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Source: Review of International Studies, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Jul., 1999), pp. 475-491 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20097611 Accessed: 16/06/2009 00:36
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in the interests of 'balance'. pp. Critique (1994). following lines: if international then why can't women and the feminine be brought in to mainstream in approaches the same way that other previously neglected variables have been incorporated?3 For that matter.) Gendered States: Feminist Relations Press. 'Does Gender Make go Round? Feminist in Review of International 22:4 (1996). 475-491 Copyright ? British International Studies Association Masculinities. University O. 'International Relations of a Feminist Theory: Contributions Standpoint'. and which One point feminist contributors even sympathetic mainstream seem particularly resistant to. Millennium. (ed. Feminist Theory and International Cambridge See Robert For example: Rebecca Grant. and alternatives suggested. 25. Spike Peterson. feminists and epistemological In arguing this. feminine Studies. Introduction to IR have made on numerous occasions. drawing argument attention to the to understanding the to mainstream analysis. world the While of men. in V. 1994). 8-26. and methodological epistemological problems which would arise even with empirically oriented research on the subject. the limitations of mainstream approaches to this hitherto largely neglected area of research are highlighted. and the critical reply by Cynthia Weber. Studies. J. why can't a gender focused analysis of men and masculinity into mainstream also be incorporated This article approaches?4 would like to argue that while in some limited way.2 including an ontological have tried to counter the naive approach to gender which argues along the relations marginalises both women and the feminine. and also members the University of Bristol for their helpful comments. on incorporating Millennium: Journal of International 18:2 (1989) pp. this it is commonplace reverses article alternative simply be to argue that the argument route added international and asks relations whether feminist By reflects a 'masculinist' relations that the international might also discipline men and help produce masculinities. into IR. it might be possible to add the 1 The author would like to thank the Economic and Social Science research Council for financial help of the International at Politics Research Group during the research for this article. 1-64. sceptics CHARLOTTE IR and the 'gender variable5: a cost-benefit analysis for (sympathetic) gender HOOPER1 Abstract. V. Ann Tickner. pp. 1992). revolution. Keohane. pp. article 'gender an provides cannot variable' In thinking through this question. pp. 377-^9. See Adam Relations'. Gender and International (Milton Keynes: Relations Press.Review of International Studies (1999). 1991). is the idea academics that gender cannot just be grafted onto existing explanatory approaches which are An adequate 'masculinist'. 245-50. Critiques of International 475 . Little Girls and Bad Girls: qualities Male Paranoia in Robert Keohane's of Feminist International 23:1 Relations'. Spike Peterson 'Introduction'. 'Good Girls. and Kathleen Rebecca Grant 3 4 Press. 405-30. (Re) Visions of International Theory (Boulder. 'The Sources Newland 2 of Gender Bias in International Relations in Theory'. Gender in International Open University (Oxford. Relations (eds. CO: Westview Christine in a Postmodern Relations Era (Cambridge: Sylvester.). the World Jones. 1992). radical profoundly analysis of gender requires more changes.
Engagements International Relations 'International Feminists Between 6 This in Klaus Theweleit. pp. defining and legitimating run or at least the interplay of complex influences. one women cannot that add and the feminine because sequent explanations merely are relationally defined. In more general terms the question in 'Questions in International Zalewski and Cynthia Enloe about Identity raised recently by Marysia soldiering Fantasies. gendered devalued are ontologically that mainstream approaches can to deal with gender also be approached logically inadequate another perhaps angle. paper given at the School of unpublished 1996. While. in both linities? Might causality. who might consider themselves Mainstream critics pathisers. methodologies (forming masculine traits rather than devalued feminine ones.). one can focus on what is included: that is the activities of men in the international arena. and IR Theorists'. Male See for example Barbara Ehrenreich 'Foreword'. reinforcing patterns? Might men as much as men shape international relations?6 In order national to investigate the intersections between gender relations. and Joanna Bourke. International Relations Theory Today (Cambridge: 1995). have been baffled by both the language and concerns of feminists.5 Feminist of the epistemological limitations and inherent masculinism of main discussions stream IR have on the whole started from the premise that international relations men women Their and and excludes and sub 'masculinity' reflects 'femininity'. ix-xvii. CA: University of California Morning After: Sexual Politics theMale: Men's Bodies. University August in relation to been asked by feminists before. and have accused them?particularly post structuralist feminists?of failing to produce a relevant research agenda. to do so would be to exclude analysis of the most of the relationship between salient ingredients gender and international relations. appear to fall on deaf. although (London. Relations. open to persuasion with regard to the 'gender variable'. in mutually international relations discipline directions. 1993).476 Charlotte Hooper 'gender variable' to the long list of variables which are variously deemed to inform the practices of international relations. most often specifically has occasionally . to argue that international While it is commonplace relations reflects a world of men it is also worth examining of a current of influence and masculinity. of Southern California. or at least sceptical ears. Troubled J. beyond a few post-positivist not been readily understood sym of feminist approaches. (Cambridge: Press. in Ken Booth and Steve Smith (eds. 1987). One could ask whether or mascu of such masculinity any role in the shaping. one which would provide opportunity But the argument and epistemo from a different to for sceptics reconsider their dismissal of the relevance of feminist claims. one cannot rely on approaches which would identities take gender and inter identities 5 Keohane. Rather than focusing on what is excluded from the discipline as conventionally defined. Cynthia Enloe. Such ingredients should be of interest to mainstream IR scholars because are a with of bound different sort from up power politics?albeit power politics they the ones usually focused on in the discipline. question and war. Relations' Polity Press. Ann Tickner 'You Just Don't Understand: Theory'. 1. it has or accepted by others. vol. this is hardly a novel argument in feminist circles. and to think through of acknowledging the possible range of consequences gender in their work. Dismembering itwas remains relatively neglected. the possibility international relations plays running in the other direction. 1996). that they are linked to a whole series of gender constructions ones in which masculine dichotomies traits are valued and feminine a that residual and scientific reflect valued 'other'). as indicated above. Britain and the Great War Press. The University Cambridge at the End of the Cold War (Berkeley.
While but is in some way malleable characteristics. 1994). firstly. are any variables that varies is a variable?nor of the argues. 579-623. Greek citizen/warrior model which combined militarism with rationalism and a arena manliness with in masculine of free and equated citizenship speech politics. 1990). Lindisfarne 1994).). pp.). (Oxford: Clarendon 9 in See for example Peter N.7 Instead one would need to move towards those which could examine the (international) politics of identity construction. they are embedded. military a Protestant test of masculinity. 'The Big Picture: Masculinities in Recent World History'. dominant forms of Anglo-Saxon have drawn on an eclectic mix of competing and masculinity The main ones include. (such globalisation discipline economy) will almost certainly reveal some of the ontological. and also treat theory as entirely separate from the subject of masculine matter the purpose of such being investigated?whether or more oriented historically 'explanation' 'interpretation'. Mangan (eds. Be aMan: Males Modern and Meier.). IR and the 'gender variable' All as 'givens'. ch. Manful Assertions: Masculinities 1991). Dislocating Brod and Michael Masculinity: Kaufman (eds. John Tosh (eds. methodological. Later ownership authority came an aristocratic in which personal model bonds between honour/patronage heroism and taking risks were highly valued. Theory of International perspectives Politics 1979). Michael (Manchester: University Roper and in Britain since 1800 (London: Routledge. 8 Terms as used by Martin and Steve Smith. W Connell. As this article will argue. 1987). in Explaining and Understanding Hollis International Relations Press. or as independent. bourgeois reason and self which idealised rationalist model individualism. A. ultimate there developed Finally. with the duel as the men. J. Steams. 1. MA: Addison-Wesley. Manliness Britain and America 1800-1940 Manchester Press. of and the the father of fathers. externally derived variables. Theorizing Masculinities (London: Sage.9 For example. This is because the epistemological limitations of mainstream such approaches. (Reading.8 theory is scientific International Relations and the production of masculinities or masculini In asking whether international relations might influence masculinity is not a fixed. 22 Theory and Nancy (1993). Andrea Cornwall Comparative Ethnographies (London: Routledge. This was joined by a patriarchal Judaeo/Christian model with a domesticated ideal of manly responsibility. R. Society (London: Holmes External and James Walvin and Morality: Middle in Class Masculinity 1979). there is an assumption to social influences.). to to not the if relevant field the the 'inter restrict attempt approaches 'public' national' levels of analysis.Masculinities. and ultimately. not everything truly independent theoretical in which See Kenneth Waltz. personality on the construction of gender identities. it lack of space precludes a long discussion is worth briefly noting that historical and anthropological research suggests that there is no single 'masculinity' or 'femininity' and that both are subject to numerous and fairly fast-changing historical and cultural variations. and Society. foreign policy. such a move. competitive as breadwinner control?and combined and head of household with respectability to the relevant practices of international that is. Of course as Kenneth Waltz relations. biologically that masculinity based set of ties. a and historical partially overlapping archetypes. Harry (eds. even if it is primarily concerned with the generation of an empirical research agenda with regard to the production 'core' of the identities through practices which form the so-called as and the of the world war. 7 .
11 relations? Firstly. Morten Kelstrup Identity Migration in Europe Security Agenda (London: Pinter. Victor J. Steams. Public Man. one might ask. Seidler. and Johnathan Rutherford Order: Authority (eds. may including aftermath?up have been inflected by a desire to rescue and bolster American manhood after its at the hands of the Vietcong as a bunch of humiliation characterised (sometimes women and children) as much as by rational foreign policy interests.12 Particular processes of gender identi inform other. (London: Lawrence 1988). 1992). 13 Zalewski and Enloe.10 Elements from and combinations of all these rationality models are still in cultural circulation today.478 Charlotte Hooper calculative in public life. Weber's Morgan read as a discussion of modern bourgeois masculinity. example. foreign policies of the War to Vietnam and its and the Gulf part War. modernity. 1981). (London: Routledge. 1993). race and sexuality to produce hierarchies of (gendered) in which identities the relevant complex of and For may vary ingredients 'masculinity' 'femininity' considerably. and the New Barry Buzan. Changing Men (London: Virago. pp. JMorgan. David H. variables as other which products of men's participation in the practices of international the three dimensions of gender above. identities are both simultaneous relations. 272-302. attributable but rather a range of and culturally than perhaps it might be worth historically specific masculinities. For identified in the latter US struggles example. for a recent example. if What.). Connell. Indeed. fruitfully 11 Lynne Segal. Joan Cocks. has any of this to do with international there is no single 'masculinity' to all men. while been associated with masculinity in European 'rationality' has historically in racist hierarchies black men have been deemed incapable of this trait. the would not be very illumi picture generated by an analysis of gender motivations local nating. The Oppositional Thought (Princeton. 'Questions Sources: Political 10 . The two way arrows indicate that not only do men make international relations but that international relations may discipline men and help produce and maintain Private Woman: Women in Social and Jean Bethke Elshtain. Press. if it ignored the effects on gender identity produced through the practices of international relations. was also apparently the physical Meanwhile of Victorian frailness femininity confined to white women. in Rowena Chapman and Masculinity'. patterns predictable patterns might could be incorporated into strategic analysis in much the same way 'cultural' or 'ethnic' variables. all the Considering identity discussed relations are illustrated possible links between men and the practices of international by the arrows in Figure 1. defined. 12 See Ole Waever. Be aMan. and Pierre Lemaitre. As both Seidler and Unwrapping Masculinity can be seminal work The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argue. Theory (London: Routledge. then itmay be an conventionally area of life that is particularly and maintenance of significant for the production It is likely that political events and masculine masculinities. whether identities embodied examining specific gender by groups of actors produce If of behaviour. Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities. International relations would be no exception. Male and Wishart.13 However. about Identity'. Discovering 'Fathering. such act as explanatory so. Imagination: Critique and Political 1989). as international relations. Men 'The Big Picture'. Gender also intersects with other social divisions such as class. The model of gender identification put forward here does not matters but rather implicates all areas and levels confine its interest to developmental of social and political life in the production and maintenance of gender identities. ismade up largely of the activities of men. NJ: Princeton University Feminism. more fication may defined political and military conventionally in IR literature. 1990).
194. Kimmel and Michael A. p. 1996). The relationship between men and international relations. and War' S. J. era. 15 inMichael Bob Connell. CO: (eds. 'Identity and Friedrich Kratochwil in International . The separation identities the same channels of through is illustrative only. IR and the (gender variable' 479 Embodiment Institutional Men Practices International Relations i Symbolic Dimension Figure 1. War has been deemed central to the discipline itself. Ann Tickner. in war is historic exclusion of women terms. 'Masculinity. Of course there are complex relation elements in this diagram of embodiment.15 14 in Yosef Lapid Relations Theory: Feminist Perspectives'. with the one implying the other. as this is the direction of influence under consideration. the symbolic dimension: is a cornerstone of one powerful ideology of gender differences. to be a man in the and has historically played a large part in defining what itmeans modern and through the shaping of men's bodies. institutionally the argument that men take life while women give it Firstly. in about 130 standing armies world-wide. combat in the pursuit of wars is a clear example of how international Military relations helps to shape men.14 The popular myth is that military service is the fullest and in 1976 there were about 20 million men under arms expression of masculinity. All have been while others operate most clearly through one or two dimensions. This figure allows for an estimated women in total armies of 22 million. engaging often deemed to be the clearest expression of men's enduring natural 'aggression'.). chosen to highlight the influence of international rather relations on masculinities than vice versa. illustrate this the diagram separated explanatory purposes masculine and explain these connections there follows a fairly arbitrary selection of examples drawn from existing research. Nevertheless are in all the often for present meanings?which are To connections here. Messner (eds. symbolically.Masculinities. The Return of Culture and Identity Lynne Rienner.). Violence Men's Lives (New York: Macmillan. in reverse. 2 million 1989). in IR Theory (Boulder. Some illustrate the links through all three dimensions. pp. This ideology has been central to modern warfare and underpins the masculinity of soldiering and the In symbolic from combat. institutional practices and symbolic ships between the dimensions same 'event'. 147-62. as well as their manly urge to serve their country and 'protect' their female kin.
This shaping was inflected by class. 178-80. self control. it is wars that make men'16?literally and physically.18 intimately bound up with notions soldiering became Soldiering as well as its to its of the male body. public soldier was regarded as 'not less but more of a man'. 56. and disabled ex-servicemen and feminised. xvi (see fh. argued one of the sites where direct links between represent major hegemonic masculinities are forged'. 15-16. sympathy changed to disgust at the carnage who could not fulfil a role as breadwinners involved. p.' And I found the comparison good. p. when and embodiment masculinities of masculinity. heroes.17 Joanna Bourke has examined bodies the relationship in Britain in the First World War. JMorgan.6 above). Military service has served as a rite of passage for boys to be made men throughout much of the modern era. stunted in their growth and poorly educated. the Military David H. changed servicemen. the lightly maimed These were 'active' rather than 'passive' sufferers. while the 'real' men who fought The return of thousands of carried a high risk of death or physical disablement. 'Introduction' Ehrenreich.22 To be physically maimed who were even deemed especially attractive was far more manly than to be a 'malingerer' or shell shock victim. and even modified and technological the medical approach to disablement a most while. p. and Masculinities'.480 Charlotte Hooper as Barbara Ehrenreich However. 19 in ibid. 58. who deserved respect. while at involves the the level of embodiment. Military effect through war and which had a widespread practice which had been established on men's bodies. 168. 21 Ibid. the for attitudes although disfigured were kept out of Initially. Dismembering (see fn. 18 theMale Bourke. the emphasis basic warrior-citizens. argues.. in Brod and . p. 'it is not only men that make wars.. both physically and regulation of male bodies which this entailed was sustained through the inter war years. pp. Such men had to be If middle found themselves transformed The increased surveillance and mentally. quality of their raw material. military training explicitly physical and social can the Indeed it be 'war of male that and the military shaping body. of the war British authorities had been horrified at the fitness. Kaufman. class men 16 inMale Fantasies. pp. 17 'Theatre of War: Combat. At the beginning as British manhood was by and large malnourished. Quoted 20 Ibid.20 promote emotional Men who did not fight were looked down on. graphically noted in his diary: and men's between I looked at my great murderous maulers and wondered idly how they had evolved from the sensitive manicured fingers that used to pen theses on 'Colloidal Fuel' and The Theory of Heat Distribution in Cylinder Walls. and even to enhance brain development. physical contours. The dead were In the long term however. not pity. became increasingly marginalised also heroes. Drill was also deemed to make men economically to efficient. Theorizing Masculinities. helping shape style masculinity disciplined soldier.21 sight. As one middle-class Ralph Scott. 'converted' into soldiers. disease ridden. when regular exercise through military in type drills was widely adopted an institutional drill therefore constituted schools and other institutions..6 above). who were hailed as masculine youthful war-mutilated for good. 22 Ibid.19 to from bourgeois rationalists was more on much then for the working classes. and to women..
25 Enloe. 385-^38. Ibid. For example. communists and the rebellious or as a were to break class feminised 'flood' 'tide' working represented threatening own down both masculine and established social barriers. 26 Ibid. who helped to put down the in Germany socialist revolution attempted following World War I. justified by nationalist security ideologies. through helped to construct the subordinate the implicit and explicit links between military service and citizenship. Where coercion alone would not secure sufficient over conditions of loyalty and competence. These troops lived for battle and had a reputation In their novels and memoirs for enjoying violence.24 While the image of male bodies going into battle as clean and hard. degrees and types of the varied relationships of masculinity and international practices in different constructions militarization.. Full citizen in defending the state.25 That the links between masculinity and militarism are contingent and are produced through institutional practices is highlighted in her account. complex bargains service had to be struck.Masculinities.26 Recruitment policies have also helped to define hegemonic masculinities. 28 A contemporary that springs to mind example many other Arab countries. Meanwhile their integrity as dry. Ethnic Soldiers: State Security Cynthia 1980). it has to be said that the was far more of the of and that the majority experience conscripts prosaic extreme of the in has been untypical homoerotically tinged misogyny Freicorps practice. slime and mire. militarisation under different international circumstances. IR and the 'gender variable' 481 of soldiers inWorld Bourke finds evidence to suggest that the majority Although War I retained a longing for a quiet domestic life. 6 above).. In many countries. male bodies and war can be brutal and misogynistic. p. locations and at different times. of Israel. hard. 24 Theweleit. but always male bodies were constructed threatened by contamination from feminine dirt. and who later became the core of Hitler's SA. restricted roles. pain. as colonized groups of men often took some persuading that soldiering was in any way a manly pursuit. Physical violence was integral to the construction of the masculine it the Freikorps self?without in the of could not sustain their bodily face desire. along with homosexuals. the construction armies was no mean feat.23 army. depending on differing local requirements of manly respect Continuing has followed with different and subordinate ability. 79. clean. while for the majority of men conscription has been the price of adult citizenship. The Morning After (see fn.28 Male Fantasies (see fn. as an institutional the military process example. subordinate groups of ethnically or religiously have been barred from active military service or given men. under British colonial of imperial rule. Penguin. paths Cynthia Enloe has discussed between women. 23 in a Divided is of Arab Society citizens (Harmondsworth. and internal integrity viscera?the feminine 'other' forever lurking within. 6 above).27 Such restrictions. derived in part from World War I 'shock troops'. at the extreme the relationship between masculinity. and the f?minisation of awkward as to terms adversaries indicated such both Vietnam and (as by 'quagmire' applied Bosnia) are relatively commonplace in popular culture. Klaus was a the of the This Theweleit fantasies volunteer literary investigated Freikorps. in ship rights are often denied to men who do not participate much the same way as they have been for women. Middlesex: in and of Palestinians . pp. have status of these groups more generally. 27 Enloe. erect and intact.
'Masculinity. institutional practices masculinities and masculine identities. rapists. Brian Wallis (eds. sensual. in a projection saturated with lust. where the con the USA similar sexualisation as chaste. the symbolic and institutional practices of have also helped to consolidate colonialism and subordinate European hegemonic on a global scale. Burdens and Simon Watson Berger. This point is worth emphasising it is a clear because aristocracy a distinct and apparently domestic masculine type (the English example of how was in fact formed through the international politics of colonialism. of Feminism and Indianapolis: Indiana University 'Burdens Press. symbolic level. Sources: and embodiment relevance in institutional at first through elite western educational as well as symbolic but establishments Violence and War'. White women were regarded as 'pure' symbols of this moral order who were always in danger of being raped by black males. and justifying his colonial mission was at least as much civilizing one. immigrants the halfway house of indentured labour. In the last century a third of the technical masculinity?that specialist. A global. They were seen as effeminate occupied 'women's work' in laundries and kitchens. Ann Russo and Lourdes Torres (eds. the production team games is another legacy of the Victorian colonial era with through competitive strong contemporary terms. He became the embodiment of sexuality as a imperial power. and another violence but subordinate and dominating Britain this between 'officers' and 'ranks' competent (in organisationally relationship has reflected and helped consolidate the class system). domesticated struction of white women and morally pure was accom as women the of black slave black men as plished through positioning promiscuous. At British and the French today. of imperial politics. Promulgated 29 30 Connell. necessitating separate from the command of combat units. Third World Women and the Politics Talpade Mohanty. seeming to rule effortlessly. Richard Fung. imperialists imagined the 'Orient' as an exotic. (Bloomington 1991).). The 'English gentleman' positioned a self-disciplined.). the Victorian English Gentleman as a product of Englishness. Chandra in Chandra 'Introduction' Segal. has become increasingly important. Changing Masculinities. In Britain. of domestic understandings and masculinity. sex was seen as both natural (uncivilised) and a threat to the moral order. deemed uncivilized of European sexual fantasies. and feminised world. a kind of half way stage between 'Europe's as and African 'Oriental' men were positioned enlightenment' savagery'. racialised hierarchy of masculinities was masculinities set of race and gender of a complex created as part of the institutionalisation identities sustaining European and which still have a cultural legacy imperialism. 'general planners. men as brutes and potential and white Chinese protectors. While women as sexes were effeminate 'Oriental' Africans of both black (and exotic). as protected.482 Charlotte Hooper Within the military also help to shape different itself. He regarded his naturally legitimate as overlaid and tempered by civilization. As a type then. Bob Connell argues that the basis of military was historically a relationship two masculinities?one between based organisation on physical to orders. a of staff' and latterly technicians. 291-98. 1995). In Gentleman) a of race took place under slavery. However because they often did so-called they were also regarded as a sexual threat to white women. ruler and protector of morals. strategists. if they were not himself at the top of this hierarchy. Constructing Masculinity (London: Routledge. Talpade Mohanty.30 and disciplining of masculinities of male bodies Turning to sport. were seen as and. .29 on from the military Moving example. of Responsibility' inMaurice of Representation. pp.
of World Politics After. masculine and alike. strengthening the considerably. men across the in lives and clubs and of leisure schools. rugby and and fuse national and male identification feeling. (Manchester: Manchester University 34 Barbara Ehrenreich. p. a series of contests trying within to each of those societies over the definitions of masculinity or dilute that rivalry. Shapiro textual (eds.31 spectators bonding amongst players of particular kinds of Specific foreign policies also lead to the institutionalisation Take for the Cold which War. example. MA: Lexington 1989). an explicit goal of foreign of an American and maintenance identity. 1992). this American identity which was constructed through communist witch hunts and the a masculine tests of 'loyalty' was essentially associated identity. 166. United States Foreign Policy and the Politics Writing Security: Campbell. Masculinity David Campbell argues policy was the construction and the bread winning role. for notes nature such the of practices. was who would voluntarily support wives and children in the 1950s. Press.). through f?minisation. Indeed it was the was same form of which also very shaped by fear of 'latent homo masculinity as discussed Barbara The threat of effeminacy. with each being used as a metaphor com between them. Unmasking Masculinity (London: Routledge. and sociological medical experts. 18-19. The Hearts and the Flight from of Men: American Dreams (London: Pluto Press. according to Cynthia Enloe: petitions. Michael in James Der Derian Intertext' and Michael J. A 'society of was a in which created program sought to define vigorous loyalty/security security'33 Americans the communist both and internally. 33 David J. 69-96. This ideology was backed up by theories from a host of psychological. but two also each superpowers.Masculinities. and homosexuality equated with adulthood. Integrating Campbell's the possibility against 31 David and Ehrenreich's that unsuspecting it becomes clear that vigilance work. indicated by the abusive term 'pinko'. pp. The Morning of Identity Commitment . marriage was demonised as the ultimate escapism. 1990).34 sexuality' by men was coerce to used American into forming a reliable work force homosexuality. by excluding externally so that. activities. particularly cricket. as a its effectiveness femininity rather than with sexual deviance which guaranteed threat. Readings (Lexington. boys everyday war The and the of and sport globe.32 and femininity that would sustain that in the American case. At the symbolic connections level. Any man who failed to fully live up to the bread winning role by walking out on his wife or job (or worse or unemployed as in the first place) might be diagnosed still?remained unmarried or man was on his suffering from 'latent' 'pseudo' homosexuality. masculinity. they affect not only sporting soon becoming institutionalised states and the lives of international relations between but also the sportsmen. liberals might help the unwittingly Sport/War Relations: 32 Enloe. pp. 'other'. training techniques languages overlap for the other. gendered exclusionary Campbell were as communists and other 'undesirables' linked example. InternationallInter Postmodern Books. IR and the 'gender variable' 483 on a global scale. 1983). international sporting in gender segregated team games such as football. or latent Ehrenreich. Shapiro 'The Jackson. Every heterosexual It was the equation of latent homosexuality with guard against such possibilities. Although he doesn't emphasise the point. also mobilise is best absorb understood as many as involving not as possible countries simply into a contest its own between orbit.
Dawson. James Bond. with intertextual blurring of boundaries between fact which he argues been with their security strategies. There is a western masculinities and continuing association of foreign adventure with virile mascu long-standing in the 19th century. so that 'communism kept masculine in style long after it became obsolete in the corporate world and the toughness marketplace'. Internationall Intertextual Relations. of Men. 172. as well date women 'playboy' sumption 35 and never too busy to frequent casinos or suave.. spying and the reported activities of to define hegemonic and statesmen have helped in the masculinities relationship between the real and in both directions. of English-British and the imagining Arabia. to contemporary and adventure films. and the imagination. through the legend in the media: from stories linity popular boys Finally. the institutional which practices were this in reduced reach and Ehrenreich scope. Moulding the Cadets of Imperialism' 'The Blond Bedouin: Lawrence of Lindisfarne. promoted 'gentlemanly' by a man of leisure leading a glamorous manhood: for Cold War lifestyle?updated politics. influences close. p. Graham Dislocating Masculinity. impossibly as a war in states simulation of which compete. 36 . sophisticated. In the confusion fun and complexity spy.39 lifestyle by conspicuous and heterosexual but with the added bonus of an flight from domesticity. '"Real True Boys". Intrigue' 'Spy Versus Spy: The Intertextual and Shapiro. paralleled of While 'latent homosexuality'. For example. masculinity'. The Hearts Ehrenreich. epitomises the one con is of identified This Ehrenreich.484 Charlotte Hooper communist the threat and intersected with the vigilance needed to ward off cause. 39 The Hearts Ehrenreich. spy counters of and international relations.37 Popular fictional accounts of espionage borrowed heavily from real life. pp. in Cornwall and Helen Kanitkar. 184-96. identity supported eventually suggests that the symbolic legacy lasted longer. p. and re-played for mass be played interests and clash.36 Diplomacy. of espionage worlds has James Der Derian has identified an and fiction in Cold War spy culture represents a field the Cold War of ideological where contestation national can real wars of mass annihilation. consumption . Manful 37 Power of International in Der Derian James Der Derian.38 is demonstrated The symbolic link between espionage and hegemonic masculinity a which and 'aristocratic' ideal of James Bond films. pp. while real themselves spies not only consumed vast amounts of spy fiction. 38 Der Derian. Spy culture glamourises the alienated world of realpolitic. pp. all in significant endgames of realm of the spy becomes a discursive are space where realism and intractable seemingly problems imaginatively playfully interact. imperial adventure Assertions. 113-44. as outwit the thinly veiled Cold War enemy. while Ronald Reagan enjoyed Tom Clancy novels. even American in the Cold War period: crossed all classes and its popularity to fears of nuclear national their annihilation and insecurity allay presidents helped John Kennedy reportedly by reading spy fiction?with being a fan of Fleming's James Bond. but also modelled on fictional characters. 103.35 consumer the popular media and current affairs operate the largely through men of the links between and dimension international relations symbolic (see Figure a wealth of popular them they disseminate links 1). of Lawrence pot-boilers presidents popular fictional of Arabia and the myth of the French Foreign legion. 'Spy Versus Spy'. of Men. 163-74.. Between iconography which to the wider world beyond the borders of the state. fantasy resolved. in Roper and Tosh.
p. 6/4/96. and presidents are presented as the ultimate hero figures (and sometimes. sitting next intrigue) Henry on a plane journey in a film/television Economist promotional reading businesssman 42 to reinforce fiction with fact. players' who are icons Statesmen spying and foreign adventure still masculinity. Although it still carries symbolic meaning. post 1970s appear ances may have become more parodie. carried a CIA recruitment advertisement offering 'the ultimate overseas career' with 'the clandestine and service'. The traditionally access to a higher plane above and 'international' very word implies privileged beyond the borders of the state behind which historically most ordinary people have this may no longer be literally the case in the era of cheap rarely ventured. a picture of James Bond (Piers (presented as 'Your private intelligence a in watch and the appearance of ex diplomat advertisement. and inspiration which informs the meaning which the highly gendered cultural framework within also help to reflect and produce are shaped and interpreted.40 but they are still a potent signifier of international elitism. see the world'. the paper advertisement for the paper. 9. invite men to flee the domestic hearth in the search of manhood?the further the better. p. he embodies all the virtues of an Anglicised of a Machiavellian twentieth century prince. 104. masculine power and a glamorous In the post-Cold War world this playboy image has been transferred to the globe in the mid nineteen For example nineties The Economist trotting businessman. 9/9/95. and business international relations with a newspaper newspaper (a prominent was still the world of Bond global readership) metaphorically invoking fairly regularly. Much of the appeal of these glamorised connections between international adventure and masculinity is that the worlds depicted are worlds where women have been entirely absent. 42 on Sunday. p. are no less important on than practices the ground. together with media representations of glamorised masculinities in an international in context. Advertisement for Omega watches. review p. 4. These cultural connections between jet travel. . Even role of presidents state not reveals the of the world borders: language gendering beyond just explicitly sexual phrases such as 'conquest of virgin territory' but also more mundane phrases and slogans such as 'aman of the world'. With his aristocratic cool. through such images as 'The Economist Intelligence Unit's Foreign Report service'). notions of masculinity and the 'international'. 20/10/96. version ruthlessness and superior brain. English background. judged or lack of it (of course this imagery relates to terms in of their manliness constantly not their actual practices).Masculinities. they form a network of cultural meanings within 40 The Hearts Ehrenreich. 'international personalities. media attention is focused on of glamorous wealth and power. the symbolic and statesman. and 'join the army. His later. While such practices they are not all directly relevant to international politics. Meanwhile. his intrigues updated for a technocratic with electronic wizardry and consumerism thrown in. of Men. They provide a continuing constructing masculinities source of imaginative of such practices. aristocratic IR and the 'gender variable' 485 his unflappable twist. Meanwhile. or were presented as threats to masculinity.43 Clearly diplomacy resonate with post-Cold War constructions of elite in the news and current affairs. 34. villains)?popularised larger than life images of exemplary masculinity. 41 The Economist.41 Brosnan) (and master at diplomatic to an featured Kissinger. Discussed in the Independent 43 The Economist.
The equipped not of this is that relations mainstream international remains consequence only blind to its own masculinist of gendered reflections. For example. power' which the Second World War. fully Academic IR and the politics of identity44 The above discussion indicates that there may be numerous ways in which inter national relations are implicated in the construction of masculinities and masculine identities: of male bodies. pp. (ed. practices. Keohane. them in the ubiquitous human behaviour. University 46 Politics (see fn.46 Given these moves systemic explanations. much of IR theory was revolutionised by to turn it into a science of quantifiable and measurable were questioned as being vague and and criticised but rather than criticisms opening up a series of interesting political unprovable. inWaltz's has been neglected. Neorealism and its Critics Press. The Man in IR (Boulder.). about the absence of foundational identities attempts were questions or psychological to contain questions of identity in bureaucratic made models of or to to mechanise rational actor model. Question Charlotte . O. In the 1950s and 60s.486 which Charlotte Hooper relations is embedded. Butterfield (eds. for war. or. to remove 'human nature' from the discipline codify.). Theory of International 47 in Herbert and Martin Wight Martin Wight. exactness. E. issues related to the politics of identity construction. Neo-Realism (New York: Columbia 1986). CO: Westview Press. Keohane and the Study of world Polities'. and has been ill to deal with. surprising that the politics of identity construction raised by the behavioural revolution aside. and through political through the direct disciplining con and In institutional and broader cultural links. 'Realism. IR got to Before the intervention the closest mainstream discipline.g. it is hardly case.7 above). 30. 1997). and without which its practices cannot be international understood. Waltz. as describing Keohane the 'limitless character of the lust for quotes Morgenthau and which accounted 'reveals a general quality of the human mind'. Diplomatic Robert 45 the arguments made in this section have been adapted from an earlier discussion in and Gender of Multiple 'Masculinist Practices Politics: the Operation Hooper in International inMarysia Zalewski and Jane Parpart. in mainstream been conceptualised International theory and analysis. but also that the construction identities through the practices of international relations is rendered invisible to the of feminists. 'Why is there no International Theory' Investigations (London: George Allen and Unwin. p. (eds. 1966). Such assumptions do away with them (along with many other relevant topics) by resorting to purely to either all in the name of science.45 After which sought behaviourism. Leaving the epistemological questions one can see that one reason for the inability of IR to deal with questions of gender to the way in which the discipline and is connected itself has identity is ontological. the dominant view was that while politics 44 Some and of 'the good life'47 could be pursued within the secure borders of states. Masculinities Relations'. in politics. through ideological trast IR as a discipline has generally shown little interest in. 11-12. and which tended to mirror the prevailing naturalised discourses of gender.). the relevance of gender identities was in the assumptions about acknowledging (masculine) human nature which underpinned theory in the classical tradition. historically states terms in has been divorced from within because of politics politics disciplinary which distinct features make international different apparently politics qualitatively from other kinds of politics. in Robert O.
will not Breaching in itself lead to a clearer understanding of the involvement of international relations or the production in the politics of identity construction of masculinities. to the behaviour of individual states.48 Moreover. An Introduction Political Philosophy: Press.51 these private/public and domestic/international boundaries Putting together. policy analysis. domestic labour and reproduction. 51 Will Kymlicka. can but include the domestic/private be divided into familial and personal). Explaining and Understanding. the right to privacy has tended to reinforce the idea that family relations should be exempt from merely questions of public and social justice.49 IR now 'black boxes' the state. to pressures arising from domestic politics. (which the non-domestic/public into the public state and (which can be further divided life. characterisations international more have also become much varied and It would be 'anarchy' sophisticated. IR and the 'gender variable' 487 and balances were all that could be fragile laws. deeming all that goes on in it as irrelevant except where it is expressed as 'national interests'. Thus personal IR dips into life. (New York: Columbia University 50 See for example. Charles to Jones and Richard Little.Masculinities. survival. domestic politics/international relations divide retains a crucial symbolic import ance. As for the newer between distinction the public realm and personal life. The Logic of Anarchy Structural Realism Press. breaches have led Such debates the 'levels of politics international relations should be explained by analysis' problem. It has often been in foreign for example when both the domestic breached.50 Domestic and family life has tended to fall outside both the state and civil society in liberal schemes. domestic and family private civil society). and even much of civil society has been evacuated from IR. which asks whether reference to properties of the system of states. however. and the international. The Sexual Contract (Cambridge: Polity Press. Carole Pateman. However. determinants of foreign policy and the international determinants of domestic over to been have examined. the domestic politics/ international relations division has not been strictly adhered to. These spheres can be categorised in a number of ways. the domestic politics/international relations division. IR theory found it easy to 'black box' the state. 1988). As the discipline of IR has developed since then. economics) which has been challenged by feminists. modern life has been conceptually divided into a number of separate spheres (a division which has only been strengthened by the disciplinary separation of IR from Politics and Government). 1993). as it remains the principal justification for the existence of a separate discipline of IR in the first place. or to the activities of individual people of such as particular statesmen. Contemporary (Oxford: Clarendon Hollis . Where the 'black box' of the state it is usually to deal with public political or economic even liberal perspectives issues and affairs of the state?and trans that emphasise 48 49 and Smith. :Neorealism See for example Barry Buzan. anarchy of one kind or another is still the defining feature of international relations for mainstream and the analysis. except unfair and inaccurate to say that mainstream in one or two influential examples. With expected and anarchy (between states) sovereignty (within states) as its principal guiding forces. and uneasy alliances an arena in is international which above all characterised by anarchy. This is the boundary between conceptual and the private sphere of families. 1990). This is a of because second boundary (or rather series of overlapping boundaries) which is IR literature but which is also highly relevant to its rarely referred to inmainstream the public sphere of politics (and space.
given the scientific as generally applied in IR on the basis of these. 53 in Feminism The Science Question See for example. They would have bear task of investigating how identities themselves or be dispensed and qualification yet another round of improbable modification this could be done. Sandra Harding. Nor. more and while extensive criticisms could be and have been profound methodologies.52 In terms of scientific view. The production of mascu nationalism rarely transgress the public/private as illustrated of international is linities through the practices relations. made above in relation to gender. but only if accompanied by appropriate methodologies. actor models and other such units to the of analysis are totally unsuited are to formed. between the international. an examination that discourage of the inter rendered invisible by these divisions and the private world of personhood. above. who coined by Cynthia Such a move would go a long way towards bringing gender into international'. No perspective from social reality can fully explore this aspect of the relationship between inter Feminist Sense and Bases: Making Enloe. with its emphasis on being able to isolate distinct and measurable phenomena. Bananas. and are rooted in personality realm of childhood and family life (invoking the familial/non-familial the domestic or domestic/non-domestic at birth?far from the reach of divide). and international relations there of the two way influences between masculinities would remain an epistemological problem that might block a full analysis of these to the symbolic dimension is connected of gender This problem interconnections. Assuming effect. supporting the phrase 'the personal is roles. University Press. Drawing of the humanities this approach leans more than explanation and involves a less constraining towards understanding However. if not determined IR's focus of analysis. 52 of International (Milton Keynes: Relations Open . Rational and making interest in uncovering behavioural regularities.488 Charlotte Hooper divides. multidimensional are not particularly If scientific or explanatory suited to this type of approaches then perhaps the traditional alternative of historical analysis would be investigation on the methods more applicable. and identities. One might argue that transcending the levels of analysis problem and widening relations to include an analysis of domestic and personal the remit of international excluded would solve the problem of how to analyse the subject areas previously more between international relations and masculine identities connections women and This would also into view their traditional bring thoroughly. (London: Pandora.53 it should be immediately apparent from the discussion causes and effects of international that if gender identities are simultaneously relations then there is no clear-cut unit of analysis on which to base explanations. Beaches Cynthia 1990). the scientific language of cause and with altogether. 1986). 195. are scientific methods predictions that are undergoing suited to the analysis of phenomena rapid and particularly historical change. connections are to of assumed be Questions generally private aspects of adult gender identity to the from right (invoking privacy public scrutiny). Thus IR scholarship of masculinities itself implicated in the production through the symbolic dimension that treats theory as distinct and separate of gender identification. would also probably have to give way to one of mutually reinforcing influences. while such an approach may better capture the complexities methodology. as advocated Enloe. and the problem is that both the discipline of IR and the perspectives is theories produced within it form part of the symbolic realm. p.
women and in the private/public/international divides of modernity.54 discussed above. 55 Relations Tickner. University . 58 and also Charlotte Hooper 'Hegemonic inMarianne Marchand and Anne Sisson in Transition: The Case Masculinity Runyan (eds. Political Philosophy. 2 above). structed production in various and the lines of difference made and social visible.). See Hooper 'Masculinist and associated masculinity practices Gender Polities'. Campbell. Shifting Sights and Sightings forthcoming).55 Building on Tickner's observations. 'You Just Don't Understand'. 1990). in classical as is their almost total practical and liberal theory is well documented exclusion and all but the lowliest of public spheres. post analysing production or reflectivist epistemological positivist positions which can examine the symbolic and discursive functions of IR scholarship itself would be the most effective. The often fierce rational masculinity which is itself closely connected debates which have marked the development of the discipline may inter-paradigm of rivalry between these different masculinities. Gender in International (see fn. one can see into different perspectives that the different of mentioned above are archetypes hegemonic masculinity an IR into different embodies Neorealism variously perspectives. Therefore. analysis of the symbolic and discursive functions of US foreign policy. from 54 Writing Security. which bridges scholarship often seen as irrelevant. finds 'three models Tickner.58 International the international relations then symbolically forms a wholly masculine sphere of war and diplomacy. is a good example of historically detailed post-structuralist scholarship. of women The position Pateman. both within the discipline and on the ground. Gender and Global of Restructuring: (London: Routledge. 57 in IR may embody a new informal and playful but technocratic Some post-structuralist scholarship form of hegemonic with globalisation.56 New forms of include a dimension are elite Anglo-American associated with and masculinity technocracy globalisation also emerging.Masculinities. See Tickner.57 an to the private/public/international divides discussed above. 44 above). at the furthest conceptual extreme from the domestic sphere of families. investigation. Returning nature. The Sexual Contract. Feminist already critiques of IR's masculinism a on wealth of information this provide point and make a good starting place for of man' inscribed for example. Contemporary and children in families was devalued in classic liberal discussions of justice and freedom. national IR and the 'gender variable' 489 it comes to relations and the gender identities of men. 59 on international is why much Which feminist these divides. when own to IR's contribution the of masculine identities. (New Haven. can uncover or deconstruct the ways in which masculinities Reflectivist methods are inscribed into the discipline. Globalization'. on IPE. incorporated eclectic and often contradictory combination of the warrior-citizen (Machiavelli). Such or not For example. there are generally more marked in theMaking See David Gilmore.60 The cultural of gender differences and gendered character traits segregates the sexes in order to construct and make visible the lines of difference ways. neo-liberal Meanwhile institutionalism clearly reflects bourgeois to liberalism. CT: Yale Press. The conceptual important feature of such divides is their highly gendered relegation of women and the 'feminine' to the domestic and the private. Kymlicka. 60 It has been argued that in societies where there is greater segregation of the sexes. 56 The inscription of different masculinities into the discipline and the rivalries between them is inmore detail in Hooper discussed and Gender Practices Politics' 'Masculinist (see fn. further rational (scientific language and rational actor) (Hobbes) and bourgeois patriarchal more models. is relations.59 Gender reproduction divisions and inequalities depend to a great extent on the segregation of social life so that gender differences can be con into separate spheres for men and women. Manhood gender inequalities. Campbell's need abstract be approaches unduly ephemeral.
If breaching the domestic/international and private/public divides which of masculine help to define the discipline of IR in order to examine the production alter the ontology of the identities through international relations would profoundly then a full examination of gender of the symbolic dimension identi discipline.62 feminist 61 adequate way the question of how international how merely identities. Zillah Eisenstein. Masculinities'. in the modern and naturalisation of masculinities Conclusions This article challenges the disciplinary that international relations and assumption the politics of identities (including gender identities) are discrete areas of research to answer in any It has not been concerned that have no important interconnections. relations helps produce masculine asking the question and beginning some of the ontological. Terrell Carver. Gender issues profoundly approaches forms of analysis.61 even liberal feminism seen as to if the carried its mildest (often form). the attempt research itself. 1981). One cannot simply take mainstream to get a gendered analysis. inscribed all-male Having sphere serves as an arena for the production which of masculinities. It the existing gender order and also indirectly confirms both serves to uphold the as one of of the sites for the international importance politics primary production era. issues about the role of theory and the discipline fication also raises epistemological to create an applied. Studies. As the private/public divisions inscribe international relations as a /international then it that the all-male follows activities and virtually sphere. Molly IRs. through would have profoundly for liberal conclusion. national of the relationship between masculine identities and inter be extremely would difficult within conventional approaches IR and merely add 'men' or should be clear.490 between Charlotte Hooper them. qualities associated with this gender-segregated and space cannot help but inform the definition on The in of masculinities. the private/public/ international obscure this process. Jones: Feminisms. 283-97. (New York: Monthly . pp. 62 The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism Review Press. Generating is an integral part of any such gendered constructions segregational practice. methodo to IR with regard problems of mainstream approaches logical and epistemological to gender. both power politics theory and production emphasis between such masculinities and power itself. practice then reinforces the associations an associations that are crucial to masculinism. but rather to demonstrate to consider how itmight be answered highlights an account Cochran and Judith Squires. Molly Cochran argues that even empirically disturb conventional That relations oriented too radical for its easy IR scholarship may have implications into mainstream This echoes the that feminist argument incorporation analysis. 'Gendering Review of International 24:2 (1998). any more than one can take mainstream 'masculinities' and add either 'women' or 'femininity'. consequences disturbing politics. The structuring of IR divisions simultaneously to exclude of the theory questions politics of identity has some interesting effects. This is a case where empirical in order to facilitate a revolution agenda might quickly lead to the post-positivist more comprehensive analysis of the so-called 'gender variable'.
3. such debates have been The Science Question. . mainstream sympathetic are to at look who with constructivist academics arguments regard to willing to to their horizons and cultural need include identities. would need willing to actively engage with the substance. Therefore. Theory'.64 The and forms part of the question for international salience of such questions relations has been highlighted recently. is the straightforward grafting of a 'gender variable' on to main stream analysis. and Departures 'Culture's Ship: Returns and Kratochwil. in International The 46. to influence mainstream not unprob have begun although feminist also takes a broadly argues. At on same the the time. then at the minimum. . 391^125. Return of Culture and Identity. The Return of Culture and Identity 66 'Cultures Ship'. They to be willing to transcend the 'levels of analysis' problem and transgress the private/public/international divides. 7. in International (see fn. Wendt's some of the problems can only of methodological structuralism. they could usefully draw insights of feminism with regard to social construction and embodiment of identities more generally. See Harding. for example. In which Campbell. and in the writings and transnational of post situations. (see fn. which. and the debate in Lapid and Kratochwil. while avoiding individualism.. even where overtly reflectivist approaches a of feminists themselves (after all. 67 is what states make See Alexander Wendt. 69 In feminist literature at least. pp. the politics. 64 See Zalewski and Enloe. strikingly evident in post-Cold War theorizing'. of influence in the two-way traffic between and examine one direction identity construction international relations.Masculinities.68 (although not necessarily to get a grip on both gender If it is important at this juncture for IR scholarship and the politics of identities. p. Wendt divides constructivists into modern and post-modern varieties. of post-positivist with regard to the role of theory. approaches identity security diversity'. 'Identity in International Theory'. Anarchy 63 engagement with post-positivism. epistemological In many ways this question of the 'gender variable' parallels the security debate63 of identities and culture more generally. expand security gender. own (modern) constructivism leans problematically towards an overly deterministic However. Relations p. articulated with reference to the need for applied 68 Relations Tickner. most scholarship lematically.69 What debates and positions is completely inadequate to the task of dealing with the issue of gender identity however. and historical because empirical identities and international of the between (masculine) gender analysis relationship are rejected relations would be helpful. research agendas. Lapid.65 This is IR scholars' of their mounting to an awareness amongst in response theoretical in difficulties with increases and global heterogeneity apparently 'exponential a to As constructivist and consequence. adopt variety positions). also find themselves Hopefully. in both in the post-Cold War resurgence of ethnic rivalry and of identity politics domestic. As Yosef 'a of the toward swing pendulum positivist Lapid argues. culture and identity is . Organization. 2 (1992). in Lapid of it: the social construction of power polities'. IR and the 'gender variable' 491 of its ultimately radical potential.66 IR academics. if not the language. See Campbell. they might historical methods. about Identity' 'Questions 65 Yosef Lapid. They would probably have to make fairly changes if they are used to working with scientific rather than major methodological sooner or later.67 As Tickner constructivist structuralist) approach to gender. calls for a serious Writing Security. 14 above). even in empirical terms. international academics. 6 above).
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