number of sorties of all the participating air forces both for these eight air force operations and for two additional operations. DTIC F-16 Aircraft; Fighter Aircraft; Military Operations

20060048927 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Aviation Security-Related Findings and Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Elias, Bart; Mar 30, 2005; 21 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453685; CRS-RL32541; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The 9/11 Commission found that al Qaeda operatives exploited known weaknesses in U.S. aviation security to carry out the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. While legislation and administration actions after September 11, 2001 were implemented to strengthen aviation security, the 9/11 Commission concluded that several weaknesses continue to exist. These include perceived vulnerabilities in cargo and general aviation security as well as inadequate screening and access controls at airports. The 9/11 Commission issued several recommendations designed to strengthen aviation security by: enhancing passenger pre-screening; improving measures to detect explosives on passengers; addressing human factors issues at screening checkpoints; expediting deployment of in-line baggage screening systems; intensifying efforts to identify, track, and screen potentially dangerous cargo; and deploying hardened cargo containers on passenger aircraft. In addition to these specific recommendations, an overarching recommendation for transportation security policy asserts that priorities should be set based on risk, and the most practical and cost effective deterrents should be implemented assigning appropriate roles and missions to federal, state, and local authorities, as well as private stakeholders. DTIC Airline Operations; Commercial Aircraft; Security; Terrorism

20060048936 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues Shea, Dana A; Morgan, Daniel; Feb 7, 2005; 7 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453711; CRS-RS21920; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the USA, known as the 9/11 Commission, recommended that Congress and the Transportation Security Administration give priority attention to screening airline passengers for explosives. The key issue for Congress is balancing the costs of mandating passenger explosives trace detection against other aviation security needs. Passenger explosives screening technologies have been under development for several years and are now being tested for suitability in airport operation. Their technical capabilities have not been fully established, and operational and policy issues have not yet been resolved. Critical factors for implementation in airports include reliability, passenger throughput, and passenger privacy concerns. Presuming the successful development and deployment of this technology, certification standards, operational policy, and screening procedures for federal use will need to be established. This topic, which was addressed by Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458), continues to be of congressional interest in the 109th Congress. DTIC Air Transportation; Airline Operations; Detection; Explosives; Explosives Detection; Security; Terrorism

20060048956 Boeing Phantom Works, Saint Louis, MO USA

Air Vehicle Technology Integration Program (AVTIP) Delivery Order 0015: Open Control Platform (OCP) Software Enabled Control (SEC) Hardware in the Loop Simulation - OCP Hardware Integration Paunicka, James L; Jun 2005; 28 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): F33615-00-D-3052-0015; Proj-A008 Report No.(s): AD-A453784; BOEING-STL2004P0023; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Boeing Phantom Works collaborated with Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) researchers at the Aerospace Vehicles Technology Assessment and Simulation (AVTAS) Laboratory and with Northrop Grumman to conduct the Open Control Platform (OCP) Hardware-In-The-Loop (HITL) project sponsored by the DARPA Software Enabled Control (SEC) Program. The purpose of this project is to develop the capability to be an OCP test-bed and to evaluate the OCP controls and simulation environment for a specific test case. The OCP, developed by Boeing, provides an open, middleware-enabled software framework and development platform for developers of distributed and embedded software applications. The middleware

isolates the programmer from the details of the operating system and provides a mechanism for communication with other OCP software components. A Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) was chosen as a representative flight controls application to exercise OCP. The programmatic approach taken by the OCP-HITL project was a series of simulation experiments with increasing complexity. DTIC Computer Programming; Control Simulation; Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation; Software Engineering

20060049241 Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA USA

Control of Acoustics and Store Separation in a Cavity in Supersonic Flow Sahoo, Debashis; Feb 2005; 141 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): F49620-00-2-0384 Report No.(s): AD-A453973; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A07, Hardcopy The supersonic flight community is currently faced with two cavity-under-cross-flow related problems, one being the high noise levels inside the cavity and the other being the return of a store into the cavity after being released from inside. This thesis provides a systematic framework to understand the dominant physics in both problems and to provide solutions for ameliorating the problems. For the first problem, an innovative cavity acoustics model is developed that rigorously explains the role of leading edge microjets in cavity noise suppression and predicts the magnitude of noise reduction for a given control input (that is the steady pressure at which the microjets are fired). The model is validated through comparison of its noise reduction predictions with experiments done using the Florida State University cavity and wind tunnel for different microjet pressures and under Mach 2.0 and Reynolds number 3 million flow, with the microjets being of diameter 400 microns. The second problem that the thesis is concerned with, is that of unsuccessful store drops from an external bay of an aircraft in flight. A group of researchers under the DARPA-funded HIFEX Program is currently developing an effective control mechanism to ensure safe release of a slender axi-symmetric store from a rectangular cavity under supersonic external cross-flow. In this thesis, a suitable low-order model is developed with separate components to predict the pitch and plunge motion of the store when it is inside the cavity, when it is passing through the shear layer at the mouth of the cavity and when it is completely outside the cavity. The model is based on slender axi-symmetric body aerodynamics, thin shear layer at the cavity mouth, high Reynolds number external cross-flow, plane shock waves associated with the microjet actuators, no-flow condition inside the cavity and inconsideration of the cavity acoustic field. DTIC Acoustics; Cavity Flow; Cavity Resonators; External Stores; Supersonic Flow

20060049243 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Simulation of Weapons Release from Cargo Aircraft Wilson, Paul M; Mar 2006; 212 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453975; AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-M33; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) The purpose of this study is to develop a computer simulation capable of providing an accurate flight history of an air-dropped munitions dispenser system in order to conduct proof of concept testing. The simulation is intended to serve as an adaptable tool for the development and testing of any cargo aircraft based weapons dispenser system. The simulation allows the user to conduct low-cost, time efficient, and effective tests of various design concepts in determining their operational feasibility and performance envelope. The munitions dispenser system is intended to provide a retrofit combat capability to the USAF C-17 aircraft, delivering massive amounts of precision guided ordnance where needed, when needed, while remaining outside the threat envelope. The dispenser concept was developed and modified through use of the simulation by determining the most favorable parachute system, harness configuration, and munition release sequence which ensure the desired behavior and performance of the twenty-munition dispenser system. The developed dispenser system was subjected to various adverse flight conditions, disturbances, and system malfunctions to determine the dispenser’s reaction to such inputs. Overall, the developed dispenser configuration has proven to be a viable weapons release platform for a cargo aircraft. DTIC Aircraft; Cargo; Cargo Aircraft; Computerized Simulation; Dispensers; Parachutes; Simulation

20060049245 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Wireless Sensor Network Applications for the Combat Air Forces Melloy, John R; Jun 13, 2006; 94 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations

Report No.(s): AD-A453978; AFIT/IC4/ENG/06-05; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A05, Hardcopy The main objective of this research is to examine the capabilities and limitations of wireless sensor networks with a focus on applications in an operational Air Force setting. The topography of such networks can be varied to suit applications across the spectrum of military operations. Sensor networks have certain inherent advantages, such as scalability, inconspicuousness, self-healing capability, and deployability. Possible uses include perimeter monitoring, mine field detection, aircraft health, search and rescue, target location, and others. Despite such potential capabilities, much study is needed to ensure their feasibility and utility. There are issues relating to network structure, data flow, power supplies, and methods of deployment. This paper covers some likely USAF applications and the unique problems which must be overcome. Implemented smartly, these devices can provide a new source of information in the ever-changing realm of information warfare, and can significantly improve the real-time battlespace picture. DTIC Armed Forces (United States); Combat; Networks; Warfare; Wireless Communication

20060049276 Naval Research Advisory Committee, Arlington, VA USA

Aging Naval Aircraft Study Young Jr, John J; Sep 26, 2002; 51 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454056; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy No abstract available Logistics Management; Military Aircraft; Military Aviation

20060049378 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Military Airlift: C-17 Aircraft Program Bolkcom, Christopher; May 30, 2006; 23 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454339; CRS-RL30685; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy The C-17 Globemaster III is a long-range cargo/transport aircraft operated by the U.S. Air Force since 1993. Congress approved development of the aircraft in the late 1970s, when it was recognized that the Air Force did not have enough airlift capability. In 1981, the McDonnell Douglas C-17 emerged as winner of a competition with Boeing and Lockheed to develop a next-generation aircraft to replace C-130s and C-141s. Full-scale development of the C-17 got underway in 1986, but technical problems and funding shortfalls delayed the program, leading to slipped schedules and increased costs. Despite those difficulties, the C-17 has retained broad congressional support and enjoys strong Air Force and Army backing. Defense officials view the C-17 as essential because of its ability to fly long distances with large payloads yet still use smaller bases in remote areas.

DTIC C-17 Aircraft; Transport Aircraft

20060049426 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Air Force Aerial Refueling Methods: Flying Boom Versus Hose-and-Drogue Bolkcom, Christopher; Jun 5, 2006; 12 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454450; CRS-RL32910; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy Decisions on the composition of the Air Force aerial refueling fleet were made decades ago, when the primary mission was to refuel long-range strategic bombers. Modifications have been made to many of these tanker aircraft (KC-135s and KC-10s) to make them more effective in refueling fighter aircraft. This report, which will be updated, examines the balance between two different refueling methods in today’s refueling fleet - ‘flying boom’ and ‘hose-and-drogue’ DTIC Air to Air Refueling; Hoses; Refueling; Towed Bodies

20060049436 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Air Force Aerial Refueling Bolkcom, Christopher; Sep 19, 2005; 7 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454466; CRS-RS20941; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A02, Hardcopy Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial. This report will be updated as events warrant. DTIC Air to Air Refueling; Refueling

20060049451 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues Shea, Dana A; Morgan, Daniel; Aug 9, 2006; 7 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454492; CRS-RS21920; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A02, Hardcopy The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the USA, known as the 9/11 Commission, recommended that Congress and the Transportation Security Administration give priority attention to screening airline passengers for explosives. The key issue for Congress is balancing the costs of mandating passenger explosives trace detection against other aviation security needs. Passenger explosives screening technologies have been under development for several years and are now being deployed in selected airports. Their technical capabilities have not been fully established, and operational and policy issues have not yet been resolved. Critical factors for implementation in airports include reliability, passenger throughput, and passenger privacy concerns. Presuming the successful development and deployment of this technology, certification standards, operational policy, and screening procedures for federal use will need to be established. This topic, which was addressed by Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458), continues to be of congressional interest in the 109th Congress. This report will not be updated. DTIC Airline Operations; Commercial Aircraft; Detection; Explosives; Explosives Detection; Passengers

20060049579 Stottler Henke Associates, Inc., San Mateo, CA USA

FlexiTrainer: A Visual Authoring Framework for Case-Based Intelligent Tutoring Systems Ramachandran, Sowmya; Remolina, Emilio; Fu, Daniel; Jan 2006; 4 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): DASW01-01-C-5317 Report No.(s): AD-A454585; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A01, Hardcopy The need for rapid and cost-effective development of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) with flexible pedagogical approaches has led to a demand for authoring tools. The authoring systems developed to date provide a range of options and flexibility, such as authoring simulations, or authoring tutoring strategies. This paper describes FlexiTrainer, an authoring framework that enables the rapid creation of pedagogically rich and performance-oriented learning environments with custom content and tutoring strategies. FlexiTrainer provides tools for specifying the domain knowledge and derives its power from a visual behavior editor for specifying the dynamic behavior of tutoring agents that interact to deliver instruction. The FlexiTrainer runtime engine is an agent-based system in which different instructional agents carry out related actions to achieve instructional goals. FlexiTrainer has been used to develop an ITS for training helicopter pilots in flying skills. DTIC Computer Assisted Instruction; Education; Flight Simulation; Flight Training; Knowledge Based Systems; Software Development Tools

20060049779 Institut de Medecine Aerospatiale du Service, Armees, France

Relative Effectiveness of Audio Tools for Fighter Pilots in Simulated Operational Flights: A Human Factors Approach Hourlier, Sylvain; Meehan, James; Leger, Alain; Roumes, Corinne; Apr 1, 2005; 9 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454885; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy No abstract available Auditory Signals; Helmet Mounted Displays; Human Factors Engineering; Pilots; Resources Management; Situational Awareness; Voice Communication; Workloads (Psychophysiology)

20060049829 Swedish Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm, Sweden

Swedish Projects Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik; Dec 1, 2005; 17 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454948; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy No abstract available Computerized Simulation; Flight Simulators; Sweden; Virtual Reality

20060050235 Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC, USA

National Airspace System Modernization: Observations on Potential Funding Options for FAA and the Next Generation Airspace System [2006]; 27 pp.; In English; Original contains black and white illustrations Report No.(s): GAO-06-1114T; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) a system intended to safely accommodate a possible tripling of air traffic by 2025 will become one of the federal government s most comprehensive and technically complex undertakings, and a preliminary estimate indicates it will also be expensive. However, the current approach to managing air transportation is becoming increasingly inefficient and operationally obsolete. In 2003, Congress authorized the creation of the Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) to coordinate the efforts of several federal partner agencies including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), in which JPDO is housed to plan for and develop NGATS. GAO s testimony addresses (1) the current estimate and uncertainties over NGATS costs, (2) advantages and concerns that stakeholders have raised about the current approach to collecting revenues from national airspace users to fund FAA, (3) the advantages and disadvantages of adopting alternative funding options for FAA, and (4) the advantages and disadvantages of authorizing FAA to use debt financing for capital projects. This testimony is based in part on GAO s analysis of FAA and JPDO documents and interviews with officials of those two agencies. Derived from text Air Transportation; National Airspace System; Revenue; Civil Aviation



Includes all modes of communication with and between aircraft; air navigation systems (satellite and ground based); and air traffic control. For related information see also 06 Avionics and Aircraft Instrumentation; 17 Space Communications, Spacecraft Communications, Command and Tracking; and 32 Communications and Radar.

20060048293 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Human Factors Considerations for Area Navigation Departure and Arrival Procedures Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.; [2006]; 10 pp.; In English; ICAS 2006 - 25th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 3-8 Sep. 2006, Hamburg, Germany Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 727-01-00; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI:

A02, Hardcopy Area navigation (RNAV) procedures are being implemented in the USA and around the world as part of a transition to a performance-based navigation system. These procedures are providing significant benefits and have also caused some human factors issues to emerge. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document RNAV-related human factors issues and propose areas for further consideration. The component focusing on RNAV Departure and Arrival Procedures involved discussions with expert users, a literature review, and a focused review of the NASAAviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for specific instrument procedure design guidelines that consider the effects of human performance. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged. A review of factors contributing to RNAV in-service errors would likely lead to improved system design and operational performance. Author Human Factors Engineering; Air Traffıc Control; Area Navigation; Radio Navigation; Systems Engineering; Human Performance; Flight Safety

20060048296 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

An Agent-Based Model for Analyzing Control Policies and the Dynamic Service-Time Performance of a Capacity- Constrained Air Traffic Management Facility Conway, Sheila R.; [2006]; 8 pp.; In English; ICAS 2006 - 25th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 3-8 Sep. 2006, Hamburg, Germany; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 759-07-23; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI:

A02, Hardcopy Simple agent-based models may be useful for investigating air traffic control strategies as a precursory screening for more costly, higher fidelity simulation. Of concern is the ability of the models to capture the essence of the system and provide insight into system behavior in a timely manner and without breaking the bank. The method is put to the test with the development of a model to address situations where capacity is overburdened and potential for propagation of the resultant delay though later flights is possible via flight dependencies. The resultant model includes primitive representations of

principal air traffic system attributes, namely system capacity, demand, airline schedules and strategy, and aircraft capability.

It affords a venue to explore their interdependence in a time-dependent, dynamic system simulation. The scope of the research

question and the carefully-chosen modeling fidelity did allow for the development of an agent-based model in short order. The model predicted non-linear behavior given certain initial conditions and system control strategies. Additionally, a combination of the model and dimensionless techniques borrowed from fluid systems was demonstrated that can predict the system s dynamic behavior across a wide range of parametric settings. Author Air Traffıc Control; Dynamic Characteristics; Airline Operations; Schedules; Policies; Time Dependence

20060048772 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Optimal Geometric Deployment of a Ground Based Pseudolite Navigation System to Track a Landing Aircraft Crawford, Matthew P; Jun 2006; 127 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453577; AFIT/GAE/ENG/06-02; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A07, Hardcopy With much of the military and civilian communities becoming dependent on GPS technology to navigate it has become imperative that the navigation systems be tested in situations in which GPS does not work. This testing is especially necessary for precise tasks such as landing an aircraft. Currently, research is being conducted into using a pseudolite-based reference system to use as a truth model for the GPS jamming test. Pseudolite systems have been proven to provide sub-centimeter level accuracy in the horizontal plane; however in the vertical plane the position error is still in the decimeter to meter level range. This is largely due to the fact that the geometry of a ground based pseudolite system provides poor slant angles in the vertical plane, which contributes to large positioning errors. The goal of this research is to study the effects of system geometry on the vertical plane solution. The results of this effort show that elevation angles of greater than 20o-30o are necessary to attain resonably good positioning solutions. Multiple pseudolite deployments, while effective at reducing the geometry errors, are very cost ineffective and the geometries pose significant risks to a landing aircraft. The best geometry involved using an orbiting aircraft, with a pseudolite transmitter and receiver attached, as an elevated pseudolite to create better slant angles and

thus better positioning solutions. DTIC Air Navigation; Aircraft Landing; Deployment; Navigation; Radar Tracking

20060049094 NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Simulation and Performance of Data Communication using AMSS Ripamonti, Claudio; Konangi, Vijay K.; Kerczewski, Robert J.; [2006]; 6 pp.; In English; Original contains black and white illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: Other Sources This paper reports the findings of a simulation of the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Service (AMSS) to be used in the ATN (Aeronautical Telecommunications Network). The models of the protocols used in this simulation were designed to be compliant with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP). The

focus of this research is on the data communication capabilities of the AMSS. The simulated performance characteristics for

a region of the AMSS are presented. The results are analyzed to determine the efficiency, limitations, and behavior of this service for the foreseen data communication Author Aeronautical Satellites; Data Transmission; Simulation; Ground-Air-Ground Communication; Aircraft Communication



Includes all stages of design of aircraft and aircraft structures and systems. Also includes aircraft testing, performance and evaluation, and aircraft and flight simulation technology. For related information see also 18 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance and 39 Structural Mechanics. For land transportation vehicles see 85 Technology Utilization and Surface Transportation.

20060048494 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

A Generic Multibody Parachute Simulation Model Neuhaus, Jason Richard; Kenney, Patrick Sean; [2006]; 12 pp.; In English; AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference and Exhibit, 21-24 Aug. 2006, Keystone, CO, USA; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 922-07-10 Report No.(s): AIAA Paper 2006-6622; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI:

A03, Hardcopy Flight simulation of dynamic atmospheric vehicles with parachute systems is a complex task that is not easily modeled in many simulation frameworks. In the past, the performance of vehicles with parachutes was analyzed by simulations dedicated to parachute operations and were generally not used for any other portion of the vehicle flight trajectory. This approach required multiple simulation resources to completely analyze the performance of the vehicle. Recently, improved software engineering practices and increased computational power have allowed a single simulation to model the entire flight profile of a vehicle employing a parachute. Author Parachutes; Mathematical Models; Flight Simulation; Software Engineering; Aircraft Design

20060048499 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

A High-Authority/Low-Authority Control Strategy for Coupled Aircraft-Style Bays Schiller, N. H.; Fuller, C. R.; Cabell, R. H.; [2006]; 12 pp.; In English; ACTIVE 2006: 6th International Symposium on Active Noise and Vibration Control, 18-20 Sep. 2006, Adelaide, Australia; Original contains color and black and white illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 781-10-13 Report No.(s): AIAA Paper a06_032; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy This paper presents a numerical investigation of an active structural acoustic control strategy for coupled aircraft-style bays. While structural coupling can destabilize or limit the performance of some model-based decentralized control systems, fullycoupled centralized control strategies are impractical for typical aircraft containing several hundred bays. An alternative is to use classical rate feedback with matched, collocated transducer pairs to achieve active damping. Unfortunately, due to the conservative nature of this strategy, stability is guaranteed at the expense of achievable noise reduction. Therefore, this paper describes the development of a combined control strategy using robust active damping in addition to a high-authority controller based on linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory. The combined control system is evaluated on a tensioned, two-bay model using piezoceramic actuators and ideal point velocity sensors. Transducer placement on the two-bay structure is discussed, and the advantages of a combined control strategy are presented.

Author Active Control; General Aviation Aircraft; Bays (Structural Units); Numerical Analysis; Coupling

20060048565 NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, USA

Making Robot Planes Useful for Scientific Investigation of Earth Jennison, Chris; January 2006; 23 pp.; In English; ION National Technical Meeting 2006, 18-20 Jan. 2006, Monterey, CA, USA; Original contains color illustrations; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy This viewgraph slides presentation reviews the program to use unmanned aerial vehicles to gather information to study the Earth, the changes to the climate, and to protect the Earth. Several robot planes are shown, and cooperative programs with other agencies of the U.S. Government are highlighted. Including one with the USA Forest Service, that is planned to assist in locating fires CASI Pilotless Aircraft; Research Aircraft; NASA Programs; Earth (Planet)

20060048729 Air Combat Command, Langley AFB, VA USA

Final Environmental Assessment for the Defensive Training Initiative, Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico Austin, John K; Brown, G M; Cunningham, Maureen; DeVine, Linda; Dischner, Dave; Doering, Bill; Dougherty, Jerry; Druss, Claudia; Fikel, Michele; Freeman, Kimberly; Sep 2001; 211 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453394; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A10, Hardcopy The 27th Fighter Wing (27 FW) at Cannon Air Force Base (AFB) is an integral part of the USA Aerospace Expeditionary Force (AEF). The AEF concept integrates fighters, bombers, support aircraft, and tactical airlift into one functional unit that responds rapidly and decisively to potential crises anywhere in the world. Cannon AFB’s F-16 pilots are routinely deployed to the world’s ‘hot spots’ and subjected to hostile radar and anti-aircraft defenses. The increasing sophistication of enemy equipment and tactics requires that the 27 FW pilots be trained to instantly respond to these threats. Continued survival depends on this training. Defensive training involves the rapid response of pilots to threats from opposing radar, reflexive maneuvering, and dispensing of defensive countermeasures. Defensive countermeasures include chaff that confuses enemy search radars and radar-guided missiles, and flares that decoy heat-seeking missiles and sensors. The 27 FW, the proponent of this action, currently conducts training using chaff and flares, but is limited to the restricted airspace associated with the Melrose Air Force Range (AFR) (R-5104/5105). The 27 FW proposes to conduct defensive training using chaff and flares in the existing military airspace designated as Pecos Military Operations Area (MOA)/Air Traffic Control Assigned Airspace (ATCAA), Sumner ATCAA, and Taiban MOA. Chaff use also is proposed for defensive training in the northern portion of Military Training Routes (MTRs) Visual Routes (VRs)-100/125. Implementation of this proposal would expand defensive training for F-16 pilots of the 27 FW stationed at Cannon AFB and other transient users. This Defensive Training Initiative (DTI) Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. It addresses the 27 FW’s Proposed Action and reasonable alternatives to the Proposed Action. DTIC Chaff; Countermeasures; Education; Fighter Aircraft; Guns (Ordnance); Jet Aircraft; Pilot Training; Pilots

20060048782 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

An Analysis of Nonlinear Elastic Deformations for a Homogeneous Beam at Varying Tip Loads and Pitch Angles McGraw, Robert J; Jun 2006; 106 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453627; AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-J09; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A06, Hardcopy The Princeton beam experiments of 1975 were performed in hopes of producing viable data for beam nonlinear elastic deformation models in hopes of improving helicopter main beam designs. The recorded data, specifically for homogeneous beams of 7075 aluminum, have been referenced as a baseline for the past thirty years to validate numerous computer models and theories in an effort to build beams capable of withstanding aeroelastic, static, and dynamic loading. The purpose of this study is to improve upon the data recorded in 1975 using newer technologies including a laser distance meter, digital inclinometer, and three-dimensional traverse to test X-axis, Y-axis, Z-axis and angular displacements for varying tip loads and pitch angles. Initial beam deformations due to machining stresses were included in the testing, and the beam was analyzed at tip loads between zero and four pounds for positive and negative pitch angles in fifteen-degree increments from zero to ninety degrees. The results were analyzed in numerous comparisons between the different tip loads and pitch angles, and the overall results were compared with Princeton beam data to ensure their validity. The experimental results showed an improvement in terms of precision as well as a relatively close correlation with Princeton beam data. There were some displacement discrepancies, but such differences can be examined in the future. The results can be used for beam vibrational mode and frequency testing as the beam’s geometry can be reproduced graphically and computer model verifications, allowing for more precise computer models for homogeneous nonlinear beam displacements. DTIC Aeroelasticity; Deformation; Elastic Deformation; Loads (Forces); Nonlinearity; Pitch (Inclination)

20060048954 Congressional Budget Office, Washington, DC USA

The C-17: Costs and Alternatives Myers, William; Fraider, Victoria; Aug 1993; 45 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453771; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The C-17 is an airlift aircraft that is designed to carry all types of cargo over intercontinental distances without refueling. It has features that other airlift aircraft do not provide, and the Air Force intends to use the C-17 to augment its fleet of C-141s and C-130s. The C-17 program has had problems almost since its development phase began in 1981. It has had difficulty

meeting the three major criteria against which all acquisition programs are judged-cost, schedule, and technical performance. For example, estimates of the program’s costs have grown by nearly $19 billion, or 47 percent, since its inception, excluding the effects of changes in both quantity and expected inflation. And future cost growth may be even greater. Acquisition costs for the program and expected to total about $40 billion, which is close to the original estimate, but that amount will pay for 120 aircraft instead of the original goal of 210. In addition, the program schedule has slipped so that production will end in 2001 instead of 1998 as originally planned. DTIC Aircraft; Alternatives; Costs

20060048959 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Sensor Management for Fighter Applications Musick, Stanton H; Malhorta, Raj P; Jun 2006; 36 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): Proj-2304 Report No.(s): AD-A453788; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy This report is a summary of research conducted from 1 October 1993 through 30 September 2004 for the project titled Sensor Management for Fighter Applications (SMFA). This project developed techniques for intelligently allocating the sensors onboard a modern military aircraft. It focused on information metrics for balancing the needs of detection, tracking and identification, on a probabilistic representation for assimilating sensed data in a multitarget environment, on machine learning approaches, and on important applications of these technologies. This report is the final written document for this project. DTIC Artificial Intelligence; Drone Vehicles; Probability Theory; Targets

20060049067 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Uncertainty Analysis for a Jet Flap Airfoil Green, Lawrence L.; Cruz, Josue; [2006]; 8 pp.; In English; 2006 Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 10-15 Sep. 2005, Orlando, FO, USA; Original contains color and black and white illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 581-02-08-07 Report No.(s): Paper-06F-SIW-010; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed to quantify the potential uncertainties of lift and pitching moment coefficient calculations from a computational fluid dynamics code, relative to an experiment, for a jet flap airfoil configuration. Uncertainties due to a number of factors including grid density, angle of attack and jet flap blowing coefficient were examined. The ANOVA software produced a numerical model of the input coefficient data, as functions of the selected factors, to a user-specified order (linear, 2-factor interference, quadratic, or cubic). Residuals between the model and actual data were also produced at each of the input conditions, and uncertainty confidence intervals (in the form of Least Significant Differences or LSD) for experimental, computational, and combined experimental / computational data sets were computed. The LSD bars indicate the smallest resolvable differences in the functional values (lift or pitching moment coefficient) attributable solely to changes in independent variable, given just the input data points from selected data sets. The software also provided a collection of diagnostics which evaluate the suitability of the input data set for use within the ANOVA process, and which examine the behavior of the resultant data, possibly suggesting transformations which should be applied to the data to reduce the LSD. The results illustrate some of the key features of, and results from, the uncertainty analysis studies, including the use of both numerical (continuous) and categorical (discrete) factors, the effects of the number and range of the input data points, and the effects of the number of factors considered simultaneously. Author Airfoils; Jet Flaps; Analysis of Variance; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Mathematical Models

20060049089 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

An Investigation Into Robust Wind Correction Algorithms for Off-the Shelf Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Autopilots Robinson, Brent K; Jun 2006; 182 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453607; AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-J14; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A09, Hardcopy The research effort focuses on developing methods to design efficient wind correction algorithms to ‘piggyback’ on

current off-the-shelf Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autopilots. Autonomous flight is certainly the near future for the aerospace industry and there exists great interest in defining a system that can guide and control aircraft with high levels of accuracy. The primary systems required to command the vehicles are already in place, but with only moderate abilities to adjust for dynamic environments (i.e. wind effects), if at all. The goal of this research is to develop a systematic procedure for implementing efficient and robust wind effects corrections to existing autopilots. The research will investigate the feasibility of an external dynamic environment control algorithm as a means of improving current, off-the-shelf autopilot technology relating to small UAVs. The research then presents three main focuses. First, a determination of the estimated winds utilizing the existing, on-board sensors. Second, the development of code that incorporates simple mathematical principals to counter the 2-Dimensional wind forces acting on the aircraft; and third, the integration of that code into the on-board navigational system. This ‘piggy-back’ algorithm must assimilate smoothly with the current GPS technologies to provide acceptable and safe flight path following. The design procedures developed were demonstrated in simulation and with flight tests on the SiG Rascal 110 UAV. This report builds the framework from which future wind correction research at AFIT and the ANT Center are based. DTIC Algorithms; Automatic Pilots; Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products; Pilotless Aircraft

20060049149 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Slotted Aircraft Wing Vassberg, John C., Inventor; Gea, Lie-Mine, Inventor; McLean, James D., Inventor; Witowski, David P., Inventor; Krist, Steven E., Inventor; Campbell, Richard L., Inventor; May 23, 2006; 33 pp.; In English; Original contains black and white illustrations Patent Info.: Filed 9 Oct. 2002; US-Patent-7,048,228; US-Patent-Appl-SN-678474; US-Patent-Appl-SN-417355; NASA-Case-LAR-16517-1; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Airfoils; Slots; Wings

20060049224 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Theoretical Modeling of the Transient Effects of a Towline Using the Method of Characteristics Hill, Christopher A; Jun 2006; 136 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453943; AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-J06; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) The use of decoys in combat has become more advanced in recent years. Some of the newest military aircraft, such as the US Navy’s F/A-18E/F Superhornet, have the capability to deploy a towline with an attached decoy when entering hostile territory as a defense mechanism against enemy threats. In steady state, the towline extends behind and below the aircraft. A major concern is the position of the towline, as aircraft maneuvers can cause the line to enter the engine plume. The high exhaust heat can cause problems, such as damaging electrical equipment and severing the line. In order to better understand the behavior of the towline, as well as setting up a method to analyze the heat transfer to the towline, computer modeling has been utilized using numerical integration with the method of characteristics. The method of characteristics has been applied to 4 hyperbolic equations of motion, leaving 2 parabolic equations of motion to be calculated at each timestep. The energy equation for heat transfer to the towline was also derived, which provides a means to find local air density and towline temperature. From these a model was created to observe towline behavior and temperature, which is shown to be consistent with past research. This model is applicable to any towed body in any medium with zero slack conditions. The effects of transient aircraft maneuvers on towline behavior in a predetermined temperature field were analyzed under different conditions using a code developed in MATLAB. This code is included such that aircraft maneuvers in unique temperature fields can be analyzed for future research. DTIC Cables (Ropes); Decoys; Mathematical Models; Method of Characteristics; Towing

20060049225 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS McCarthy, Patrick A; Jun 2006; 164 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453945; AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-J08; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) The Air Force Institute of Technology’s (AFIT) Advanced Navigation Technology (ANT) Center has recently delved into the research topic of small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn’t be performed using vehicles independently. However, many of these missions require that the UAVs operate in close proximity of each other. This research lays the foundation required to use the ANT Center’s UAVs for multi-vehicle missions (e.g. cooperatively) by accomplishing two major goals. First, it develops test procedures that can be used to characterize the tracking performance of a small UAV being controlled by a waypoint guided autopilot. This defines the size of the safety zones that must be maintained around each vehicle to ensure no collisions, assuming no, as yet unspecified, collision avoidance algorithm is being implemented. Secondly, a formation flight algorithm is developed that can be used to guide UAVs relative to each other using a waypoint guided autopilot. This is done by dynamically changing the waypoints. Such an approach gives a ‘wrap-around’ method of cooperatively controlling UAVs that can only be guided waypoint-to-waypoint. For both components of this research, tests were conducted using a hardware-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation before validating through flight testing. This report, along with legacy documentation and procedures, furthers the UAV test bed at AFIT and establishes methods for simulating, visualizing, and flight testing multiple UAVs during formation/cooperative flight. DTIC Drone Vehicles; Flight Control; Formation Flying; Pilotless Aircraft

20060049228 General Accounting Office, Washington, DC USA

Weapons Acquisition: DOD Should Strengthen Policies for Assessing Technical Data Needs to Support Weapon Systems Jul 2006; 51 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453951; GAO-06-839; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A04, Hardcopy Army and the Air Force have encountered limitations in their sustainment plans for some fielded weapon systems because they lacked needed technical data rights. The lack of technical data rights has limited the services flexibility to make changes to sustainment plans that are aimed at achieving cost savings and meeting legislative requirements regarding depot maintenance capabilities. During our review we identified seven Army and Air Force weapon system programs where these military services encountered limitations in implementing revisions to sustainment plans C-17 aircraft, F-22 aircraft, C-130J aircraft, Up-armored High- Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), Stryker family of vehicles, Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) aircraft, and M4 carbine. Although the circumstances surrounding each case were unique, earlier decisions made on technical data rights during system acquisition were cited as a primary reason for the limitations subsequently encountered. As a result of the limitations encountered due to the lack of technical data rights, the services had to alter their plans for developing maintenance capability at public depots, new sources of supply to increase production, or competitive offers for the acquisition of spare parts and components to reduce sustainment costs. For example, the Air Force identified a need to develop a capability to perform maintenance on the C-17 at government depots but lacked the requisite technical data rights. Consequently, the Air Force is seeking to form partnerships with C-17 subvendors to develop its depot maintenance capability. Its efforts to form these partnerships have had mixed results, according to Air Force officials, because some sub-vendors have declined to provide the needed technical data. DTIC Acquisition; AWACS Aircraft; Costs; Fighter Aircraft; Maintenance; Mobility; Policies; Support Systems; Weapon Systems

20060049267 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance Bolkcom, Christopher; Feb 7, 2005; 7 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454031; CRS-RS21698; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A02, Hardcopy The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to improve border security is a technique that has garnered congressional attention. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the northern and southern borders of the USA and related issues for Congress. The northern border separating the mainland USA and Canada is 4,121 miles long

and consists of 430 official and unofficial ports of entry. The expansive nature and the possibility of entry through unpopulated regions make the border difficult to patrol. In July 2003, U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Commissioner Robert Bonner announced that an additional 375 border patrol agents would be reassigned to the northern border. This increase brought the number of border patrol agents to 1,000. Commissioner Bonner also noted that CBP’s border agents had, ‘the front line responsibility for detecting terrorists and terrorist weapons.’ The southern border separating the USA and Mexico is 2,062 miles long and consists of 30 ports of entry and innumerable unofficial crossings. Unlike the northern border, however, over 10,000 border patrol agents are typically stationed on the southern border. Despite this larger presence, illegal border crossings and significant drug smuggling activities occur frequently. This report discusses the types of UAVs that could be used in border security; how UAVs have been used historically; legislation regarding the use of UAVs for homeland security; benefits (e.g., precise imagery, loiter capabilities, long flight times, low costs, extended range and endurance), and limitations (e.g., high accident rate, sensors limited by poor weather, safe integration of UAVs into civilian airspace, and privacy issues) of UAVs; and issues for Congress. DTIC Canada; Drone Vehicles; Pilotless Aircraft; Security; Surveillance; United States

20060049339 Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Soesterberg, Netherlands

UAVs and Control Delays de Vries, S C; Sep 2005; 52 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454251; TNO-DV3-2005-A054; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy UAV’s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are remotely controlled. Delays in the datalinks are to be expected, potentially influencing the performance of the UAV operator. In this study, we examined literature on sources of delay, their effects on human performance, and potential solutions. Delays turn out in the range of 100 to 1600 ms. A delay of 100 ms usually leads to measurable degradation of human performance. Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms or more. Control of UAV sensors is considerably less critical than the UAV itself and compensation techniques will probably lead to acceptable performance with delays up to 1000 ms. Signal delays will not significantly impede control of the UAV in the case of line-of-sight connections or while using relay stations on or close to the earth. When geostationary satellites are used, delays will generally be so high that a UAV operator will generally operate in a supervisory role. Only the control of the sensors of the UAV, less critical than the control of the vehicle, may be handled directly by an operator. DTIC Data Links; Remotely Piloted Vehicles

20060049344 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

AFIT UAV Swarm Mission Planning and Simulation System Slear, James N; Jun 13, 2006; 152 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454271; AFIT/GCE/ENG/06-08; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A08, Hardcopy The purpose of this research is to design and implement a comprehensive mission planning system for swarms of autonomous aerial vehicles. The system integrates several problem domains including path planning, vehicle routing, and swarm behavior. The developed system consists of a parallel, multi-objective evolutionary algorithm-based path planner, a genetic algorithm-based vehicle router, and a parallel UAV swarm simulator. Each of the system’s three primary components are developed on AFIT’s Beowulf parallel computer clusters. Novel aspects of this research include: integrating terrain following technology into a swarm model as a means of detection avoidance, combining practical problems of path planning and routing into a comprehensive mission planning strategy, and the development of a swarm behavior model with path following capabilities. DTIC Computerized Simulation; Drone Vehicles; Mission Planning; Simulation

20060049365 Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA USA

Decision Analysis to Support Condition-Based Maintenance Plus Gauthier, Stephen E; Jun 2006; 111 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454315; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A06, Hardcopy

This thesis provides a stochastic modeling tool to assist in the component selection process for Army Aviation s Condition-Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) program. This work is in conjunction with the Operations Research Center of Excellence (ORCEN) at the USA Military Academy to assist in providing insight for the U.S. Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). The component selected for this thesis is the AH-64/UH-60 T701C Turbine Helicopter Engine. Data analysis of the failure data indicated that a nonhomogeneous Poisson process appropriately modeled the failure characteristics of this engine. A Microsoft Excel simulation utilizing Crystal Ball version 5.5 compares an engine monitored by CBM+ versus the traditional Legacy system of maintenance. This simulation provides information on diagnosed faults, mission aborts, repair times, false positives, and logistical implications. This simulation is generic and can be used in comparing CBM+ candidate components for future inclusion into the CBM+ program. Results suggest when considering a component for inclusion in the CBM+ program important factors to consider are even the smallest false positive rate can invalidate process, large sensor probability of detection isn t necessary for beneficial results, and by entering a component into the CBM+ the on hand component requirements can be greatly reduced. DTIC Decision Theory; Helicopters; Maintenance; Operations Research; Organizations

20060049414 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Proposed Termination of Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F136 Alternate Engine Bolkcom, Christopher; Apr 13, 2006; 20 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454434; CRS-RL33390; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy The Department of Defense s (DOD) FY2007 budget proposes to cancel the F136 alternate engine for the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), a program that was initiated by Congress in the FY1996 Defense Authorization Act, and which has received consistent congressional support since its inception. In FY1996, defense authorization conferees (H.Rept. 104-450, Sec. 213) expressed their concern over a lack of engine competition in the JSF program and directed DOD to ensure that the program provides for adequate engine competition. (p.706)1 In FY1998, authorization conferees (H. Rept. 105-340, Sec. 213) directed DOD to certify that the Joint Strike Fighter Program contains sufficient funding to carry out an alternate engine development program that includes flight qualification of an alternate engine in a joint strike fighter airframe. (p.33) Some have criticized DOD as being penny wise and pound foolish in its proposal to terminate the F136. Critics argue that this decision appears driven more by immediate budget pressures on the department rather than long term pros and cons of the F136 program. Others applaud this decision, and say that single source engine production contracts are the norm, not the exception. Long-term engine affordability, they claim, is best achieved by procuring engines through multiyear contracts from a single source. Cancelling the F-136 poses questions on operational risk and potential cost and savings. Additional issues include the potential impact this termination could have on the U.S. defense industrial base, and on U.S. relations with key allied countries. Finally, eliminating competitive market forces for DOD business worth billions of dollars may concern those who wish to reform DOD s acquisition system and conform to higher standards of accountability. DTIC Aircraft Engines; Fighter Aircraft

20060049425 Creare, Inc., Hanover, NH USA

Hearing Protection for Bone-Conducted Sound Dietz, Anthony J; May, B S; Knaus, Darin A; Greeley, Hard P; Apr 1, 2005; 19 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454449; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy No abstract available Bones; Cochlea; Damage; Ear Protectors; Hearing; Jet Aircraft; Noise Pollution; Noise Reduction; Voice Communication

20060049430 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler Aircraft: Background and Issues for Congress Bolkcom, Christopher; Jun 8, 2006; 16 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454454; CRS-RL30624; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy The F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is the Navy’s highest priority aviation modernization program. It is replacing Navy

F/A-18C/D Hornet combat aircraft. The decision to undertake F/A-18E/F Super Hornet program was made during a period of great turbulence in Navy aviation modernization. During this time frame the Navy struggled to identify and implement the best way to modernize its aging fleet of F-14 fighters and A-6E attack aircraft. The A-12 program (a stealthy replacement to the A-6E) was terminated in January 1991. The AFX program, another proposed replacement for the A-6E, began in 1991, but was also terminated. The principal alternative to the F/A-18E/F was a modest upgrade of the F-14-a large, two-seat fighter designed in the 1960s, with potential air-to-surface attack capabilities. Some observers describe the F/A-18E/F as an upgraded and larger version of the F/A-18C/D, with increased range and payload capacity and more space and weight for future improvements. Others assert that the differences between the baseline Hornet aircraft and the E/F model are so great that they would describe the Super Hornet as an entirely new aircraft. DTIC Electronic Aircraft; Fighter Aircraft; Navy

20060049438 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

V-22 Osprey Title-Rotor Aircraft Bolkman, Christopher; Aug 4, 2005; 19 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454469; CRS-RL31384; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy The V-22 Osprey is a tilt-rotor aircraft, capable of vertical or short take off and landing, with forward flight like a conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The MV-22 is the Marine Corps top aviation priority. Marine Corps leaders believe that the Osprey will provide them an unprecedented capability to quickly and decisively project power from well over the horizon. The Air Force s CV-22 version will be used for special operations. Army officials have testified that the service has no requirement for the V-22, but he Navy has expressed interest in purchasing MV-22s for a variety of missions. The V-22 program has been under development for over 25 years. Safety and maintenance concerns have arisen during this period (due in large part to three fatal accidents). The commander of the V-22 maintenance squadron admitted to falsifying maintenance records to make the aircraft appear more maintainable than it was, and three Marines were found guilty of misconduct. The program has maintained support from many in Congress despite these deficiencies. The program has undergone restructuring to accommodate congressional direction, budget constraints, and recommendations from outside experts, and DOD managers. DTIC Rotors; Tilt Rotor Aircraft; V-22 Aircraft

20060049446 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Improved Hearing Protection for Aviation Personnel McKinley, Richard L; Bjorn, Valerie S; Hall, John A; Apr 1, 2005; 13 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454480; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy No abstract available Auditory Defects; Ear Protectors; Flying Personnel; Hearing; Noise Reduction

20060049467 Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA USA

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Their Value in Security Operations Samborowski, Leonard J; Jan 2000; 34 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454559; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The ‘Value of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Security Operations’ was the focus of the Sixth Annual James H. Doolittle Conference, held on 21 April 1999 at the MIT Faculty Club in Cambridge, Massachusetts. General Doolittle, an aviation pioneer and military hero, received his PhD from MIT in 1925. Since 1993, the Security Studies Program has honored the innovative spirit of Jimmy Doolittle by hosting a symposium on airpower issues. In attendance at this year’s conference were representatives from the military, academia, government and industry. The morning panel focused on the Operational Uses of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The luncheon speaker was Colonel William Knarr who spoke on the Army’s requirements for UAVs and the process for fielding the systems. The afternoon panel highlighted the Development of Service Operational Requirements for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. At dinner, LTG Campbell offered anecdotal insights that could be applied to the UAV procurement process. At the conference, the value of UAVs to security operations was thoroughly briefed and discussed by a wide range of subject matter experts from the government, military, industry and academia. Conference attendees

concluded that technology is not the main obstacle to develop and fielding tactical UAVs. Rather, conflicting organizational requirements, interservice conflicts and intraservice competition seem to be the primary barriers to the smooth integration of UAVs into the present day war fighting force. The problems mentioned above must be resolved because the continued use of UAVs by the military is inevitable. Reduced military funding, in combination with integrated ‘machines’ directed by powerful microprocessors, electro-optic, radio frequency, power and propulsion technology advances and American discomfort with casualties all will lead to the increased use of drones. DTIC Aircraft; Drone Vehicles; Security

20060049597 Centro de Instruccion de Medicina Aeroespatial, Madrid, Spain

Evaluation of Noise Effects in Auditory Function in Spanish Military Pilots Lorente, J M; Puente, B; Esteban, B; Rios, F; Vallejo, P; Velasco, C; Apr 2005; 9 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454611; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy No abstract available Acuity; Aircraft Noise; Auditory Defects; Auditory Perception; Physiological Effects; Pilots

20060049689 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Global En Route Basing Infrastructure Location Model Miravite, Jr, Alexander; Schlegel, Charles F; May 2006; 213 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454765; AFIT/IOA/ENS/06-08; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A10, Hardcopy The backbone of the air transportation system for the US military is the En Route System (ERS), a collection of personnel and equipment at bases throughout the world. The location of these bases in the ERS bears the marks of the Cold War legacy of the latter half of the twentieth century. While many changes to the ERS have taken place in the last 20 years, it still has a predominantly East-West orientation in the Northern Hemisphere with little capability in many parts of the world. This research provides the decision makers (DMs) with a clear methodology for evaluating the best locations for new en route bases in the ERS. It looks at the capability of each en route airfield alternative using 27 different measures. It then examines the National Security Import of the destination regions an en route airfield could service, along with the probability of events in those regions requiring military action, including humanitarian and other missions. This is accomplished using Value Focused Thinking (VFT) and decision analysis tools, with the goal of providing insight to the DMs to make informed decisions. This methodology is then packaged in a powerful Excel-based, user interface, allowing quick analysis of multiple scenarios. GERBIL is currently being used by TRANSCOM/J5 to prioritize Cooperative Security Locations around the globe for possible TRANSCOM mobility en route locations. DTIC Air Transportation; Decision Making; Position (Location); Routes

20060049734 AM3D A/S, Aalborg, Denmark

Localization Performance of Real and Virtual Sound Sources Pedersen, Jan A; Jorgensen, Torben; Apr 1, 2005; 31 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454835; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy No abstract available Fighter Aircraft; Position (Location); Sound Generators; Virtual Reality

20060049806 Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Edinburgh, Australia

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Maritime Patrol: Human Factors Issues Hopcroft, Robyn; Burchat, Eleanore; Vince, Julian; May 2006; 43 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454918; DSTO-GD-0463; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy This review of literature outlines the human factors issues associated with the operation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In particular, consideration is given to how these issues might be relevant to the acquisition of highly autonomous, high altitude long endurance (HALE) UAVs for maritime patrol and response operations. In a highly automated UAV system, optimal mission performance will require the roles of the operator and the automated system to be complementary. Thus factors that may inhibit cooperation between the two are addressed and suggestions are made for the mitigation of potential problems. The discussion then turns to the design of the human-machine interface (HMI), providing information on

established. HMI design principles and issues relating to the separation of the operator from the aircraft. The final section covers the air traffic management procedures for the hand-over of control during flight, data link delays and their impact on team dynamics, the selection of crew members, and the delineation of roles for UAV crews. DTIC Drone Vehicles; Human Factors Engineering; Patrols; Pilotless Aircraft

20060049828 Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB, FL USA

A Comparison of Trajectory Determination Approaches for Small UAVs Evers, Johnny H; Anderson, Murray B; Lopez, Juan L; Sep 2006; 14 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): Proj-2068 Report No.(s): AD-A454947; AFRL-MN-EG-TP-2006-7406; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy In considering the problem of small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) surveillance mission in a target rich environment, it is desirable to follow a trajectory path that maximizes targets coverage and observation time, while minimizing airframe maneuvering. Motivated by this requirement, this paper investigates the merits of multiple vehicle trajectory path schemes. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and local optimum techniques are compared to a more conventional defined-path approach. The authors also introduce a polygon boundary reflection algorithm (PBRA) and investigate its merits. Given a scenario containing multiple targets of unknown positions, the GA optimization approach determines the waypoints defining a path that best satisfies three goals: 1) maximize the number of targets seen, 2) maximize the average observation time for each target, and 3) minimize the SUAV acceleration history. Were the target locations known apriori, this problem could decompose into a variant of the much-studied traveling salesman problem (TSP). The complication of not knowing the actual target locations apriori means that the optimization tool must find waypoints that best satisfy the multiple objectives with little actual knowledge at initiation. Given this additional complexity and the fact that there are multiple objectives that must be maximized, a GA approach was investigated because it offers the ability to rigorously search for the optimum waypoint locations while simultaneously examining performance against multiple objectives. The GA software used in the analysis is IMPROVE (Implicit Multi-objective Parameter Optimization via Evolution). Comparison results of the GA based approaches, pareto and non-pareto, were investigated and compared with the simple PBRA and the popular Serpentine path approach. The analysis shows the GA optimization benefits and performance tradeoffs for all the path planning approaches that were studied. DTIC Drone Vehicles; Surveillance; Targets; Trajectories

20060049844 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

F-22A Raptor Bolkcom, Christopher; May 24, 2006; 27 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454968; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The F-22A Raptor is a next-generation fighter/attack aircraft that features the latest stealth technology to reduce detection by radar. Using more advanced engines and avionics than the current F-15 Eagle, the F-22A is intended to maintain U.S. Air Force capabilities against more sophisticated enemy aircraft and air defenses in the 21st century. This report examines the Air

Force’s F-22A Raptor program, including costs and schedule; considers several key issues, and concludes with a synopsis of recent legislative activity on the program. In 1986, two contractors were selected to build competing prototypes, Lockheed’s YF-22 and Northrop’s YF-23, which were flight tested in late 1990. In April 1991, the Air Force selected Lockheed’s YF-22 design for full-scale development, now termed System Development and Demonstration (SDD). The aircraft is powered by Pratt & Whitney’s F119 engine, selected in competition with General Electric’s F120 engine. In December 2005, the Air Force announced that the 12 F-22 aircraft with the 27th Fighter Squadron, 1st Fighter Wing, Langley Air Force Base, had reached initial operational capability (IOC). A 185-aircraft program was estimated by the Department of Defense (DOD) in December 2005 to cost about $65.4 billion in actual prior-year and projected out-year expenditures. The Administration’s FY2007 budget requested $2.6 billion for the F-22A program, and the request to enter into a multiyear procurement (MYP) for the final three years of production. The F-22A has had strong congressional support, although some have criticized the program on grounds of cost, requirements, and coordination with other tactical aircraft programs. Deletion of procurement funds in the FY2000 defense appropriation bill passed by the House made the future of the program a major issue for House and Senate conferees in 1999. DTIC Attack Aircraft; Detection; Fighter Aircraft; Jet Aircraft; Radar Equipment; Stealth Technology

20060050044 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Slotted Aircraft Wing McLean, James D., Inventor; Witkowski, David P., Inventor; Campbell, Richard L., Inventor; May 23, 2006; 32 pp.; In English; Original contains black and white illustrations Patent Info.: Filed 3 Oct. 2003; US-Patent-7,048,235; US-Patent-Appl-SN-678397; US-Patent-Appl-SN-417355; NASA-Case-LAR-16696-1; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Swept Wings; Airfoils; Slots; Trailing Edges; Leading Edges

20060050157 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Combat Aircraft Sales to South Asia: Potential Implications Bolkcom, Christopher; Grimmett, Richard F; Kronstadt, K A; Jul 6, 2006; 13 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454197; CRS-RL33515; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy On June 28, 2006, the Bush Administration announced its proposal to sell 36 F-16 C/D Block 50/52 Falcon combat aircraft to Pakistan at an estimated case value of $3 billion. The F-16 Falcon is a single engine multi-role aircraft manufactured by Lockheed Martin Corp. Its relatively low cost and high versatility make the F-16 one of the most exported fighter aircraft in the world. The F-16 was first fielded in 1979 and has been upgraded significantly. The capabilities of the F-16 vary greatly depending on the upgrade or modification fielded. The most modern F-16 flown by the USA is the Block 50/52. Three other F-16 related sales to Pakistan were also proposed. Some believe that these sales are partly an effort to reward the Pakistani Government for the role it has played in support of U.S.-led anti-terrorism efforts, and this consideration is noted in the text of the formal notification of the F-16 sales. Some analysts, however, see the decision to resume F-16 sales to Pakistan as disruptive of regional stability and efforts to resolve disputes there. DTIC Fighter Aircraft; Asia; Combat

20060050188 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Tactical Aircraft Modernization: Issues for Congress Bolkcom, Christopher; Mar 16, 2006; 18 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454572; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy This Issue Brief examines DOD’s four largest tactical aircraft modernization programs. The background section provides a brief description of each program, and a discussion of how tactical aircraft fit into military air operations: the missions they typically perform and how they contrast to longer-range combat aircraft. The Analysis section examines a number of policy

issues including affordability, capability required, force structure, service roles and missions, industrial base, and transformation. The paper concludes with a synopsis of recent congressional action on these programs. The Defense Department plans to buy the F-22 fighter for the Air Force, the F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane for the Navy, and the V-22 tilt-rotor aircraft for the Marines and Air Force special operations, as well as pursue a joint-service program to develop a multirole Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft in three variants, some of which might be operational around 2012. DTIC Fighter Aircraft; Military Operations

20060050241 US Army International Technology Center-Atlantic, London, UK

Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) ‘Quadrocopter Garmisch 2005’ Dolch, Stefan; Mar 20, 2006; 9 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): W911NF-06-1-0040 Report No.(s): AD-A454813; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Braun has developed during the last 6 years a couple of vertical take off and landing Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) with 3 and 4 rotors. The topic of this report is the Quadrocopter Garmisch 2005, a helicopter designed for the 1st US European

MAV Competition at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) in the year 2005. Quadrocopter Garmisch 2005 is a manually radio controlled 4-rotor-helicopter. Field tests indicated that the MAV concept of Quadrocopter Garmisch can be used for surveillance in close-up area. The big advantage of a manually controlled MAV is its variability during the flight. The pilot can change the flight direction within a second. Visual interpretation of the surrounding by a human being is so far much better than any automatic image processing. DTIC Remotely Piloted Vehicles; Manual Control; Field Tests; Vertical Landing

20060050250 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues Bolkcom, Christopher; Jun 2, 2006; 29 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454343; CRS-RL30563; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy The Defense Department’s F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft programs at the center of current debate over tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane. In November 1996, the Defense Department selected two major aerospace companies, Boeing and Lockheed Martin, to demonstrate competing designs for the JSF, a joint service and multi-role fighter/attack plane. On October 26, 2001, the Lockheed Martin team was selected to develop further and to produce a family of conventional take-off and landing (CTOL), carrier-capable (CV), and short take-off vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft for the U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps and the U.K. Royal Navy as well as other allied services. Originally designated the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) program, the JSF program is a major issue in Congress because of concerns about its cost and budgetary impact, effects on the defense industrial base, and implications for U.S. national security in the early 21st century. DTIC Fighter Aircraft; Aircraft Design



Includes all avionics systems, cockpit and cabin display devices, and flight instruments intended for use in aircraft. For related information see also 04 Aircraft Communications and Navigation; 08 Aircraft Stability and Control; 19 Spacecraft Instrumentation and Astrionics; and 35 Instrumentation and Photography.

20060048302 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

New Technologies for Reducing Aviation Weather-Related Accidents Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., III; Jarrell, Michael A.; [2006]; 10 pp.; In English; ICAS 2006 - 25th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 3-8 Sep. 2006, Hamburg, Germany; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 23-077-40-10; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI:

A02, Hardcopy The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed technologies to reduce aviation weather- related accidents. New technologies are presented for data-link and display of weather information to aircraft in flight, for detection of turbulence ahead of aircraft in flight, and for automated insitu reporting of atmospheric conditions from aircraft. Author Flight Conditions; Aviation Meteorology; Cockpit Weather Information Systems; Flight Safety; Weather Forecasting; Meteorological Services; Meteorology

20060048562 NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, USA

Turbulence and mountain wave conditions observed with an airborne 2-micron lidar Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Ashburn, Chris; Ehernberger, Jack; Bogue, Rodney; January 2006; 9 pp.; In English; SPIE Remote Sensing, Lidar Technologies and Measurement for Atmospheric Remote Sensing II, 11-16 Sep. 2006, Stockholm, Sweden; Original contains black and white illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Joint efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense, and industry partners are enhancing the capability of airborne wind and turbulence detection. The Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) was flown on three series of flights to assess its capability over a range of altitudes, air mass conditions, and gust phenomena. This paper describes the observation of mountain waves and turbulence induced by

mountain waves over the Tehachapi and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges (California, USA) by lidar onboard the NASA Airborne Science DC-8 airplane. The examples in this paper compare lidar-predicted mountain waves and wave-induced turbulence to subsequent aircraft-measured true airspeed. Airplane acceleration data is presented describing the effects of the wave-induced turbulence on the DC-8 airplane. Highlights of the lidar-predicted airspeed from the two flights show increases of 12 meters per second (m/s) at the mountain wave interface and peak-to-peak airspeed changes of 10 m/s and 15 m/s in a span of 12 seconds in moderate turbulence. Author Air Masses; Gusts; Mountains; Aircraft Safety; Clear Air Turbulence; DC 8 Aircraft

20060049122 East Carolina Univ., Greenville, NC, USA

Longitudinal Study of the Market Penetration of Cockpit Weather Information Systems Stough, Harry Paul, III; Sireli, Yesim; Ozan, Erol; Kauffmann, Paul; November 2005; 82 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): NNL04AA40G; WBS 609866.; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A05, Hardcopy The purpose of the longitudinal research of the market penetration of cockpit weather information systems (CWIS) is to contribute to the body of knowledge on modeling advanced technology feasibility in aviation by tracking and analyzing the market adoption of CWIS over a three year period. This research takes advantage of a previous study, conducted by Dr. Paul Kauffmann in 2000, which demonstrated an integrated and cost effective approach to evaluate advanced technology feasibility, examining the feasibility of CWIS in five market segments: transport, commuter, general aviation, business, and rotorcraft. The longitudinal research consists of two consecutive studies and produced two reports. The first report was submitted in August 2003 and included general market analysis about the CWIS products in the market at the time, identified their characteristics and examined developing market dynamics. Author Cockpit Weather Information Systems; Feasibility; General Aviation Aircraft; Commerce; Rotary Wing Aircraft

20060050129 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

Comparison of Communication Architectures for Spacecraft Modular Avionics Systems Gwaltney, D. A.; Briscoe, J. M.; June 2006; 36 pp.; In English Report No.(s): NASA/TM-2006-214431; M-1163; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy This document is a survey of publicly available information concerning serial communication architectures used, or proposed to be used, in aeronautic and aerospace applications. It focuses on serial communication architectures that are suitable for low-latency or real-time communication between physically distributed nodes in a system. Candidates for the study have either extensive deployment in the field, or appear to be viable for near-term deployment. Eleven different serial communication architectures are considered, and a brief description of each is given with the salient features summarized in a table in appendix A. This survey is a product of the Propulsion High Impact Avionics Technology (PHIAT) Project at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). PHIAT was originally funded under the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program to develop avionics technologies for control of next generation reusable rocket engines. After the announcement of the Space Exploration Initiative, the scope of the project was expanded to include vehicle systems control for human and robotics missions. As such, a section is included presenting the rationale used for selection of a time-triggered architecture for implementation of the avionics demonstration hardware developed by the project team Author Aerospace Engineering; Avionics; Spacecraft Communication; Modularity; Technology Utilization



Includes primary propulsion systems and related systems and components, e.g., gas turbine engines, compressors, and fuel systems; and onboard auxiliary power plants for aircraft. For related information see also 20 Spacecraft Propulsion and Power; 28 Propellants and Fuels; and 44 Energy Production and Conversion.

20060048226 Wilton Interpower LLC, San Diego, CA, USA

Commercial and Technical Evaluation of the Application of Gas Turbine Technology in Industrial Plants in Bulgaria May 2002; 62 pp.; In English Report No.(s): PB2006-114684; TDA-2000-70055B; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy

This study examines the technical, economic, and financial aspects of small to medium-scale combined heat and power plants that are powered by gas turbines to supply thermal and electrical energy to industrial and municipal organizations in Bulgaria. Experience in the USA and, most recently in Poland, demonstrates that conversion of existing inefficient and polluting power plants to gas turbine-based combined heat and power promises to bring economic and environmental benefits to the industrial and municipal sectors. Gas turbines suit Bulgaria’s needs technically, economically, and environmentally as an alternative to existing applications. Gas-fired turbines run more cleanly and efficiently, with lower operating and maintenance costs, compared to the coal-fired boiler houses throughout the country. NTIS Bulgaria; Gas Turbines; Industrial Plants

20060049127 NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Modeling of Aerosols in Post-Combustor Flow Path and Sampling System Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey; September 2006; 61 pp.; In English; Original contains color and black and white illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 984754. Report No.(s): NASA/TM-2006-214397; E-15676; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy The development and application of a multi-dimensional capability for modeling and simulation of aviation-sourced particle emissions and their precursors are elucidated. Current focus is on the role of the flow and thermal environments. The cases investigated include a film cooled turbine blade, the first-stage of a high-pressure turbine, the sampling probes, the sampling lines, and a pressure reduction chamber. Author Systems Engineering; Combustion Chambers; Aerosols; High Pressure; Turbine Blades; Thermal Environments; Fluid Mechanics; Thermodynamics

20060049141 NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Effect of Heat on Space-Time Correlations in Jets Bridges, James; September 2006; 23 pp.; In English; 12th Aeroacoustics Conference, 8-10 May 2006, Cambridge, MA, USA; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 22-781-30-63 Report No.(s): NASA/TM-2006-214381; AIAA Paper 2006-2534; E-15659; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Measurements of space-time correlations of velocity, acquired in jets from acoustic Mach number 0.5 to 1.5 and static temperature ratios up to 2.7 are presented and analyzed. Previous reports of these experiments concentrated on the experimental technique and on validating the data. In the present paper the dataset is analyzed to address the question of how space-time correlations of velocity are different in cold and hot jets. The analysis shows that turbulent kinetic energy intensities, lengthscales, and timescales are impacted by the addition of heat, but by relatively small amounts. This contradicts

the models and assumptions of recent aeroacoustic theory trying to predict the noise of hot jets. Once the change in jet potential core length has been factored out, most one- and two-point statistics collapse for all hot and cold jets. Author Aeroacoustics; Jet Flow; Turbulence; Kinetic Energy; Temperature Effects; Subsonic Speed

20060049147 NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Foreign Object Damage in a Gas-Turbine Grade Silicon Nitride by Spherical Projectiles of Various Materials Choi, Sung R.; Racz, Zsolt; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Brewer, David N.; September 2006; 35 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 22-714-30-09 Report No.(s): NASA/TM-2006-214330; E-15563; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Assessments of foreign object damage (FOD) of a commercial, gas-turbine grade, in situ toughened silicon nitride ceramic (AS800, Honeywell Ceramics Components) were made using four different projectile materials at ambient temperature. AS800 flexure target specimens rigidly supported were impacted at their centers in a velocity range from 50 to 450 m/s by spherical projectiles with a diameter of 1.59 mm. Four different projectile materials were used including hardened steel, annealed steel, silicon nitride ceramic, and brass. Post-impact strength of each target specimen impacted was determined as a function of impact velocity to appraise the severity of local impact damage. For a given impact velocity, the degree of

strength degradation was greatest for ceramic balls, least for brass balls, and intermediate for annealed and hardened steel balls. For steel balls, hardened projectiles yielded more significant impact damage than annealed counterparts. The most important material parameter affecting FOD was identified as hardness of projectiles. Impact load as a function of impact velocity was quasi-statically estimated based on both impact and static indentation associated data. Author Foreign Bodies; Damage Assessment; Impact Damage; Projectiles; Silicon Nitrides; Ceramics; Impact Velocity; Impact Loads

20060049382 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Propagation of Detonation Waves in Tubes Split from a PDE Thrust Tube Rolling, August J; King, Paul I; Schauer, Fred R; Jul 2002; 13 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454345; AIAA-2002-3714; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy A Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) combusts a fuel air mixture through detonation. Existing designs require spark plugs in each separate thrust tube to ignite premixed reactants. A single thrust tube could require the spark plug to fire hundreds of times per second for long durations. This paper reports on the use of a continuously propagating detonation wave as both a thrust producer and a single ignition source for a multi-tube system. The goal was to minimize ignition complexity and increase reliability by limiting the number of ignition sources. The work includes a systematic investigation of single tube geometric effects on detonations. These results were subsequently used to further examine conditions for splitting detonations i.e. the division of a detonation wave into two separate detonation waves. Einally a dual thrust tube system was built and tested that successfully employed a single spark to initiate detonation in separate thrust tubes. DTIC Detonation Waves; Pulse Detonation Engines; Pulsejet Engines; Wave Propagation

20060049383 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Experimental Study of Deflagration-to-Detonation Enhancement Techniques in a H2/Air Pulsed-Detonation Engine Meyer, T R; Hoke, J L; Brown, M S; Gord, J R; Schauer, F R; Jan 2002; 12 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454346; AIAA-2002-3720; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy Experiments are performed on a number of deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) enhancement techniques for use in a H2/Air pulsed-detonation engine (PDE). The mechanism, speed and location of DDT for three configurations are considered, including a Shehelkin spiral, an extended cavity/spiral and a co-annulus. High speed digital imaging is used to track flame propagation. and simultaneous time-correlated pressure traces are used to record progress of the shock structure. It is found that DDT is initiated primarily through local explosions that are highly dependent on the particular geometry. In addition to various geometries. The effect of equivalence ratio and spark timing are also investigated. DTIC Augmentation; Deflagration; Detonation; Hydrogen; Pulse Detonation Engines; Pulsejet Engines

20060049384 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Initiation of Detonation in a Large Tube Katta, Viswanath; Tucker, Colin; Hoke, John; Schauer, Fredric; Jan 2003; 5 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454347; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A01, Hardcopy One of the important design criteria in the development of Pulse Detonation Engines (PDEs) is to stabilize detonation in a large-diameter tube in the shortest possible distance. The initial shock train emanating from the ignition source plays an important role in transitioning the deflagration wave into a detonation. To sustain such transition in a large diameter tube. innovative methods and strategies are required. An experimental-numerical investigation is conducted to understand the role of a contoured body suspended within the tube for enhancing detonation transition. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on flux corrected transport is used for the simuation of the fate of the twvo-dimensional detonation wave formed from the ignition source and expanded through the gap benveen the centerbody and the channel walls. It is found that the reflection of transverse waves at the walls and their collision near the leading shock front are critical in sustaining a detonation

wave during expansion. The shock-wall and shock-shock interactions are enhanced by the centerbody. Simuations further suggested that the effectiveness of the inserted centerbody strongly depends on its length. DTIC Computational Fluid Dynamics; Detonation; Initiation; Pulsejet Engines

20060049386 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Integration of a Pulsed Detonation Engine With an Ejector Pump and With a Turbo-Charger as Methods to Self-Aspirate Hoke, John; Bradley, Royce; Stutrud, Jeff; Schauer, Fred; Jan 2002; 16 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454349; AIAA-2002-0615; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy Two methods, an ejector pump and a turbo-charger, are evaluated as a means to self-aspirate a Pulsed Detonation Engine (PDE). For the experiments pertaining to the ejector pump, a pulsed detonation engine is run on hydrogen and air at frequencies up to 40 Hz. equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.0, and fill fractions from 0.25 to 1.0. Flow visualization is used to determine the combination of fill fraction and equivalence ratio that successfully induced a secondary flow in the ejector pump. Pressure traces at the inlet and along the ejector pump are used to understand the performance of the ejector pump. The induced secondary flow is found to be approximately triple the primary detonation flow. Fill fraction and equivalence ratio are found to affect the performance of thee ejector. High fill fractions and high equivalence ratios results in an oscillatory flow at the ejector inlet. Hydrogen and air are used as the frtel and oxidizer during the experiment with the turbo-charger also. Air flow and pressure at the exit of the compressor are used to evaluate the potential for self-aspirating the PDE. By fltnning two detonation fltbes simultaneously though the turbo-charger self-aspiration is achieved. The centrifugal style turbine and compressor of the turbo-charger showed no signs of discoloration or pitting after a 25 minute self-aspiration run where the detonation tube and turbo-charger attained thermal equilibrium. Throughout the course of the testing the turbine experienced 35 K plus detonation events and reached a rotational operating speed of 80 K rpm. DTIC Ejectors; Pulse Detonation Engines; Pulsejet Engines

20060049387 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Heat Transfer ad Thermal Management in a Pulsed Detonation Engine Hoke, John; Bradley, Royce; Schauer, Frederick; Jan 2003; 7 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454350; AIAA-2003-0852; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A02, Hardcopy The unsteady nature of the Pulsed Detonation Engine (PDE) cycle creates a thermal environment fundamentally different from steady flow cycles. Gas velocities in a detonation tube range from O(-1) to O(1000) within a single cycle. This broad range of velocities and flow reversal make it difficult to determine analytically the contribution to the beat load from the purging filling detonating and blow down portions of the cycle. In this paper the overall heat load on a detonation tube is measured calorimetrically in an aluminum water-cooled detonation tube. The effects of operating parameters such as fill fraction purge fraction ignition delay equivalence ratio and cycle frequency are examined. Equivalence ratio and cycle frequency are found to have the largest effect on detonator tube heat load. DTIC Heat Transfer; Pulse Detonation Engines; Pulsejet Engines; Temperature Control; Unsteady Flow

20060049388 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Interaction of a Pulsed Detonation Engine With a Turbine Schauer, Fred; Bradley, Royce; Hoke, John; Jan 2003; 8 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454351; AIAA-2003-0891; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.:

CASI: A02, Hardcopy An evaluation of a pulsed detonation engine (PDE) blowing down through a turbine is presented. DTIC Pulse Detonation Engines; Pulsejet Engines; Turbines

20060049389 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Liquid Hydrocarbon Detonation Branching in a Pulse Detonation Engine Panzenhagen, Kristin L; King, Paul I; Tucker, K C; Schauer, Fred R; Jan 2004; 8 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454353; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Pulse detonation engines operate on a fill-detonate-exhaust cycle with thrust directly proportional to the cycle frequency. That is, a decrease in cycle time results in increased thrust. This paper shows that the detonate portion of the cycle can he shortened by using a branched detonation as the ignition source as opposed to a spark plug type of ignition. The combustion energy from a branched detonation allows ignition and deflagration-to-detonation transition to occur more quickly, shortening overall cycle time. Further, while detonation branching has been previously accomplished using gaseous hydrogen fuel, this paper reports the first application of detonation branching using liquid hydrocarbon fuel. For this application, a pressurized heating system was designed to vaporize the fuel and mix it with an airstream to stoichiometric conditions. DTIC Detonation; Detonation Waves; Hydrocarbons; Pulse Detonation Engines; Pulsejet Engines

20060050050 NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH, USA

Endwall Treatment and Method for Gas Turbine Hathaway, Michael D., Inventor; Strazisar, Anthony J., Inventor; Suder, Kenneth L., Inventor; July 11, 2006; 23 pp.; In English; Original contains black and white illustrations Patent Info.: Filed 8 Oct. 2002; US-Patent-7,074,006; US-Patent-Appl-SN-10267884; NASA-Case-LEW-17176-1; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy An endwall treatment for a gas turbine engine having at least one rotor blade extending from a rotatable hub and a casing circumferentially surrounding the rotor and the hub, the endwall treatment including, an inlet formed in an endwall of the gas turbine engine adapted to ingest fluid from a region of a higher-pressure fluid, an outlet formed in the endwall and located in a region of lower pressure than the inlet, wherein the inlet and the outlet are in a fluid communication with each other, the outlet being adapted to inject the fluid from the inlet in the region of lower pressure, and wherein the outlet is at least partially circumferentially offset relative to the inlet. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Gas Turbine Engines; Gas Turbines; Hubs; Rotors

20060050194 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Data Analysis and Compression Techniques for Megabyte-Data PDE Experiments Parker, Jason; Schauer, Fred; Jan 2003; 11 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454352; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Pulsed detonation engines have the potential to provide thrust over a wide operating range for a fraction of the cost of conventional turbine engines. These promised returns have given rise to several vigorous research programs in academia, industry, and government labs. To capture the uhra-fast events composing a detonation wave. researchers are forced to use megahenz range data acquisition systems for relatively long testing intervals. producing gigabytes of purely numeric test data. Since human inspection of such enormous data sets is virtually impossible, a computational framework of highly automated analysis tools is necessary to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of pulsed detonation engine experiments. DTIC Pulsejet Engines; Data Processing; Pulse Detonation Engines

20060050201 Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd., Guildford, UK

Micro-Chemical Monopropellant Thruster Barley, Sarah; Feb 2006; 67 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): FA8655-04-1-3022 Report No.(s): AD-A454405; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy This report summarises the work completed under EOARD contract 043022 Micro-Chemical Monopropellant Thruster. The research was carried out at the Surrey Space Centre, University of Surrey and the testing was conducted at the Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd Propulsion Test Site, Westcott, Bucks. The need to extend the on-orbit capabilities of nanosatellites

has led to the requirement for a miniaturised propulsion system. The mass, power and volume constraints placed on this system by the host nanosatellite platform lead to the selection of a chemical propulsion system. In order to optimize the thrust available and minimise complexity a monopropellant system is a favorable solution. The research has considered the miniaturisation of two key components of a monopropellant thruster: the decomposition chamber and the nozzle. The focus was the extent of miniaturisation that was possible, while maintaining the use of a conventional approach in terms of manufacture and testing. Hydrogen peroxide was selected as the propellant due to its favorable handling characteristics and previous use at the Surrey Space Centre. The geometry and morphology of a decomposition chamber are critical to the overall performance of the thruster. As the magnitude of thrust generated by the thruster reduces, the mass flow rate of propellant reduces together with the associated dimensions of the complete system. Empirical guidelines exist for the design of a decomposition chamber for a thruster of conventional size, however it is uncertain as to whether these remain applicable at thrust levels below 1 N. Two different catalyst morphologies were considered in decomposition chambers of various diameter and length. A manganese oxide catalyst, supported on a high density alumina foam was used to assess the performance of a monolithic catalyst bed and a silver powder was used to investigate the performance of a compressed powder catalyst bed. DTIC Monopropellants; Thrustors



Includes flight dynamics, aircraft handling qualities, piloting, flight controls, and autopilots. For related information see also 05 Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance; and 06 Avionics and Aircraft Instrumentation.

20060048508 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Progress Toward a Format Standard for Flight Dynamics Models Jackson, E. Bruce; Hildreth, Bruce L.; [2006]; 10 pp.; In English; 2006 Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 10-15 Sept. 2006, Orlando, FL, USA; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 984754.02.07.07; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy In the beginning, there was FORTRAN, and it was not so good. But it was universal, and all flight simulator equations of motion were coded with it. Then came ACSL, C, Ada, C++, C#, Java, FORTRAN-90, Matlab/Simulink, and a number of other programming languages. Since the halcyon punch card days of 1968, models of aircraft flight dynamics have proliferated in training devices, desktop engineering and development computers, and control design textbooks. With the rise of industry teaming and increased reliance on simulation for procurement decisions, aircraft and missile simulation models are created, updated, and exchanged with increasing frequency. However, there is no real lingua franca to facilitate the exchange of models from one simulation user to another. The current state-of-the-art is such that several staff-months if not staff-years are required to ‘rehost’ each release of a flight dynamics model from one simulation environment to another one. If a standard data package or exchange format were to be universally adopted, the cost and time of sharing and updating aerodynamics, control laws, mass and inertia, and other flight dynamic components of the equations of motion of an aircraft or spacecraft simulation could be drastically reduced. A 2002 paper estimated over $ 6 million in savings could be realized for one military aircraft type alone.

This paper describes the efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) to develop a standard flight dynamic model exchange standard based on XML and HDF-5 data formats. Author Flight Simulators; Dynamic Models; Control Theory; Standards

20060049129 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA

Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers Chidester, Thomas R., Inventor; Lynch, Robert E., Inventor; Lawrence, Robert E., Inventor; Amidan, Brett G., Inventor; Ferryman, Thomas A., Inventor; Drew, Douglas A., Inventor; Ainsworth, Robert J., Inventor; Prothero, Gary L., Inventor; Romanowski, Tomothy P., Inventor; Bloch, Laurent, Inventor; July 11, 2006; 9 pp.; In English; Original contains black and white illustrations Patent Info.: Filed 22 Sept. 2004; US-Patent-7,075,457; US-Patent-Appl-SN-956523; NASA-Case-ARC-15356-1; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference

value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Aircraft Maneuvers; Estimating; Takeoff; Derivation; Kinetic Energy; Potential Energy

20060049153 NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, USA

Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.; January 2006; 33 pp.; In English; SETP 50th Symposium & Banquet, 27-30 Sept. 2006, Anaheim, CA, USA; Original contains color illustrations; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned. Derived from text Flight Control; Neural Nets; Aircraft Control; Controllability; Fault Tolerance; Real Time Operation

20060049741 Maryland Univ., College Park, MD USA

Nonlinear Stabilization of High Angle-of-Attack Flight Dynamics Using Bifurcation Control Abed, Eyad H; Lee, Hsien-Chiarn; Jan 1990; 11 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): AFOSR-87-0073; NSFD-CDR-88-03012 Report No.(s): AD-A454843; SRC-TR-90-28; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy We consider the problem of designing stabilizing control laws for flight over a broad range of angles-of-attack which also serve to signal the pilot of impending stall. The paper employs bifurcation stabilization coupled with more traditional linear control system design. To focus the discussion, a detailed analysis is given for a model of the longitudinal dynamics of an F-8 Crusader. DTIC Aerodynamics; Angle of Attack; Control Theory; Flight Control; Nonlinearity

20060050056 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Channel-wing System for Thrust Deflection and Force/Moment Generation Englar, Robert J., Inventor; Bushnell, Dennis M., Inventor; September 12, 2006; 10 pp.; In English; Original contains black and white illustrations Patent Info.: Filed 14 Jun. 2004; US-Patent-7,104,498; US-Patent-Appl-SN-867114; NASA-Case-LAR-16496-1; US-Patent-Appl-SN-478186; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy An aircraft comprising a Channel Wing having blown c h - ne1 circulation control wings (CCW) for various functions. The blown channel CCW includes a channel that has a rounded or near-round trailing edge. The channel further has a trailing-edge slot that is adjacent to the rounded trailing edge of the channel. The trailing-edge slot has an inlet connected to a source of pressurized air and is capable of tangentially discharging pressurized air over the rounded trailing edge. The aircraft further has a propeller that is located in the channel and ahead of the rounded trailing edge of the channel. The propeller provides a propeller thrust exhaust stream across the channel wing to propel the aircraft through the air and to provide high lift. The pressurized air being discharged over the rounded trailing edge provides a high lift that is obtained independent of an aircraft angle of attack, thus preventing the asymmetry. separated flow, and stall experienced by the CC wing at the high angle of attack it required for high lift generation. The aircraft can further include blown outboard circulation control wings

(CCW) that are synergistically connected to the blown channel CCWs. The blown outboard CCWs provide additional high lift, control thrust/drag interchange, and can provide all three aerodynamic moments when differential blowing is applied front-to-rear or left-to-right. Both the blown channel CCW and the outboard CCW also have leading-edge blowing slots to prevent flow separation or to provide aerodynamic moments for control. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Trailing Edges; Channel Wings; Thrust; Leading Edges; Slots; Propellers; Exhaust Gases; Gas Streams; Boundary Layer Separation; Angle of Attack



Includes airports, runways, hangars, and aircraft repair and overhaul facilities; wind tunnels, water tunnels, and shock tubes; flight simulators; and aircraft engine test stands. Also includes airport ground equipment and systems. For airport ground operations see 03 Air Transportation and Safety . For astronautical facilities see 14 Ground Support Systems and Facilities (Space) .

20060049160 Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC, USA

Contract Management: Service Contract Approach to Aircraft Simulator Training Has Room for Improvement Sep. 2006; 50 pp.; In English Report No.(s): PB2007-100162; GAO-06-830; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy The Air Force has turned to service contracts for the F-15C, F-16, Airborne Warning and Control System, and F-15E, and the Army has done the same for helicopter simulator training at its Flight School XXI. The contractors own, operate, and maintain the simulator hardware and software. The military services rely on industry to capitalize the required up-front investment, with the understanding that the contractors will amortize this investment by selling training services by the hour. GAO was asked to address (1) the factors that led the Air Force and Army to acquire simulator training as a service and whether the decision to use this approach was adequately supported; (2) whether implementation of the approach has resulted in the planned number of simulator training sites being activated; and (3) whether the Air Force and Army are effectively tracking the return on their expenditure of taxpayer dollars. GAO makes recommendations to the Secretary of Defense intended to improve management and oversight of these service contracts to help ensure that the best approach is used to provide the war-fighter with needed training. In written comments on a draft of this report, DOD concurred with all but one of the recommendations, only partially concurring with one pertaining to the Army’s simulator utilization rates. GAO continues to believe that the Army needs to track the extent to which it is using simulator availability. NTIS Contract Management; Flight Simulators; Services; Training Simulators



Includes general research topics related to space flight and manned and unmanned space vehicles, platforms or objects launched into, or assembled in, outer space; and related components and equipment. Also includes manufacturing and maintenance of such vehicles or platforms. For specific topics in astronautics see categories 13 through 20 . For extraterrestrial exploration see 91 Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration .

20060048913 Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA USA

Manufacture and Experimental Analysis of a Concentrated Strain Based Deployable Truss Structure Mejia-Ariza, Juan M; Murphey, Thomas W; Pollard, Eric L; May 2006; 11 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453559; AIAA-2006-1686; No Copyright; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) A truss structure was built and tested to advance deployable structures technology based on the concentrated strain

approach. In 3rd order hierarchy systems, this architecture has the potential to provide a 10 fold improvement in mass efficiency, and demonstrate a linear compaction ratio that is five times better than current technology. A 101.6 cm x 12.7 cm

x 12.7 cm test article was fabricated, and a buckling test and analysis was performed. The total mass of the deployable truss

structure was 28 grams. This structure was constructed of piecewise constant cross section elements. One of the components consisted of high modulus pull-truded carbon fiber rods (CFRs) for the majority of the length. The other components were compliant flexure joints made of Nitinol NiTi, a shape memory alloy (SMA) capable of a repeatable superelastic strain of 5.0%

at either boundary. The results of this research provide a contribution to the deployable structures science by improving the

compaction ratio and the mass efficiency of deployable structures without decreasing the truss performance limits. DTIC Aerospace Engineering; Shape Memory Alloys; Trusses

20060049140 Air Force Research Lab., Kirkland AFB, NM USA

Innovative Concepts for SSA Applications Huang, D H; Cardimona, D A; Apostolova, T; Alsing, P M; Glass, W; Castillo, C D; Jan 2006; 15 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453526; AFRL-VS-PS-TP-2006-102; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy In the Advanced Detectors Research Group of the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Space Vehicles Directorate, we explore innovative ways to enhance existing detector technologies and to develop new detector capabilities for future space-based missions, such as space sensing and situational awareness. Space-based sensing needs will be met with the employment of state-of-the-art optoelectronic and photonic techniques that yield high sensitivity, reconfigurable options, high speed, light weight, low power, and radiation hardness. We present some ideas we are presently exploring that address these aspects: (1) amplification or enhancement of weak signals, (2) continuous tuning of the peak wavelength of a detector response by applying an electric field, and (3) monolithic solid-state cooling of a detector using optical refrigeration. DTIC Detectors; Research and Development; Military Technology

20060049143 McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec Canada

Orbital Debris: Technical and Legal Issues and Solutions Taylor, Michael W; Aug 2006; 121 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453419; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A06, Hardcopy This thesis examines the current technological and legal issues concerning orbital debris (space debris). The unique physical characteristics of the space environment are identified and explained. The thesis then explores the causes of orbital debris and examines the risk posed by debris to the most frequently used orbital areas. Significant environmental, legal, political, and economic consequences of orbital debris are described. The current technical and legal controls on the creation of debris are discussed and evaluated. Finally, proposed solutions are considered and critiqued. The thesis concludes with a non-binding treaty-based proposal for a new legal debris control regime that can encourage compliance and enhance accountability. DTIC Debris; Space Debris; Aerospace Environments; Risk

20060049380 Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL USA

Globalness: Toward a Space Power Theory Fredriksson, Brian E; Jun 2006; 77 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454341; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A05, Hardcopy The purpose of this thesis is to take the first steps toward a military space power theory. It begins by answering the following question: Why does the U.S. military need a space power theory? The USA or any military space-faring nation needs a theory because space power is more than simply a force enhancer, It is a separate and unique form of military power with the capacity to deter and compel. An analysis of the fundamental attributes of military power -- identified here as presence, perspective, response, and destructive capability -- demonstrates the unique advantages and disadvantages of space vis-a-vis land, sea, and airpower. A unifying principle of ‘globalness’ links the laws, rules, and precepts of a prototype theory based on space power’s unique capabilities. The space power theory provides a common vision that allows a space-faring nation to take full advantage of these unique capabilities. DTIC Aerospace Engineering; Space Weapons

20060049448 International Photonics Consultant, Albuquerque, NM USA

Radiation Resistant Polymer-Based Photonics for Space Applications Taylor, E W; Nichter, J; Nash, F; Haas, F; Szep, A A; Craig, D; Le, D; Fetterman, H R; Castaneda, C; Barto, R; Aug 2006; 9 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454486; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Empirical data regarding the radiation induced responses of Mach Zehnder interferometric electro-optic polymer based modulators (PBMs) operating at 1310 and 1550 nm and broadband InP quantum dot (QD) polymer photodetectors (PPDs) operating into the near infrared (NIR) are reported. Modulators composed of spun-on materials and hybrid electostatically self assembled (ESA) and spun-on NLO materials are examined for changes to their half-wave voltage and insertion losses. Pre- and post- irradiation responses of ESA grown polymer detectors using InP QDs are examined for photovoltage degradation and aging effects. The data indicates an excellent potential for developing polymer based photonic (PBP) devices with increased radiation resistance suitable for transition to photonic space applications. DTIC Aerospace Environments; Photonics; Polymers; Radiation Tolerance; Technology Utilization

20060049464 Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA USA

National Security Space Policy in the U.S. and Europe. Trends and Choices Gholz, Eugene; Sabathier, Vincent; Sapolsky, Harvey; Oct 2002; 42 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454543; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Since the end of the Cold War, the availability of new technologies and changes in the national security environment have raised the possibility of substantial new demand for military space systems. Trends in technology, military operations, politics, and economics highlight several possible trajectories for national security space policy. Decisionmakers in the USA and in Europe are preparing today to make key choices about military doctrine, resource investments, and the policy goals that leaders hope to achieve using military operations that rely on space assets. The wish-list for new space systems includes improved intelligence-gathering satellites, navigation satellites to enable precision strike against fixed and mobile targets, and communications satellites to allow decentralized forces to share access to information and coordinate operations in a complex environment. Both the U.S. and European governments may find it useful to cooperate on national security space policy. Forming coalitions for military action should have substantial political and financial benefits, but recent attempts at cooperative operations have been hampered by the failure to coordinate equipment investments in the past. In addition to the

well-publicized lack of communications interoperability, coalition forces also discovered that they had a surplus of some types of equipment while other low density, high demand systems were unavailable. The economic needs of the space industry also play an important role in the future trajectory of national security space policy. Space systems contractors are losing money in the wake of their fixed investment in capacity in the expansive 1990s. Trans-Atlantic coordination among government buyers might reduce the risk of future overcapacity, if coordination helps to eliminate redundancy among programs. DTIC Aerospace Systems; Communication Satellites; Europe; Navigation Satellites; Security; Space Law; Trends

20060049781 Maryland Univ., College Park, MD USA

Steady Rigid-Body Motions in a Central Gravitational Field Wang, Li-Sheng; Maddocks, J H; Krishnaprasad, P S; Jan 1991; 39 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): AFOSR-URI-87-0073; AFOSR-89-0376 Report No.(s): AD-A454887; SRC-TR-91-50; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy In recent work, the exact dynamic equations for the motion of a finite rigid body in a central gravitational field were shown to be of Hamiltonian form with a noncanonical structure. In this paper, the notion of relative equilibrium is introduced, based upon this exact model. In relative equilibrium, the orbit of the center of mass of the rigid body is a circle, but the center of attraction may or may not lie at the center of the orbit. This feature is used to classify great-circle and non-great-circle orbits. The existence of non-great-circle relative equilibria for the exact model is proved from various variational principles. While the orbital offset of the non-great-circle solutions is necessarily small, a numerical study reveals that there can be significant changes in orientation away from the classic Lagrange relative equilibria, which are solutions of an approximate model. DTIC Artificial Satellites; Circular Orbits; Equations of Motion; Gravitational Fields; Great Circles; Rigid Structures

20060049862 L’Garde, Inc., Tustin, CA USA

A Novel, Light Weight Solar Array: Comparison with Conventional Systems Vendura, Jr , George J; Malone, Patrick; Crawford, Larry; Jan 2006; 6 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454994; No Copyright; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) A novel, lightweight solar panel design is described that incorporates the best features from three separate areas of development: (1) advanced solar cells; (2) light weight, flexible blanket technology; and (3) deployment by inflation. In this study, inflation-deployed panels of various powers incorporating four different types of low mass solar cells are investigated with respect to conventional systems. Depending on panel size and cell type, five-fold and three-fold improvements in specific powers (W/kg) can be realized compared to present state-of-the-art rigid and flexible systems, respectively. There are numerous advantages to such an inflatable deployment system. Besides lower weight and increased power, the technique is low in cost and reliable. The system has a minimum of complex parts and stows efficiently. Most importantly, both concept and materials have been proven in space. In this study, systems in the 0.3 to 5.0 kW range combining the best elements of cell, blanket, and deployment technologies are designed and analyzed for both low earth (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Results in terms of specific power are compared to flexible arrays involving BI-STEM and astromast deployment as well as to a typical rigid panel, latch, and spring deployed, such as DSCS III. DTIC Aerospace Engineering; Arrays; Inflatable Structures; Panels; Solar Arrays; Solar Cells; Toruses



Includes powered and free flight trajectories; orbital and launching dynamics.

20060049358 Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA USA

Thin-Film Photovoltaic Proton and Electron Radiation Testing for a MEO Orbit Granata, J E; Sahlstrom, T D; Hausgen, P; Messenger, S R; Walters, R J; Lorentzen, J R; Liu, Simon; Helizon, Roger; Jan 2006; 5 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454303; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A01, Hardcopy A radiation test plan for thin-film photovoltaic technologies focused on a MEO flight experiment is outlined. The proton and electron radiation response of thin film, amorphous Si solar cells and CuInGaSe2 solar cells, with and without space coatings, is presented. The degradation of the photovoltaic output under penetrating and junction-damaging proton irradiation, and 0.6 MeV and 1 MeV electron irradiation, is measured and examined. The experimental data are presented and analyzed.

These data will form the basis for an on-orbit prediction model as applied to a high-radiation MEO orbit. DTIC Earth Orbits; Electron Radiation; Photovoltaic Effect; Protons; Thin Films

20060049675 Maryland Univ., College Park, MD USA

Stabilization of Tethered Satellites During Station-Keeping Liaw, Der-Cherng; Abed, Eyad H; Nov 1990; 26 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): AFOSR-87-0073; NSFD-CDR88-03012 Report No.(s): AD-A454742; SRC-TR-88-72-R1; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy After deriving a set of dynamic equations governing the dynamics of a Tethered Satellite System (TSS), stabilizing tension control laws in feedback form are derived. The tether is assumed rigid and massless, and the equations of motion are derived using the system Lagrangian. It is observed that, to stabilize the system, tools from stability analysis of critical nonlinear systems must be applied. This paper employs tools related to the Hopf Bifurcation Theorem in the construction of the stabilizing control laws, which may be taken purely linear. Simulations illustrate the nature of the conclusions, and show that nonlinear terms in the feedback can be used to significantly improve the transient response. DTIC Spacecraft Trajectories; Stationkeeping; Tethered Satellites; Tethering

20060049676 Maryland Univ., College Park, MD USA

Tethered Satellite System Stability Liaw, D C; Abed, E H; Jan 1989; 32 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): AFOSR-87-0073; NSF-ECS86-57561 Report No.(s): AD-A454743; SRC-TR-89-21; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Issues of stability of the Tethered Satellite System (TSS) during station-keeping, de- ployment and retrieval are considered. The basic nonlinear equations of motion of the TSS are derived using the system Lagrangian. Using the Hopf bifurcation theorem, tension control laws are established which guarantee the stability of the system during the station-keeping mode. A constant angle control method is hypothesized for subsatellite deployment and retrieval. It is proved that this control law results in stable deployment but unstable retrieval. An enhanced control law for deployment is also proposed, which entails use of the constant angle method followed by a station-keeping control law once the tether length is sufficiently near the desired value. Simulations are given to illustrate the conclusions. DTIC Spacecraft Trajectories; Stationkeeping; Systems Engineering; Tethered Satellites; Tethering



Includes launch complexes, research and production facilities; ground support equipment, e.g., mobile transporters; and test chambers and simulators. Also includes extraterrestrial bases and supporting equipment. For related information see also 09 Research and Support Facilities (Air) .

20060049390 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Low-Cost Launch Systems for the Dual-Launch Concept Pearson, Jerone; Zukauskas, Wally; Weeks, Thomas; Cass, Stein; Stytz, Martin; Oct 2000; 13 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454354; IAA-00-IAA.1.1.06; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Current launch costs into low Earth orbit (LEO) are extremely high. This study identified cost reductions possible using a dual launch strategy using high-reliability/high-cost launch vehicles for high-value payloads, and lower cost launch vehicles for low-value payloads. The approach was to assess existing expendable launch vehicles for development, production, and operations cost using a parametric mass- based cost model, TRANSCOST 6.2. Performing fewer engine tests, designing structures with lower structural margins, parallel processing, eliminating payload clean room requirements and extensive

testing before launch, horizontal integration, lower cost labor, and reduced insurance costs were examined to lower costs. Nearly an order of magnitude reduction can be achieved from current launch costs to LEO for low-value payloads. The use of conventional expendable rocket vehicles, however, keeps costs above S2,000 per kilogram to LEO. Revolutionary methods, such as first stage lasers, eleeflomagnetic and ram accelerators, and upper stage orbiting tethers, were examined to achieve even lower launch costs. The best combination examined uses the ram accelerator and orbiting tether, with an estimated cost of $250-$350 per kilogram into LEO. That might be further optimized to achieve $100/kg. No launch techniques were discovered that show launch costs below $100 per kilogram. DTIC Cost Analysis; Launch Vehicles; Launching; Low Cost



Includes all classes of launch vehicles, launch/space vehicle systems, and boosters; and launch operations. For related information see also 18 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance ; and 20 Spacecraft Propulsion and Power .

20060048219 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

The DARPA/USAF Falcon Program Small Launch Vehicles Weeks, David J.; Walker, Steven H.; Thompson, Tim L.; Sackheim, Robert; London, John R., III; [2006]; 7 pp.; In English; 20th Annual AIAA/USU COnference on Small Satellites, 14-17 Aug 2006, Logan, UT, USA; Original contains black and white illustrations Report No.(s): Rept-SSC06-IX-1; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy

Earlier in this decade, the U.S. Air Force Space Command and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), in recognizing the need for low-cost responsive small launch vehicles, decided to partner in addressing this national shortcoming. Later, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) joined in supporting this effort, dubbed the Falcon Program. The objectives of the Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) element of the DARPA/USAF Falcon Program include the development of a low-cost small launch vehicle(s) that demonstrates responsive launch and has the potential for achieving a per mission cost of less than $5M when based on 20 launches per year for 10 years. This vehicle class can lift 1000 to 2000 lbm payloads to a reference low earth orbit. Responsive operations include launching the rocket within 48 hours of call up. A history of the program and the current status will be discussed with an emphasis on the potential impact on small satellites. Author Launch Vehicles; Low Earth Orbits; NASA Programs; Low Cost; Standard Launch Vehicles

20060048242 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

RS-25 for the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle: The Evolution of SSME for Space Exploration Kynard, Michael H.; Genge, Gary G.; Greene, William D.; Jacobs, William; McArthur, J. Craig; Mims, Michael J.; Tepool, J. Eric; Wofford, Steven J.; [2006]; 2 pp.; In English; 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, 9-12 Jul. 2006, Sacramento, CA, USA; Original contains black and white illustrations; No Copyright; Avail.:

Other Sources; Abstract Only As a first step towards the fulfillment of the National Vision for Space Exploration, NASA has begun development of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). The CLV will act, in conjunction with the Crew Exploration Vehicle, as the next generation human launch system to first support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), then later to support the lunar return missions, and then after that to exploration missions to Mars and beyond. The CLV is a two-stage launch vehicle with the first stage based upon the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster. The newly designed, expendable second stage is powered by a single RS-25 liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen rocket engine. The RS-25 is essentially the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) evolved for a new mission, new environments, and new conditions. The CLV Upper-Stage Engine (USE) office has been established to develop the RS-25 in support of the CLV Project. This paper presents an outline and discussion of the risks associated with this endeavor of transforming the SSME into the upper-stage, altitude-start RS-25 and the plans being undertaken to understand and mitigate these risks. In addition, to meet the long-term requirements of the CLV launch manifest, it will be necessary to redevelop the RS-25, with its long history as the reusable SSME for the Space Shuttle Program, as an expendable engine. While the first flights of CLV will be using heritage SSME hardware, beyond that a new version of RS-25 as an expendable engine is being pursued by the CLV USE element. The goals of this work include the need to make the hardware more producible while maintaining the inherent and inherited reliability of the basic design. This paper will also discuss the risks and present the plans for developing both this next generation version of the RS-25 and for developing the manufacturing capacity necessary to support the CLV Project. Author Hydrogen Oxygen Engines; Liquid Hydrogen; Launch Vehicles; Space Exploration

20060048251 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.; [2006]; 2 pp.; In English; AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, 9-12 Jul. 2006, Sacramento, CA, USA; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A01, Hardcopy The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the USA since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a ‘clean sheet design’ for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this ‘clean-sheet’ upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a ‘clean-sheet’ design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV. Author Launch Vehicles; Space Shuttles; Risk; Space Transportation System

20060048734 Air Force Research Lab., Kirkland AFB, NM USA

Modeling and Simulation of Satellite Subsystems for End-to-End Spacecraft Modeling Schum, William K; Doolittle, Christina M; Boyarko, George A; Apr 2006; 11 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453408; AFRL-VS-PS-TP-2006-1027; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy During the past ten years, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has been simultaneously developing high-fidelity

spacecraft payload models as well as a robust distributed simulation environment for modeling spacecraft subsystems. Much

of this research has occurred in the Distributed Architecture Simulation Laboratory (DASL). AFRL developers working in the

DASL have effectively combined satellite power, attitude pointing, and communication link analysis subsystem models with robust satellite sensor models to create a first-order end-to-end satellite simulation capability. The merging of these two simulation areas has advanced the field of spacecraft simulation, design, and analysis, and enabled more in-depth mission and satellite utility analyses. A core capability of the DASL is the support of a variety of modeling and analysis efforts, ranging from physics and engineering-level modeling to mission and campaign-level analysis. The flexibility and agility of this simulation architecture will be used to support space mission analysis, military utility analysis, and various integrated exercises with other military and space organizations via direct integration, or through DOD standards such as Distributed Interaction Simulation. This paper discusses the results and lessons learned in modeling satellite communication link analysis, power, and attitude control subsystems for an end-to-end satellite simulation. It also discusses how these spacecraft subsystem simulations feed into and support military utility and space mission analyses. DTIC Artificial Satellites; Distributed Interactive Simulation; Simulation

20060048780 Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO USA

LQG/LTR Optimal Attitude Control of Small Flexible Spacecraft Using Free-Free Boundary Conditions Fulton, Joseph M; Aug 3, 2006; 220 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453617; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) Due to the volume and power limitations of a small satellite, careful consideration must be taken while designing an attitude control system for 3-axis stabilization. Placing redundancy in the system proves difficult and utilizing power hungry, high accuracy, active actuators is not a viable option. Thus, it is customary to find dependable, passive actuators used in conjunction with small scale active control components. This document describes the application of Elastic Memory

Composite materials in the construction of a flexible spacecraft appendage, such as a gravity gradient boom. Assumed modes methods are used with Finite Element Modeling information to obtain the equations of motion for the system while assuming free-free boundary conditions. A discussion is provided to illustrate how cantilever mode shapes are not always the best assumption when modeling small flexible spacecraft. A key point of interest is first resonant modes may be needed in the system design plant in spite of these modes being greater than one order of magnitude in frequency when compared to the crossover frequency of the controller. LQG/LTR optimal control techniques are implemented to compute attitude control gains while controller robustness considerations determine appropriate reduced order controllers and which flexible modes to include in the design model. Key satellite designer concerns in the areas of computer processor sizing, material uncertainty impacts on the system model, and system performance variations resulting from appendage length modifications are addressed. DTIC Artificial Satellites; Attitude Control; Boundary Conditions; Flexible Spacecraft; Free Boundaries; Linear Quadratic Gaussian Control; Optimal Control; Spacecraft Control

20060049021 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Maneuver Estimation Model for Geostationary Orbit Determination Hirsch, Brian J; Jun 2006; 123 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453944; AFIT/GA/ENY/06-J01; XC-AFRL/DET-15; No Copyright; Avail.: Defense Technical Infor- mation Center (DTIC) As an increasing number of geostationary satellites fill a limited number of orbital slots, collocation of satellites leads to

a risk of close approach or misidentification. The ability to detect maneuvers made by these satellites using optical observations can help to prevent these problems. Such a model has already been created and tested using data from the Air Force Maui Optical and Supercomputing site. The goal of this research was to create a more robust model which would reduce

the amount of data needed to make accurate maneuver estimations. The Clohessy-Wiltshire equations were used to model the relative motion of a geostationary satellite about its intended location, and a nonlinear least squares algorithm was developed to estimate the satellite trajectories. DTIC Detection; Earth Orbits; Geosynchronous Orbits; Maneuvers; Optical Measurement; Orbit Determination; Synchronous Platforms; Synchronous Satellites

20060049061 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

NASA Crew Launch Vehicle Overview Dumbacher, Daniel L.; January 2006; 4 pp.; In English; AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, 9-12 Jul. 2006, Sacramento, CA, USA; Original contains black and white illustrations; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A01, Hardcopy The US. Vision for Space Exploration, announced January 2004, outlines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. These include: 1) Flying the Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. Following the confirmation of the new NASA Administrator in April 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts from government and industry to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which provided in-depth information for selecting the follow-on launch vehicle designs to enable these goals, The ESAS team analyzed a number of potential launch systems, with a focus on: (1) a human-rated launch vehicle for crew transport and (2) a heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) to carry cargo. After several months of intense study utilizing technical performance, budget, and schedule objectives, the results showed that the optimum architecture to meet the challenge of safe, reliable crew transport is a two-stage variant of the Space Shuttle propulsion system - utilizing the reusable Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) as the first stage, along with a new upper stage that uses a derivative of the RS-25 Space Shuttle Main Engine to deliver 25 metric tons to low-Earth orbit. The CEV that this new Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) lofts into space early next decade will initially ferry astronauts to the Space Station and be capable of carrying crews back to lunar orbit and of supporting missions to Mars orbit. The HLLV system will utilize the Shuttle External Tank combined with SRBs. The focus of this paper is on the CLV system, giving an overview of plans and progress to date. Derived from text NASA Space Programs; Crew Exploration Vehicle; General Overviews; Launch Vehicles

20060049220 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

A Comparative Analysis of Single-Stage-To-Orbit Rocket and Air-Breathing Vehicles Orloff, Benjamin S; Jun 2006; 100 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A453934; AFIT/GAE/ENY/06-J13; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A05, Hardcopy This study compares and contrasts the performance of a variety of rocket and air breathing, single-stage-to-orbit, reusable launch vehicles. Fuels considered include bi-propellant and tri-propellant combinations of hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels. Astrox Corporation’s HySIDE code was used to model the vehicles and predict their characteristics and performance. Vehicle empty mass, wetted area and growth rates were used as figures of merit to predict the procurement, operational and maintenance cost trends of a vehicle system as well as the system’s practicality. Results were compared to those of two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch systems using similar modeling methods. The study found that single-stage-to-orbit vehicles using scramjet air breathing propulsion outperform rocket systems. Findings also demonstrate the benefits of using hydrocarbon fuel in the early phases of ascent to reduce the size and mass of launch vehicles. An all-hydrocarbon, air breathing, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle was found to be a viable launch vehicle configuration and performed comparably to two-stage-to-orbit rocket systems. DTIC Air Breathing Engines; Launch Vehicles; Rocket Vehicles; Single Stage Rocket Vehicles

20060049300 Garvey Spacecraft Corp., Long Beach, CA USA

Demonstration and Analysis of Reusable Launch Vehicle Operations Garvey, John; Aug 2006; 39 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): FA9300-05-M-3010; Proj-3005 Report No.(s): AD-A454119; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Report developed under SBIR contract for topic AF05-201. The increased use of reusable systems continues to be one of the most promising options for creating advancements in the daily maintenance of rocket systems, lowering hours for preparation and diminishing expenses for preparation. However, since the end of the DC-X/XA Delta Clipper program, flight testing of candidate reusable launch vehicle (RLV) designs, technologies and operations has come to a halt. This project addressed this situation through the development and flight testing during Phase I of an early prototype RLV that could ultimately evolve into the first stage of an operational nanosat launch vehicle (NLV). This LOX/ethanol-propellant vehicle -the Prospector 7 -took flight twice within a 3.5 hour period after less than a day of pre-launch field preparations, thereby establishing a new reference metric for RLV-type responsive, fast turn-around launch operations. Besides serving as an operational pathfinder, this RLV test bed also manifested several academic payloads in support of a related goal of assessing candidate nanosat-class payload accommodations. In a solid demonstration of the commercial potential for this kind of capability, the Prospector 7 itself has already been assigned to non-SBIR follow-on flight test activities. DTIC Launch Vehicles; Nanosatellites; Reusable Launch Vehicles

20060049354 Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

New Techniques in Space Weather Forecasting Kartalev, Monio D; May 1, 2005; 29 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): FA8655-05-1-3024 Report No.(s): AD-A454296; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy This report results from a contract tasking Institute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences as follows: The grantee will use plasma and magnetic field interplanetary data generated from orbiting spacecraft to develop real-time models of the earth s ionosphere. This will provide detailed knowledge about the Magneto Hydrodynamics (MHD) discontinuities that occur due to the solar wind, and its effects on communications.

DTIC Aerospace Environments; Forecasting; Magnetohydrodynamics; Space Communication; Space Weather; Weather

20060049356 Air Force Research Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Application of Piecewise Linear Control Allocation to Reusable Launch Vehicle Guidance and Control Bolender, Michael A; Doman, David B; Oppenheimer, Michael W; Feb 2006; 13 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): Proj-A03D Report No.(s): AD-A454301; AFRL-VA-WP-TP-2006-318; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy We will demonstrate two applications of the piecewise linear control allocation (PLCA) approach. The first application to be considered is to use the PLCA approach in the inner-loop control law of a re-usable launch vehicle on approach and landing. Body axis angular rates are controlled using a dynamic inversion controller. The vehicle will be subjected to two stuck control effectors, and recovery of the vehicle using only control effector reconfiguration provided by the control allocator and without trajectory reshaping will be demonstrated. The second application that will be demonstrated is constraint estimation for trajectory reshaping and re-targeting. In order to successfully re-target a trajectory when an aircraft has experienced degraded performance due to a failure or damage to the vehicle, the effects of the failure or damage on the lift, drag, and ‘trimmability’ of the vehicle must be known a priori over the entire flight envelope. We present a method that allows for the effects of a locked or floating control effector to be estimated over the flight envelope. DTIC Allocations; Guidance (Motion); Launch Vehicles; Reusable Launch Vehicles

20060049400 L’Garde, Inc., Tustin, CA USA

Power-Scalable Inflation-Deployed Solar Arrays Redell, Frederick H; Lichodziejewski, David; Jan 2004; 9 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454378; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy In 1999, DARPA contracted L’Garde, Inc. to develop an ultra low-mass solar array for rapid deployment micro satellites. The results of that effort yielded a high performance design that was tested up to a flight demonstration and outperformed competing designs in power density (65.4 W/kg at 274 W) and stowed volume (0.04 cubic meters). However, this design lacked the ability to scale the power level beyond 1 kW. Recently there have been significant advances in the area of inflatable-rigidizable space structures. The purpose of the most recent investigation was to develop a scalable version of the technology leveraging the previously proven design with revolutionary inflatable technology to produce a solar array that will be adaptable to any micro satellite mission and beyond. The methods of the most recent investigation involved analysis, fabrication, and tests. The result is a design ready to move to the next phase with power density performance better than two times that of the state of the art (115 W/kg at 1250 W) while utilizing existing solar cell technology. This performance level should be attractive to anyone interested in lowering the cost and increasing the reliability of their mission. The new structural technology will lend itself to a wide range of applications. This work is the result of a phase I contract that was performed for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) under SBIR funding. DTIC Deployment; Panels; Solar Arrays; Solar Cells

20060049427 Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH USA

Dynamics and Control of Tethered Satellite Formations for the Purpose of Space-Based Remote Sensing Vogel, Kurt A; Aug 2006; 296 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A454451; AFIT/DS/ENY/06-04; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) This dissertation assesses the utility of tethered satellite formations for the space-based remote sensing mission. Energy dissipation is found to have an adverse effect on foundational rigid body (Likins-Pringle) equilibria. It is shown that a continuously earth-facing equilibrium condition for a fixed-length tethered system does not exist since the spin rate required for the proper precession would not be high enough to maintain tether tension. The range of required spin rates for steady-spin motion is numerically defined here, but none of these conditions can meet the continuously earth-facing criteria. Of particular note is the discovery that applying certain rigid body conditions to a free-flying formation creates the desired equilibrium condition. Control methods applied to the tethered system fail to maintain formation orientation or are cost prohibitive. The overall assessment is that tethers have great value for general formations, however, by themselves tethers cannot conduct formation control for continuously earth-facing aperture clusters. Even with additional controls, the utility of tethers for this mission is limited. DTIC Artificial Satellites; Dynamic Control; Remote Sensors; Satellite Observation; Tethered Satellites; Tethering

20060049568 Air Force Research Lab., Rome, NY USA

Why Photonic Systems for Space? Bernstein, Norman P; Brost, George A; Hayduk, Michael J; Hunter, James R; Nichter, James E; Payson, Paul M; Repak, Paul L; Aug 2006; 7 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): Proj-LINK Report No.(s): AD-A454253; AFRL-SN-RS-TP-2006-10; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Future space-based platforms can and will benefit from the implementation of photonics in both analog and digital subsystems. This paper discusses the potential applications and advantages of photonics to space-based platforms. These applications include radiofrequency distribution links, true time delay, local oscillator generation, photonically implemented signal processing, and high speed analog-to-digital signal conversion. DTIC Analog to Digital Converters; Fiber Optics; Microwaves; Photonics; Signal Processing; Transmission Lines

20060049571 Library of Congress, Washington, DC USA

Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD’s SBIRS and STSS Programs Smith, Marcia S; Jan 30, 2006; 7 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454554; CRS/DC-RS21148; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy

The Department of Defense’s (DOD’s) programs to develop new satellites to alert U.S. military commanders to foreign missile launches, and to support missile defense objectives, are controversial because of cost growth and schedule slippage. SBIRS-High, managed by the Air Force, would replace existing Defense Support Program early warning satellites. The Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, would perform missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives. The SBIRS-High program has breached Nunn-McCurdy cost growth limits several times, resulting in several program restructurings. This is the final edition of this report. DTIC Artificial Satellites; Defense Program; Early Warning Systems; Missile Defense; Missile Tracking; Target Recognition


THRUST AUGMENTED NOZZLE (TAN) the New Paradigm for Booster Rockets Bulman, Melvin J; Jul 12, 2006; 10 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): F04611-02-C-0001; Proj-4847 Report No.(s): AD-A454615; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy Rocket-powered launch vehicles require high thrust when taking off and high vacuum specific impulse (Isp) later in the mission. These two requirements are in conflict since a large area ratio nozzle operating at sea-level pressure is less efficient in producing thrust and the jet may separate from the nozzle causing destructive forces. Aerojet’s Thrust Augmented Nozzle (TAN) concept overcomes these conventional engine limitations by injecting additional propellants and combusting in the nozzle. The TAN concept represents no less than a change in the rocket propulsion paradigm. Higher thrust to weight of the engine can reduce the engine weight, which can be traded directly for increased payload. Launch vehicle mission effective Isp can be significantly improved by using TAN to safely fill a high area ratio nozzle at sea level while significantly increasing thrust. The thrust augmenting propellants can be different from the core engine, enabling the benefits of dual fuels on mission performance. Possibly the most important benefit of TAN is increased engine system reliabilities by operating the engine core at a reduced chamber pressure and making up the required thrust by operating TAN. This paper describes the TAN concept, and how it overcomes these classic booster engine problems as supported by test results and a representative simulated mission. DTIC Booster Rocket Engines; Exhaust Nozzles; Launch Vehicles; Specific Impulse; Thrust Augmentation

20060049631 Air Force Research Lab., Edwards AFB, CA USA

Comparison of Hall Thruster Plume Expansion Model with Experimental Data (Preprint) Niemela, Carrie S; Cheng, Shannon Y; Brieda, Lubos; Nakles, Michael; Ekholm, Jared; Hargus, Jr , WIlliam; Jul 2006; 19 pp.; In English Report No.(s): AD-A454665; AFRL-PR-ED-TP-2006-155; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Numerical modeling of the expansion of electric thruster plumes provides direct means for predicting spacecraft surface contamination and erosion due to plume ions. A software package named COLISEUM that is capable of self-consistently modeling plasma propagation and interactions with arbitrary 3-D surfaces is being developed by a national team of researchers. Despite much research and development in modeling plume expansion, it is necessary to continuously validate these codes using laboratory based experimental data. It is well-established that vacuum chamber facilities affect the plume of these devices. Thus, the models must not only describe the plume expansion, but also effects of the vacuum chamber. COLISEUM has been designed to simulate both vacuum chamber configurations and spacecraft geometries. This work provides source derivation from laser induced florescence (LIF) data. Included is a study that compares results from a hybrid particle-in-cell model (AQUILA) with Monte Carlo collisions to data obtained from the plume of Busek 600W Hall thruster (BHT-HD-600). This data includes current density, velocity distribution, and energy data. DTIC Computer Programs; Hall Thrusters; Models; Plumes

20060049633 Air Force Research Lab., Edwards AFB, CA USA

Plume Characteristics of the BHT-HD-600 Hall Thruster (Preprint) Ekholm, Jared M; Hargus Jr , William A; Larson, C W; Nakles, Michael; Reed, Garrett; Niemela, Carrie S; Jul 2006; 9 pp.; In English Contract(s)/Grant(s): Proj-1011 Report No.(s): AD-A454668; AFRL-PR-ED-TP-2006-156; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy

To better characterize the potential impacts of the operation of a Busek Company, Inc. BHT-HD-600 laboratory Hall thruster on spacecraft, a number of plume properties have been measured. These include current density using a Faraday probe, ion energy distribution using a retarding potential analyzer, and ion species fractions using anExB probe. The BHT-HD-600 Hall thruster is a nominally 600 W xenon Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc. for the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. Plume characterization of Hall thrusters is required to fully understand the impacts of thruster operation on spacecraft. Much of these plume data are vital inputs for numerical models that can then be applied to estimate the effect of the energetic plume on complex spacecraft geometries. Early measurement of plume properties, such as plume divergence, ion energy distribution, and species fractions, aids the timely transfer of Hall thruster technology to the user. The plume’s ion beam was characterized by measurement of ion current density radial profiles, ion energy spectra and ion species fraction distributions. Measurements were recorded +/- 90 degrees off thruster centerline at 60 cm from the discharge. It was determined slight variations in anode potential and mass-flow produced a measurable effect on ion current density and plume divergence, experimentally showing an increase or decrease of +/- 15-20%. Ionic energy spectra demonstrated both inelastic and elastic scattering within the plume. The measurements reveal significant populations of multiply-charged ions in the plume.ExB probe measurements show surprisingly ion species fraction angle dependence. DTIC Current Density; Hall Thrusters; Plumes

20060049686 Surrey Univ., Guildford, UK

Near Real-Time Event Detection & Prediction Using Intelligent Software Agents Palmer, Philip; Mar 2006; 58 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): FA8655-05-1-3048 Report No.(s): AD-A454762; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy This report results from a contract tasking University of Surrey as follows: The Surrey Space Center primary developer of the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) a network of satellites that provides users global natural and man-made event monitoring, seeks to monitor space and/or terrestrial source data streams for identifying interest-event occurrences. For the purposes of this research an event is defined as a significant interest item that occurs at a particular time and location, such as an individual volcano eruption, a flood or a forest fire. During- and postevent detection can often be achieved through one

of several change detection algorithms, however pre-event detection introduces an entirely different challenge. Successful pre-event detection involves comparing temporal data against unique impending event data patterns. More concisely, successful pre-event detection involves combining time series analysis with robust event pattern recognition. While domain-specific methodologies have garnered varying success levels a general approach for this complex task has yet to be found and therefore motivates this research effort. Significant progress across the range of research goals and objectives has been achieved. Preliminary analysis results using one and two channelled data suggest the method is capable of identifying complex event-related data patterns and perhaps even predicting significant events. These results strengthen our conviction the method warrants further research and investigation. DTIC Change Detection; Pattern Recognition; Prediction Analysis Techniques; Real Time Operation; Time Series Analysis

20060049802 RAND Corp., Santa Monica, CA USA

National Security Space Launch Report McCartney, Forrest; Jan 2006; 103 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): DASW01-01-C-0004; W74V8H-06-C-0002 Report No.(s): AD-A454913; RAND/MG-503; No Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A06, Hardcopy On January 20, 2004, Congress in House Resolution 4200 directed the Secretary of Defense to establish a panel of experts with extensive space launch and operations background to address the future National Security Space (NSS) launch requirements and the means of meeting those requirements. The Department of Defense (Do) selected the RAND Corporation to facilitate and support this panel in its deliberations between May 2005 and May 2006. After a comprehensive review and assessment of the future NSS launch requirements, the National Security Space Launch Requirements Panel concluded that the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program can satisfy all known and projected NSS requirements through 2020. The yearlong fact finding and analysis (between May 2005 and May 2006) of this Panel derived many findings on NSS requirements and the means of satisfying them. We introduce them here. A more complete account of the Panel’s findings and judgments is found in the body of this report, and, accordingly, a study of the entire document is recommended. DTIC Launch Vehicles; Security; Spacecraft Launching



Includes passenger and cargo space transportation, e.g., shuttle operations; and space rescue techniques. For related information see also 03 Air Transportation and Safety; 15 Launch Vehicles and Launch Operations ; and 18 Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance . For space suits see 54 Man/System Technology and Life Support .

20060048173 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

NASA Technologies for Product Identification Schramm, Fred, Jr.; [2006]; 52 pp.; In English; 2006 Automatic Identification and Data Capture Technical Institute/Ohio University, 28 Jul. 2006, Athens, OH, USA; Original contains black and white illustrations; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A04, Hardcopy Since 1975 bar codes on products at the retail counter have been accepted as the standard for entering product identity for price determination. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Data Matrix symbol has become accepted as the bar code format that is marked directly on a part, assembly or product that is durable enough to identify that item for its lifetime. NASA began the studies for direct part marking Data Matrix symbols on parts during the Return to Flight activities after the Challenger Accident. Over the 20 year period that has elapsed since Challenger, a mountain of studies, analyses and focused problem solutions developed by and for NASA have brought about world changing results. NASA Technical Standard 6002 and NASA Handbook 6003 for Direct Part Marking Data Matrix Symbols on Aerospace Parts have formed the basis for most other standards on part marking internationally. NASA and its commercial partners have developed numerous products and methods that addressed the difficulties of collecting part identification in aerospace operations. These products enabled the marking of Data Matrix symbols in virtually every situation and the reading of symbols at great distances, severe angles, under paint and in the dark without a light. Even unmarkable delicate parts now have a process to apply a chemical mixture called NanocodesTM that can be converted to a Data Matrix. The accompanying intellectual property is protected by 10 patents, several of which are licensed. Direct marking Data Matrix on NASA parts virtually eliminates data entry errors and the number of parts that go through their life cycle unmarked, two major threats to sound configuration management and flight safety. NASA is said to only have people and stuff with information connecting them. Data Matrix is one of the most significant improvements since Challenger to the safety and reliability of that connection. This presentation highlights the accomplishments of NASA in its efforts to develop technologies for automatic identification, its efforts to implement them and its vision on their role in space. Author NASA Programs; Technology Utilization; Aerospace Systems; Product Development

20060048195 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

Characterization of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) Materials for Return-to-Flight following the Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation Wingard, Doug; [2006]; 2 pp.; In English; 2006 North American Thermal Analysis Society (NATAS) Conference, 7-9 Aug. 2006, Bowling Green, KY, USA; No Copyright; Avail.: Other Sources; Abstract Only During the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, it was determined that a large chunk of polyurethane insulating foam (= 1.67 lbs) on the External Tank (ET) came loose during Columbia’s ascent on 2-1-03. The foam piece struck some of the protective Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels on the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing in the mid-wing area. This impact damaged Columbia to the extent that upon re-entry to Earth, superheGed air approaching 3,000 F caused the vehicle to break up, killing all seven astronauts on board. A paper after the Columbia Accident Investigation highlighted thermal analysis testing performed on External Tank TPS materials (1). These materials included BX-250 (now BX-265) rigid polyurethane foam and SLA-561 Super Lightweight Ablator (highly-filled silicone rubber). The large chunk of foam from Columbia originated fiom the left bipod ramp of the ET. The foam in this ramp area was hand-sprayed over the SLA material and various fittings, allowed to dry, and manually shaved into a ramp shape. In Return-to-Flight (RTF) efforts following Columbia, the decision was made to remove the foam in the bipod ramp areas. During RTF efforts, further thermal analysis testing was performed on BX-265 foam by DSC and DMA. Flat panels of foam about 2-in. thick were sprayed on ET tank material (aluminum alloys). The DSC testing showed that foam material very close to the metal substrate cured more slowly than bulk foam material. All of the foam used on the ET is considered fully cured about 21 days after it is sprayed. The RTF culminated in the successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on 7-26-05. Although the flight was a success, there was another serious incident of foam loss fiom the ET during Shuttle ascent. This time, a rather large chunk of BX-265 foam (= 0.9 lbs) came loose from the liquid hydrogen (LH2) PAL ramp, although the foam did not strike the Shuttle Orbiter containing the crew. DMA testing was performed on foam samples taken fiom a simulated PAL ramp panel. It was found that the smooth

rind on the foam facing the cable tray did significantly affect the properties of foam at the PAL ramp surface. The smooth rind increased the storage modulus E’ of the foam as much as 20- 40% over a temperature range of -145 to 95 C. Because of foam loss fiom the PAL ramp, future Shuttle flights were grounded indefinitely to allow further testing to better understand foam properties. The decision was also made to remove foam from the LH2 PAL, ramp. Other RTF efforts prior to the launch of Discovery included Author Thermal Protection; Space Shuttles; Foams; Composite Structures; Polyurethane Foam; Accident Investigation; Ablative Materials; Carbon-Carbon Composites; Thermal Analysis

20060048233 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

High-Resolution Millimeter Wave Detection of Vertical Cracks in the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) Spray-on- Foam Insulation (SOFI) Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, Frank L.; [2006]; 1 pp.; In English; 33rd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE), 30 Jul. - 4 Aug. 2006, Portland, OR, USA Contract(s)/Grant(s): NNM06AA08G; No Copyright; Avail.: Other Sources; Abstract Only Space Shuttle Columbia’s catastrophic failure has been attributed to a piece of spray-on-foam insulation (SOFI) that was dislodged from the external tank (ET) and struck the leading edge of the left wing. A piece of SOFI was also dislodged in the Space Shuttle Discovery’s flight in 2005 and recently a crack was detected in its ET foam prior to its successful launch. Millimeter wave nondestructive testing methods have been considered as potential effective inspection tools for evaluating the integrity of the SOFI. Recently, in a specific investigation into the potential of these methods for detecting vertical cracks in SOFI was explored using a focused millimeter wave reflectometer at 150 GHz. The results showed the capability of these methods for detecting tight vertical cracks (also as a function of crack opening dimension) in exposed SOFI panels and while covered by a piece of SOFI ramp simulating a more realistic and challenging situation. Some crack-like anomalies were also detected in a blind SOFI panel. This paper presents the background for these techniques as well as representative images of the vertical crack in the SOFI panel, crack-like anomalies in the blind panel and a discussion of the practical attributes of these inspection methods. Author Detection; External Tanks; Foams; Cracks; Space Shuttles; Nondestructive Tests; Leading Edges; Inspection

20060048272 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

Space Shuttle Overview McNutt, Leslie; [2006]; 19 pp.; In English; Space Shuttle Overview, 13 Jul. 2006, Birmingham, AL, USA; Original contains black and white illustrations; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy Many students are not even aware of the many activities related to the US Space Program. The intent of this presentation is to introduce students to the world of space exploration and encourage them to pursue math, science, and engineering careers. If this is not their particular interest, I want to encourage them to pursue their dream. Author

Space Shuttles; General Overviews; NASA Space Programs; Space Exploration

20060050052 NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, USA

Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Demonstrations Lindenmoyer, Allan; September 20, 2006; 14 pp.; In English; Multilateral Medical Operations Panel, 30 Oct. - 3 Nov. 2006, Cologne, Germany; Original contains color illustrations; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy U.S. space policy directs pursuit of commercial opportunities for providing transportation and other services low Earth orbit and beyond. COTS Project established to implement policy. COTS strategy: Phase 1) Assist industry with system development/demonstrations (COTS Demos); Phase 2) Procure commercial services for ISS logistics support. COTS Demonstrations competition completed in 10 months. Two industry partners selected for funded Space Act Agreements: 1) SpaceX & Rocketplane-Kistler; and 2) Unfunded Space Act Agreements in work with other competitors. COTS budget of $500 M thru 2010, with pay for performance milestone approach. Cargo flight demonstrations planned for 2008 and 2009:

Crew flight demonstration options for 2011-2012. Commercial cargo transportation services potentially available as early as

2009-2010. Successful COTS partners may open new space markets and provide reliable, cost effective cargo and crew transportation services, a new era for commercial space. Derived from text Space Commercialization; Orbital Servicing; Low Earth Orbits; Flight Tests; Cost Effectiveness; Logistics Management; Transportation



Includes space systems telemetry; space communications networks; astronavigation and guidance; and spacecraft radio blackout. For related information see also 04 Aircraft Communications and Navigation ; and 32 Communications and Radar .

20060048706 Air Univ., Maxwell AFB, AL USA

GPS versus Galileo: Balancing for Position in Space Beidleman, Scott W; May 2006; 89 pp.; In English; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): AD-A453360; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI: A05, Hardcopy This study investigates Europe’s motives to develop the independent satellite navigation system known as Galileo despite the existence of America’s successful global positioning system (GPS). The study begins by analyzing both systems to familiarize the reader with global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and to provide an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of GPS and Galileo, as well as the systems similarities and differences. Although the two systems have different founding principles, they employ similar infrastructures and operational concepts. In the short term, Galileo will provide better accuracy for civilian users until GPS upgrades take effect. But performance is only part of the rationale. The author contends that Europe’s pursuit of Galileo is driven by a combination of reasons, including performance, independence, and economic incentive. With Galileo, Europe hopes to achieve political, security, and technological independence from the USA. Additionally, Europe envisions overcoming the US monopoly on GNSS by seizing a sizable share of the expanding GNSS market and setting a new world standard for satellite navigation. Finally, the author explores Galileo’s impact on the USA and reviews US policy towards Galileo. The study concludes with recommendations to strengthen the competitiveness of GPS. GPS versus Galileo: Balancing for Position in Space was originally written as a master’s thesis for the Air University’s School of Advanced Air and Space Studies (SAASS) at Maxwell AFB, Alabama, in June 2004. The College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education (CADRE) is pleased to publish this SAASS research as a CADRE Paper and thereby make it available to a wider audience within the US Air Force and beyond. DTIC Balancing; Europe; Galileo Spacecraft; Global Positioning System; Positioning; Space Navigation; United States

20060050160 Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA, USA

Weak-signal Phase Calibration Strategies for Large DSN Arrays Jones, Dayton L.; March 5, 2005; 6 pp.; In English; IEEE Aerospace Conference, 5-12 Mar. 2005, Big Sky, MT, USA; Original contains black and white illustrations; Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: Other Sources The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is studying arrays of large numbers of small, mass-produced radio antennas as a cost-effective way to increase downlink sensitivity and data rates for future missions. An important issue for the operation of large arrays is the accuracy with which signals from hundreds of small antennas can be combined. This is particularly true at Ka band (32 GHz) where atmospheric phase variations can be large and rapidly changing. A number of algorithms exist to correct the phases of signals from individual antennas in the case where a spacecraft signal provides a useful signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on time scales shorter than the atmospheric coherence time. However, for very weak spacecraft signals it will be necessary to rely on background natural radio sources to maintain array phasing. Very weak signals could result from a spacecraft emergency or by design, such as direct-to-Earth data transmissions from distant planetary atmospheric or surface probes using only low gain antennas. This paper considers the parameter space where external real-time phase calibration will be necessary, and what this requires in terms of array configuration and signal processing. The inherent limitations of this technique are also discussed. Author Deep Space Network; Radio Antennas; Antenna Arrays; Calibrating; Spacecraft Tracking



Includes satellites; space platforms; space stations; spacecraft systems and components such as thermal and environmental controls; and spacecraft control and stability characteristics. For life support systems see 54 Man/System Technology and Life Support . For related information see also 05 Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance; 39 Structural Mechanics ; and 16 Space Transportation and Safety .

20060048274 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA

Flight Testing of Hybrid Powered Vehicles Story, George; Arves, Joe; [2006]; 40 pp.; In English; Original contains black and white illustrations; Copyright; Avail.:

CASI: A03, Hardcopy Hybrid Rocket powered vehicles have had a limited number of flights. Most recently in 2004, Scaled Composites had a successful orbital trajectory that put a private vehicle twice to over 62 miles high, the edge of space to win the X-Prize. This endeavor man rates a hybrid system. Hybrids have also been used in a number of one time launch attempts - SET-1, HYSR, HPDP. Hybrids have also been developed for use and flown in target drones. This chapter discusses various flight-test programs that have been conducted, hybrid vehicles that are in development, other hybrid vehicles that have been proposed and some strap-on applications have also been examined. Derived from text Flight Tests; Sounding Rockets; NASA Space Programs; Hybrid Propellant Rocket Engines; Launch Vehicle Configurations

20060048506 NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA

Electronics Shielding and Reliability Design Tools Wilson, John W.; ONeill, P. M.; Zang, Thomas A., Jr.; Pandolf, John E.; Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, P.; Reddell, B.; Pankop, C.; [2006]; 13 pp.; In English; 2006 MAPLD International Conference - 9th Annual Military and Aerospace Programmable Logic Device (MAPLD)International Conference, 26-28 Sep. 2006, Washington, DC, USA; Original contains color and black and white illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): WBS 549-02-07-01; No Copyright; ONLINE:; Avail.: CASI:

A03, Hardcopy It is well known that electronics placement in large-scale human-rated systems provides opportunity to optimize electronics shielding through materials choice and geometric arrangement. For example, several hundred single event upsets (SEUs) occur within the Shuttle avionic computers during a typical mission. An order of magnitude larger SEU rate would occur without careful placement in the Shuttle design. These results used basic physics models (linear energy transfer (LET), track structure, Auger recombination) combined with limited SEU cross section measurements allowing accurate evaluation of target fragment contributions to Shuttle avionics memory upsets. Electronics shielding design on human-rated systems provides opportunity to minimize radiation impact on critical and non-critical electronic systems. Implementation of shielding design tools requires adequate methods for evaluation of design layouts, guiding qualification testing, and an adequate follow-up on final design evaluation including results from a systems/device testing program tailored to meet design requirements. Author Electronics; Reliability Analysis; Spacecraft Design; Avionics; Spacecraft Shielding

20060048512 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA

Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies September 2004; In English; 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies, 14-16 Sept. 2004, Washington, DC, USA; See also 20060048513 - 20060048559; Original contains color illustrations Report No.(s): NASA/CP-2005-212781; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: C01, CD-ROM Topics discussed include: The Stellar Imager (SI) ‘Vision Mission"; First Formation Flying Demonstration Mission Including on Flight Nulling; Formation Flying X-ray Telescope in L2 Orbit; SPECS: The Kilometer-baseline Far-IR Interferometer in NASA’s Space Science Roadmap Presentation; A Tight Formation for Along-track SAR Interferometry; Realization of the Solar Power Satellite using the Formation Flying Solar Reflector; SIMBOL-X : Formation Flying for High-Energy Astrophysics; High Precision Optical Metrology for DARWIN; Close Formation Flight of Micro-Satellites for SAR Interferometry; Station-Keeping Requirements for Astronomical Imaging with Constellations of Free-Flying Collectors; Closed-Loop Control of Formation Flying Satellites; Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission; Precision Formation Keeping at L2 Using the Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor; Robust Control of Multiple Spacecraft Formation Flying;

Virtual Rigid Body (VRB) Satellite Formation Control: Stable Mode-Switching and Cross-Coupling; Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF) System Design, Mission Capabilities, and Testbed Development; Navigation Algorithms for Formation Flying Missions; Use of Formation Flying Small Satellites Incorporating OISL’s in a Tandem Cluster Mission; Semimajor Axis Estimation Strategies; Relative Attitude Determination of Earth Orbiting Formations Using GPS Receivers; Analysis of Formation Flying in Eccentric Orbits Using Linearized Equations of Relative Motion; Conservative Analytical Collision Probabilities for Orbital Formation Flying; Equations of Motion and Stability of Two Spacecraft in Formation at the Earth/Moon Triangular Libration Points; Formations Near the Libration Points: Design Strategies Using Natural and Non-Natural Ares; An Overview of the Formation and Attitude Control System for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Formation Flying Interferometer; GVE-Based Dynamics and Control for Formation Flying Spacecraft; GNC System Design for a New Concept of X-Ray Distributed Telescope; GNC System for the Deployment and Fine Control of the DARWIN Free-Flying Interferometer; Formation Algorithm and Simulation Testbed; and PLATFORM: A Formation Flying, RvD and Robotic Validation Test-bench. Derived from text Formation Flying; Attitude Control; Cross Coupling; Dynamic Control; Earth Orbits; Eccentric Orbits; Global Positioning System; Spacecraft Control; Motion Stability

20060048514 Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI, USA

Static Formation Control Using Interspacecraft Coulomb Forces Parker, Gordon G.; Passerello, Chris E.; Schaub, Hanspeter; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 8 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document A pair of charged bodies exerts equal and opposite Coulomb forces on each other that are proportional to the square of their charge and inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance. Exploiting these forces, for the purpose of spacecraft formation flying, has been the focus of several recent studies. This paper presents a sequential control strategy for arranging N charged bodies into an arbitrary geometry using N+3 participating bodies. The approach overcomes two

challenging aspects of Coulomb force control: (1) the Coulomb force coupling, and (2) inadmissable control solutions arising from the square force nonlinearity. A simulation example is included that illustrates the three-dimensional repositioning of a single charge body. All bodies are assumed to be on inter-planetary trajectories where the orbital mechanics can be neglected and the Coulomb attraction is the dominant force. Author Formation Flying; Sequential Control; Orbital Mechanics; Trajectories

20060048516 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA

SPECS: The Kilometer-baseline Far-IR Interferometer in NASA’s Space Science Roadmap Presentation Abel, Tom; Allen, Ron; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bombardelli, Claudio; Calzetti, Daniela; DiPirro, Michael J.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Evans, Neal; Fischer, Jackie, et al.; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 21 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document A viewgraph presentation describing the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) mission is shown. The topics include: 1) Context: community planning and study status; 2) Science goals; 3) Mission requirements; 4) Mission concepts for SPIRIT and SPECS; and 5) Tethered formation flying, a key enabling technology. CASI Far Infrared Radiation; Interferometers; NASA Space Programs; Aerospace Sciences; Submillimeter Waves; Cosmology; Kilometric Waves

20060048517 Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA, USA

Relative Sensor with 4Pi Coverage for Formation Flying Missions Tien, Jeffrey Y.; Purcell, George H., Jr.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Young, Lawrence E.; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 14 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color and black and white illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document

The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) pre-project, an element of NASA s Origins program, is currently developing two architectures for a mission to search for earth-like planets around nearby stars. One of the architectures being developed is the Formation Flying Interferometer (FFI). The FFI is envisioned to consist of up to seven spacecraft (as many as six ‘collectors’ with IR telescopes, and a ‘combiner’) flying in precise formation within +/-1 cm of pre-determined trajectories for synchronized observations. The spacecraft-to-spacecraft separations are variable between 20 m and 100 m or more during observations to support various configurations of the interferometer in the planet-finding mode. The challenges involved with TPF autonomous operations, ranging from formation acquisition and formation maneuvering to high precision formation control during science observations, are unprecedented. In this paper we discuss the development of the formation acquisition sensor, which uses novel modulation and duplexing schemes to enable fast signal acquisition, multiple-spacecraft operation, and mitigation of inherent jamming conditions, while providing precise formation sensing and integrated radar capability. This approach performs delay synthesis and carrier cycle ambiguity resolution to improve range measurement, and uses differential carrier cycle ambiguity resolution to make precise bearing angle measurements without calibration maneuvers. Author Formation Flying; Detection; Interferometers; Maneuvers; Rangefinding; Autonomy; Calibrating; Duplexers

20060048520 Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Webling, Germany

Close Formation Flight of Micro-Satellites for SAR Interferometry Fiedler, H.; Krieger, G.; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 9 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI:

A02, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is a powerful technique for deriving highly accurate digital elevation models on a global scale. To keep costs low, receive only satellites have been proposed to fly in close formation with an illuminating radar satellite. A new formation, called Trinodal Pendulum, is introduced and described in detail. Results of a performance estimation, flight dynamics analysis, and safety investigation are presented adopting this formation to the planned TerraSAR-L satellite. It is shown, that a global DEM according to the HRTI level 3 standard can be derived within less than 1 years. Author Synthetic Aperture Radar; Interferometry; Digital Elevation Models; Performance Prediction; Illuminating; Aerodynamics; Pendulums

20060048521 Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN, USA

Formations Near the Libration Points: Design Strategies Using Natural and Non-Natural Arcs Howell, K. C.; Marchand, B. G.; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 50 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations Contract(s)/Grant(s): NCC5-727; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document Space based observatory and interferometry missions, such as Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF), Stellar Imager, and MAXIM, have sparked great interest in multi-spacecraft formation flight in the vicinity of the Sun-Earth/Moon (SEM) libration points. The initial phase of this research considered the formation keeping problem from the perspective of continuous control as applied to non-natural formations. In the present study, closer inspection of the flow, corresponding to the stable and center manifolds near the reference orbit, reveals some interesting natural relative motions as well as some discrete control strategies for deployment. A hybrid control strategy is also employed that combines both the natural formation dynamics with non-natural motions via input feedback linearization techniques. Author Librational Motion; Dynamic Models; Earth-Moon System; Terrestrial Planets; Formation Flying; Arcs

20060048522 Alcatel Space Industries, Cannes la Bocca, France

Accurate Formation Flying Design and Validation for the Darwin Precursor Demonstration Mission Pirson, Laurent; Charbonnel, Catherine; Udrea, Bogdan; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 10 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color and black and white illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document The implementation of a formation flying concept is being considered by ESA for the Darwin space interferometer mission, scheduled for 2014. In order to prepare this mission, some studies are led to demonstrate the feasibility of the global

project. One of the critical points is the metrology chain and the GNC system that must be developed to answer to the constraining requirements imposed by the formation flying. The considered precursor mission aims at elaborating a full GNC system, including avionics fault tolerant architecture. The mission is composed of one interferometric arm (two telescope flyers and one hub combiner). A system study has first determined the constraints on the GNC subsystem, then proposed a set of metrology equipment. Using these inputs an original GNC architecture has been developed. It has been corrected and validated thanks to a comprehensive matlab simulation tool. The last step of the validation procedure is its implementation on a real-time testbench. Author Formation Flying; Interferometers; Space Missions; Avionics; Metrology

20060048523 Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain

PLATFORM: A Formation Flying, RvD and Robotic Validation Test-bench Molina, Miguel Angel; Carrascosa, Carmelo; Colmenarejo, Pablo; Gandia, Fernando; Barrena, Valentin; Garcia-Casas, Alberto; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 13 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document Formation flying and RvD are very specific spatial scenarios that will play a predominant role in the close future scientific missions (planetary detection through telescope interferometry or planetary exploration through sample return missions respectively). Many efforts are currently being invested in the development of GNC techniques and new sensors for these scenarios. In parallel, there is an increasing need of on-ground testing and validating the new techniques and sensors before affording a flight demo mission. PLATFORM is a ground test bench being developed by GMV and devoted to the testing and validation of such features with the main particularity of providing real controlled motion generation of spacecraft mock-ups through the use of a high-accuracy robotic arm and the use of real sensors under quasi-real physical configuration. This paper describes the elements of the test bench and affords the problematic of the setting up and exploitation requirements of the PLATFORM test bench. Author Formation Flying; Robotics; Rendezvous Spacecraft; Spacecraft Docking; Test Facilities

20060048526 Maryland Univ., College Park, MD, USA

Virtual Rigid Body (VRB) Satellite Formation Control: Stable Mode-Switching and Cross-Coupling Sanner, Robert M.; Proffen, Daniel K.; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 15 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document This paper presents a method for making the Virtual Rigid Body (VRB) formation control framework robust to perturbations in the motions of individual spacecraft. Such perturbations may arise from unexpected environmental disturbances, or from partial failures of the navigation or propulsion system of a spacecraft. The new method is equivalent to stably attaching virtual springs connecting each of the formation members. This serves to distribute the impact of disturbances over all the spacecraft in a manner which preserves the overall formation shape. A simulation using the tetrahedral formation

of the proposed Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is used to illustrate application of the new technique. Author Natural Satellites; Rigid Structures; Altitude Control; Navigation; Cross Coupling; Multimission Modular Spacecraft

20060048527 EADS Astrium Ltd., Toulouse, France

High Precision Optical Metrology for DARWIN Calvel, Bertrand; Cabeza, Isabel; Cabral, Alexander; Rebordao, Jose; Manske, Eberhard; Sesselmann, Rainer; Sodnik, Zoran; Verlaan, Ad; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 10 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document The ESA DARWIN project uses a set of telescopes based on free flying satellites and operated in formation as an aperture synthesis system. During science formation flying the relative position of all these satellites has to be maintained with a very high accuracy. This is only possible with the help of a very high precision metrology system. We present here in a first part the requirements for the optical metrology of DARWIN and the proposed definition of the metrology systems needed to answer these requirements. In the second part we present the design of the various systems. Eventually we give the results

of the performance tests of breadboards that have been manufactured in the framework of the ESA study ‘High Precision Optical Metrology’ to validate these designs. The proposed metrology systems can also be used in other formation flying missions such as two satellites X ray telescopes etc. Author Formation Flying; Performance Tests; Synthetic Apertures; Systems Engineering; Metrology

20060048528 Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse, France

SIMBOL-X : Formation Flying for High-Energy Astrophysics Mission Duchon, Paul; Delpech, Michel; Fourcade, Jean; Gonzalez, Francois; Hinglais, Emmanuel; Mercier, Karine; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 13 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document Today, new concepts and recent technologies allow considering future mission based on Formation Flying. In this context, the present study has been managed and implemented in CNES Toulouse*. This work represents one of the first CNES study in the field of ‘Formation Flying Missions & Technologies’. SIMBOL-X is a ‘hard X-ray’ mission covering the ‘0.5 - 70 keV’ range, which is proposed by a consortium of European laboratories for a launch at the beginning of the next decade1. SIMBOL-X will improve X-ray space telescope performances increasing its focal length with an objective of 30m between the ‘Mirror Spacecraft’ and the ‘Detector Spacecraft’ in formation flying to compare with 7.5m - XMM telescope focal length. This paper presents preliminary study results concerning this new space system concept. Author Formation Flying; Astrophysics; Spaceborne Telescopes

20060048530 Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Wessling, Germany

A Tight Formation for Along-track SAR Interferometry Gill, Eberhard; Runge, Hartmut; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 12 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document Space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has evolved into a mature technology over the past two decades. In the field of interferometric SAR (InSAR) applications, along-track SAR interferometry is of particular scientific interest, since it allows to resolve the velocity of on-ground objects and ocean currents. The accuracy of the velocity resolution on ground scales directly with the along-track separation between adjacent SAR antennas. Therefore, a distributed sensor concept to be implemented on a formation flying mission overcomes the limitations of a single space vehicle. This study establishes a scenario of tight formation flight for an along-track interferometry SAR mission in the L- and X-Band. To this end, the appropriate formation baselines as well as the absolute and relative orbit reconstruction requirements are derived from basic interferometric principles. A discussion of the potentials and drawbacks of inter-satellite navigation sensor types is presented along with the accuracy of state-of-the-art relative orbit reconstruction. Following a pre-selection of appropriate actuator types for formation acquisition and control, formation flying guidance and control considerations are presented and fuel consumption estimates are provided.

Author Formation Flying; Navigation Instruments; Interferometry; Synthetic Aperture Radar; Superhigh Frequencies

20060048531 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Japan

Realization of the Solar Power Satellite using the Formation Flying Solar Reflector Oda, Mitsushige; Ueno, Hiroshi; Takeichi, Noboru; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 6 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document There are various concepts for a solar-power satellite (SPS) that collects solar energy in space and sends the collected energy to Earth by microwave or some other means. However, most SPS concepts need a mechanical joint between the Sun-looking segment (mirrors or photovoltaic arrays) and the Earth-looking segments (microwave power transmission antenna). This mechanical joint will have poor reliability. This paper introduces an innovative SPS concept that does not use mechanical joints. The proposed SPS consists of three independent satellites, two primary mirrors and one SPS main body that is the energy conversion and transmission module. The main body is placed in geostationary Earth orbit. Two primary mirrors

are placed north and south of the main body. The primary mirrors use solar pressure as a lifting force. This solar pressure keeps the primary mirrors north and south of the SPS main body. Therefore, orbital plans call for two primary mirrors and a main body in parallel with each other.


Solar Reflectors; Formation Flying; Solar Power Satellites; Solar Arrays; Geosynchronous Orbits; Photovoltaic Cells

20060048533 Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY, USA

Spacecraft Formation Flying near Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange Point: Trajectory Generation and Adaptive Full-State Feedback Control Wong, Hong; Kapila, Vikram; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and

Technologies; September 2004; 36 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color and black and white


Contract(s)/Grant(s): NGT5-151; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document In this paper, we present a method for trajectory generation and adaptive full-state feedback control to facilitate spacecraft formation flying near the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point. Specifically, the dynamics of a spacecraft in the neighborhood of a

Halo orbit reveals that there exist quasi-periodic orbits surrounding the Halo orbit. Thus, a spacecraft formation is created by placing a leader spacecraft on a desired Halo orbit and placing follower spacecraft on desired quasi-periodic orbits. To produce

a formation maintenance controller, we first develop the nonlinear dynamics of a follower spacecraft relative to the leader

spacecraft. We assume that the leader spacecraft is on a desired Halo orbit trajectory and the follower spacecraft is to track

a desired quasi-periodic orbit surrounding the Halo orbit. Then, we design an adaptive, full-state feedback position tracking controller for the follower spacecraft providing an adaptive compensation for the unknown mass of the follower spacecraft. The proposed control law is simulated for the case of the leader and follower spacecraft pair and is shown to yield global, asymptotic convergence of the relative position tracking errors.


Feedback Control; Formation Flying; Trajectories; Halos; Orbits

20060048534 Texas Univ., Austin, TX, USA

Navigation Algorithms for Formation Flying Missions

Huxel, Paul J.; Bishop, Robert H.; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 12 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color and black and white


Contract(s)/Grant(s): NRA-03-GSFC/AETD-01; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A03, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document The objective of the investigations is to develop navigation algorithms to support formation flying missions. In particular, we examine the advantages and concerns associated with the use of combinations of inertial and relative measurements, as well as address observability issues. In our analysis we consider the interaction between measurement types, update frequencies, and trajectory geometry and their cumulative impact on observability. Furthermore, we investigate how relative

measurements affect inertial navigation in terms of algorithm performance.


Algorithms; Formation Flying; Inertial Navigation

20060048535 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA

Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.; Proceedings from the 2nd International Symposium on Formation Flying Missions and Technologies; September 2004; 9 pp.; In English; See also 20060048512; Original contains color illustrations; Copyright; Avail.: CASI: A02, Hardcopy; Available from CASI on CD-ROM only as part of the entire parent document Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest