CHAPTER 1 MICROORGANISMS 1.

Some living things are big but some living things are very small(tiny). 2. They are so tiny that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. 3. They can be seen only under a microscope. 4. We called these tiny living things microorganisms. 5. Microorganisms are different in shape, size and are found everywhere. 6. Microorganisms are living things because they carry out life processes. 7. There are 4 main types of microorganisms – bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses.

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Protozoa 1. Protozoa are the biggest microorganisms. 2. Protozoa can be found in water environment such as in ponds, lakes, rivers, swamps or body tissue fluid. 3. Protozoa can make food or feed from the cells of living organisms. 4. Examples of protozoa – amoeba and paramecium.

1.1 Bacteria (Singular – Bacterium)
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Bacteria can be found in the air, soil, water, food and in the bodies of living or dead organisms. Some bacteria can make their own food but some feed on the bodies of living things.

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Virises 1. Viruses are the smallest(tiniest) of the microorganisms. 2. They can only be seen under an electron microscope. 3. Viruses are non-living things. 4. However, when they enter a living body, they will use the materials in the body to reproduce more viruses.

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Fungi (Singular – Fungus) 1. Fungi used to be classified as plants but they cannot make food. 2. They take their food from either dead or living organisms. 3. Fungi can grow well in dark and in the light. 4. Examples of fungi – mushrooms, yeasts and moulds.

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Microorganisms Carry Out Life Processes. 1. Microorganisms carry out life processes – breathe, grow and move. 2. Microorganisms breathe to survive. 3. They use oxygen to breathe and produce carbon dioxide. 4. Microorganisms need food, water, a suitable temperature, oxygen and light to grow. 5. Microorganisms grow best in an environment which contain 25% to 40% of water. 6. Microorganisms grow best at temperatures of 300C to 370C.

Diseases caused by microorganisms can spread from one person to another. 3. 2. coughs or sneezes. 8.4 chickenpox Tooth decay conjunctivitis o Yeast is also used to produce alcoholic drinks. o Yeast ferments fruit juices such as grape juice to produce wine. athlete’s foot (tinea) Protozoa Malaria. AIDS. mumps. 2. Types of Diseases microorganisms Bacteria Cholera. Harmful microorganisms may cause diseases and can make people sick. They use special characteristics in the body to move. soy sauce. 2. chickenpox. o Yeast is also used to make tapai. 3. . 4. tetanus. These microorganisms are called germs. USEFUL AND HARMFUL MICROORGANISMS 1. o Yeast is added to soya beans. How Diseases are Spread by Microorganisms 1.7. Harmful microorganisms are microorganisms that can cause diseases. dysentery 5. Microorganisms move to survive. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi are useful for breaking down waste matter to form natural fertilizers. o Powdered yeast is added to tapioca or glutinous rice. Useful Microorganisms 1. Fungi give a lot of benefit to the food industry and in the production of chemicals. wheat and water.3 4. Some of the ways by which diseases are spread. 2. o Flu and cough are spread by this way. o Other people will breathe in the germs and can catch the diseases. food poisoning Viruses Flu or influenza. o Yeast will produce carbon dioxide to make the dough rise. polio Fungi Ringworm. Uses of yeast to humans: Use Explanation o Yeast is added to dough. droplets of water containing germs are released from the person into the air. They are called contagious diseases. 3. 2. vinegar. tooth decay. o The dough is baked to make bread soft and spongy. wine and yogurt. Harmful Microorganisms 1. Ways by which Explanation diseases are spread Through droplet infection o When a person breathes. mumps o Yeast is also used to make tempe. 2. dengue fever. Some microorganisms are harmful but some are useful to humans. measles. Bacteria are used for the preparation of fermented foods such as cheese. Harmful microorganisms will cause illness. food poisoning and food to turn bad. Some of the diseases caused by microorganisms.

5 Preventing Diseases Caused By Microorganisms Wash your hands before handling food or after using the toilet. cholera and dengue fever are spread by this way.Through contact Through animals housefly mosquito rat Through contaminated food o When healthy person touches an infected person or object handled by the infected person. o Rats. o AIDS can be spread in this way. o Bird flu is transmitted by wild birds and domestic fowls. o Malaria. o Some diseases can be spread through transfusion of infected blood from one person to another. English – Malay Vocabulary Blood transfusion Chickenpox Conjunctivitis Contaminated food Cough Flu Harm - Cover your mouth and nose when you are coughing or sneezing. Tooth decay . conjunctivitis or mumps must be quarantined. o Sometimes germs get into our foods and water from sewage or infected people. Measles Mumps Quarantine Ringworm Sneezing Spread Stomach upset Through blood transfusion 2. o Mosquitoes can inject germs into our body. o Flies can carry germs and deposit them on our food. o Measles and chickenpox are spread by this way. inactive. Patients suffering from contagious diseases such as chickenpox. o Food poisoning is spread in this way. mice and even pets can also transmit germs to people. the healthy person catches the diseases. Boil food and drinking water before taking them. Tinea Keep food in a refrigerator Cover wounds on the skin and so that the bacteria will be apply antiseptic.

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