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Energy Management in Spinning Mill
R.Senthil Kumar, Department of Textile Technology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore, India email@example.com
Content 1.1 Significance of Energy Management in the Spinning mill 1.2 Manufacturing Cost of Yarn in spinning mill 1.3 Energy Distribution in Ring Spinning Process 1.4 Calculation of Energy Consumption of Ring frame Machines 1.5 Energy Management Programmes 1.6 Energy Conservation in the Spinning Mill 1.6.1 Spinning Preparatory Process 22.214.171.124. High-speed Carding machine 126.96.36.199. Installation of electronic roving end break stop-motion detectors instead of pneumatic systems 188.8.131.52 Ring Frame (a) Use of Energy-efficient spindle oil (b) Oil Level in the Spindle Bolster (c) Light Weight Spindles (d) Synthetic Sandwich tapes for ring frames (e) Optimization of ring diameter with respect to yarn count in ring frames
(f) Installation of Energy-efficient motors in ring frames
(g) Provision of False Ceiling in the Ring frame department (h) Replacing conventional Aluminium fans with Energy efficient FRP fans in the Pneumafil suction system of ring frame: (i) Use of light weight spinning bobbins in ring frames (j) High-Speed Ring spinning machine: (k) Installation of a Soft-Starter on Ring frame motor drives 1.6.2 Energy Conservation in Post spinning process (a) Intermittent modes of the movement of empty bobbin conveyors in Autoconer/cone winding machines
(b) Two for One twister
(c) Yarn conditioning process 1.6.3 Energy Conservation in Humidification System
(a) Replacement of Aluminium fan impellers with high efficiency FRP fan impellers in humidification plants and cooling tower fans (b) Installation of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) on humidification system fan motors for flow control (c) Other Areas in Humidification System (d) Replacement of Ordinary V-belt with Cogged V-belt 1.6.4 Over Head Travelling Cleaners (OHTC): (a) Attachment of Control Systems in OHTC: (b) Provision of Energy efficient fan instead of blower fan in OHTC: 1.6.5 Electrical Distribution Network: 184.108.40.206 Cable Losses 220.127.116.11 Power Factor 1.7 Lighting: 1.7.1 Replacement of T-12 Tubes with T-8 Tubes 1.7.2 Replace magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts 1.7.3 Optimization of Lighting (lux) in Production and Non-production Areas 1.7.4 Optimum Use of Natural Sunlight 1.8 Compressed Air System 1.8.1 Reduction of demand 1.8.2 Maintenance 1.8.3Monitoring 1.8.4 Reduction of leaks (in pipes and equipment) 1.8.5 Electronic condensate drain traps (ECDTs) 1.8.6 Reduction of the inlet air temperature 1.8.7 Maximizing allowable pressure dew point at air intake 1.8.8 Optimizing the compressor to match its load 1.8.9 Proper pipe sizing 1.8.10 Heat recovery 1.8.11 Adjustable speed drives (ASDs)
10.1 Motor Maintenance 18.104.22.168.10.1 Calculating the load factor (LF) 1.10 Motor Management plan 1.2 Energy-efficient motors 1.3 Rewinding of motors 1.9 Energy Demand Control 22.214.171.124 Power factor correction 1.11 References .5 Minimizing Voltage Unbalances 1.
Energy Management in the Spinning Mill 1. as well as high cost of fuels resulted in more activities to conserve energy to maximum extent. The textile industry retains a record of the lowest efficiency in energy utilization and is one of the .1 Significance of Energy Management in the Spinning mill: The need of energy conservation has assumed paramount importance due to the rapid growth of industries causing substantial energy consumptions in textile operations.1. Global energy crisis.
energy conservation is a must for survival: that is a much more powerful imperative. Manufacturing cost of 20 Tex cotton combed yarn in various countries (%) .for materials and finished products . 23% in weaving. what remains within our control is conversion cost and energy costs are perhaps our greatest opportunity for cost reduction in the country today. About 34% of energy is consumed in spinning. 1.are increasingly dictated by global markets. This chapter analyzes in detail about the actual conditions of energy consumption in each department and measures for energy conservation in each area of spinning industry.2 Manufacturing Cost of Yarn in spinning mill: In today's competitive yarn market. As prices .With more and more utilization of electrical energy and faster growth of industries. labour.major energy consuming industries. The energy cost in increasing at a faster pace and is the largest conversion cost accounting for about 10% of the sales and almost 5 times the net profit margin of a spinning mill. competing with other manufacturers depends on producing high quality yarns with reasonable costs. energy or power. The cost of yarn consists of several factors such as raw material. the impetus of energy conservation is increasing by leaps and bounds. Today. The emphasis on awareness about the energy conservation is essential in the present circumstances. The three major factors for energy conservation are high capacity utilization. The cost of yarn excluding raw material is termed manufacturing cost. 38% in chemical processing and another 5% for miscellaneous purposes. capital etc. fine tuning of equipment and technology upgradation.
air conditioning and illuminating the atmosphere where yarns are manufactured in spinning mills. Ring spinning system consumes . Energy is necessary for each step of spinning processes to drive machines.5 8 39 5 4 Blow room Carding Combing Drawing & Roving Ring spinning Yarn Finishing 6. but the highest energy consumption occurs during the spinning process in spinning machines. After raw material. In addition to these. capital cost of machines. Raw material (fibre) forms nearly half of the yarn's total cost and other cost factors such as labor. air conditioning and lighting. energy.The share of the factors in manufacturing cost changes according to the yarn properties. compressors which provide compressed air to the spinning line use energy .5 30 Air conditioning Fig 1 Energy distribution in Ring spinning process Energy is generally used for operating machines. 1. auxiliary material cost and waste make up the remaining part. machine operational properties and economical situation of the spinning mill.3 Energy Distribution in Ring Spinning Process: Energy Distribution in spinning process 7. capital and energy costs have the highest proportions in the total.
more energy than any other spinning systems. the specific energy consumption of ring machines is found as 1.04 m. αtext = 3828.p. waste ratio. mechanical efficiency and energy loss of ring spinning machines. SEC is the specific energy consumption (kWh/kg) in a ring spinning machine. n is the speed of the spindle (1000 r.4 Calculation of Energy Consumption of Ring frame Machines: Since the highest energy consumption occurs in spinning machines during yarn manufacturing.p. 1. However. Energy consumed to drive the spindle will constitute nearly 85% of the total power consumption in the ring frame machine. there might be a slight difference between the calculated and actual values that is attributable to the difference in parameters such as speed.. package size and spindle speed.m. F is the linear density of yarn (Tex). Dr is the diameter of the ring (m). The remaining energy is consumed by drafting and lifter mechanism.36 kWh/kg.). The production parameters assumed for 20 Tex combed yarn are n = 17500 r. many studies have been carried out on the energy consumption of spinning machines. One of these studies shows that specific energy consumption in a ring spinning machine can be calculated with the equation given below: Where. If these parameters are used in the equation above. It will depend upon the details such as yarn count.m. and αtext is the twist factor of the yarn. Major Areas to Conserve Energy in Yarn Manufacturing Process • • • • • Ring frame Humidification process Electrical distribution network Lighting systems Compressed air distribution . and Dr = 0.
only occur when a strong organizational commitment exists. Continuous improvements to energy-efficiency. therefore.1. but rather are continuously identified and implemented in a process of continuous improvement. In companies without a clear program in place. It could be noted that the concept shown in this figure for energy management system builds from the ISO quality management system’s philosophy of Plan-Do-Check-Act. Energy management programmes help to ensure that energy-efficiency improvements do not just happen on a one-time basis. poor accountability for measures. even when energy is a significant cost. These barriers may include a lack of communication among plants. a poor understanding of how to create support for an energy-efficiency project.5 Energy Management Programmes: A sound energy management programme is required to create a foundation for positive change and to provide guidance for managing energy throughout an organization. . but may not be promoted or implemented because of organizational barriers. The major elements in a strategic energy management program are shown in the below figure. or organizational inertia adverse to changes from the status quo. opportunities for improvement may be known. limited finances.
This new carding machine is large and each machine consumes considerable amounts of electricity.1. technical assessments. and creating a crossfunctional energy team. High-speed Carding machine: This machine separates the lumps of small fibers that result from the disentangling of tufts in the “opening-and-picking” stage of primary processing. On the other hand. Personnel at all levels should be aware of energy use and goals for efficiency. From this assessment. lint balls. and thus results in power-savings of 160kW. This involves assigning oversight and management duties to an energy director.6.6.A successful energy management program begins with a strong organizational commitment to the continuous improvement of energy-efficiency. improving the arrangement of good quality fibers in the longitudinal direction. Establishing a strong communications program and seeking recognition for accomplishments are critical steps to build support and momentum for future activities. . Evaluating performance involves the regular review of both energy use data and the activities carried out as part of the action plan.1. An important aspect for ensuring the success of the action plan is involving personnel throughout the organization. and producing card sliver. establishing an energy policy. twelve conventional machines requiring 27kW/machine can be replaced by four of the new machines requiring 41 kW/machine. Information gathered during the formal review process helps in setting new performance goals and action plans and in revealing best practices. and short fibers. For instance. Staff should be trained in general approaches to energy efficiency in day-to-day practices. 1/3 the number of new machines and half the total power can produce the same production capacity as ordinary carding machines. and benchmarking. and simultaneously removes impurities. since productivity is high.6 Energy Conservation in the Spinning Mill: 1. an organization is able to develop a baseline of energy use and set goals for improvement.1 Spinning Preparatory Process: 1. Steps and procedures are then put in place to assess performance through regular reviews of energy data. 1. Such performance goals help to shape the development and implementation of an action plan.
one should carefully evaluate important characteristics related to the service life of the oil.1. spindles consume about 30% of the energy consumption. This measure is implemented in many textile plants around the world.1. in the range of 5 – 7% depending upon viscosity. The dipstick has two distinct . metal compatibility. 75% of the bolster capacity is filled with oil.2.. the roving end-break system can be converted from a pneumatic suction tube detector to a photoelectric stop-motion system end-break detector in order to save energy. Installation of electronic roving end break stop-motion detectors instead of pneumatic systems: In a speed frame machine.3 Ring Frame: (a) Use of Energy-efficient spindle oil In ring spinning frame. The correct or exact amount of oil for each type of spindle insert could be assured by using a dipstick. The usual method of determining the depth of oil level in the bolster is by lifting the spindle and observing the oiliness of the spindle blade.6. The incorporation of a dispersant additive system to the mineral-based spindle oil may result in energy savings of up to 3% when compared to conventional oils. and (2) The reduction in bolster temperature rise over ambient: energy saving oils result in lesser temperature increases. However. The energy-efficiency potential of particular oil can be assessed in two ways: (1) The reduction in electricity consumption. thermal stability. temperature rise.1. While selecting any energy saving spindle oil. an excessively high oil level in the bolster may disturb the proper running of the spindle. synthetic-based spindle oils (energy-efficient grades) along with certain metal compatibility additives may result in higher energy savings. Also.2 MWh/year/machine 1. i.6. (b) Oil Level in the Spindle Bolster: The electricity consumption in the ring frame increases with an increase in the oil level in the bolsters because of resistance caused by the oil. Normally.e. The amount of actual savings will depend upon the condition of the machinery and their operation condition. The average energy saving reported is 3. sludge forming tendency and anti-wear/antifriction properties.
the bottom marking for minimum and the top marking for maximum oil levels. i. these tapes offer 5 – 10% energy saving. (d) Synthetic Sandwich tapes for ring frames Synthetic sandwich spindle tapes are made of polyamide. . have good dimensional stability. As there is no excess filling of spindle oil into the bolster. Larger ring diameters facilitate higher bobbin content with a heavier package. and are made of soft and flexible tape bodies. In this regard. The solution to this issue is that.markings. Sandwich tapes run stable. The installation of energy-efficient tapes in ring frames in average resulted in energy savings of 4. therefore. The reduction of 10% in bobbin content decreases the ring frame energy intensity by about 10%. Within a ring frame. various oil dosing equipment are available today for filling and topping spindle bolsters with the predetermined quantity of oil.8mm) spindles consume about 10% less energy with lower speed operation of tin roller shaft. The oil level should.5mm to 18. based on the count ranges. Lighter (from 320 g to 265 g) and lower wharve diameter (from 25 mm/ 22. cotton yarn and a special synthetic rubber mix. which may include the following items: • The yarn count range for a specific period is unpredictable. Energy saving also can be achieved by using light weight spindles. resulting in excess energy consumption. Because of these special characteristics. result in less weak-twist yarn. it prevents wastage of oil as well as energy. don’t break. Before ring diameter modification is undertaken the technical feasibility of the modification should be assesses. (c) Light Weight Spindles: Ring frames are the largest energy consumer in the ring spinning process.4 MWh/year/ring frame. do not cause fiber sticking. For finer yarn counts. 38 millimeter (mm)/ 36mm diameter and for medium yarn counts. 40mm ring diameters are recommended. spindles rotation is the largest energy consumer.e. (e) Optimization of ring diameter with respect to yarn count in ring frames Ring diameter significantly influences the energy use of the ring frame. be checked with a dipstick after every topping and the level should be maintained within the limits prescribed by the machinery manufacturers. the ring frames should be segregated by suitable ring diameter in the way that each group of ring frames produce specific yarn count.
• • The life span of existing rings is also unpredictable due to high-speed operation. During a typical energy audit. power factor and the running kW is measured using sophisticated instruments. (g) Provision of False Ceiling in the Ring frame department: The spinning process needs to be carried out under controlled atmospheric conditions. The electrical energy savings with the installation of a false ceiling for a 15000 spindles capacity spinning mill is 125MWh/year (8 kWh/spindle/ year). thereby reducing energy consumption. These no load tests are an indication of the rewinding quality of the motors. The humidification plant takes care of proper maintenance of relative humidity and temperature inside the ring frame department. the reduction in efficiency in the post spinning phase can be compensated by running the machines at a higher speed. it is advisable to bring down the motor body temperature for better efficiency. However. Typically. No load tests should be conducted on motors during energy audits. The energy used by the humidification facility is directly related to the volume of the facility where the spinning process is carried out. The following points should be taken care in motors to conserve energy: • Rewound motors reduce motor efficiency. • • To improve the efficiency of motor for the given motor & load characteristics. cone winding) due to lower bobbin content. the operating parameters of the motors like operating current. Overall efficiency is reduced in the post spinning phase (e. The use of a false ceiling can help to reduce this volume. the no load current of a motor is about 35-40% of the full load current. it is important to make sure that the electric motors installed in the ring frames have the highest possible efficiency.” (f) Installation of Energy-efficient motors in ring frames As ring frames are the most energy intensive equipment in the spinning process. voltage. Even a slight efficiency improvement in ring frame motors could result in significant electricity savings that could pay back the initial investment in a short period. .g.
(j) High-Speed Ring spinning machine: High speed ring frame has an increased operating speed by 10 – 20% with similar power consumption as compared to conventional ring frame. The heavier the bobbins are. the power requirement is 36. yarn is collected on plastic bobbins. The average electricity savings from the implementation of this measure is reported to be between 5. As a result. as smooth starts and gradual .(h) Replacing conventional Aluminium fans with Energy efficient FRP fans in the Pneumafil suction system of ring frame: Ring frames have pneumafil suction fans. Bobbins are inserted into the spindles which are rotating at higher speeds. Nowadays. (i) Use of light weight spinning bobbins in ring frames In ring frames.8 and 40 MWh/year/fan. The soft-starter is also suited to situations where a smooth start is desirable to avoid shocks to the drive system or where a gradual start is required to avoid damage to the product/process/drive system and accessories. The replacement of 30 – 35 gram bobbins (cops) with 28 gram bobbins resulted in average electricity savings of 10. The rotating of spindles is the highest energy consumption activity in ring machines. which are used to collect fibers when a yarn break occurs.8 MWh/year/ring frame (assuming 12 doff a day).0 – 40. A soft-starter is designed to make it possible to choose the lowest voltage possible (the “pedestal voltage”) at which the motor can be started – the lowest voltage being dependent on the load on the motor. a soft-starter can reduce the costs incurred by yarn breaks on a ring frame when its motor starts after each doff. the more energy is required for the rotation of bobbins and hence spindles. Energy-efficient FRP fans could be installed in place of conventional aluminum fans in the pneumafil suction system of ring frames. the use of lighter bobbins in place of conventional ones is getting more attention.5 kW in comparison with that of 45kW for conventional ring spinning machines for the same production. (k) Installation of a Soft-Starter on Ring frame motor drives: The starting current drawn by an induction motor is directly proportional to the applied voltage.
The type of nozzles used for spraying the water can effectively influence the electricity use of the yarn conditioning system. the other advantages of this measure are a reduction in the maximum power demand and an improvement in the power factor. (c) Yarn conditioning process: Yarn cones are put in a yarn conditioning room in which yarn is kept under a maintained temperature and humidity. Balloon size can be optimized by taking account of various studies with respect to different yarn counts.4 MWh/year. This measure saves about 4% of total energy consumption in TFOs. In addition to the electricity savings. This resulted in electricity savings of 49. The balloon diameter can be reduced with a reduction in yarn tension by providing a modified outer pot. 1.acceleration of motors eliminate shocks during starting. The replacement of jet nozzles with energyefficient mist nozzles in yarn conditioning machine saves electricity of about 31MWh/year. In such rooms.2 Energy Conservation in Post spinning process: (a) Intermittent modes of the movement of empty bobbin conveyors in Autoconer/cone winding machines: The continuous movement of empty bobbin conveyor belts can be converted into an intermittent mode of movement.6. . Average electricity savings reported from the implementation of this measure on ring frames is about 1 – 5.2 MWh/year per ring frame. It has been observed that TFOs consume less electricity at lower balloon settings. An energy saving of 250MWh/year by optimizing the balloon setting of its TFO machines is reported in a mill. the softness and quality of the yarn and to increase its weigh. This measure results in not only substantial energy saving but also results in maintenance cost savings and waste reduction. usually water is sprayed in to the air to provide the required moisture for the yarn to improve its strength. (b) Two for One twister: In two-for-one twisting machines the balloon tension of yarn accounts for about 50% of total energy consumption.
usually through rotary drum filters on the inlet of each RF.5 MWh/year/fan. Automatic humidification system consumes 25% to 35% of the total mill power. and humidified by four air washers. Optimal aerodynamic design of FRP (fiberglass reinforced plastic) fan impellers provides higher efficiencies for any specific application. Ventilation systems use supply fans (SFs) and return fans (RFs) to circulate high humidity air to maintain proper ambient conditions. air-conditioning. the mixture of return air and fresh air is cleaned. Initially. ventilation. . producing required temperatures and relative humidity levels. and control suspended particulate and airborne fibers.1.3 Energy Conservation in Humidification System: Humidification system creates amiable atmosphere to the machines and operatives. Fans with FRP impellers consume less electricity compared to fans with aluminum alloy impellers under the same working conditions.6. Fans with FRP impellers require lower drive motor ratings and light duty bearing systems. The RFs then pull air through the processing machines into a network of underground tunnels that filter out suspended particles and fibers. cooled. This retrofit measure resulted in average savings of 55. This air is then supplied to the facility by the SFs and distributed to the plant through ceiling mounted ducts and diffusers. The following areas in humidification system have highest possibilities for energy conservation: (a) Replacement of Aluminium fan impellers with high efficiency FRP fan impellers in humidification plants and cooling tower fans: Axial fans are widely used for providing required airflow in cooling towers. A reduction in the overall weight of fans also extends the life of mechanical drive systems. (b) Installation of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) on humidification system fan motors for flow control: Temperature and humidity levels must be closely monitored and maintained for textile processes (especially spinning and weaving) so that yarns will run smoothly through the processing machines. a well functioning ventilation system is imperative to the plant's successful operation. cool process machinery. and humidification systems.
etc. The saving and cost of the measure depend on various factors such as the size of the fan. the operating conditions. damper control is no longer necessary. system pressure and air filter pressure drops. the climate. (c) Other Areas in Humidification System: . Therefore. Points to be considered in Supply Air System for Improved efficiency Return air trenches should be designed with minimum corners and bends and should be given a smooth finish to reduce air-resistance. Thus. these devices control fan speed instead of changing the dampers’ position. and parallel fan operation all affect how much energy the fans require and must be monitored to ensure the efficient functioning of the system. the type of VFD used. changes to damper positions. Rotary return air drum filters with effective suction fan for continuous fluff removal will help to keep the return air filters clean and reduce air resistance. False ceiling height should be minimum 4. V-Shape fresh air filter can be provided for reducing fluff accumulation inside the supply air system. Points to be considered in Supply Air System for Improved efficiency Attic Ventilation is to be provided to reduce transmitted heat through the roof. thereby reducing power consumption of return air fan motor. supply and return air system interaction. Sufficient size of fresh air damper will improve plant efficiency. or resistance of the system directly impact the fan energy requirements. so in the use of VFDs fan control dampers are opened 100 percent. VFDs can be installed on flow controls. volume. The average electricity saving reported for this retrofit in a plant is 105 MWh/year/fan.25 meter (14 ft.) from floor level to improve the uniform air circulation. thereby save electricity use by the fans. False ceiling is to be insulated. air density.Factors that influence the pressure.
(ii) Use of PVC air inlet louvers and eliminators: With PVC blades and moderate air velocity (not exceeding 600 fpm for low velocity air washer system and not exceeding 1200 fpm for high velocity air washer system) are desirable to reduce the air resistance in the air washer with consequent reduction in design static pressure for supply air fan selection so as to reduce fan motor power consumption. one overhead traveling cleaner serves every 1008/1200-spindle ring spinning frame. It takes about 140 seconds to move from one end of the ring frame to the other end. The adoption of the following features in OHTC save electrical energy in a significant manner. (a) Attachment of Control Systems in OHTC: .(i) Under deck Insulation: Generally. A common waste collection system (WCS) is an independent sub-system designated to collect waste from groups of OHTC(s). The implementation of such modification on 20 V-belt drives in a spinning plant resulted in electricity savings equal to 30 MWh/year. 1. Fluff removal and machine cleaning can be accomplished with the support of overhead traveling cleaners (OHTC). OHTC is continuously blowing/sucking off air and waste in and around different component parts of the machine during its traverse motion.6. thereby saving energy.000 kWh per year. which affects the quality of the outgoing yarn/fabric. It moves on rails at a speed of about 16 meters per minute. industrial roofing is of asbestos cement sheets or metal sheets (GI / Aluminum) and under deck insulation with minimum 50 mm thick resin bonded glass wool of 32 kg/m3 density is necessary to reduce the heat gain through the roof and minimize the attic temperature rise within the false ceiling. one overhead travelling cleaner consumes about 17.4 Over Head Travelling Cleaners (OHTC): Spinning mill usually needs to effectively manage the waste (fluff) generated during fiber processing. In modern mills. (d) Replacement of Ordinary V-belt with Cogged V-belt: Ordinary V-belts can be replaced with cogged V-belts to reduce friction losses. In general.
The losses are proportional to the square of current. Therefore.126.96.36.199. 1. This method can be adopted for plants processing fine counts in which dust liberation is less. An energy savings of about 20% is achievable with a quick payback period of less than 6 months. An off timer can be incorporated. reducing reactive power by improving the power factor of the plant is an important measure in reducing energy use and costs. • Optical Control System OHTC: An optical sensor to sense the position of the OHTCs on the ring frames can also be used. Hence the selection of panel board position and main panel room and transformer location is very important. The replacement of low value capacitors with addition of new capacitors reduces the system losses which considerably saves24.5 Electrical Distribution Network: 1. with a feature of extending the delay of operation for 0 to 30 minutes in a stepped manner.2 Power Factor: There are many electric motors in a spinning plant that can cause reactive power. It is reported that the energy consumption was reduced by 41% when compared with base conditions. A case-study implementing this measure reported average electricity savings of 2 MWh/year for each fan.8 MWh/year per OHTC.6. Hence for energy efficient electrical design the main concept in the mind should be that there will be minimum cable length.1 MWh/year.1 Cable Losses: The cable losses are directly proportional to the length. The average electricity savings reported from a case-study were 5. It is also possible by incorporating automatic PF control panels to achieve maximum power factor.The attachment of following control systems in OHTC gives rise to considerable energy savings: • Timer-based control system for OHTC: An energy-efficient control system using timer circuits can be introduced in addition to a main contactor provided in the control box to start and stop the OHTC whenever it touches the ends of the ring frame over which it moves in a linear path. (b) Provision of Energy efficient fan instead of blower fan in OHTC: Existing blower fans of OHTCs can be replaced by energy-efficient fans with smaller diameters and less weight. 1. This system will start running the blower fan of the WCS only during the required operation time. .
Table 2 : Lamp Characteristics from Energy star Upgrade Manual for Buildings LT servo stabilizer of suitable capacity is recommended in the main lighting feeder with the set voltage of around 200V. with 70-80 lux/watt. This measure ensures a saving of about 10%.7 Lighting: Lighting system constitutes about 4% of the total energy consumption in a spinning mill. Electricity saving fluorescent lamps. . this has helped to reduce lighting bills by around 15% a year. computers and printers when not in use. The effectiveness of illumination is also affected by various other factors such as the layout of the working area. particularly after office hours.1. Other lighting saving measures may include turning off lights. have much higher luminous efficiency than tungsten ones with 10-15 lux/watt. the colour of the interior and the distance of the light source to the illuminated area. In one plant.
thereby saves electricity. And also it is practically possible to use natural sunlight in every department due to usage of humidification system. maintenance and energy costs are high. the plant engineers should optimize the lighting system based on the standard lux specific for each process step. Replacing T-12 lamps with T-8 lamps approximately doubles the efficacy of the former.7. the transparent roof is placed to .7. 1. lamp life.) are replaced with T-8 tube lights. Therefore.1. T-12 tube lights also have extremely poor efficiency. In the areas such as cotton godown and blow room.8 cm dia.1 Replacement of T-12 Tubes with T-8 Tubes: T-12 tube lights (3. Department Spinning Preparatory Ring frame Winding Standard Illumination Level (lux) 40-50 75-100 100-125 If the lighting provided is higher than the standard (required lux) for any part of the production. A textile plant in India has reported energy savings of 936 kWh/ballast/year with the implementation of this measure. Electricity savings of 31 – 182 MWh/year is reported from different textile plants as the result of optimization of plant lighting. Energy savings vary based on the plant-specific situation and pre-existing lighting system. 1. The initial output for T-12 tube lights is high. Because of this.2 Replace magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts A ballast is a mechanism that regulates the amount of electricity required to start a lighting fixture and maintain a steady output of light. this results in a waste of electricity. The required lux in the blow room should be much lower than that of ring frame section.7. There are lux standards for each type of textile process. 1. and color rendering index. but energy consumption is also high.3 Optimization of Lighting (lux) in Production and Non-production Areas: In many plants the lighting system is not specifically designed for the process. Electronic ballasts save 12 – 25% of electricity use compared to magnetic ballast.7.4 Optimum Use of Natural Sunlight: Most of the spinning mills do not utilize natural sunlight to an optimum level. lumen depreciation.
8 Compressed Air System: Compressed air system is an inevitable ancillary section in the modern spinning mill. Excess friction due to worn out parts or lack of grease leads to higher power consumption. The design should ensure that the pressure drop should not be more than 0. minimum right angle bends.utilize the natural sunlight. Many opportunities exist to reduce energy use of compressed air systems. This is due to lesser friction losses. This can reduce the need for lighting during the day. This makes compressed air an expensive energy carrier compared to other energy carriers. reduces friction loss. Moisture in compressed air leads to corrosion in pipe lines increases internal resistance creates more pressure drop affects efficiency of compressor. Clogging of filters create chocking of filter leads to drop in suction pressure which reduces compressor efficiency. bearings and valve gears to be maintained with proper lubrication. This section consumes nearly 6% of the total mill energy consumption. Energy savings of 1 – 11.5 Kg/cm 2 (7 Psi) in the longest line. The components of the compressor such as piston. Avoid placing the compressor in hot environment which rises the inlet air temperature increases the energy consumption. More than 85% of the electrical energy input to an air compressor is lost as waste heat. piston rings. . The following points should be considered for energy savings in compressed air system: • • • • • • • • • • We can expect up to 5% of energy saving by centralizing compressor of higher capacity and higher efficiency. The oil level in the compressor is to be maintained properly. Use of required pipe size. In addition to optimizing the size of the windows.5 MWh/year is reported as the result of the efficient use of natural light 1. a transparent sheet can be installed at the roof in order to allow more sunlight to penetrate into the production area. leaving less than 15% of the electrical energy consumed to be converted to pneumatic compressed air energy. Maintain proper tension of the driving belt which saves sufficient amount of energy.
tubes. fittings.• • • The compressed air pipeline system should not have any air leakages. pipe joints. • Temperature gauges across the compressor and its cooling system to detect fouling and blockages. 1.8. 1.8. hoses. a maximum of 15% of power loss has been noticed in the mills. When the compressed air pipelines were not maintained properly.2 Maintenance Inadequate maintenance can lower compression efficiency. 1. • Dew point temperature gauges to monitor the effectiveness of air dryers. disconnects and thread sealants. open condensate traps and shut-off valves. • Flow meters to measure the quantity of air used.8. 1997): • Pressure gauges on each receiver or main branch line and differential gauges across dryers.8. The most common areas for leaks are couplings.1 Reduction of demand Because of the relatively expensive operating costs of compressed air systems. constantly monitored and reweighed against alternatives. 1. Quick connect fittings always leak and should be avoided. pressure regulators. leaks can make pneumatic . etc. In addition to increased energy consumption. filters. • kWh meters and hours run meters on the compressor drive. Pressure guns to be provided to avoid wastage of compressed air. the minimum quantity of compressed air should be used for the shortest possible time. increase air leakage or pressure variability and lead to increased operating temperatures.3Monitoring Maintenance can be supported by monitoring using proper instrumentation.4 Reduction of leaks (in pipes and equipment) Leaks cause an increase in compressor energy and maintenance costs. including (CADDET. Better maintenance will reduce these problems and save energy. poor moisture control and excessive contamination.
A simple way to detect large leaks is to apply soapy water to suspect areas. Importing fresh air has paybacks of up to 5 years. 2001). (2000). Leak repair and maintenance can sometimes reduce this number to less than 10%. continuous bleeding. A rule of thumb is that desiccant dryers consume 7 to 14% and refrigerated dryers consume 1 to 2% of . and is determined by the pressure. 2001). the physical size of the leak and electricity costs.6 Reduction of the inlet air temperature Reducing the inlet air temperature reduces energy used by the compressor. it is possible to reduce this inlet air temperature by taking suction from outside the building.7 Maximizing allowable pressure dew point at air intake Choose the dryer that has the maximum allowable pressure dew point. depending on the location of the compressor air inlet (CADDET. but is extremely wasteful and costly in terms of air leakage. The payback period depends on the amount of leakage reduced. operating hours.systems/equipment less efficient and adversely affect production. As a rule of thumb. In many plants.5 Electronic condensate drain traps (ECDTs) Due to the necessity to remove condensate from the system. 1997). Parekh. A typical plant that has not been well maintained could have a leak rate between 20 to 50% of total compressed air production capacity (Ingersoll Rand. Electronic condensate drain traps (ECDTs) offer improved reliability and are very efficient as virtually no air is wasted when the condensate is rejected. 1. 1997. Overall. lead to additional maintenance requirements and increased unscheduled downtime. which can recognize the high frequency hissing sounds associated with air leaks. The best way is to use an ultrasonic acoustic detector. shorten the life of equipment. achieved by forcing a receiver drain valve to open. Similar figures are quoted by Cergel et al. each 3°C reduction will save 1% compressor energy use (CADDET. 1.8.8. 2000). a 20% reduction of annual energy consumption in compressed air systems is projected for fixing leaks (Radgen and Blaustein. 1.8. often becomes the normal operating practice. and best efficiency.
8.8. industrial cleaning processes. In many cases. Some plants have installed modular systems with several smaller compressors to match compressed air needs in a modular way (Cergel et al.8 Optimizing the compressor to match its load Plant personnel have a tendency to purchase larger equipment than needed. 1. When used for space heating. 2000). 2008). 1. Given the fact that compressors consume more energy during part-load operation.10 Heat recovery As mentioned earlier.S. 2001). In some cases. the . driven by safety margins or anticipated additional future capacity. makeup air heating.S. Inadequate pipe sizing can cause pressure losses.the total energy of the compressor (Ingersoll-Rand. A 150 hp compressor can reject as much heat as a 90 kW electric resistance heater or a 422 MJ/hour natural gas heater when operating (Cergel et al.8. 2001). 1998). the pressure required is so low that the need can be met by a blower instead of a compressor which allows considerable energy savings. since a blower requires only a small fraction of the power needed by a compressor (Cergel et al. water heating. a heat recovery unit can recover 50 to 90% of the available thermal energy for space heating. boiler makeup water preheating. 2000). Note that where pneumatic lines are exposed to freezing conditions. 2000). Increasing pipe diameter typically reduces annual compressor energy consumption by 3% (Radgen and Blaustein.. this is something that should be avoided. DOE.. refrigerated dryers are not an option.9 Proper pipe sizing Pipes must be sized correctly for optimal performance or resized to fit the compressor system. increase leaks and increase generating costs. DOE-ITP EM. 2000). industrial process heating. recovery efficiencies of 50 to 60% are typical (U. With large water-cooled compressors. Consider using a dryer with a floating dew point. 1.. heat pumps. more than 85% of the electrical energy used by an industrial air compressor is converted into heat (U. industrial drying. laundries or preheating aspirated air for oil burners (Parekh.
2001). “shaving” the peaks and “filling” the valleys.11 Adjustable speed drives (ASDs) When there are strong variations in load and/or ambient temperatures there will be large swings in compressor load and efficiency. The first step in demand control analysis is to analyze a plant’s electricity utility tariff structure and past history of power demand.e.. feedwater heating or process-related heating (Cergel et al. Implementing adjustable speed drives in rotary compressor systems has saved 15% of the annual compressed air system energy consumption (Radgen and Blaustein. i. Paybacks are typically less than one year. Demand control is nothing more than a technique for leveling out the load profile.9 Energy Demand Control: Demand control is a follow-up analysis that is normally conducted after the development of a demand/load profile by energy auditors. 1. . The waste heat from these aftercoolers can be regenerated and used for space heating. compressed air is cooled considerably below its dew point in refrigerated dryers to condense and remove the water vapor in the air.1 Calculating the load factor (LF): The load factor is the ratio of the energy consumed during a given period (the period of an electricity bill) to the energy which would have been consumed if maximum demand had been maintained throughout the period. The main advantage of demand control and load management is the reduction of electricity costs. 2000). The load factor is a useful tool in demand control analysis.8. In those cases installing an ASD may result in attractive payback periods (Heijkers et al. 1. the energy consumed is less than the maximum power demand at any time in the period multiplied by the total period time. In some cases. In general.9. That is. 2001). 1.recovered heat amount to 20% of the energy used in compressed air systems annually (Radgen and Blaustein. Normally the load factor is less than 100%. Load factor (%) = Energy used during the period (kWh) × 100 Maximum demand (kW) × Time under consideration (hr) Maximum demand and total kilowatt-hours are easily obtained from past electricity bills. 2000).
day type.if the load factor in a plant is reduced. Machine scheduling is the practice of turning equipment on or off depending on the time of day. Preparation for motor failure by creating a spares inventory. 1. Development of a purchasing specification. the load factor is a useful method of determining if a plant is utilizing its energy consuming equipment on a consistent basis or using the equipment for a shorter duration (lower LF). A motor management plan can help companies realize long-term motor system energy savings and will ensure that motor failures are handled in a quick and cost effective manner. Efficient production planning that takes into account the energy aspects of production is one of the most effective ways to avoid machine idling and to reduce peak demand. the plant’s load factor should be analyzed to determine the opportunity for improvement and demand control. Therefore. if possible. Development of guidelines for proactive repair/replace decisions. the total cost of electricity will be higher. or other variables and production needs.10 Motor Management plan: A motor management plan is an essential part of a plant’s energy management strategy. thereby paying a demand penalty. The second method relies on automatic controls which shut down non-essential loads for a predetermined period during peak times by means of some load management devices such as: simple switch on-off devices. The key elements of a sound motor management plan are: • • • • • • Creation of a motor survey and tracking program. or a computerized load management system. The simplest method for reducing peak loads is to schedule production activities in a way that the big electrical power users do not operate at the peak time at all. demand limiters. or at least some of them do not operate at the same time. 1.1 Motor Maintenance: . Development and implementation of a predictive and preventive maintenance program. day of week. Improved machine scheduling is achieved through better production planning. Development of a repair specification. In other words. single load control devices.10.
instead of purchasing a new motor. and other operating data to identify when it becomes necessary to overhaul or replace a motor before failure occurs. With proper installation.10. It measures how effectively electrical power is being used. 1. 1. The power factor can be corrected by minimizing idling of electric motors (a motor that is turned off consumes no energy). load consideration. tighter tolerances. Inductive loads like transformers.10. longer bearing life. lubrication and motor ventilation.10. while a low power factor indicates poor utilization of electrical power. and HID lighting may cause a low power factor. electric motors.The purposes of motor maintenance are to prolong motor life and to foresee a motor failure. The choice of installing a premium efficiency motor strongly depends on motor operating conditions and the life cycle costs associated with the investment. motor alignment. and have higher service factors.4 Power factor correction Power factor is the ratio of working power to apparent power. vibration. 1. when rewinding costs exceed 60% of the costs of a new motor. longer insulation life.2 Energy-efficient motors Energy-efficient motors reduce energy losses through improved design. Motor maintenance measures can therefore be categorized as either preventative or predictive. energy-efficient motors can also stay cooler. As a rule of thumb. 1. Preventative measures. include voltage imbalance minimization. and less vibration. efficiency losses are typically less than 1%. replacing motors with premium-efficient motors. better materials. it may be cost-effective to rewind an existing energy-efficient motor. purchasing the new motor may be a better choice. and installing capacitors in the AC circuit to reduce the magnitude of reactive power in the system.3 Rewinding of motors In some cases. The purpose of predictive motor maintenance is to observe ongoing motor temperature. When best rewinding practices are implemented.10. A high power factor signals efficient utilization of electrical power. and improved manufacturing techniques.5 Minimizing Voltage Unbalances: . may help reduce facility heating loads.
Volume 33. S. and motor overheating. Turkey. an unbalanced transformer bank. Energy Policy.c2p2online.Roy.pdf . http://www.Muthukumarasamy. Benchmarking and Energy Management Schemes in SMEs Project of Intelligent Energy – Europe. Humidification for Textiles Mills by M. Waste Minimization Guide for the Textile Industry .Emel Kaplan.. Air conditioning and Refrigeration journal. A voltage unbalance causes a current unbalance. Cukurova University.Palanichamy and N. Energy Conservation –Time to get specific II edition. Available at: http://www. increased vibration and mechanical stress. Barclay.eu/index. Handy manual-Output of seminar on Energy Conservation I Textile Industry. A rule of thumb is that the voltage unbalance at the motor terminals should not exceed 1% although even a 1% unbalance will reduce motor efficiency at part load operation. SITRA Coimbatore-14 (website). SITRA Energy Audit – Implementation Strategy in Textile Mills . 3. http://www.iee-library. Step by step guidance for the implementation of energy management. 4. March 2005. A CII study conducted by Forbes Marshall. Voltage unbalances may be caused by faulty operation of power factor correction equipment. K. 2.com/textiles/pdf/Energy%20savings%20audit%20in %20textile%20industry. Pages 603-609. Austrian Energy Agency.com/documents/Wasteminimization-textiles.5% unbalance will reduce motor efficiency at full load operation. C. Second stage energy conservation experience with a textile industry – C. 5. 2000. 7. 6.php?option 9.R Chandran and P. An Investigation on Energy Consumption in Yarn Production with Special Reference to Ring Spinning. or an open circuit.Sundarbabu. which can reduce the life of a motor’s winding insulation. Issue 5..pdf.A voltage unbalance degrades the performance and shortens the life of three-phase motors. increased losses. REFERENCES: 1. Buckley. January-March 2005.energymanagertraining.M. A 2. 8. By regularly monitoring the voltages at the motor terminal and through regular thermographic inspections of motors. 2007.Erdem Koc. which will result in torque pulsations. voltage unbalances may be identified.
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