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FUNDAMENTALS OF
PHYSTGS (gth),
CONDENSED
A study guide to accompany
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSIGS
Eighth Edition
TXE WILEY BICENTENNIALKNoWLEDGE FoR GENERATIoNS
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FUNDAMENTALS OF
PHYSTCS (gth),
CONDENSED
Thomas E. Barrett
Ohio State University
A study guide to accompany
FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICS
Eighth Edition
David Halliday
Univers ity of P itts burgh
Robert Resnick
Renss elaer
Polytechnic Institute
Jearl Walker
Cleveland State University
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because these equations apply to the particular problem. and learn to ask yourself the questions. To do this. the "tutor. First learn to answer the questions. As you tackle other probleffis.sk. o Describe how they translate into problemsolving o Show how these techniques work through the use of a few detailed The examples here are organized a^s a^s a series of questions and resporrses. . Sometimes they can be intimidating. almost insulting to a. while sacrificing the depth and artistry of the original.Introduction Physics books are big. like it is marked with 2+25 ? Remember that you should not take equations out of examples. try to ask yourself similar questions a." Then look for patterns in the questions. I walk through each chapter with the following approach: o Identify the most important concepts in the chapter. The successful students learn to ask themselves the questions. the goal of this book is to get the plot. Instead use the examples to understand the equatiorxi and techniques. examples. techniques. Like any condensed work. Many students of physics struggle because they try to learn physics by learning how to answer the questions. a question mark at the right side of the equation.s you work toward an answer. Important terms are underlined. posed by After a while you'll find that the questions themselves are easy to answer. When the student or tutor makes a mistake in an equation. Styling used in this book: Key points are in bold.
Torque. 19 The L43 150 Kinetic Theory of 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 2L Electric Charge 22 Electric Fields 23 Gausst Law r57 r62 169 L77 . and the First Law of Thermodynamics Gases 18 Temperature.Contents 1 3 5 6 Measurement 1 2 Motion Along a Straight Line Vectors o > 13 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions Force and Motion Force and Motion 22 32 44 56 65  I II 7 Kinetic Energy and Work 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy I Center of Mass and Linear Momentum 10 Rotation 11 Rolling. and Angular Momentum 12 7t 82 92 100 LO7 Equilibrium and Elasticity Lg Gravitation 14 Fluids 113 120 128 136 15 Oscillations 16 Waves L7 Waves  I II f{eat.
vii 24 B. Magnetism of Matter 33 Electromagnetic Waves 34 Images 35 Interference 36 Diffraction 37 Relativity 38 Photons and Matter'Waves 39 More About Matter Waves 40 241 246 249 255 263 27L 279 287 292 All About Atoms zgs 302 4L Conduction of Electricity in Solids 42 Nuclear Physics 43 Energf from the Nucleus 44 Quarks.lectric Potential 25 Capacitance 26 Current and Resistance 185 196 203 208 27 Circuits 28 Magnetic Fields 29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents 3O 2L7 224 233 Induction and Inductance 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current 32 Maxwellts Equations. LeptonSr and the Big Bang 306 314 318 .
o Minus signs and units are importarrt. Expect problems to take multiple steps. Don't skip the steps. . vlll aaa . o Be able to say what your variable means in words. but mastery of the technique.Five Things to Remember When Doing Physics o The goal is not possession of the answer. You can make up a rmriables for things you want o Use the drawing. not the formula. or need and dontt have. for the direction.
Then find something that's equal to put in the other half of the fraction. then you'll need to convert all of them (there are three feet in a yard but nine square feet in a square yard). there are 1000 milli in one.126 seconds x 1000 milliseconds 1 second  126 milliseconds : 126 ms Three things to watch out for: o If a unit is squared or to some power other than o Don't skip steps." Anything divided by the same thing is one (unless the two things are zero). experienced people may do the conversions in their heads. but that's a good way to .126 seconds ro matter what they are. We deal with both of these the same w&y. I choose 12 and 1 dozen as my two things that are equal to each other. Check your work: If you end with a bigger unit then you should have a smaller number. if I have three dozen eggs and I want to know how many eggs I have.126 seconds into milliseconds: 0. Handle prefixes the same way.Chapter 1 Measurement The important skills to get from this chapter are dealing with prefixes and units. So to turn x 1000. by multiplying by one. all we want. and vice versa. one. To determine the correct "one. 0. we get the same thing we started multiply anything by one. make mistakes. with. Put that in the numerator or denominator so that it cancels. This means that we can The key is choosing the correct "one. For example. EXAMPTE How many inches are there in 5 km? .milli 1  126 milliseconds: 126 ms or 0." see what you have that you want to get rid of. For example. When we multiply something by one.
Should I use kilometers or inches? You could use either.b cm x + 100 c  Tbtor: What is 5 km divided by an inch? 5000.000 inches in 5 kilometers. a kilometer is much longer than an inch.2 T\rtor: How are you going to attack this problem? is 5? CHAPTER 7. T[rtor: Student: EXAMPLE How many square feet J are there in an acre? (ft') T\rtor: Do square feet and acres mea. or some other length like meters.sure the same thing? foot is an area. 640 Tutor: A square mile is 1 mile x 1 mile.1 square mile.ry 640 x miles  Student: I need to cancel both miles. 5 kmxTT5000m T\rtor: Student: How many meters is one inch? One inch is 2.o2b m . Thtor: What units should you get when you divide a length by a length? Student: The ratio of two lengths should be a number. Ttrtor: Student: I'll How many meters is 5 km equal to? Student: One kilo is one thousand.^.2b mile feet .5.2.560feet  . so yes. but does it make sense that the answer Student: No. Thtor: Correct.acre. and an acre is an area. and there are 100 centi in one. MEASUREMENT Student: I'm going to divide 5 km by one inch. b60 feet2 43.5 centimeters. Student: How big is an acre? T\rtor: There are 640 acres in a square mile.nr( o. What are the units of your answer? Student: The meters cancelled the meters and it doesn't have any. 5280 feet u : ^ . 1 W a( rr€ffi . (5280 teet)' \ R) 43.. 1 in. use meters. T\rtor: Thtor: Student: We need to have the two lengths in the same units. and a mile is 5280 feet. T\rtor: Then we should be able to convert between them. Student: A square Student: So an acre is . without any units.i. 103 x 2. o.t* 1 in. so what you've done is 1 acre 5280feet g.ozSqr 2 x 105 There are 200..
What is the distance between T\rtor: What do you need to do? mm in the denominator and make it nm in the numerator. two distances in the numerator and none in the denominator. I need to get rid of meters in the top. . Student: So (1 mil1610 m) and (1610 m/l mi) are equal to one. What is this in mi/h2? T\rtor: What do you have to do? Student: First I need to turn meters into miles.8. Student: It's bigger than 9. s'8nt*zx(+rr) T\rtor: That seems like a big number.8 m/s. And I need to change seconds into hours. e8m/s2x(#) Student: top. T\rtor: It is. e. so meters has to go on the bottom. So.8 meters per second each second. Meters per second (^1"') ir an acceleration. 9. and means that each second you go so many meters. T\rtor: There are 1610 meters in a mile. Now we need it in nanometers. and means that each second your speed changes by that many meters per second.8 m/s2 means that each second your speed changes by 9. x(#ry) ': T'ex1o4 miIhz T[tor: Meters per second (*/r) is a speed. To end with a length in the numerator I need to start with the length in the numerator. spaced 1200 per millimeter lines. Student: So I need to convert both of them. or 9. that is. Student: What is m/s2. Would that be equal to one? Student: No.8 m/s2 x x f 60' 60 Tilutes) f#) \1610m/ \lminute th / ? TUtor: But there are two factors of seconds. Student: I need to take How about 1 )_ u: 12oG. Seconds is on the bottom so seconds has to go on the T\rtor: Student: How many seconds are there in an hour? There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. T\rtor: If there are 1200 in each millimeter. &trVway? EXAMPLE A machine draws narrow parallel lines.EXAMPTE Gravity is 9. Tbtor: To do that you would need to multiply by two lengths. yes. Student: How many nanometers in a millimeter? lmm 12oo then the distance between them is 1 mm divided by 1200. measured in nanometers (nm)? (**). so mi/h2 must be a smaller unit than mls2.8 m/s2.
Skipping steps is a good way to make mistakes. and m into nm. So I'll turn mm into m. and 10e nano in one. MEASUREMENT There are 103 milh in one. d.4 T\rtor: Student: CHAPTER 1.W*( 12oo rx( \ \1or*/ x "\:83Bnm \ t^t I /toe .
EXAMPLE If you drop a penny from the top of the Empire State Building (381 m tall).n : L @o * u)t Ar. n. then pick the equation that has the three you know and the one you want but not the one you dontt care about. us. Begin by writing down the five variables. but don't care about the fifth. t final velocity u An .aB :2a Ar Ar. In one dimension. If we know any three of the ftve quantities. so any two that are in the same direction will have the same sign. we can solve for the other two. a time t a . a. How do we solve constant acceleration problems? three of the five variables. and the time t. Okay. a. the acceleration o. 't). T\rtor: Student: If we know Student: displacement A.r. how fast will it be going when it hits the ground below? T\rtor: Tbtor: Student: What is happening here? The penny is undergoing constant acceleration. The first four are vectors. u. so they have direction. t initial velocity ao a2 . We start with five quantities: the displacement A. They must all use the same axis.Chapter 2 Motion Along a Straight Line The most important thing to learn from this chapter is how to solve constant acceleration problems.n initial velocity us _ final acceleration a : time t  velocity a .r .uo: at uot u. a.iot' Lr. the direction means positive versus negative. the final velocity n.at2 Ar. t)g. To solve constant acceleration probleffis. and have a fourth that we want to find.fiot the initial velocity ao. t acceleration a Ar : aot * f.ut . I)s. we use the equations includes omits t displacement Ar L.
Does this mean that the acceleration isn't constant? Tutor: It is constant until the instant that the penny hits the ground.0. it positive or negative 381 m? Student: Does it matter? T\rtor: Displacement is a vector.8 m/s2 ? t Tutor: How do we find the time? use the equation Student: I don't care about the final velocity u.r . MOTIO. Do we know the final velocity? ends on the ground.8 ^1"2. We need three of the five.8 m/s2)  8. so I'll L. because *0 . As the penny falls it accelerates downward. it was going downward. So the final velocity is the velocity it has as it hits the ground. so the initial velocity is zero.r that doesn't contain u. and A. and we already have two. Do we know the acceleration? Student: The acceleration is g downward. .+381 m. so the final velocity is zero. Student: The displacement is downward. Tutor: Last. After it hits the ground it isn't moving. Do we know this velocity? Student: No. Student: It displacement Ar initial velocity us final +381 m 0 velocity time a acceleration a 9. Does this mean that we can't use the constant acceleration equations? T\rtor: Not necessarily. so it's +9. Student: How is the acceleration upward? T\rtor: Just before it hits the ground. but when it hits the ground the acceleration is upward. We haven't chosen either direction as positive yet.82 s EXAMPLE A volleyball player hits a volleyball 2. do we know the time? Student: No.8 ^lt' or 9.I m above the floor so that it above the floor. so it is important. T\rtor: Is it +9. : uot (+sat m) : (o)t + 2(+3s1 m) (+9. How long is the volleyball in the air? reaches a maximum height of 4.0 rn T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? The volleyball is undergoing constant acceleration.CHAPTER 2. so I choose down as the positive direction. T\rtor: To use our equations we need a constant acceleration. Is it positive or negative? Student: It doesn't matter. we want to find the time.8 m/s2. T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Do we know the initial velocity? The penny is dropped.IV ALONG A STRAIGHT TI]VE Thtor: T\rtor: Do we know the displacement? Yes.8 mf s27 Student: I chose downward as positive and the acceleration is downward. Student: Is it's 381 m. so it's g. Student: So the change in the velocity is upward.
T\rtor: Begin by writing down the five variables. Student: Ok"y. T\rtor: Student: If I find the initial velocity. The displacement is the difference between the final position and the initial position. Student: I'll do the way up. and the acceleration (9. do we know the time? Student: No. Tutor: Student: If we know three displacement Ar initial velocity us final velocity a acceleration a time t : T\rtor: Tutor: Do we know the displacement? Student: First it goes up 1.1 m. We know three of the five so we can solve.9 m and then it goes down 4. Student: It ends 2. I know the displacement (+1.0 acceleration a time t Alternatively.9 *). T\rtor: Is there anything else we know? Student: We know how high it goes. so we can't solve for anything. No. then do the down problem to find the time down and add them.0 m.How do we solve constant acceleration problems? of the five variables.8m/s2 T\rtor: Can we find the time? We only know two of the five. Tbtor: Tbtor: so Do we know the initial velocity? No. then it is the same initial velocity as for the whole trip. we want to find the time.1 m below where it started.1 m? Student: I choose up as the positive direction. I could find the time up. but how does this help us to find the total time? . Student: Student: Do we know the final velocity? T\rtor: Last.8 m/s2). Student: displacement Ar initial velocity ug _ *1. the final velocity (0). I\rtor: So we need a new start or finish.1 m 9. displacement Ar nitial velocity us final velocity u acceleration a timet? 2. A.2. and the displacement is downward. T\rtor: Is it positive or negative 2. so that is the displacement. but that doesn't happen at either the start or finish.r. we can solve for the other two.9 m finalvelocity a .
8 6.10 m/t)2 n : *)  1f za.85 m/s ^lt2) ^/s2) t .u!  o3 :6.9 mls2)t2 + (6. MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT TINB a2 . Really? How? We know three of the five so we can solve for the other two.10 m/s) + 2(+4.10 m/s for the whole trip. but in two ea.1 m aot + 1 )atz * tn. Student: u2 u2  u2o :2a Ar 2(9.85 m/s ^ls2) (+9.z7 m2 /r'  +8.10 m/s? Does it matter? or negative. Student: That number looks familiar.28 s or 1.r: 2.math.10 mls + 8.sy steps instead of one hard step.10 m/s + 8. We're really doing the same .10 m/s)r 0 tu+t@ 2a tL (6.n (o)' .8b m/s T\rtor: It should.0.r : Ug: a: a: initial velocity final velocity acceleration +6.53 s T\rtor: T\rtor: There is a way to avoid the quadratic formula.1  (+6.10 m/s or 6.9 *) T\rtor: Is it Thtor: You just took a square root.uB :2a 2(9.8 m/s2 ? 2. displacement A. The initial velocity is up.9 6.8 mls2)(2.8 (+9. . which is my positive directior.10 m/s)t + (2.8 A.CHAPTER 2.t mf s2)t2 (+4. Solve first for the final velocity u t then we'll know four of the five.1 *) (+6.1 m time t: A.10 m/s 9. Student: And I can choose a different equation to solve. which could be positive Student: Student: +6.10 m/s ^1"2)(+t. so us : +6.
it's negative.85 m/s)  (+6. Student: Is a constant velocity also constant acceleration? Student: He has zero acceleration. AUO:At (8. What about the speeder? He has a constant velocity. which is the negative direction.53 m/s s. We don't know the policeman's displacement either.8 mlsz)t 1. T\rtor: Since they start at the same place. like os . initially at rest. It's going down.uso : Student: Aren't the times the same for the speeder and the policeman? Thtor: Yes. . to the displacement of the policeman. Ttrtor: What event "starts" our constant acceleration? The speeder passes the policeman. Do we know the speeder's displacement? Student: No. . and we osf. displacement Ars initial velocity uso Speeder _ final velocity us : acceleration og : time ts : it come from? as opposed Policeman Arp upo up ap tp : : : Thtor: It's the displacement of the speeder. invented Student: What's Ars and where did it. Where do we start? Student: We write down the five symbols for each person. accelerates at 10 mi/h/r.10 m/s) t  (9. and they end at the same place. Student: the displacements are equal. We can use all of the constant acceleration formulas on it. then your time would have been 0. How long will it take the policeman to catch the speeder? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? The policeman is undergoing constant acceleration. The policeman. T\rtor: So we can use all of the same techniques for him too.I Student: so And I have to pick the sign for the square root. so we can use t for both.28 EXAMPTE F A speeder at 80 mph (in a 35 mph zone) passes a policeman. which is constant. Ttrtor: What event "ends" our constant acceleration? Student: The policeman catches the speeder. whatever they are.r : t time . T\rtor: If you had chosen the positive square root. Student: displacement initial velocity final velocity acceleration ?rso : Ug: og: + It Ar: Speeder Policeman upo : ap: ap: 1 A.s.
Do we know the speeder's final velocity? Student: His velocity isn't changing. that is not enough.{) ':('o +) t16s . Speeder displacement initial velocity Ar uso final velocity us acceleration 0g  timet:(+>t <+> L. So we'd have two equations and two unknowns. We need either the time or the displacement. Ar and t.(o)r' (80 mph)r T\rtor: Since we want the time and don't care about the displacement. We can keep the units with the numbers and convert them when we need to. Arpupotp*f. ]f to milhls)tl (80 mph)l Student: ('#) ':('o#) The miles and hours cancel. but it would also have two variables. Now we know three of the five and we can solve for the time. lrrn \^" 2 milhls)r2  Student: The time cancels.nT\rtor: Student: (o)r . so 10 miles per hour per second. His acceleration is zero. and we don't know his final velocity. and we don't get a quadratic after all. Student: And we don't have either. let's eliminate that. MOTION ALONG A S"RAIGHT LINE Do we know the speeder's initial velocity? 80 mph. Arsusots*I1"st's A. this is the exception to the rule. Do I need to convert this into meters per second? Tutor: Not necessarily. including his displacement and time as variables.r  (80 mph)r *. If the acceleration is zero and we know both velocities. We could solve them.10 Tlrtor: Student: It's CHAPTER 2. his acceleration is 10 mi/h/r. What kind of a unit is mi/h l"? T\rtor: Each second his velocity increases by 10 miles per hour..r 80 mph up 0 ap  Policeman 10 mi/h/t Tutor: We could write an equation for the policeman. so it's also 80 mph."et? a. We could write an equation for the speeder. (. Ttrtor: Unfortunately. T\rtor: What about the policeman? Student: His initial velocity is zero.(10 milhls)r2 Student: But it has two variables and we can't solve it.
o) : lr?.2at No. Given that we don't care about the time.70. Student: And it doesn't matter how fast the car was going. Whatever it is. T\rtor: The acceleration for the car is the same. In science we call problems like these "scaling" Student: . yQ " about 0.o:IQ". . slower to stop in half the distance. a3. This applies to any car with constant acceleration. Tlue. it is the same for both.o T\rtor: Your goal is to find uz. but look at what you have. except for the L.o .. and the distance Ar2 is half of Ar1. but a1 . the minus sign cancels.. The final velocity is zero j so I know that. that's exactly what the equation says. so take the square . and substitute.2ar Lrr solve either equation.tr?. what is the equation to use? Student: That would be u2 Student: How can I solve a problem without any numbers?  . so the car has to be going 30% Where did you get 30%? The speed has to be 70% of the original speed.2ar Lrr > u?.o : tl ltzui.2at Lrt :2az Arz u1.o .o.o . T\rtor: Then take the L out. Does it look like anything else you have? Student: It looks similar to the first equation..o f. u. So let's come up with a set of variables a1 and Arr and so on for one car. you do. I don't know any of the others. Student: So I don't want that one? Tutor: No.r T\rtor: Good.)L'o times the initial speed the first time? Student: The initial speed the second time has to be T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes.11 EXAMPLE How must the initial speed of a car change so that the car is able to stop in only half the distance? T\rtor: Use variables. so it must be the acceleration or the time. no matter what the initial speed. Student: So I substitute those. T\rtor: Student: I still can't solve it. Lrr) Student: Well.. u2.oufoT\rtor: Student: But I can't a?. and then another set a2 and Arz and so on for a second car.3 :2a A.o . so the change is 30% of the original speed. and that is a piece of useful information. What equation would work here? Student: I need to identify three of the five.oot and see what you have. or even what the acceleration was? Tutor: As long as the acceleration is the same each time.a2.o tf IT tl z. r3. TUtor: Which one don't you care about? Student: Initial velocity and displacement are mentioned.0 ')22.
.L2 CHAPTER 2. without any values. then substitute anything that you know. You want to know how one thing changes when another chang€s. MOTIONATO]VG A STRAIGHT LINE problems. either because it stays the same or you know how it compares to before. One way to solve these problems is to write down the equation both before and after.
and force. The y components of each vector are likewise parallel to each other. we easy divide each vector into components. 13 . Draw the right triangle with the vector as the hypotenuse and the other two sides parallel to the axes. These include displacement. si+ 4i. We need to be able to add and subtract vectors. It can be done using the law of cosines. and are to add. then the component is negative.Chapter 3 Vectors Many things in physics have direction and are expressed as vectors. velocity. Instead. Always draw the angle from the r ucis toward the axis.(3+ +1izi Adding two vectors that are perpendicular can be done with the Pythagorean theorem. If the component is in the opposite direction as the axis. r and y components are perpendicular to each other and can be added using the Pythagorean There is more than one way to find the components. The fr components of each vector are parallel. and are likewise easy to add. Adding two parallel vectors is ea. and the side of the triangle that is opposite to the angle is sine. gl Let's see how each method works. The side of the triangle that is adjacent to the angle is cosine. Adding two vectors that are neither parallel nor perpendicular is more difficult. but this becomes unwieldy with more than two vectors.sy. I review the two most popular here. acceleration. Then the theorem. Then the r component is cosine and the y component is sine.
The y but it is down and the y y component is y . so the The angle given is not mea"sured from the r a)cis.6sin(302"). component is the side opposite to the so the tr component is r . We draw a new angle mea. component is the side adjacent to the The r angle.6 sin(32").L4 CHAPTEN 3. EXAMPTE What is the sum of the four vectors? B= . angle.6 cos(302') and the y component is y . arcis is up. This new angle is 270o + 32o : 302o.$cos(32o). Then the n component is r . VECTORS We draw the right triangle as shown.srued from the r ocis initially toward the y axis. I shall use the lefthand method.
Tbtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: Are the vectors all perpendicular? No.lcos 30o : 6. Good.50 T\rtor: Student: Good. Student: The . Student: I'm going to use the a)ces provided. so it's cosine. What is the r component of vector A? Student: First I draw the triangle. T\rtor: Yes. but there won't always be. Thtor: What are you going to use for your ruces? Thtor: Student: Uh. component is the adjacent side of the triangle. So how do we add them? Student: We break each one into components and add the components. B . : A cos 30o : 7. A* : A sin 30o : 7 . A. so it's sine. What is the g component of vector A? The y component is the opposite side of the triangle.75 T\rtor: What is the o component of vect or B? Student: First I draw the triangle. there's already a>(es in the problem.15 T\rtor: Are the vectors all parallel? No.5 sin 30o : 3.
B* : Bcos 20"  4cos 20" :3. and the r anis goes to the right.r component of vect or C? the triangle. The y component is opposite the angle.5 cos 25"  4.16 Student: The CHAPTER 3. signs when determining components.53 Tlrtor: What is the tr component of vect or D? How do I draw the triangle for vector D? T\rtor: Because D is already parallel to one of the axes. respectively.76 T\rtor: In many of the things we'll use vectors for. so B* : B cos 20"  Acos 20"  3. More often than not these will be the r and A components. Student: And the A component is 3.5sin25" .76 Student: Doesn't the math take care of that automatically? T\rtor: Yes. and opposite is sine.2.76 ? it's negative. so it's sine. so it's cosine. Student: By : B sin 20" . : B cos 160o  Acos 160o : 3. but sometimes it's the other way around. Student: .Csin25" . away from the T\rtor: Student: Isn't gl a>ris. Tutor: But the r component goes to the left. Student: The u component is cosine. : C cos 25"  5 cos 25" : 4.II the fr component always cosine? No. VECTORS r component is the adjacent side of the triangle. because it doesn't go to the left or right at all. the component adjacent to the angle is always cosine. if you always mea"sure the angle from the r axis. it's more convenient to draw the triangle and add minus Okay. .Asin 20o  I.37 Tlrtor: Student: First I draw What is the . you don't need to draw the triangle. so it's cosine. so it's negative. Cu : C cos 25" .53 ? TUtor: The r component is opposite the angle this time. C. The y component is down. The r component of D is zero. B. C. so it's sine. Student: And the A component of C is adjacent.
37 2.* Student: And the y components add B**C** D.85 2.37 + (4. but let's find the magnitude and direction for practice.2r? than one of the components.4! T\rtor: Student: Do we need to find the magnitude and direction or are the components enough? Often the components are enough. I points in the r direction and i points in the T\rtor: Student: How do I find the angle? Draw the triangle.2. Student: The fr cemponents add (A+ B +C + D).41) j A Tutor: We can also express this vector using "unit vectors.50 3.2.75 3.50+ (3.4. @: That can't be right.53 03 4.75+L. Remember to square the negative 1l txl' + (Y)' : Tutor: m:tffi:5.76) + 2.76 L. . but this time starting with the components.42 Some people find it easier to make a table: A B C D 6." (4.85 (A+ B +C + D)y: Av* Bo*Cn* Do .A.:6. What's a unit vector? is a vector of length 1 with no units.LI 4. because it's less m:rffi.:4.53) + (3). Student: The magnitude or absolute value is T\rtor: sign too.L7 T\rtor: Good..4r + (. now we can add them.II+ (0) .3.85)a Student: gl T\rtor: A unit vector direction.
" meaning that we move one vector so that it starts where the previous one left off. but the sum points down.E Find the vectors A + B and A . TUtor: How do we add vectors? Student: We connect the ends. Does that mean the angle is negative? Some people are happy with that. T\rtor: Student: . like this: Both vectors A and B point to the right. so the angle is Student: o  arctan oqrPosite : &rct : aoJacent ^n?'4t a*B &rctan o'497  26'4" Student: . and your sum points to the lefib. we use "tip to tail.18 CHAPTER 3. so repetitive? EXAMPI. so it must be the other way. When adding vectors. but with practice it will go faster. Can that be right? No. Student: The tangent of the angle is opposite over adjacent. but it's best to show the angle that you mean with a drawing. Is adding vectors always T\rtor: Usually. . . VECTORS T\rtor: So the angle is below the r a:ris.B graphically. Tutor: Then A and B point up. below the r arcis.
4 plus negative B equals my first vector. and my vector is B+mineA I\rtor: mineAB An easier way to subtract vectors is to add the negative vector. ABor BA? Look for the "tip to tail" combination. A. so Drawing it the other way would give B  it was A  B. or a change. Student.19 Tlrtor: Student: Don't vectors have to start at the origin? No. . and it doesn't matter where it starts. Student: So I add the vectors like this: T\rtor: Tlrtor: Student: Butisit Yes. The vector you drew first is the difference of the two vectors. So B plus my vector equals A. A vector seen this way is a displacement. ABA+(B) Tntor: Student: .
46 or negative. Student: . . rFeD2s. what would that look like? Start at the end of the first vector. Thtor: What are the components of the second vector. T\rtor: What are the components of the first vector? Student: The r component is *3 and the y components is +2. Could your second vector be (3. and the g component of the sum is zero. T\rtor: Now you have a vector with a length of. the one we're trying to find? Student: Don't I need an angle to find those? Tutor: You need something. so.46. . T\rtor: The y component of the first vector is *2. T\rtor: What are the components of that vector? Student: I don't know how long it is. VECTORS EXAMPLE Find a vector of length 4 that. What is the fr component? Student: I can use the Pythagorean theorem. .20 CHAPTER 3. sums to a horizontal vector (parallel to the r axis). when added to the vector shown. so how can I find the components? T\rtor: What is the y component of a horizontal vector? Student: Zero. 2)7 Maybe. 4 and a y component of 2. and draw a circle of length 4. Where can we start? adding vectors. It doesn't go up or down. . so I'll need their components. T\rtor: Student: I'm 4@ T\rtor: A square root could be positive Ttrtor: Student: this circle. the A component of the second vector is 2. Do you know anything about the vector you'll get when you add them? Student: It's horizontal. The second vector has to end on .
What if the first vector had (3. T\rtor: And there wouldn't be any vector of length 4 that you could add to the first and get a horizontal vector. so the second vector would have to be at least 5 long. The y component would have to be 5. Student: I see.2t axe two points on the r axis where the vector could end. been 5)? Then there wouldn't be any point where the circle intersects with the r a>cis. there .
4 m above the ground. Once we have a set of perpendicular axes. To deal with a onedimensional problem. 5 m away? Is this a onedimensional problem? The ball starts going up and over. it is easier to describe motion as being in the r or y direction. we look at two basic techniques: projectile motion and relative motion. By "works best" I mean that it gives us much easier equations to solve. so I choose r horizontal toward the wall and y vertically up. but the acceleration of gravity is downward. we can treat the motion along each axis separately. When everything lines up along a single plane. The one Iimitation is that the axes need to be perpendicular to each other. If we can't find a plane in which everything happens. then we have a twodimensional problem. we need two axes. While it is mathematically correct to use the ? and j notation of the pre ious chapter. Instead. and it is much easier if this happens in one dimension. When everything lines up along a single line (utty line). then we have a threedimensional problem. with nothing going into the page or coming out of the page. Many things in physics have directior.Chapter 4 Motron in Two and Three Dimensions In this chapter we learn how to use vectors. To demonstrate and practice vectors. How far above the ground does the ball hits the wall. EXAMPLE A boy throws a ball toward a wall. T\rtor: Student: How does the wall come into it? We will want to know when the ball hits the wall. With a twodimensional problem. so yes. then we have a onedimensional problem. The ball leaves his hand 1 . with a speed of 15 m/s at 42" above horizontal. Student: Gravity is vertical. 22 . Ary set of axes will do. T\rtor: For a twodimensional problem. it is not done so much in practice. Since not everything is along a single line. They work because the wall is Tutor: Student: vertical. Anythittg in the opposite direction is negative. T\rtor: Those will work well. no. and we use vectors to describe the directions. we need to choose two axes. Here we connect constant acceleration (and constant velocity) with vectors in two dimensions. but not because the acceleration is vertical. but there is often one set that works best. we choose one direction as the positive direction. T\rtor: Is this a twodimensional problem? Student: Everything can be drawn in the plane of the page.
T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the gr direction? Student: g downward. T\rtor: But now we need two lists. The gt component is upward. Thtor: What is happening along the y uris? Student: Constant acceleration. T\rtor: What is the final velocity in the r direction? Student: There is no horizontal acceleration. UtO : an: a0: I It Ar ugo : Ayuu: t: aa: T\rtor: r direction? m Student: *5 T\rtor: What is the displacement in the y direction? Student: We don't knowl that's what we're trying to find. I\rtor: What is the initial velocity in the r direction? Student: The z component is adjacent to the 42" angle. T\rtor: Are both of them positive? Student: The r component is toward the wall. so it has no horizontal component. So the time is the same for the Do we know it? T\rtor: Student: Student: r and gr problems. so it is sine: 15 m/ssin42o. one each for the r and y a)ces.8 Tutor: What is the time in the ^/s2.r : *5m 'ual . What is the final velocity in the gr direction? Student: We don't know. T\rtor: Is it really what we're trying to find? Student: We want to find how high it is when the r displacement is +5 m. Now what is happening along the r a>ris? Student: Constant acceleration. so both are positive. A. T\rtor: Yes. which is our *g direction. which is our *r direction. so it is cosine: 15 m/s cos 42o . so it should be the same a"s the initial velocity in the n direction. T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the r direction? Student: The acceleration is parallel to the y axis.4 m to it. knowing two velocities (which are the same) only counts a^s one. No. but unfortunately this is the exception to the threeoffive rule: when the acceleration is zero and it becomes a constant velocity problem. so we need to find the A displacement and add +I.23 T\rtor: Student: So I want to line up one axis with the "finish line" ? Yes.+ (15 m/s) cos 42o Ur:Uy: an:Oag:g t:+)t: Ly uuo  + (15 m/s) sin 42o . Zero. Ttrtor: How do we solve constant acceleration problems? Student: We write down the five symbols and identify what we know. r direction? Student: Time has direction? What is the displacement in the T\rtor: No. Tutor: What is the initial velocity in the y direction? Student: The r component is opposite to the 42" angle. so 9.
what would that have meant? Student: That the ball hit the wall below the ground? T\rtor: Yes.4 m + 3. T\rtor: For a twodimensional problem. How far from the base of the cliffdoes the cannonball land? T\rtor: How many dimensions are there in this problem? Student: The initial velocity and the acceleration are not along the same line. so two is enough. Thtor: How do we solve constant acceleration problems? Student: We write down the five symbols and identify what we know. so that the height above the ground was negative.52 m above where he threw it.448 .52 m . we need two axes.92 m above the ground.4 m. r. so more than one. we only know two of the five.)' Ay 3. Tlrtor: If the g displacement had been less than I. iont2 m/s2)(0.) *. and g perpendicular to T\rtor: Now what is happening along the r axis? Student: Constant acceleration. The cannonball leaves the cannon at 100 mls at 53o above horizontal.# ((15 */s) cos 42o) r+ f.24 CHAPTER 4. parallel to the ground.448 s : uot + rrat2  Aa : uyot . T\rtor: Student: EXAMPTE J A cannon fires a cannonball from the top of a cliff to the level ground 180 m below. so we could solve for the final velocity or the time in the fr direction.52 m.ia*t2 (b *)  .r Ay  0. or 1.52 m The y displacement is 3. Then we'll be able to solve the y problem. T\rtor: Can we solve the r problem? Student: Yes.fo!' t L. .(e.8 . But that wasn't the question. MOTIONIN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS Can we solve the y problem to find the y displacement? No. what would that mean? Student: That the ball hit the ground before reaching the wall. we know three of the five. They are in the same plane.++8  ((lb m/s) sin 42o) (0. T\rtor: Student: Ar:urot. T\rtor: How does that help us with the y problem? Student: The time in the r problem is the same as the time in the y problem.4. What does the g displacement mean? Student: The ball hits 3. Student: I choose r horizontal. T\rtor: What is happening along the y axis? Student: Constant acceleration.
at2  1 uyot + 1 . we only know two of the five. that's what we're trying to find. so it should be the same a^s the initial velocity in the n directior.8 mf s2)t2 0 Student: So we have to solve a quadratic equation? TUtor: We could solve the quadratic. Tutor: What is the acceleration in the r direction? Student: The acceleration is parallel to the y ocis. so it has no horizontal component. . T\rtor: What is the final velocity in the r direction? Student: There is no horizontal acceleration. T\rtor: What is the initial velocity in the y direction? Student: The s component is opposite to the 53o angle. Thtor: What is the final velocity in the y direction? Student: We don't know.8 ^/"2.n : UtO : ao: at: + L Ayuvo : ag: ay: 1 b What is the displacement in the r direction? We don't know. Thtor: Can we solve the y problem? Student: Yes.25 A. so we could solve for the time in the y problem. . t _b+rm 2a . but it doesn't help us. so it is cosine: +100 m/scos53o. Zero. T\rtor: What is the acceleration in the y direction? Student: g downwardr so 9. T\rtor: Student: Lr : ? uro . but it is the same for the r and y problems. so it is sine: *100 m/ssin53o. then put that into the r problem.+ (100 m/s) cos53o A&:Ag: ++ at:ar: Ly : uyo  180m + (100 m/s) sin53o an:Oay:g Ttrtor: Can we solve the r problem to find the r displacement? No.oot2 : (+SO mls)t (4. T\rtor: What is the time? Student: We don't know. Student: Ar= = uot + (180 m) l2AuAy : . we know three of the five. T\rtor: What is the displacement in the y direction? Student: 180 m.9 mls2)t' + (80 mls)t + (180 m) : * i(e. Tbtor: What is the initial velocity in the r direction? Student: The r component is adjacent to the 53" angle.
Which is it? Student: What difference does it make? Tutor: If the final velocity is positive then the cannonball is going upward Student: No. The vertical motion is like Ly : aot .0 s or 18. We could solve for the time without a quadratic.6 m/s) (9. uu : 99. .3 s or we could solve the gl problem for the final velocity. Tutor: If we knew the final velocity we would have four of the five and would have our choice of equations.Lgt'.8 ^1"2) ^l: t18.) + */r) + (ee. AUO:At+AUUyO:Agt +_AyUAO v t (ee.. . as it lands.(80 */. Tutor: Student: u2  a2o :2a Ar @)' (uu)2 . Ay : : o?o * 2an AY ag: ua +99.6 m/s.8 mls2) 2(4. the beanbags fly in a parabolic arc after they leave the airgun. so that t is proportional to \tr.8 s) + tol(18. In the photo.9 ^1"2) t  2. . MOTIONIN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS (80 t.26 CHAPTER 4. How does that help us? We need the time. its path forms a parabola. The horizontal motion is constant.o (80 m/s) (9.8 s)2 n1100m As an object flies through the air.6 m/s TUtor: The square root could be positive or negative..?o  2o.3s Student: Now we can do the r problem. n:uilt+lrat2 n  (60 m/s)(18.
but it doesn't get any further from you. the tree appears to be conring at you at 60 mph.27 Imagine that you are driving down the road at 60 mph. the velocity. but they have to point in the same direction. If you look out the window at the tree beside the road. it's important to not approach things that way. You think of the car just ahead of you as going 60 mph. w€ can think of each person carryirrg their axes with them. It is important that everyone agree on the axes. a car going the other way appears to be coming at you at 120 mph. you see me doing the same thing in the other direction. arrd think of the ground as "stationary. We carr take the derivative of this. Likewise. These equations fail if I think north is positive and you think south is positive. This is the idea behind relative motion. We often intuitively measure everything compared to the grortnd. (When we get to relativity. . If you have any two objects A and B. If you look only at yourself. We can measure the position.) The rnath behind relative motion is straightforward. you don't appear to be moving. or the acceleration of anything cornpared to any other thing. ilns is read as "the velocity of A as measured by B." but we don't have to approach things that way." Also. then rtnefAC*ilce where C is any third person or object. For displacement. so dee and  dnc * tice 6ns : den The same is true for acceleration. frle_ Ttris says that whatever rgR I see you doing.
Harder but not impossible. and that's a good way to make a mistake. Student: Is T\rtor: it positive or negative? Student: It doesn't say. T\rtor: It doesn't matter which one you make which letter.e2 mph) + (+60 mph) sees  +b8 mph Student: The guy by the side of the road the passenger moving northward at 58 mph.IVD THREE DIMENSIONS EXAMPLE As a bus drives north at 60 mph. MOTIOAI IN TWO A. What is the speed of the plane compared to the ground? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It says "compared to. T\rtor: What is the velocity 6ps of the passenger as measured by the bus? Student: 2 mph. take north as positive. Pick either north or south as positive and stick with your choice. of course. or southward compared to the bus. I'm going to use the relative motion equations. How fast is the passenger moving. Darn. Student: All I need to do is figure out whether I add or subtract Student: the 200 and the 30. Student: So I'll start with the equation. Good. So when I add or subtract I'll need to do components. and C? What are the three people. The wind is blowing northwest at 30 mph. tTpc :6ps * dec T\rtor: Tutor: What is the velocity 6p. objects. and the guy by the side of the road. so long as you do it consistently. T\rtor: The directions in the problem are south and northwest. by two different people. T\rtor: Student: dlie t7RC ldcr Ttrtor: Student: What are A. I'll use A as the passenger and B as the guy. What are you going to use for your axes? Student: r and A. or frames of reference mentioned in the problem? Student: The bus. so it's *60 mph. so it's mph." so I'm going to use relative motion.28 CHAPTER 4. Student: Because I want the velocity of the passenger as measured by the guy. the passenger. You're tryirg to skip steps. compared to the bus. EXAMPLE J An airplane is pointed southward with an airspeed of 200 mph. Think about how r and gr relate to the . B. How might you identify that relative motion is involved in this problem? Student: It talks about a measurement "compared to" and "as determined by. South and northwest aren't parallel to each other. Student: I'll You need to choose an axis. He's walking toward the rear of the bus. as determined by someone standing on the side of the road? How are you going to approach this problem? Because we're talking about relative motion. a passenger on the bus walks toward the rear at 2 mph.c of the bus as measured by the guy? 60 mph. T\rtor: Not all problems are labelled with the technique needed to solve them. 2 dpc . It involves measurements made in two different frames of reference." T\rtor: Yes.
29 directions in the problem.h). + (2I mph) .w .s : * uac. That way the axes are perpendicular and my results will probably be positive. That's two. Student: I need to use the Pythagorean theorem again. the velocity of the air compared to the ground? Student: That's the wind. so *200 Student: Because it's 45o. ?rpc.upA.q. uac.. B. oh. so I'll use west as the other.w . The wind is more west than east. Using relative motion: une  6nc * uce . w * uuc. or even northwest. Student: First I'll add the south components. the wind I\rtor: Which is A. south. and the components are the same. the velocity of the plane compared to the air? mph south and 0 west. T\rtor: Student: Now figure out how to add the vectors. Student: It's headed south at 200 mph. so the south component is negative (trying to skip steps again). so I draw my triangle.s : uAG. so you can't just add them. I can use either angle.(0 mph) + (21 mph) : 2t mph T\rtor: The south and west components are perpendicular..s : (200 mph) UPG : . and C? Student: I want the plane compared to the ground.s upA.s * o?c.C is B. Now you can do the vector addition.w  (30 mph) cos 45o  21 mPh ? T\rtor: The wind is going northwest. so I'll use south a^s one of my axes. so there must be a third thing moving.?c. Ttrtor: or air. so the Plane is A. west. and the third T\rtor: What are the components of upn. the Ground thing C is the Air.. .w : \@ry. + (21 mph)2  180 mph . Ttrtor: What are the components of dnc.179 mph upc. east. or you could just use some combination of north. Student: The plane is going south. dpC:UpA*u. Student: What are the three things in the problem? The airplane and the ground.
SW  UAG . What are you going to use for your axes? Student: How about south and west again? T\rtor: Any set of perpendicular axes will work. Student: I guess not. so that the plane goes southeast compared to the ground. upc equals +200 mph. Did you pick the strange directions just so I could practice using unusual axes? T\rtor: Yes. so I'll need axes to add the vectors. The math will be easier if you pick the goal (southeast) a^s one of your axes. UAG + dpc?o +2r ?? SW +2r . you can rotate the paper. of course.30 CHAPTER 4. The wind is blowing south at 30 mph. dpc 6pn*unc The directions are not all parallel. so that it flies parallel to the runway. but the goal is to get the plane flying southea^st. and I'll use southwest for the other axis. and southward means the southwest and southea^st components are both positive. The airplane needs to fly directly southeast compared to the ground. MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS EXAMPLE An airplane has an airspeed of 200 mph. What are the components of the wind d11c? Student: It's a 45" angle again. the groundspeed lrpc I and the airspeed lrpc I were different. Drawing the triangle isn't as ea"sy because the il(es seem strange.S E  (30 mph) cos 45o : +21 mph T\rtor: What components do you have now? SE upr. But the southwest component of the groundspeed is zero. If it seems strange. Tutor: Student: UAG . In what direction should the pilot point the airplane? Student: It says compared to. Student: Really? Ok y. T\rtor: Yes. so I'm going to try relative motion. Tutor: Is it clear that the plane is moving 200 mph compared to the ground? In the last problem.
ro. J .sn * e21 mph)2 199 mph . Student: Of course.sw (200 mph)2 u".\/(200 mph)2 .(21 mph)2 it positive or negative? T\rtor: If it's negative then the plane is going northward.1.31 Ttrtor: Student: I see. You have one of the components of up4. u?e.st. But I still don't know Student: Using the Pythagorean theorem backwards. so you can find the other component.s1*o?n. the angle. Then the angle is Student: It's a square root. and you know the magnitude upe.sw : 2I.. opposite adjacent 2I 199 Student: That's 6o mea"sured eastward from southea. I can find dpn.sp : a?n. so is arctan .
If you don't get this. This force is always perpendicular to the surfaces. The only time that you know the normal force is when 32 . get Every problem involving forces starts with the same basic steps: o Draw a freebody diagram. o Use the diagram to write Newton's o Solve for the unknown. For the moment." and that word is normal. but you don't know it. so we only need to deal with gravity and things in contact with our object. and does not contain direction information. One common mistake is to a. You dontt know the magnitude of the normal force. o gravity o normal forces o tension forces Gravity is easy. there are two types of forces that can occur without touching: gravity and electromagnetic forces. Forces are things that push or pull on an object. Also. Motion I In this chapter we cover the single most important technique to learn in physics. g is the magnitude of the gravity force. and a weight (force) of ffig. This force is to keep the objects from occupying the same place at the same time. we need to worry about three forces. second law equations along each ancis. We won't have any electromagnetic forces for a while. and is just hard enough to keep the objects apart and no harder. Anything that touches an object can apply a force to it. o Choose axes. where g is the same acceleration of gravity as in the earlier chapters.ssume that you know the normal force. Any time two objects are in contact. there is no friction until the next chapter. g 9. Also. So the normal force is the perpendicular to the surface force. and g is neaer negative.8 m/s2 on the surface of the Earth. Every object has a ma"ss m.Chapter 5 Force and help. there could be a force where they meet. There is a word in mathematics that means "perpendicular to the surface.
the box will lift off of the floor. We're going to save friction until the next chapter. but you don't know it. Tutor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: There is a rope pulling on it. so there is a normal force.A/. Ttrtor: Not necessarily.ss. One common mistake is to assume that you know the tension force. get the direction right. EXAMPLE A 3 kg box sits on the floor. Then that's all of the forces. So pick a variable name or symbol to represent the magnitude of the normal force. Tension forces are away from the object in the direction of the rope. You dontt know the magnitude of the tension force. Usually in physics problems we use massless ropes (purchased at the theoretical physics store). The only time that you know the tension force is when the tension force is applied by a spring scale. these forces never occur on the same object. so it has weight mg downward. no? Tutor: Correct. If you don't have a scale. T\rtor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: The box is in contact with the floor.33 someone is standing on a scale. The tension will pull upward on the box. Draw a freebody diagram for the box. Thtor: Are there any forces on the box? has ma. so if it says 200 pounds. We pull on an object with a string or rope. T\rtor: FN and n are also common choices. Note that because one of these forces is on A and the other on B. so upward. T\rtor: What is the direction of the normal force? Student: Perpendicularly out of the floor. then B puts a force on A. The last important point about forces is dealittg with paired forces. T\rtor: Thtor: Student: Student: So how big is the normal force? Do you know? No. and attach a name or label to each force. and that the two forces are equal in magnitude and have opposite direction. The box is pulled to the right by u rope that is 35o above horizontal. What is the direction of the tension force? 35" from horizontal right toward upward. so if the normal force is the same as the weight. Are there any other forces acting on the box? Tutor: Student: Student: Fliction. Later we're going to want to put the magnitude of the tension force into an equation. Student: It so T\rtor: Student: I choose ?. we need a symbol to represent the magnitude of the tension force. The purpose of the scale is to measure the normal force. Student: Good. Student: I choose . but a normal force is only as big as it needs to be to keep the objects from moving into each other. then the normal force is 200 pounds. so there is a tension force. T\rtor: Do we know how big the tension force is? Student: Uh. Newton's third law says that if A puts a force on B. you don't know the normal force. T\rtor: What is the size of the normal force? Student: The normal force is the same as the weight. Student: So the normal force isn't the same as the weight? T\rtor: Sometimes it is. How do you know? T\rtor: . The purpose of the freebody diagram is to get a complete list of the forces.
so it has weight mg downward. How big is the normal force that the table puts on the book? Student: It Are there any other forces acting on the book? Student: I did the weight. Thtor: Yes. T\rtor: How big is the normal force? Student: It is the same as the weight. . because those are the only forces on the book. T\rtor: Are there any forces on the book? has mass.34 CHAPTER 5. FORCE AND MOTION .J EXAMPLE A 2 kg book sits on a 7 kS table. T\rtor: Student: I don't know. so I'll give it a symbol ^Af. ) 350 . but the gravity force of the book is the Earth pulling it down. so those are the only forces on the book. Student: Surely the book affects the table. Draw a freebody diagram for the book and one for the table. and the only thing touching the book is the table. T\rtor: The weight of the book doesn't act on the table. Student: Then how does the book affect the table? T\rtor: They are in contact with each other. T\rtor: What forces are there on the table? Student: There is the weight of the table and the weight of the book and a normal force up from the floor. pushing the table downward. Student: So there is a normal force perpendicularly out of the book acting on the table. so there is a normal force upward. Tutor: Are there any other forces acting on the book? Student: It is in contact with the table.I Student: Because we did the weight and we did everything in contact with the box. and Newton's third law says that the gravity force of the book pulling up on the Earth is equal and opposite. The table doesn't come into the gravity force on the book. T\rtor: What if the table is in an elevator that is accelerating upward? Student: Who would put a book on a table in an elevator? T\rtor: The point is that just having two forces on an object doesn't make them equal.
How big is the force that the table puts on the book? Student: It was . masslesspulley.35 Yes. We're done. . Drawafreebodydiagram for each box. not mass. What forces are there on the 12 N box? downward. so I'll use mog for the 6 N box and mng for the 12 N box.8 mf s2? T\rtor: Yes. Student: It also has ma. so I choose l{floor. There is a tension force ? upward. so I need to use a different symbol for the floortable force. so it has weight Are the two masses the same? Student: No. so I'll use rng for the weight of the book and M g for the weight of the table. How big is this normal force? Equal to the weight of the book? T\rtor: Not necessarily. so it has weight What forces are there on the 6 N box? mg downward. so N. and it is in contact with two things so there are two normal forces.l/. so the normal force of the book pushing down on the table is also l/. and likewise for the 12 N box. T\rtor: Newtons is a unit of force. Ttrtor: Are the two weights the same? Student: No. T\rtor: Student: J /b EXAMPLE A 6 N boxand a 12 N boxhangfromaropeoverafrictionless. There is a also tension force upward. T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It has ma^ss. T\rtor: How big is the normal force that the floor puts on the table? Student: It's a normal force.ss. Thtor: Are there any more forces acting on the table? Student: We did the weight of the table. Ttrtor: Is the normal force that the floor puts on the table the same size as the normal force that the book puts on the table? Student: Not necessarily. so 6 N is mg for the lighter box. Newton's third law says that the force that the table puts on the book is equal to and in the opposite direction as the force that the book puts on the table. Student: So the mass is 6 N/9.
36 CHAPTER 5. if the boxes were falling with acceleration g. What forces are there on the 4 kg box? Tutor: Are the tension forces the same? Student: If they were. T\rtor: Is the tension pulling up on the 4 kS box equal to Tr or Tz? Student: It is the same rope as the one that pulls down on the 3 kg. They must be different. then the light box has zero net force on it and doesn't accelerate. There is also a tension force upward. and a 4 kg box hangs from the 3 kg box from another rope. then we . Student: So I use the same symbol the lighter box? T in each freebody diagram. T\rtor: Student: What if it had mass? We would need to draw an additional freebody diagram for the rope. T\rtor: As long as the rope is massless. but the net force on the heavy box is downward and it does accelerate. If it is massless. so ?1 up and ?z down. So I don't know the size of the tension force. There is a tension force upward and a tension force Student: It has mass. and the pulley is massless and frictionless. 0 T\rtor: What forces are there on the 3 kg box? rng downward. would remain. Draw a freebody diagram for each box. they would add to zero and only the weight Tutor: Student: It also has mass. so it is ?2. so the box would fall. so it has weight downward. Student: And then the rope would have to become longer. so I'll use msg for the 3 kS box and mzg for the 4 kg box.I Tutor: Student: Are the tensions the same or different? As long as it is the same massless rope. Isn't the tension equal to the weight of Tntor: If it is. FORCE AND MOTION . rz9 EXAMPLE A 3 kg box hangs from the ceiling by u rope. then the tensions are the same. so it has weight downward. Are the two masses the same? Student: No. T\rtor: They could be the same.
Student: Which is zero no matter what the acceleration is. Student: . To do this we need axes (usually two. and ofrben the forces are not colinear (along a single line). Tutor: How do we begin? We draw a freebody diagram for the box. The box is pulled to the right by r rope that is 35o above horizontal and has a force of 26 N.ss times the acceleration of that object. T Newton says that if we add all of the forces on an object we get the ma. with the weight rng downward. Don't worry if you don't know values for all of the symbols in the equation. you can add the force vectors. EXAMPLE A 3 kg box sits on the floor. then choose any a)ces you like. zero. We've got to be missing one variable. If the acceleration is zero. Aty set of axes will work. Add all of the components and set that total equal to the mass times the acceleration along that axis. times the acceleration of the rope. so long as they are perpendicular to each other. sometimes three). and go through the forces one at a time. If you choose one of the axes to be parallel to the acceleration. It is common to be missing two or more. then the math will be much easier to do. so we need to divide them into components to add them. the normal force l/ upward. Do each axis. Find the component of that force along the axis. We already did that for this problem. so the tension is the same everywhere on the rope. Find the normal force that the floor exerts on the box. Find the acceleration of the box.37 have the tension at top and bottom and they add to the mass. Once you have your axes. or we would have nothing to solve for. then think about solving the equations. The forces are vectors. so we'll need additional equations in order to get a solution. and the tension force ? up and to the right. Take one axis.
then we can apply Newton's second law for each axis. so horizontal and to the right. Tutor: Choose one axis parallel to the acceleration and the second axis perpendicular to the first. It's in the same direction a. so the A component is +lf. We chose the axes so that all of the acceleration . Tutor: Student: EF" : TTLar and EFo T\rtor: What is the r component of the weight? The weight is perpendicular to the r axis.s the y T\rtor: Student: axis. so the r component is zero. so I can solve the first equation (26 N) cos 35o and find ar. ? aa is the acceleration in the g direction. so it's sine. so the weight is negative. Tutor: What is the r component of the normal force? Student: The normal force is also perpendicular to the r axis.  rrlao Student: ? cos 35o  TTLar Let's do the A components. and the normal force is also parallel to the A axis. Student: I choose / to the right and y upward. so it's positive.I 'J What is the direction of the acceleration? The box will slide along the floor. Had you chosen the y axis downward. so the . Student: Yes. Student: To add the forces. so it's cosine.r component is adjacent to the 35o angle.I  (3 kg)o. the result will be equal to the mass of the box times its acceleration. ar Ttrtor :7. What is the A component of the weight? The weight is parallel to the y axis.38 CHAPTER 5. we need to divide the vectors into components. Student: I don't know the normal force so I can't find ^l12 ar. It's down. mg + lf +T sin35o : rno.a T\rtor: Student: Can we solve these? The tension ? is 26 N. so it's negative. the weight would be positive. FORCB A. T\rtor: What is the r component of the tension? Student: The .IVD MOTIO]V . T\rtor: What is the y component of the tension? Student: The r component is opposite to the 35o angle. or vertical.r component is zero. T\rtor: Newton says that if we add the force vectors together. so all of it. T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: But the weight is negative because it is opposite to the y axis.
like Flv. which indicates that it's a variable. so some people try to choose other symbols for the normal force. Ttrtor: Student: .Af on the left is in italics. T\rtor: Is the normal force really upward? The surface isn't horizontal.  0. What is the direction of the normal force? Student: It's positive so it's upward. What is the acceleration of the box? How do we begin? We draw a freebody diagram for the box. Student: Right. this would be negative. and because l[ is positive. then the A component of the normal force would have been . then shouldn't EXAMPLE A man pushes on a box that is on a ramp. It can be confusing.4 N) + ^^r + (14.l/ on each side. Also. T\rtor: Are there any other forces acting on the box? Student: The only things touching it are the man and the ramp surface. ^l/ be negative? No.8 ^l12) + lr + Q6 N) sin35o : (3 kg)(0) I can solve for the normal force l/. The . so we have them all. but we still don't know how big it is. 10o above horizontal. The box has a mass of 24 kg and the ramp is 28" compared to the horizontal. I have to look back at the drawing. and the symbol is equal to the magnitude. Student: So to see if the normal force is up or dowtr.5 N looks strange. n) or q. 1lrtor: Student: If I had chosen down as the g axis. We use the drawing to get the direction right.Ar  14. The N on the right is in plaintype. The weight is mg downward. with . T\rtor: N is the magnitude of the normal force. and we did those and gravity. There is a normal force N upward. (3 Student: Now ks)(e.4f . He pushes with a force of 100 N at 10o above horizontal. so it must be positive no matter what direction the normal T\rtor: Student: That force is. so there is a force that I'll call P. (2e. the normal force is perpendicular to the surface.39 would be in the r direction. Student: So a. the man is pushing on the box.e N) 0 . so it is a unit.
to T\rtor: T\rtor: much easier rn9 The vectors are not all colinear. FORCE A]VD MOTION. much easier. We have to do it in both the r and y direction. up and to the left. so the gr component is +lf. and you'd have to solve simultaneous equations.29" right angle.I NI . Student: Ok y. but then you'd have a" and as. EF" : Trlar and EFo  TTLao What is the tr component of the normal force? Student: The normal force is perpendicular to the r axis. It goes in the opposite direction as the r axis. . If aa :0. Because the box slides along the ramp. and you wouldn't know either. Tutor: What is the r component of the push force? Student: Ttre push is 18o from the r axis. so it's negative. It goes in the opposite direction as the y axis. T\rtor: Student: . you'd have a third equation aalo. so to add the vectors we need to have two axes.40 CHAPTER 5. T\rtor: mg sin28o + P cos 18o : rrlar What is the y component of the normal force? The normal force is parallel to the y axis.62" .28o. T\rtor: What is the r component of the weight? Student: Part of the weight is parallel to the r axis. Tutor: Student: Now we can write Newton's second law. and Student: Why is that? Why can't I use r right y vp? You could. so it's sine. T\rtor: What is the A component of the weight? Student: The y component of the weight is adjacent to the 28" angle. The math will be if one axis is parallel to the acceleration. so the r component is zero. Student: So the r component of the weight is opposite to the 28" angle. so it's 90o . but how do we find the angle? Tutor: Consider the triangle formed by the ramp and the weight force. then you have two only equations and often you can solve each one by itself.tan 28". r is up the ramp and g is perpendicular to it. so it's negative. The angle at the top is 900 . so it's cosine.
Student: Now that we've applied Newton's second law.8 ^1"') sin 28" + (100 N) cos 18" (110 N) + (e5 N) : (24 ks)o. so we Trrtor: can solve. The box could be moving up the ramp but slowing. so the box is moving down the ramp.Af  mgcos 28o  Psin 18o : *gdj r equation.cis. J . Perhaps the box was moving up the ramp. not a magnitude.s pushing harder earlier. It's opposite to the y a. mean? Student: A negative a. have to be positive? T\rtor2 ar is a component. Does the accel eration tell us which way something is moving? Student: The acceleration tells us how the velocity is changing. How can we tell? T\rtor: We can't. so it's sine. so it could be negative. so it's negative. What does a negative a. because he wa. He isn't pushing hard enough to move the box up the ramp. as: 15 N o'64mfs2 (24 ks)o.4L o a o 6 t I T\rtor: Student: What is the y component of the push force? The y component is opposite to the 18". can we solve for the acceleration? We want the acceleration up the ramp at) and we know everything else in the (24 kg)(9.. means that the acceleration is down the ramp. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Which way is the box moving? The acceleration is down the ramp. not from the information we have. . ffi: Student: Doesn't o.
a 6 N box and a 12 N box hang from a rope over a frictionless. T\rtor: You mean that the heavier box will accelerate down. Student: Of course. But you still need to be consistent in using the correct axes for each object. since we could apply an additional force so that the lighter one moves down. each object can have its own set of axes. so I only need one axis. Student: So the tension is between mag and mng.I EXAMPLE In an Atwood's machine. Tutor: For the lighter box to accelerate up. Thetensionisequaltotheweightof thelighterbox. pulley. except one will be positive and the other will be negative. FORCE A]VD MOTIOJV . One will move up when the other moves down. like if one of the boxes was on a ramp. I'lladdtheforcesonthe 12Nbox. For the heavier box to accelerate down. To do this. We already did this one. That would be a problem. T\rtor: forces? Newton says that if we add the forces.Ttt L2a ? T\rtor: If the tension is equal to the weight of the lighter box. T\rtor: Yes. How will their accelerations compare? Student: They will be the same. we use separate axes for the two objects. How do we add Tutor: Will both boxes accelerate Tutor: Student: Student: They're vectors. Student: We can do that? T\rtor: Yes. Student: We start by drawing the freebody diagram. This will come in handy when the accelerations aren't parallel. . so down is positive for the 12 N box and up is positive for the 6 N box. T\rtor: It would be handy if they were the same. Student: You mean doesn't accelerate. massless Find the acceleration of the boxes. How big is the tension force? mOg rnng  . but they are all up and down. the tension must be more than its weight. upward? I choose g upward. I think that the heavier box will move down. the tension must be less than its weight.42 CHAPTER 5. then the total force on the lighter box is zero and it doesn't move but the heavier one does. we get the mass times the acceleration. Student: Okay.
The result is positive. so I can't solve either of them. rnngTffttza T . that's why we made it a variable. Student: I want the acceleration and not the tension. so you have two equations and two variables.re moving (oXt(g='g=in/s'z) (1820 : B. accelerating .mag . Student: Each equation has two variables. mngmog:rrtrL2a*rraoa (*rr*u)g(*rr*m6)a (L2 N  6 N)(e. and you can solve them together. so I'll add the two equatiorrs.B ^ls2 in the directions I chose as positive.rrr6a Ttrtor: But they have the sarne two variables. What does that mean?  ro.43 T\rtor: Student: We don't know. So apply Newtonts second law to each box.8 (I2 ^ls2)  N + 6 N)a (!: Tutor: Student: That the boxes a.
What force causes it to move to the left? Student: The teacher is pulling on it. Draw freebody diagrams for the bottle and the tablecloth. but the tablecloth would move to the left. and static friction tries to prevent sliding EXAMPLE Consider a tablecloth on a table. If you push on the accelerator. and how can that be to the left? T\rtor: If there was no friction. To prevent this slipping. The same thing works when walking. He doesn't exert a force on the bottle. This first is friction forces. T\rtor: The teacher is pulling on the tablecloth. static and kinetic. so the bottle and tablecloth would be slidittg against each other. or up. so the tires would slip on the ground. and the is things moving in a circle. the engine turns the tires. the bottle slides with the tablecloth. and a bottle sitting on the tablecloth.Chapter 6 Force and Motion II second In this chapter we add two things to what we did last chapter. The only force remaining is friction. but he isn't touching the bottle. If there was no friction. what would happen to the bottle? Student: There would be no horizontal forces. the tires would rotate but the car wouldn't move. causing motion. What are the forces acting on the bottle? There is gravity mg down. Kinetic friction is when the surfaces are already sliding against each other. and a normal force l/r perpendicular to the surface. so I guess it wouldn't move. Imagine that you are driving a car that is currently at rest. T\rtor: Correct. As he does so. Of all of the things that you think you intuitively know. Kinetic friction tries to stop the sliding. or right. the one you are most likely to get backwards is friction. Thtor: Student: 44 . so it can't be those. Fbiction tries to prevent sliding. of course. where friction pushes your shoe forward. There is also a friction force /1 against the motion. Fbiction comes in two types. Ttrtor: The bottle accelerates to the left. T\rtor: Newton says that the bottle can't accelerate to the left without a force to the left. What force could be to the left? Student: Gravity is down and the normal force is up. but friction opposes sliding of surfaces. Eriction will even cause motion in order to prevent sliding. You may think that friction opposes motion. A physics teacher slowly pulls the tablecloth to the left. friction pushes the car forward. and many physics books say so. and static friction is when they aren't sliding yet. Student: It just moves because the tablecloth is moving.
The bottle isn't sliding on the tablecloth. Student: The tablecloth pushes the bottle up. so the bottle exerts one on the tablecloth. there could be a friction force f2 from the table. If there was a friction force. T\rtor: The tablecloth also exerts a friction force on the bottle. there is no friction force. but I'll think again. Because there is a normal force. Student: So the bottle pustres the tablecloth to the right with an equal and opposite force ft. Since there doesn't need to be any friction to prevent sliding. Just because two surfaces are in contact does not mean that there is a friction force. T\rtor: Which way does the friction force from the table act? Student: The tablecloth is sliding to the left. even though there isn't any sliding between the bottle and the tablecloth? Thtor: One way to prevent sliding is to push the bottle to the left. and a normal force Ir{z from the table upward. so it's static friction. What type of friction is it? Student: I was going to say "kinetic" because the bottle is movirg. Student: So friction pushes the bottle to the left so that it doesn't slide? I T\rtor: fcrrces acting on the tablecloth? fuIg downward. . so it sits motionless on the table. T\rtor: Good. friction moves the bottle to keep it from sliding on the tablecloth. Imagine a book sittirg on a table. What are the Student: It has gravity tablecloth right. so the bottle exerts a normal force l/r down. There are also forces from the bottle. but the other way is to push the Correct. so it's kinetic friction and it pushes the tablecloth right.45 T\rtor: Yes. it would cause the book to move. There are no horizontal forces on the book.
I need to know the normal force.4. How do you know that the box is sliding? Because someone pushes it. What is the friction force on the box? Tutor: Where do we start? diagram? T\rtor: If you have more than one force. Gravity mg goes down. max : pkN. Because there is a normal f . rurg T\rtor: T\rtor: Good. how do I check? Student: it didn't move? Frl/.il When drawing your freebody diagram. The box has a mass of 8 kg and the coefficients of friction between the box and the table are Fs :0. then ask. Someone is pushing to the right with a force . because the box is sliding.45 N. where p. The magnitude of the kinetic friction force is ^F'k .l[. and a normal force lf pushes up. The magnitude of the static friction force is anything it needs to be to prevent sliding.rrax : . sliding across the floor. FORCE A]VD MOTIOIV . where Fu is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal force between the surfaces. always put the static friction forces in last. This is because the static friction can be in any direction needed to keep sliding from happening. Do all other forces first. A horizontal force of 45 N pushes the box to the right. Tutor: Have you ever pushed something and then Student: Okay. there could be a friction force Okay. T\rtor: What would happen if there were no friction force? Student: The box would accelerate to the right. T\rtor: Student: How big could the static friction force be? Static friction could be as big as f. I still make mistakes if I skip the diagram with only two forces. is the coefficient of friction and N is the normal force between the surfaces. Until you know in which direction something would slide if there was no friction. Student: Can't we skip the freebody Student: P force.46 CHAPTER 6. Is it static or kinetic friction? Student: Kinetic. up to a maximum of F". you don't know which way the static friction will be.pr. EXAMPLE A box sits on a table. "in which direction would it slide if there was no friction?" Add the static friction in to prevent this sliding. but we'll do that last.7 and pu : 0. then you need a freebody diagram. FYiction point to the left to oppose the sliding.
0. Gravity mg is down. Does that make sense? Student: No.ffis  (0. Student: It's if Fu: /r"l/ : F. and the friction would be kinetic friction.47 . but it doesn't have to be 55 N. and the box doesn't move. : p"l/ : T\rtor: Tutor: How big is the friction force? 55 N. T\rtor: Yes.8 ^ls2)  55 N The static friction force can be as big as 55 N. he pushes to the right and the box accelerates to the left. The coefficients of friction between the box and the floor are Fs :0. He pulls with a force of 50 N and the mass of the box is 8 kg.7)(8 kg)(9.47 T\rtor: To get the normal force.A/ mg*ilO rng .56 and ltrk .4)(8 kS)(9. What happens the friction force is 55 N? Student: The total force is to the left. l[ is up. and the normal force F to the lefb.8 mls2) : 3t N EXAMPLE A boy pulls on a box with a rope that is 23" above horizontal to the right.Af Student: Static friction could be as big as F^. and there is a friction force the freebody diagram. Thtor: What if the box were already moving? Student: Then it would be sliding. so the friction force will only be 45 N. F"mg  (0. There . What is the acceleration of the box? Student: First we draw is a tension T  50 N up and to the right. add the vertical forces: .
3 N) : (8 kg)o" ar:(1:lP (8 ks) EXAMPTE :2. is the friction still static.48 CHAPTER 6. Student: Does that help you? Yes. or to the right.4 N) : 0 N58. What is the acceleration of the box? . If it isn't enough. The total r force is positive. Student: tion.9 N) 0 fr.9 N.s the y ucis. How do we check? Student: We see if the static friction would be enough to keep it from sliding. it will do so to the right.0 N) : (8 kg)o. (50 N) sin 23" + (19. then the box slides and there is kinetic friction.(8 ks)(9. (50 N) cos 23" (46. we need to write down the Newton's second law equations. use that as the r uris and up a. so the box does move.56)(58..0 N T\rtor: Student: I'll put it in the r What are you going to do with the maximum static friction force? equation and see if the box moves.9 N) : (8 kg)a" (18.0 N) : (8 kg)a"  (33. then the acceleration is zero.8 ^1"2) N) + N . T\rtor: Can you do anything with these equations? T\rtor: Student: I can solve the second one to find N.9N (0.0 N)  (33.47) (58.36. becaus€ frr. If it is. FORCE AND MOTION. Nothing about the y equation has changed. Student: So the normal force is still 58.(78. (50 N) cos 23"  (0.5 : N ."* : prN   33. Now I can find the accelera T\rtor: Since the box moves. EF* . I'll ?cos 23" v7lar.rnar and f  EFn : TTLay Student: If the box accelerates. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the ramp it /ru : 0. Student: The friction is really kinetic. T\rtor: You only need to go back to the r equation.II T\rtor: Ttrtor: Tutor: Is it static friction or kinetic friction? Student: That depends on whether the box is sliding across the floor. To do that. because the box is sliding. That means I have to start over with kinetic friction. rngrngl(" Student: au is zero because all of the acceleration is in the r direction. Good.Jmls2 A 6 kg box is sliding up a 34o ramp at L4 mf s.ax ?sin23o +N 0 : prN.
if there was a force in the past.7 N . Can something be moving up without an upward force on it? Student: Yes. There is no pushing force. . Thtor: Now you can choose axes and apply Newton's second law. Tutor: How will you get the normal force? Student: I can solve the gt equation to find the normal force l[. so if the box is sliding up the ramp. Student: I choose r up the ramp. in the direction of the initial velocity. T\rtor: The problem doesn't mention a force pushing the box up the ramp. then use that to solve the r equation for the acceleration. Will it point up or down the ramp? Student: Won't friction always be down the ramp? T\rtor: Fliction opposes sliding. And since it's already sliding. Student: The box is going up the ramp. the friction force will be down the ramp. I see.*ilO T\rtor: Can you solve these equations to find the acceleration? Student: To find o.8 ^ls2) cos 34"  48. of course.FuN . but if you choose r horizontal the math will get messy. It's kinetic friction. Which way should I pick as the axis? Tutor: It really doesn't matter whether up or down the ramp is positive. it will be kinetic friction.^r  nxgcos 34"  (6 kg)(9. Also there is a force P pushing the box up the ramp. so f . T\rtor: The friction force has to be parallel to the ramp surface.mgcos 34o . I'll take y down into the ramp. I need to know F. there could be a friction force F. but friction and gravity are both pushing it down the ramp. and the normal force N is perpendicular to the surface.49 T\rtor: Where do we begin? diagram. T\rtor: Something did push the box to get it going up the ramp. Where did that come from? Student: Something had to push the box or it wouldn't go up the ramp. Student: With the freebody Student: Of course. but that something is done pushing now. Just to be different. Gravity mg is down. Remember to pick one axis parallel to the acceleration. mg sin 34o f : TTLar + lf . Because there is a normal force.
and apply Newton's second law. toward the middle of the circle. and the acceleration will be u2 f r.r  (6 ks)(e.50 CHAPTER 6.8 ^l12) (0. and it never goes in the freebody diagram. What speed is needed to achieve weightlessness? Student: As the coaster goes over the hill. it is going in a circle. its velocity is always changing. Is the normal force When somethirg goes in a circle. choose axes. . Student: Then how can the coaster accelerate downward? T\rtor: The forces that do exist must add up to go downward. in the negative direction.4 ^lsz always lf . The name "centripetal force" refers to the total force when the object is going in a circle. toward the right of the car. Student: As we expected. so the acceleration is downward. It is important to realize that centripetal force is not a real force and never  If something is going in a circle. as always. A stationary observer sees that you are continuing straight while the car turns underneath you.mg cos 0? T\rtor: Not always. Even if it travels at a constant speed. T\rtor: There is no centripetal force.prl/ :  ma. goes in the freebody diagram. You might think that you feel a force pushing you to the right. FORCE AAID MOTIO]V  U  mg sin 34o sin 34o . treat the problem like you would any other. Student: Are there any other forces besides weight and normal force? We did the weight. the acceleration is down the ramp. You need to go through the steps. so that's all of them. The centripetal force F" is going down. toward the middle of the circle.7 N)  (6 kg)o" ar: 8. the velocity is changing because the direction is changing. Draw the freebody diagram. There will be forces that you already know that add up to equal the centripetal force muz f r. T\rtor: Good. Imagine that you are in a car when the car turns to the left. Is the normal force equal to the weight? T\rtor: Student: Not necessarily. The perceived force to the right is similar to a perceived force backwards when the car accelerates forward if the seat didn't push you forward you would stay there while the car moved out from under you. and the only thing in contact with the coaster is the track. EXAMPLE t A roller coaster goes over a hill of radius 30 m. Where do we begin? Student: With the freebody diagram. The acceleration of something going in a circle is toward the middle and is ac u2 where u is the speed and r is the radius of the circle. Gravity mg is going down and the normal force l/ is going up.36)(48. The real force on you is friction with the seat pushing you to the left. The only difference is that the total force will be toward the middle of the circular path.
*t When something is going in a circle. I choose EF ma mg 'Af .51 tN P ng T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: Is it possible for the forces to add to a total that points downward? Student: If the weight is greater than the normal force. so the left side gets larger too. call the total force mu2 f r the "centripetal force. Choose an axis and add the forces.". negative. and restraints for the riders. T\rtor: Modern coasters have wheels under the track. If up is positive. the right side gets larger.Af was a magnitude and couldn't be ^1"') 17mfs . The weight hasn't changed. When the coaster goes too fast you feel yourself being jerked downward. but you don't "feel" a force. like on the Magnum at Cedar Point in Ohio.8 T\rtor: Right. and the weight provides the force to accelerate it downward. T\rtor: We call it "weightlessness" when l/ : 0. T\rtor: Does the weight increase as the coaster goes faster? Student: No. Student: And all of this happens when T\rtor: U _ lrFg : m)(e. it does fall. then the total force will be down. Remember that the acceleration is downward. Perhaps we should call it normalforcelessness. and the coaster comes off of the track. But to go over the hill. T\rtor: Yes. The rider feels the normal force from the seat momentarily disappear. Student: Ol*y." Which of the forces in the problem is the centripetal force? Student: Neither. up to be positive. then the acceleration will be down to be positive so that the acceleration will be positive. Student: So would I put in a negative value for lf? I thought . The coaster "falls" at exactly the same curvature that the track has. so the normal force must get smaller. Student: But how can there be no normal force? Won't the coaster fall? T\rtor: Yes. What happens as the coaster goes faster? Student: As u increases. it needs to accelerate downward. What happens if the coaster goes even faster? Student: Then the curvature of the track is greater than the path of the coaster. so that the normal force can pull downward too. in an arc. the total force is equal to the centripetal force. Student: I choose Apply Newton's second law. we someti. it's the sum of the two. That would be dangerous.
we want the maximum static friction T\rtor: force. Student: Student: Since the problem asks for the fastest Up to Frl/.52 CHAPTER value for . I pick axes. Because there is a normal force. FYiction must be toward the middle of the turntable. No. then we want the maximum friction Student: Okay. that the coin can go. r is in toward the center and parallel to the acceleration. so that r is always pointing from the coin into the center of the circle. and it doesn't need to be opposite to the motion. wait. there could be a friction force . There isn't any force in that direction. The coin has weight rng downward. so in toward the middle. it has to be parallel to the surface. F TTLar .62 and Fk . like when does the coin start to slip. in what direction will it go? We start with the freebody diagram. Which way is the coin accelerating? Student: It's going in a circle. How fast can the coin go before it slips? If it slips. 14 cm from the center. The coin isn't sliding yet. and a normal force how big l[ is. T\rtor: Correct on all counts. Tutor: Correct. Or you could draw a new diagram with the normal force down.F. T\rtor: We can move the axes with the coin.Af indicates 6. EXAMPLE A small coin is placed on a turntable (like an old record player). How big can friction be? Student: N upward. there is no such thing. T\rtor: What force is pushing it that way? Student: Centripetal force.0. But when the coin has gone halfway around. Ttrtor: A negative that the force goes in the opposite direction a"s drawn in the diagram.48. so it's static friction. Do we always want the maximum friction force? When we want a limit. Student: Now I apply Newton's second law. We don't know T\rtor: force.II negative.0. and y is up. T\rtor: In which direction is the friction force? Student: Well. FORCE AND MOTION . r will be away from the center. The coefficients of friction between the coin and the turntable are F" .
8 m/s2) a :rtffi o . .. maybe it'll cancel. The curve is banked at 11" and the coefficient of static friction between the car and the road is 0.nf perpendicular to the surface of the road. Which way would the car slide without friction? T\rtor: Very good. and then find ar.la m)  . there will be no friction.e2 mls T\rtor: What if the coin goes faster than this? Student: It flies off of the turntable.48. Student: So friction points in toward the middle? Doesn't it have to be parallel to the road surface? . away from the center. so the coin will move in a straight line. Our car is going even faster. which is smaller. There is a normal force . T\rtor: What is the direction of the friction force? Student: It isn't necessarily opposite to the motion.8 m/s2)(0. What are the forces after it slips? Student: Once it slips.@r)(e. without which all hope is lost. prl{  *tTt (0. Because there is a normal force there could also be a friction force /. Tutor: Does it go directly away from the center? It was moving around the center. There is a speed at which the horizontal component of the normal force is just enough force so that the car goes around the curve.62)fr(s. Student: There is a gravity force mg pulling it down. Nothing else is in contact with the car. EXAMPTE A 1500 kg car goes around a curve of radius 200 m. so there are no other forces. the friction will be kinetic. Once the coin is off of the turntable. What is the maximum speed of the car around the curve? T\rtor: We start by drawing the freebody diagram.Arr  mg the mass m. Student: I need to know then find f. so it needs even more force in toward the middle. T\rtor: Keep going.53 +lr msgdj Student: I can solve the second equation for l/.
So friction points down the ramp. I can find l/ Ncos 11o ^A/ + lf sin 11o + lt and use it in the top equation (cos 11o  psin 11") : rng . FzRCE AlvD MoTIoN Yes. l[ sin 11o + fcos 11o : TTLer . so up. f . There isn't enough friction and the car turn enough. Fbiction pushes the car in toward the turn.fsin 11o . If the speed was some arbitrary value.rng .1tl{sin 11o . Is the circle that the car is traveling completely horizontal or parallel to the ramp? Student: It is horizontal.rngl O in the second equation except l/. The acceleration is also down the ramp.*t + lf cos 11o . we couldn't do this. Student: Ohy. or doesn't student: Now I can apply Newton's second law. so the acceleration is horizontal. but of the choices up and down the ramp. it's static friction. . now I need axes. and u. Can you do anything with these equations? Student: I have three unknowns. T\rtor: The acceleration is toward the middle of the circle.*!' + lf cos 11o . or f < p. Student: Is / : FN. so the static friction force is as big as it can be.N.  rr Yes. goes straight. You need the relation between the friction force / and the normal force . . f p. toward the middle of the circle. The r axis needs to be horizontal.54 T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: zHAPTER 6. Imagine trying to go around a turn on an icy day.N this time? T\rtor: We want the fastest speed. rather than slipping.Alr. I need another piece of information. Student: Why is it static friction? Isn't the car moving compared to the road? Thtor: The tires are rolling. and the y axis needs to be perpendicular to that. Since there is no slipping.nf.*ilO Good. which is in toward the middle of the turn? Down the ramp. T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: Student: I know everything to find u.I want to find u.
.ttsin 11o) = .2 mls: 85 mph What if we were going slower than the magrc speed where no friction is needed? Then the horizontal component of the normal force would be too much. Tlrtor: Student: . .psin f ft)/ . *9 t): (cos 11o . ."o r ' unn l): n .55 /[: ( \(cos 11" .: ffi9 .\ r'r I rrro \e*r 11o : rr *t * '"vl'rr' ttcos 11') .38. and friction would have to point the other way.
add the number made and subtract the number shipped. That might not sound terribly interesting. we can solve for the one we don't know. The work done on an object is W = F . If we take the number of chairs at the beginning of the day. The equation for energy is Ki+W=Kj or. Objects have kinetic energy when they are moving. If we know all of the terms in the equation except one. Conservation of energy is one of those laws. If there are more chairs now than there were an hour ago. We could count how many chairs were still in the factory. we get the number of chairs in the factory now. Doing work is how we change the energy. but only turned from one form of energy into another. so energy is the power to make tunes. and is the important technique of this chapter. This means that energy is neither created nor destroyed. 56 .Chapter 7 Kinetic Energy and Work Energy is the power to make something move. Conservation laws are a very powerful technique for solving problems. How do we use conservation? What if the truck left the factory and no one counted how many chairs were on board. then some must have been loaded onto a truck and sent to the customer. the energy increases. and the speed stays the same but the direction of motion may change. chairs in a chair factory are conserved.J = Fd cos 1> If the force F is in the same direction as the motion J. and the speed decreases. What it does mean is that we can account for the change. the initial kinetic energy plus the work is the final kinetic energy. the work is negative. If the force is perpendicular to the motion. If the force is in the opposite direction as the motion. but are made and shipped. and use the equation from the last paragraph to determine how many chairs had been loaded. the energy decreases. For example. Lots of things use energy. By this we mean that chairs do not suddenly appear or disappear. then the work is zero. and the speed increases. The kinetic energy of a moving object is Note that the kinetic energy is positive even if the velocity is in the negative direction. It is a principle of physics that energy is conserved. the energy doesn't change. then someone made some more. the work is positive. but it includes a lot of stuff. Sound is moving air molecules. Just because something is "conserved" does not mean it doesn't change. If there are fewer chairs.
because there is a normal force there could be a friction force /. gaining kinetic energy? Student: Not on a level floor.15. the nrotion does zero work. Wr  Fdcos O (26 N)(6  ) cos35o  128 J T\rtor: Good.J( The units of work and energy are the same meter is a joule. How much work is done by gravity? Student: Gravity is up.8 mf s2)) (6 m) cos90o :0 J T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Does that make sense? Gravity really does no work? Does gravity cause the box to speed up as it moves. So if gravity doesn't change the kinetic energy. so it's kinetic. the friction on the box will be Student: Do we still start with a freebody diagram. The box is sliding. and the box moves sideways. even though we're using energy? rr3 Tutor: Student: What is the work that the tension does on the box? The tension is 26 N and at a 35o angle. To find the work done by each force we need to know what they are. it does no work.((S x)(9.Af is up. and find the speed of the box after it has been pulled 6 m. T\rtor: Is it kinetic or static friction? Student: to the left. T\rtor: Yes. Wc  Fdcos O . Ary force that is perpendicular to . The coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor is 0. The box is pulled to the right by a rope that is 35o above horizontal and has a force of 26 N. and tension ? is up and to the right. normal force . As the box slides to the right. Find the work that each force does on the box.  they need to be so that we can add them. Student: Gravity mg is down. A newton times 1Nx1m1J EXAMPLE A 3 kg box is pulled 6 m across the floor.
s : !rf"' When first compressing a spring.5 N)] (6 m) cos180"." a constant for any particular spring (though a different spring will have a different k). so I need the normal force after all.8 ^lsz) T\rtor: Student: I just I4.!*r' 2 8. How much work does friction do? Student: Fliction doesn't cause the box to speed up.58 CHAPTER 7.mg T sin35o .15)(14. the force is zero so no work is needed.I{. It is there to remind us that the force of the spring is opposite to fr) where r is how much the spring is stretched or compressed. the acceleration will not be constant. so it does no work.so . Because the force from a spring will change if it is compressed. Wx  Fdcos 0 . The force from a spring is 4rprirrg . Student: Negative work? Then I need the friction force p. Tutor: Student: Student: Theboxisn'tmovingtostart. What if 7 was so big that the normal force was negative? Could the floor be pulling the box down? What would happen if you pulled really hard? Student: No.so o Kt*W .^r . is that work and energy is the easiest way to deal with springs. Tty using conservation of energy. or doing negative work. The units of k are newtons of force for each meter that the spring is compressed (newtons/meter).8 m/s I a 2(115 J) 3ks At this point we introduce springs. which would be taking energy out. Wedo I28 J+0+0+(13J) 115Jof + (115 J) work. KI]VETIC EJVERGY AND WORK The normal force is also perpendicular to the motionr so Student: That's a good thing to remember. and each cm takes more work than the previous one. Conservation of energy works well when the acceleration is not constant. so os wouldn't be zero. .5 N thought of something. But the more you compress it the greater the force you need.kr The minus sign generally does not go into an equation. The work done by friction is Wy  Fdcos 0  [(0. You could do that. T\rtor: Fliction could cause the box to slow down.lf(6 m) cos90o :0 J the normal force is.(3 kg)(9. The box would lift off of the floor. The work is equal to the average force *tr" times the distan ce r. The work needed to compress or stretch a spring a distance r from its normal length is lv"pri. The reason to introduce springs here. k is the "spring constart.13 J Now I can apply Newton's second law in the r direction and find the acceleration. Many physics students try to use the first thing they learned for everything. even if a newer technique works better. when talking about work and energy.Kf Kr:0. T\rtor: Student: And I didn't even need to figure out what +lf +Tsin35o mg *6 0 (26 N) sin35o .
s : kr? Student: No. . but there is no acceleration. Holding the block in place requires that the spring be compressed by 12 cm.g. opposite the normal force? Tutor: Probably. I choose axes.. There is also a spring force.0. Can we say that the static friction force is equal to .g and only two equations. and a 2 kg block is placed against the wall. and friction is equal to the weight.. The friction force pushes up the wall. but you still have three unknowns. Student: Ah. {sp. T\rtor: So you can use any pair of perpendicular axes. The block is held in place with a spring. and. This is fine.g . Student: I choose parallel to the spring force as r. The normal force N is perpendicularly out of the surface. exactly. Not all of the weight is parallel to the friction force.kr.59 EXAMPLE A wall is tilted in by 15".49. Do you really want {"pri. and parallel to friction as y. The weight mg is down.  .61 and Fk . I want {rpri. since you want to solve for k eventually. Pushing in toward the wall. Let's assume that this is the case. Student: It's static friction because it isn't sliding. TUtor: Doing well. Three unknowns T\rtort I can use Frpri. Because there is a normal force..i. and you have the direction in your equation already. What is the spring constant of the spring? We start with the freebody diagram. and f. Student: I' I I I ft3' t a I I t Tutor: Student: So the spring force is equal to the normal force. mgcos15o *ilO I need one more piece of T\rtor: How many unknowns do you have? Student: I have l/. F*nring is the magnitude of the spring force. to keep the block from sliding down the wall.0 +Finformation.Af * 4prins  mgsin 15o : mg4. T\rtor: But then you introduce the unknown k. What is the direction of the spring force? Student: It doesn't s&y. there could be a friction force.. yes. The coefficients of friction between the block and the wall are ltrs :0..
Student: T\rtor: Student: So whenever a spring is involved. a spring force F"p points upward. r ^" * ' \"^^^ 1bo 15'\ lt" /  (2 ks)(9'8 m/s2) m /rir \"'^ lbo . as the spring force changes. How far above its initial position does the block go? A spring with spring constant k  T\rtor: Student: Gravity mg points down. and the spring is released. then we are at the limit and we can say that. like conservation of energy. but we call it a spring Student: Okuy. then put it in the top equation . the spring force will decrease. First we draw the freebody diagram. T\rtor: When the acceleration is not constant. More precisely.60 CHAPTER 7. and a normal force l[ is upward.mg cos 15o . #) : 801 N/m EXAMPLE 1600 N/* is placed on the ground and pressed down 6 cm. What forces act on the block? force. use energy? There was a spring in the last problem. since it is a force between surfaces. it's almost always easier to use a conservation law. T\rtor: It really is a normal force. T\rtor: Is the acceleration constant? Student: No. as the spring uncompresses. lf*krrngsinl5o:0 * lt"'Af . so the acceleration changes. Tutor: Is the spring force constant? No. ilr nxg cos 15o kr  mgsin 1bo cos + mg cosLl" F" 0. the total force changes. KINETIC BNERGY AND WORK the maximum static friction force? T\rtor: If L2 cm is the smallest compression of the spring that will hold the block. but we didn't use energy.r\ and solve for k. whenever a spring . 15o \ + to:]5" p \ ) t It rns (rir. A 2 kg block is placed on the spring.0 Student: I can solve the bottom equation for lf.12  rng (rir.
the spring compression changes by 6 cm. Kt*W . How much work does the spring do on the block? Student: The work of a spring is +kd'. . Does the spring do positive or negative work? Student: The spring pushes up. We need to do both the initial and final compression.8 ^lsz)  with. T\rtor: How much is it compressed after the block flies up? Student: Zero. T\rtor: Because the equation for the work of a spring is nonlinear. so Ki is zero. since it moves up and gravity points down. Then the work is zero and everything is zero and we can't solve for anything.7 cm. Of course. TUtor: How fast is the block moving when it reaches its maximum height? Student: It's at rest then too. *Wgr) : Kt m) o+ (*sar'#r + msd. that's a tipoff to try energy first. we don't know d. so we're okay. Is that consistent with The spring needed to uncompress by 6 cm.s ^lr2)d: d iO600  0. so this is how our equation.8 T\rtor: It's still a unit of length. K. we can't just use the change in compression.o I . and the block moves up. Student: What if we hadn't converted the 6 cm to meters.o6 2.147 rrl  I4. but that's what we're trying to find. T\rtor: Don't panic. so K y is also zero. Ah. we assumed that the spring fully uncompressed.7 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The block moves up I4. but not one that we're really familiar ^lr2)  2(2 ke)(e.. irro. had left our answer? T\rtor: T\rtor: Good.Kf Student: The block starts at rest .ffi*t) .61 is changing its length. and the block moved more than that. Ttrtor: Good. * (W*. but Then we would have had it as 6 cm? r d 2(2 kg)(9.o6 ]11o.r')2  *)' N/)(0. and since the directions are the same it's positive work. How much work does gravity do on the block? Student: The force rng times the distance d times the cosine of 180o. T\rtor: Is the initial compression of the spring equal to the distance that the block moves up? Tutor: Student: I guess not. How much is the spring initially compressed? Student: By 6 cm.06 (2 ks)(e. That means we need another it gets into variable. As part of our solution.
Sprinting. D_EorW rt Power is rleasured in watts. Power measures how fast you do work. Tutor: Which way is the friction force acting? a normal force Student: . for example. Most of us would immediately recognize that the response answered a different question. we divide the work by the time. To determine how fast the work was done. Since you can jog much longer (time) than you can sprint. that the correct response would be somethittg like "65 miles per hour. there is l/ perpendicular to the surface. Such a power would be quite a feat for a human (1 horsepower fast. what would happen without friction? Student: The tires would slip on the road. Student: I drove from New York to Boston yesterd. so one watt is one joule per second. To do 5000 joules of work in 10 seconds requires 500 joules per second or 500 watts or 500 W. If the tires are rolling without slippirg. you can jog furthe doing more work than you can sprint. How much power does this take? Student: The only way for the car to go up the hill is if friction pushes it up the hill. To do 5000 joules of work quickly requires a large power. about energy but exactly the same as the previous conversation. Nothing else is in contact with the car. We need to know the forces.y. so we start where we always do. so that's all of the forces. then it's static friction. and because there is a normal force there could be a friction force /. How much power did you exert? 5000 joules. so 5000 joules is the amount of work done. KII{ETIC EI{ERGY AI{D WORK is An important distinction in science is the difference between the total amount and the rate at which it done. Humans tire quickly if they try to exert more than about 70% of their maximum power.62 CHAPTER 7. even though you sprint faster. In each case the amount of work done is still 5000 joules. Tutor: Student: I carried Student: a heavy box up the stairs yesterday. T\rtor: As the engine turns the tires. To do 5000 joules of work slowly requires a small power. not the amount done." Now consider another conversation. will tire a person much quicker than jogging. so static friction pushes the car forward and up the hill to prevent slipping. EXAMPTE A 1600 kg car drives 1 mile up a 5To grade at a constant 60 mph. Joules measure energy or work. The jog you time can is much longer. Consider the following conversation: I\rtor: How fast did you go? Student: 2I7 miles. Gravity mg points down.
Since gravity is opposite to the guess it has to do negative work. For a 5% grade the difference is about oneeighth of IYo.S  ^l12)(1610 m) cos87. Since the force is in the same direction as the motion. Or the floor in an elevator does work because the floor surface moves. T\rtor: How much work does gravity do? Student: We don't need to know that to do the problem.26 x 106 J ? . but try applying conservation of energy anyway. Okay.05 0  2. Which is easier? Student: I already know the force of gravity.(*g)d cos Q Tntor: Tntor: Student: What is a 5To grade? Student: But if the "run" is a mile. the angle of the roadway rs tan 0  0. Student: If the final speed of the car is the same as the initial speed. gravity by itself would tend to slow the car down. so long as you keep track of the signs. Yes.63 T\rtor: work? We want to find the power of the friction force. T\rtor: I Wrns  F dcos 0 . then the total work is zero. TYue. That's when the rise over the run ts 5To. The normal force doesn't do any work. so gravity must do the same amount of work as friction. Student: But thc road surface doesn't move. so it doesn't do any work. Does it make sense that gravity does negative work? Student: Gravity is down. rnotiorr.960 Student: One rnile is 1610 meters. except negative. T\rtor: Yes. or when tan 0 . and the motion of the car is up and over. T\rtor: That would work.05.0. Student: That's tricky. Does the normal force ever do any work? T\rtor: Yes. friction does positive work. Also. Student: That makes sense. if the surface moves. reducing the kinetic energy. T\rtor: Excellent. but not by much. So I ca. so the normal force doesn't do any work. your hand moves so the normal force of your hand does work.14o : I. Does the friction force do positive or negative Student: Friction points up the hill. so I'll find the work done by gravity. and the motion is up the hill.n find the work done by gravity instead of the work done by friction. so there is not much error in pretending that they are the same. If you push on an object and the object moves. T\rtor: Tlue. so l[1/mE  (mg)dcos O (1600 kS)(9. then the road would be longer than a mile. so it is doing negative work. How much work does the normal force do? Student: The normal force is always perpendicular to the motion.
Student: Oh yeah. Student: And by doing it slower. Student: Ok y. now what is the power? Student: I divide the work by the time. TUtor: Of course we left out air resistance and friction in the engine. TUtor: Yep. But the work by friction is the same but positive. and Tbtor: is L. so to go up the hill at 60 mph would take over 1100 hp. (zrxlosw) x (##) 28hp Student: Any car should be able to do that easily. it tl:#ffixffix#:6os P :Y t r'26 x 106 60s I 2r x los Jlror w T\rtor: T[y converting it into horsepower. Student: Why do trucks go uphill so slowly? T\rtor: A truck can have 40 times the mass of the car.64 CHAPTER 7. they still do the same amount of work but with less power. KINETIC ENERGY AND WOHK T\rtor: Remember that the work of gravity is negative.26 x 106 J. Yes. . I should have used 92. L horsepower Student: Is that a lot?  746 W.86o instead. so it's not quite that simple.
Potential energ:f is work done in the past a rock above my head. so Ir^ @g) dn .s : *f*' 2 Here r is not the length of the spring. but once we choose we must stick with that spot for the whole problem (like a coordinate uis). There are three forces that we comrnonly treat with potential energy: gravity. the rock has potential that could be turned into work again. This means that it takes mgh amount of work to move a ma^ss n'L from wherever is "zero" to the spot (hn. The potential energy from a spring is [ p. springs. Therefore. in practice it is easy. PEU:lTwedid : lF*' applied While this may appear intimidating. Zero potential energy occurs when the spring is neither stretched nor compressed. pushing to keep the box moving despite friction.i. This makes potential energy easier to calculate than work.l*g*li3 . Therefore we treat gravity with potential energy. The force of gravity is a constant mg. The potential energy from gravity is Ugravity : fngh What is the height? We can choose anywhere to be zero height. a distance h high. but we don't treat friction this way. What makes potential energy useful is that the potential energy only depends on where something is. Every time we use conservation of energy in an equation. Then the work of a spring from the last chapter becomes the potential energy stored in the spring. but the change in length from the unstretched. from which all heights are measured. uncompressed length. 65 . Consider gravity. then the work I do goes into heating the floor and the box (through friction). we can choose any spot to be zero height.rnsh  nxs(0) : rnsh This says that the difference in potential energy between "zero" and Kh)) is mgh. and not how it got there. and by dropping the rock I can turn the potential energy into kinetic energy.Chapter 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy Some types of work can be expressed as potential energy. and it is very difficult to turn this energy into some other useful form of energy. so that only the change in potential energy matters. If I have lifted energy. If I push a box across a floor. the potential energy before and the potential energy after both show up. and forces from electric fields (to be covered later).
so the acceleration changes. find the acceleration. Does that mean that I can't use Newton's laws? Newton's laws are still true.KEr t PEt Tutor: What is the kinetic energy of the block just as the spring is released? Student: It isn't moving yet. the force of the spring changes.54+ !rc*' +w .61 and Fk . Ttrtor: It's not unusual for two or three of the terms in the energy equation to be zero. But we can also do the whole thing in one step. T\rtor: Tutor: tions. because the spring is uncompressed.0. To do gravity you have to pick a spot as height equals zero. The kinetic energy when the block stops is zero. Of course. Student: I'll pick the starting spot as height equals zero. + PEi +W . Fq+ PEi+w . if we use energy techniques. we won't need any differential equations.nt. but these are dealt with by W (heat generated by friction is the same as work done by friction). Student: Ok y. EXAMPLE A spring (k :900 N/) is compressed by 31 cm and a 6 kg block is placed in front of it. but to use the acceleration would mean setting up differential equaYuck. How far does the block slide across the floor? Thtor: How would you like to attack the problem? Student: I want to draw a freebody diagram. The potential energy of the spring is zero. technique to find how far it and use the constant acceleration goes. so the speed is zero and the kinetic energy is zero. then we dontt include the work by this force when we calculate the work. The coefficients of friction between the block and the floor are Fs:0. When the spring is released the block slides across the floor. What is the potential energy when the block is released? Student: Do you want the potential energy of gravity or the spring? T\rtor: Both. T\rtor: How much work does the friction force do? z W is the work done by all forces other than gravity Student: . T\rtor: What is the kinetic energy of the block just as it stops? Student: Wait. because the block is at the same height. there is a different acceleration when the spring is pushing on the block. Shouldn't I do the kinetic energy just as the block leaves the spring? Tutor: We could use that instant as the final time.KEy * PEt where W is the work done by forces not already treated with conservation of energy. Student: As the spring decompresses.46. Student: Sounds good. and I'll use potential energy for gravity and the spring. What other forces are there? There is a normal force upward. Tutor: Student: On the other hand. Then the potential energy of gravity is zero. POTEI{TIAL EAIERGY AATD COI\ISERVATIOAI OF EATERGY If we use potential energy to express the work done by a force. The poterrtial energy of the spring is Lrtt*'. T\rtor: How much work does the normal force do? Student: The normal force is perpendicular to the motion.66 CHAPTER 8. KEr. so it doesn't do any work. I'll try energy.o 2 T\rtor PEr and the spring. Tutor: What is the potential energy when the block stops / Student: Then the potential energy of gravity is still zero. It is possible to include Eth and E. and a friction force against the sliding. We use an expanded conservation of energy equation K&+ PEi+W . and then use constant acceleration to see how far the block slides.
The angle is 180'.8 By setting the final spring energy to zero. forces.67 Student: The work is the force times the displacement times the cosine of the angle. so I can look for the special case of two forces and zero acceleration. why would Student: Because the acceleration isn't constant. After leaving the track. because the friction force is in the opposite direction as the sliding. but instead on a test or somewhere else.nr. you assumed that the spring would fully uncompress. Student: Ok^y. in a book. so we're safe. It leaves the track at a 35o angle above horizontal at a point 1. T\rtor: Is the displacement of the block the same as the initial compression of the spring? Student: Not necessarily. and the vertical acceleration is zero. K&+ PE.46)(6 kg) (e. how far up does the block fly? \ \ \ T\rtor: How will you attack this problem? so T\rtor: If you weren't reading the problem you use energy? Student: It's the energy chapter. Tutor: Don't skip steps now. We've seen before that the normal force is not always mg. and cosine of the angle is 1. We should have checked first that the spring force was greater than the maximum static friction force. then the spring wouldn't get the block moving. If friction were really strong. so I add vertical Student: Isn't it just pmg? t=r*'*r*d@)(1) 2 :o s2) aT\rtor: T\rtor: Student: How do we check? krz 2pmg (9oo N/)(0. I'll use energy. The distance the block slid is way past where the spring uncompresses.+W  KEy * PEr . I guess I need a different variable for the displacement.g. What is the friction force. and the friction force is p.60 m EXAMPLE A 2 kg block slides without friction down a track. T\rtor: This is the special case where there are exactly two forces and they need to add to zero. The displacement is what I'm looking for. so the normal force is equal to the weight.31 )2 2(0.3 m below its starting point. T\rtor: Good. and we don't care about the time. so it's a variable r. ^l  1. I'll use y. The normal force is up and gravity is down. How do you find it? Student: I need the norrnal force.
It's possible to extract that energy later. so zero.8 . The potential energy there is mg(1. Tutor: What is the potential energy when the block starts? Student: I need to pick somewhere as height equals zero. Student: Okay. You need to rethink what your "final" position is. so mgh . so KEy . If the acceleration isn't constant. and how you are going to get to the answer.05 m/s T\rtor: Student: When the block leaves the track it is moving at 5. then we may need to use energy. POTEI.3 m) Because we already took care of gravity by using potential energy. Student: Ok y.{TIAL EAIERGY AAID COI{SERUATIOAT OF EATERGY Good. A negative potential energy means that the object will go there on its own. What is the kinetic energy when the block starts? doesn't appear to be moving yet. then use projectile motion and constant acceleration to see how high it goes. We don't know u. The other forces are the normal force and friction.0. that you could even get work out of the process. calling that the new height equals zero) and the finish when it reaches maximum height T\rtor: How fast is the block going when it reaches maximum height? Student: You rnentioned that it would still be moving horizontally. but we hope to solve for it. the block starts at h . Trrtor: What is the work done by all forces other than gravity? T\rtor: Student: Why not gravity? f4+I4+w . How much of that is in the horizontal direction? Student: The horizontal is adjacent to the angle. so it doesn't do any work.05 mls) cos35o (5 . And there's no fricticln on the track. it isn't movirg. T\rtor: What is the potential energy at the "final" position? Student: At the maximum height. T[y using the top. The block leaves the ramp at an angle.3 ^ls2)  5. even if we have a constant acceleration. Taking the start when it leaves the track. Where's the bottonr of the ramp? T\rtor: You don't need to use the lowest point as height equals zero. At maximum aa  (5.8 m) (1. The normal force is perpendicular the motion.90 m/s KEt. T\rtor: And where is your "final" position? Student: Where the block leaves the ramp. Student: Right. with some horizontal velocity. T\rtor: But we can use energy.0. so ?)r height it is going 4.0. Therefore KEt + 0.13 m/s horizontally and it's not moving vertically.05 mls) sin 35o  4.05 m/s. The block will slide down the ramp on its own.13 m/s 2. Ttrtor: And because we donit care about the time. Student: So what I need to do is find the speed of the block as it leaves the ramp.rr' (2)(e.rtg(1.3 m). gaining speed.KEy *ms(1. T\rtor: What is the final kinetic energy? Student: L*r?. to Wt + P4 + W :'r*r' i ms(1. Student: But the acceleration is constant. Can potential Tutor: Student: It energy be negative? T\rtor: Potential energy is how much work you need to do to move the object from "zero" to that spot.+ PEi+W : KEy * PEt . and it will still have that horizontal velocity when it reaches maximum height. so we don't need to use energy. we can use energy to see how high it goes.3 rn) .68 CHAPTER 8. T\rtor: We have two issues here.
69
fotA.o5
m/r)'+ rtg(o) + (o) o.05
m/s)2+
 r^.rr mls)2 + sh
(4.n m/s)2) 0.48m
h
#(rr.05m/r)'
EXAMPLE
A 65 kg man bungeejumps off of a platform. The bungee cord is 20 m long and has a spring constant of 60 N/m. What is the greatest distance below the platform that he reaches after leaping from the platform?
Student: The bungee cord acts like a spring, so the acceleration won't be constant and we'll use conservation of energy. T\rtor: Good. First you need to pick "initial" and "final" positions. Student: The start should be at the top, when he first jumps. The end is where he reaches his lowest point. Thtor: If we want to know where his lowest point is, then it helps if that is one of the points. What are
you going to use as height equals zero? Student: I'm going to use the top, where he jumps from. That means that his potential energy at the end will be negative, but that's okay. T\rtor: You mean the potential energy from gravity; there's also the spring involved. What is the kinetic energy at the start? Student: He isn't moving yet, so it's zero. T\rtor: What is his kinetic energy at the end? Student: The lowest point is when he isn't moving, so that's also zero.
W+PE.+W Y4+PEf
T\rtor:
Correct.
he would be past
If he were still going down, he wouldn't be at the lowest point yet. If he were going up, it. What is the potential energy at the top?
Student:
The spring hasn't been stretched yet, and he is at height equals zero, so both types of potential
energy are zero.
P4+w T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student:
PEr
What is the work done by forces other than gravity and the bungee cord? There aren't any other forces, because he's not in contact with anything, right? Right, so the work is zero.
VPEr
There are two types of potential energy, and at the end they must add up to zero. What is the potential energy at the end? Student: We don't know how far he's fallen, so let's call it r. The height at the end is negative, so the gravity potential energy is mg("). The spring potential energy is Lrtt*'. Thtor: Does the bungee cord stretch the same distance that he falls? Does it begin stretching immediately? Student: No, he falls 20 m before it starts stretching. The bungee cord stretches r  (20 m).
Tntor:
Student: That
means
that PEt is zero. How can that be?
o t*g(")l + l;r(" eo''))']
70
CHAPTER
8. POTENTIAL
ENERGY AND CONSERUAflON OF ENERGY
(20
mg(r):rr(.
*))
'#:
12
n2 2(2om)r+ (20 m)2 eom)
+
l,
 '#ln*(20 *)'
o
12+l,Qom),4
]"*
(400
Qom)zo
0
_brrm
2"
12
+ (61.2 *) u *
*2)

fi
2(1)
:
7.4
ot 53.8 m
How can there be two answers? Which one do you want? Student: The bungee cord is 20 m long, so it has to be 53.8 m. Tlrtor: The other answer would occur if the bungee cord could be compressed. Student: So if he bounced back up, and the bungee cord compressed instead of going slack, then he would reach a spot 7.4 meters high.
Tbtor:
Student:
Chapter 9
Center of Mass and Linear Momentum
This chapter is about a second conservation law, conservation of momentum. In order to explain momentum, we begin by explaining center of mass.
So far, all objects have been "point" particles. They act as if all of their ma^ss is at a single point. Most real mass is spread out. For many purposes it is possible to treat objects a^s point objects are not like this  their particl as if all of their ma^ss is at a single point. When this happens, that point is the center of mass.
To calculate the location of the center of mass, we do a "weighted average." Divide the object into pieces, and for each piece, multiple the mass of that piece by its coordinate. Sum the product for all of the pieces, and divide by the total ma"ss. ffcM :
E6rimi Etmt
Some things to keep in mind:
o You get to decide how to divide the
pieces.
.
For each piece, you use the coordinate of the center of mass of that piece.
o You get to choose the coordinate axes, but as always you have to keep the same axes for the whole
calculation.
.
Wise use of symmetry can simplify the calculation considerably.
How do you use symmetry? Consider a uniform square. "Uniform" means that the ma^ss of the square is spread evenly across the square, the same everywhere. Pick a point, not the center, and let's use symmetry to check to see if that point is the center of mass. Draw an imaginary line vertically down the center of the square, and rotate the square 180o around this line. The square looks the same, so the center of mass must be in the same place as it wa"s before. If the center of mass had moved, then we would have two centers of mass for the same object. If the point you picked was on the vertical line, then it is in the same place as it wa,s and it could be the center of mass. If the point you picked was not on the vertical line, then it is not in the same place as it wa^s, and it could not be the center of mass. By using symmetry, w€ have determined that the r coordinate of the center of mass is in the middle, without doing a calculation.
7I
72
CHAPTER
9.
I
CENTE,R OF MASS AND LINEAR MOMENTUM
EXAMPTE
Find the center of mass of the four objects.
y (cm)
x (cm)
Student:
So I take each object and add
it up?
1+3
+4+2: L0 ?
that. In the numerator you multiply each mass,by its coordinate. Where are the arces? Tbtor: You get to pick them. What would you like? Student: I'll pick the biggest mass to be the origin, with s to the right and y up. T\rtor: Because you have two axes, you have to do them separately. First do the r anis and then do the
Flor the denominator, you do
T\rtor:
Student:
gr
a>rig.
T\rtor:
Student:
Yes.
So I multiply the mass of 3 by the o coordinate of 0, and I get zero? If that was the only mass, then the numerator would be zero, so the center of mass would be
.
at zeto.
73
Student:
Which is where the object is. But
I
have to do
that for all of them.
scM:
Tutor: Tutor: If the object were at (0,+1),
Student:
Yes, so
:
I use *1 or 1
m?
ff:O.gcm
Student:
Now do the y coordinate. For the 1 kg object, do
would the location of the center of mass be different?
I
need the negative.
ucM


nll
u*
10 kg
: o.g cm
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student:
Which object is located at the center of mass? None of them. The center of mass doesn't have to correspond to one of the objects.
EXAMPLE
Find the center of mass of the uniform triangle.
Tbtor: Can you use symmetry to find the center of mass? Student: If I flip it toptobottom, it looks the same, so the center of mass has to be on the horizontal
a)cis.
Student: It's just one piece! How do I do the equation
for each piece when there's only one piece?
thtor:
a>ris.
Student: It doesn't
What if you flip it leftteright? look the same. That means that the center of mass isn't halfway along the horizontal
Tntor: It means that the center of mass doesn't haae to be there. It could be there but there's no rea.son to think that it is. Student: So the gt component of the center of mass is at y  0, but we don't know where the r component is, and it's only one piece. TUtor: You need to divide it into pieces yourself, where you carr determine the ma.ss and location of each
piece.
74
CHAPTER
9.
CEI,{TER OF MASS AAID LII]EAR MOMENTUM
*
T\rtor:
Divide it into a lot of pieces, and then each piece is small enough that we can call Then we add up all of the pieces. Student: That sounds like an integral! Tutor: Yep. What is the width of each piece'/
it
a rectangle.
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Student: Student:
Each piece is dr wide. Yes. What is the height of each piece?
They aren't all the same height. That's right, they aren't. Given that a piece is located at r, how high is it? Student: Well, the bigger r is, the greater the height of the piece. T\rtor: Yes, also it's linear, so that the height is proportional to r. At r _ 0, the height is zero) and at r  B' the height is 2. Student: If it'slinear, then hCr, whereCisaconstant. If theheightis2 atr 8,thenthatconstant needs to be i, so the height of each piece is Ir. Ttrtor: Good. To find the mass of a piece, we multiply the area times the density. That is, we multiply the square meters by the kilograms per square meters, and get kilograms. Student: What is this density? It isn't given. T\rtor: True. Hopefully it will cancel, or we won't be able to do the problem. Make up a variable for it. Physicists tend to use d or p for densities. Student: Okay, the density is d. Then the mass of a piece is the area times the densityr or (i* * d*)(d).
rCM
Ln* * d*)(d) ,ff f
ff T\rtor:
Student:
f
d,r ff *2 a* i* * d,r)(d) i6 t: r d,r [f r d,r
.
,
i d ,ff
12
l+rr]t,
Does the result make sense? How should I know? T\rtor: Well, could the answer be more than 8? Student: No, all of the mass is to the left of 8. Tutor: Could the answer be less than 4? Student: No, more of the mass is on the right side, and further to the right. Ttrtor: Is the answer between 4 and 8? Student: Yes, it's about 5. So it works. T\rtor: At least it passes the sanity test.
Just as energy is conserved, so is momentum. When a large truck collides headon with a small car, we expect to see the car bounce backwards while the truck continues on. This is not because the force of the the forces are the same. Instead, this is truck on the car is larger than the force of the car on the truck because the tnrck has more mornentum than the car.
we can either calculate it for one object or for a group of objects. of course. T\rtor: So if we only consider the horizontal component of the momentum. T\rtor: Correct. In the car truck headon collision. (The center of mass of the system keeps moving with the same velocity. Fmd Impulse is the name given to the change in the momentum. T\rtor: Student: Fe+JFf Also. Whatever that impulse is.  One difference between momentum and energy is that momentum is a vector. So the impulses that they exert on each other are equal and opposite. When we find the momentum. These might be equal. the impulse of A on B plus the impulse of B on A add to zero. there is gravity and a normal force on each. then the forces are equal and opposite. and what was the impulse that the second car gave to the first one? How are you going to solve this problem? There's a collision. then we don't have to worry about them at all. Instead. Are you going to use the momentum of one of the train cars or of the two together? Student: What's the advantage of doing the two together? T\rtor: If the train cars exert forces on each other. so it has direction. Tutor: We could try to figure out if they're equal. Do they exert forces on each other? Student: They certainly do. EXAMPTE A 2500 kg train car moves down the track at 5 m/s. T\rtor: Good. All we need is the forces they create on each other." or change in momentum. The equations have the same general form and the techniques are the same. Pu." Consider a system of two objects. After the collision. the total momentum is also in the direction that the truck was going.75 Conservation of momentum looks very similar to conservation of energy. If they create a force on each other. which thus has the same units ( kg m/s or N t). The truck has more momentum.* Pzt* @Affif E ffiA  Ptf a PzI Prr*PztPtfaPzf .) The result of this logic is that conservation of momentum works particularly well for collisions. and those forces are equal. What is the speed of the train cars afterward. Tntor: What forces act on the train cars? Student: They push on each other. Student: Cool. so they add to zero. these forces will cancel if we do them together. what are the directions of gravity and the normal force? Student: They are both vertical. The basic equation is a"s momentum Fn+jFr jFt where i ir the "impulse. one of the vehicles has a positive momentum and the other has a negative. which is a tipoff to try conservation of momentum. often called a "system. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity. It hits and couples to a second (stationary) train car of 3500 kg. so the total momentum is in the direction that the truck is going. So any forces between the two bodies of our system don't change the momentum of the system. So I want to do them together.
then the final momentum is to the right.(2500 kg) ut * Pzf Tutor: What is the momentum of the second car after the collision? We don't know its velocity either. Can you express that same thought.(2500 kg)rr + (3500 kg)u1 (12500 ks /s) : (6000 kg)rt (12500 kq m/s) (6000 kg) u1  2. What is the boy's velocity after he throws the ball? Tutor: Student: This doesn't sound like a "collision. Student: Oops. I picked that as the positive direction? I\rtor: Yep. And when the final velocity was positive. (2500 kg)(5 m/s) + 0 . and I only have one variable. so its momentum is zero. Student: So u2  u1. . Student: So using the first car Student: Pu. And Jt on z is positive. Does that mean anything? Student: They have to have the same velocity afterward? Student: T\rtor: Yes. Student: Then the train cars rnove in that same direction. Do your numbers say the same thing? Keep in mind that you used an axis but you didn't explicitly say what you were using. if the first car is originally moving to the right. so (2500 kS)(5 m/s). CENTER OF MASS AI{D LII{EAR MOMENTUM Tutor: What is the momentum of the first car before the collision? The momentum is mu." Why do I want to use momentum for this? Do you know the force that the boy applies to the bowling ball? . so it should be negative.08 m/s) (2500 ks)(5 m/s) + J2 on 1  Jz on 1 : 7292 kg m/s T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Why is it negative? Which way is the force that the second car exerts on the first? Against the initial velocity. Tutor: What is the momentum of the second car before the collision? Student: It wasn't moving. Tutor: What is the momentum of the first car after the collision? Student: Momentum is ma. * J2 on 1  Prf (2500 kg)(2. How do I find the impulse? T\rtor: Repeat the conservation of momentum equation. using the word "momentum?" Student: If the initial momentum is to the right. Student: EXAMPLE A 72 Ib boy on a skateboard throws a 16 lb bowling ball to the right at a speed of 8 mls compared to him. so that the final momentum of the second car is positive.08 m/s T\rtor: Can you tell from your result which way the train cars go? Well. . Tutor: The two train cars couple together. Tutor: Very good. so I'll us€ u2 for that. shouldn't they move off to the right? T\rtor: Yes.76 CHAPTER 9. but for just one car. and there is no impulse from outside forces. So when I said the velocity of the first car beforehand was positive. I'll use u1 for the velocity of the train car Student: afterward. but we don't know the velocity. (2500 ks)(5 m/s) .
so I need to find the velocity compared to the ground.gt uball. These forces are opposite and equal. Student: So I want to use the combined momentum of the two objects. Student: 0 +0 mboyuboy * ?Tuballubau 0+0TUtor: Student: (72 lb)uboy+(16 lb)u6"11 Do I need to convert pounds into kilograms? You can keep them as they are for now.ball . or a^s mea^sured by the boy. If the bowling ball goes to the right.(16 lb)(S m/s) (8slb) What does the negative result mean? means that the boy goes in the negative direction. you can eliminate forces that two objects put on each other. Student: Pu*Pzr:PrfaPzf T\rtor: What is the momentum of the boy beforehand? He isn't movirg.ll. Ttrtor: Does that make sense? Remember that the initial momentum was zero. You won't need to find the force. These are vertical. The bowling ball isn't moving either.(8 m/s) + ubau uboy + (8 r. What are the forces acting on them? The boy pushes on the bowling ball.Ugall. T\rtor: The 8 m/s is with respect to the boy. so it's zero. There is gravity and a normal force on the boy. What is the velocity of the bowling ball after he throws it? Student: 8 m/s to the right. Ttrtor: Student: Fn+jFr T\rtor: Correct.boy * Ub.g. and the bowling ball pushes back. Tutor: Student: It . It's true that momentum works well for collisions.77 No. so he goes to the left. u^q. then the boy needs to go to the left.boy uboy. so it's *8 m/s.rtor: Student: Now we have an equati: So we can solve it. I'll use to the right as the positive direction. boy and bowling ball.gr .tt uboy. We don't know his velocity.ball * uball.u6oy.g:UAC*uCg . do I need to know it? By using conservation of momentum. T\rtor: What is the momentum of the boy afberward? Student: Momentum is mu. so they cancel. and see how they work out. . Student: Ah.t.i:::iub'v (72 lb)uboy "'/'))  + (16 lb)uboy * (16 lb)(8 m/s) (88 lb)?rboy uboy . so I'll use a variable. so we do only horizontal momentum and they disappear. 0 :l l]l.o". Student: And the impulse was zero) so the final momentum needs to be zero. but that's because using momentum gets the forces between colliding objects to cancel.
r'ls. Because elastic collisions are somewhat common. then their velocities afterward will be I mt . If object 1 collides elastically with object 2. . z mt*mz . how fast is the ball going? The ball and the truck put forces on each other.. then the collision is elastic (really). So one of them has to have a negative initial velocity. ul mt*mz and uL : 2mL ar mt*mz To use these equations. ? o T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Before the collision. then the collision is not elastic. When two billiard balls strike.r"k (0. the kinetic energy is conserved. use your experience with the objects in question: are they likely to bounce off of each other (elastic) or is some of the energy likely to be turned into heat (not elastic)? o After that. Tutor: How are you going to attack this problem? Student: There's a collision. If you can solve the problem using only conservation of momentum.rt * TTltru.. After the ball bounces off of the truck.. then there is no need to worry whether the collision is elastic. An elastic collision is one where the kinetic energy is conserved.work result and reuse it the next time."r.TTLz I l 2mZ u4 u:tryaoz*W. . How do you tell if a collision is elastic or not? says o If the problem that the collision is elastic. the total kinetic energy before the collision is the same as after the collision. EXAMPLE A 4000 kg truck is coming straight at Joe at 14 r.1 * (4000 ks)u.3 kg rubber ball at the truck with a speed of 10 m/s.3 kg)(10 */s) + (4000 kg)(14 m/s)  (0. All of the other forces are vertical.. o If one object passes through the other. the positive direction for each object must be the same. are the ball and the truck going the same direction? No. o If the two objects stick together. such as heat or denting the cars.T\*mz or.ku{r. if object 2 is stationary before the collision. Pu*Pzt:PtfaPzf Trlbattuball I TTltruckutruck  Trlballufu. physicists do something they don't often do out the .78 CHAPTER 9. He throws a 0. so I'm going to use momentum. When two cars strike. and it bounces off of the truck elastically. then the collision is not elastic. but if I use the momentum of them together those forces cancel out. An inelastic collision is one where some of the kinetic energy is turned into other forms of energy.3 kg)uf. CEIr{TER OF MASS AATD LII\IEAR MOMEI{TUM In some collisions. and because of the unpleasantness of solving simultaneous equations (especially with squares in them). they go away. some of the kinetic energy goes into other forms of energy. and by looking at the horizontal component. they have a headon collision.
then the. Student: That means that I can write down the kinetic energy before and afber. . So he sees the ball bounce off at about 24 mls. equal but opposite. Student: I guess not. T\rtor: Yes.ltl. The idea here is the same one used to "slingshot" space probes around planets to gain speed...ITL6all * ?7)truck Tflball * ?T}truck utruck uf. To avoid all of that work. and how much does the ball change the truck's momentum? Student: None at all.r.3 ks)uf. Student: . I have one equation another equation.79 Student: I forgot to choose an axis! I'll take (0. The ball accelerates more because it has less mass. . * aLu. set them equal. Tutor: If the truck puts a force on the ball. ball puts a force on the truck.'. mt*mz * mttmZ 2*y'Iu+ ?T}ball ?truck uba. you could just use the elastic collision Student: Yes. Look at the problem from the truck's point of view.. TrLt . Tutor: Can you solve the equation? and two variables. then what do you see? Student: I see the ball coming at me at 38 m/s.n ffi + ffi (1 a mls) What does the minus sign mean? means that the ball bounces in the direction that the truck was originally going.u' (10 rrr/s) + erum/s) : (sggg'z Eq) kg) (10 m/s) t' (10 m/s) amls) + (4ooo.. (1 \ rzrl : (4ooo^3 ulu. piece of information. + (4000 ks) ?14 /s)  (0. The truck's momentum must change. 24 mls.(tooo.3 kg)(10 m/s) the direction that the ball is thrown a^s positive.. .u : uf. T\rtor: Yes.. that is what equations. . . + (4000 kg)u. but not very much. The truck's frame is almost the center of mass frame here. If he's coming at you at 14 mls and he thinks the ball is coming at you at 24 m/s. that would be easier. T\rtor: Mathematically what we do is switch everything to the "center of mass" frame of reference. it's dangerous to throw a rubber ball at an oncoming truck.TTLzt'l tl. What does the truck driver see? Student: He sees a ball coming at him at. oh. I need another Tutor: The piece you are missing is that the collision is elastic. uf.: '*' .3kg) . Why is the speed so much faster than before? Tutor: Ah.. T\rtor: Student: It . and get it means. T\rtor: Correct.
but we can still use it.0. both in magnitude and direction. We're allowed to use all of the techniques we've learned.(u"tt * ?7zp. Tutor: It is hard. The putty and ball stick together. T\rtor: How can we find the speed of the ball after it falls? Student: Conservation of momentum.{TER OF MASS AATD LII{EAR MOMEI]TUM EXAMPLE A 0.56 kg block of putty.80 CHAPTER 9.. and we need to know the time it takes to fall. What is the velocity of the putty before the collision? Student: It isn't moving. CEI. Student: That looks hard.85 kg ball on the end of a 35cmlong string falls and hits a 0.all+putry T\rtor: What is the velocity of the ball before the collision? Student: The problem doesn't say. Tftbuttubalt * P Ea"to.u. Tutor: The tension force changes as the ball falls.ll+putty T\rtor: All well and good. Other than the forces that the ball and the putty put on each other.rttv) 'uf. I assume? T\rtor: What are the forces on the ball? Student: Gravity and tension. so I'm going to use horizontal momentum. so uputty . all other forces are vertical. T\rtor: It was.tt * ?'rlp.K Eutter * P Earte. Student: Okay. That means I have one equation but two unknowns. How much work does the tension do? Student: Work? I thought work was in the last chapter. the work from the tension is zero because the tension is perpendicular to the motion. Just because it's the momentum chapter doesn't mearr that we can only use momentum.) (0)' I ma^1gh : t*o^r(r)' * rftaulg(0) i^r^t K Euurc. * mpttty'upaff . . so we need conservation of momentum. Student: Pu*PzrPry*Pzf Tttbatluball * ITlputtyuputty : (u. T\rtor: What do you know about the ball? Student: It starts 35 cm high and falls in an arc until it hits the putty." . 1 1 . The block sticks to the ball. What is the speed of the putty after it is hit by the ball? There's a collision.rttv) uf." * W . so it's not an elastic collision.
?g\e.8 ^ls2)(0.81 sR: {ro^r)' tlz(g.b8 m/s .41 kg) _ 1.62 /s) (2.23 ks ((0.mJ/s) (1.62 mls T\rtor: Now you have the speed of the ball just before the collision. : (2.41 kg)u' u.56 kg)) uf"u+putty /s) : (I.all+putty (0.85 ks) + (0.  : (urtt * ??zputtv) uf. ubau ITlbanuball : \m. and solve for the final velocity.85 ks) Q.2. Student: I'll choose the direction of the ball as positive. stick this in the momentum equatior.35 m) .
ss times acceleration (F: rna). using the same equations. U 'UO A. . Just like constant acceleration. It can have an acceleration even if the velocity is zero: throw something (other than this book) straight up. which is how fast the velocity is changing. in its angular If the acceleration wa.uot + iolt2 A0 . which is the change position or angular displacement. and at the instant that it is at its peak the angular velocity is zero but changing: it was rotating one w&y. but with different variables. which is how fast the angular velocity is changing is the rotation speeding up or slowing down? It can have an angular acceleration even if the angular velocity is zero. so that there is an acceleration.u3 :2a Ar 82 Aruot*Lrat2  At + ) UUO:At A0 . We could solve problems where the acceleration wasn't constant. or how fast it is spinning. There is an angular acceleration.(uo*u)t + + a2r3:2crA0 u2 . but that was harder. Everything we've done so far also applies for rotation. but sometimes things rotate (and talented objects can do both at the same time). We've done all this before. then we can solve for the other two. For example. All of the equations we just replace the variable with used for constant acceleration work for constant angular acceleration as well the angular equivalent. which is the change in its position. and is about to rotate the other way. It's all true for rotation as well.l.Io). It can have an angular acceleration. Roll a basketball or other round object up a ramp. force equals ma. It can have an acceleration. An object can have an angular velocity. is not rotating now. and at the instant that it is at its peak height the velocity is zero but changing.r. if we know any three of the five rotational variables. An object can have a velocity.s constant then we could solve a number of problems with a few short equations. fr+ a+ a rTL 0 (Greek "theta" u (Greek a (Greek ttomegatt ) ) F> P> I r "alpha" ) (Greek ttau" ) L angular angular angular angular angular angular displacement velocity acceleration mass force torque momentum  rrrorrrent of inertia Every equation we've had will also have an angular equivalent. so angular force equals angular ma"ss times angular acceleration (.Chapter 10 Rotation Sometimes things move.*(ro*w)t .
r ) . so zero. it becomes necessary to use radians (more on this later).r is positive. in radians/s ec2? T\rtor: Trrtor: T\rtor: Student: What is happening here? Constant angular acceleration. We can also mea^sure angles in many different units. Sometimes it became necessary to use meters. it doesn't matter which unit we use. Do I need to convert that to radians? T\rtor: Not necessarily. Once around is one cycle. We know three. lhtor: What is the final angular velocity? Student: 48 cycles per minute. We have to do that even in rotation? Tutor: Yes. We don't care about the time. or cycles. or 2r radians. of course Do we know the time? Student: No. How do we solve constant acceleration problems? of the five variables.2 r3:2a A0 .83 We could mea"sure lengths in many different units. What is the angular acceleration of the turntable. I\rtor: Student: Ar L0 : ug+ug a + u a+a:? t)t 5rotations 48rotfmin T\rtor: We want to find the angular acceleration. Typically we use clockwise or counterclockwise as positive. so long as we keep track of the units. Student: It has to be in the same direction. With angles. so we can solve. With lengths. but that's okay. radians. T\rtor: More precisely. Start by writing down the five variables. so c. it didn't matter what unit we used. we can solve for the other two. or miles. inches.r ) A0 ug ug a+uaa: t+t: What is the angular displacement A0? 5 rotations. it has the same sign as A0. so we choose the equation that doesn't include the time. with the most common being degrees. The problem doesn't s&y. and has the same sign. such as meters. or cycles. so long a. Let's keep it and see what happens. Student: If we know three L.s we kept track of the units. What is the initial angular velocity? Student: It starts at rest. because a newton is a kilogram meter per second2. so the question here is whether the final angular velocity is in the same direction as the angular displacement. u2 r3:2a A. 360 degrees. EXAMPLE A turntable starting from rest rotates 5 times while accelerating to 48 rpm (rotations per minute). though. T\rtor: Is it positive 48 or negative 48? Student: Uhoh. w€ didn't choose an axis. Sometimes.
If the wheel turns faster. that must mean that the two are equal. so u2 l. so it should have the same sign. but if the angular velocity is constant then the speed of the paint drop is also constant.re. Since the distance covered is 2rR for each rotation. This means that we must use radians whenever we use one of the formulas above.*/ o Student: We wanted the angular acceleration in radians/sec2. As the rotation accelerates. Then the acceleration is zero. for example. . It is slowing with an angular deceleration of 52 radf s2. What is the (linear) acceleration of a point on the edge of the wheel? What is happening in this problem? Student: The point is moving in a circle. there is an acceleration uz lr. so the general rule is that we use radians whenever there is a length in the proble any length.(230ffi)(t*/(. the speed is u  2r R x (rotations per second) By choosing the unit for angles to be 2r radians per rotation.. Sometimes we use one of them without knowing it. then the above formulas would need to include an extra constant. a point on the edge moves.(0)' 2(5 rot) 230 rotf minz a  T\rtor: So now we have to convert. When something moves in a circle. in a minute. We might then ask the question "how fast is the drop of paint moving?" Note that the velocity of the paint is constantly changing. the further it must move in each rotation. There are 2r radians in a rotation. right? Tutor: But if something moves in a circle at a constant speed. the point accelerates. Student: Okay. Sometimes we need to connect the angular motion with the linear motion. The further out from the pivot point (or axle) the paint is.84 CHAPTER 10. ROTATIOI{ a (48 . this becomes: Lr:RL0 uRw a. that we put a small drop of paint on the wheel before it rotates. and 60 seconds / rot \ /2r rad\ /I a. T\rtor: But above we saw that o._r3 2L0 rctf min)'. even though the velocity is changing? Student: That can't be right. Imagine. by using radians we get beautiful. then point on the edge has to move faster. EXAMPLE A 2cmdiameter wheel is rotating with an angular speed of 120 rpm. simple formulas.. a is zero. .40 radf s2 T\rtor: Student: It Should the angular acceleration be positive? should be in the same direction as the angular displacement. min\2  0. and the faster we expect it to move.re. This acceleration is in the direction T\rtor: . because its direction is changing. Student: Yes.Ra If we had chosen some other unit for measuring angles. What's going on? Tutor: As the wheel turns.
or tangent to the circle. and it is traditional to point it outward. the point on the edge has u2 lr.ih)) aR (ttoo rotlmin) : 33 ^ls2 aT: Ra Now we can do the "tangential" acceleration. Tntor: Student: If they oR: T\rtor: We can substitute u u2 r  ru.ra makes the point go in a circle faster.21 m) (52 radls2) ar . ar : (0. and is traditionally called 0 or sometimes 0. Whenever the wheel is turnirg.85 of the motion of the point.r1 Student: cm) (. T\rtor: Remember to add them as vectors. always. so that the wheel spins faster or slower. Student: I see you've draw the coordinate axes. 0R:_(. we rotate the axes so that one of them points along the radius. how can they cancel out? They don't. The acceleration a : u2 f r was toward the center and made the point go in a circle.II ^ls2 . Student: Ok y. in the radial direction. Student: So the two are perpendicular to each other? T\rtor: Yes. then the point on the edge has rCI a"s well.If the rotation rate is changing. and why can't the one be in so that the acceleration is positive? T\rtor: Because the point is movirg. We call this the "radial" directior. 0R: ?')':ru)2 Student: That's easier. The other axis is tangent to the circle. so it's negative. The "radial" acceleration is inward. Student: And to find the total acceleration we have to add them. VT are perpendicular to each other. The acceleration a . Why not r and y. because we have u.
it does not cause the object to spin and the torque is zero. called torque. and we'll explore them in the example below. ROTATION We can express the acceleration vector using unit vectors. The torque a force creates is equal to the force times the moment arm times the sine of the angle between them: r FBsin@ The "moment arm" is the line from the pivot point to the spot where the force is applied. Once we choose the positive direction we need to stick with that direction for the whole problem. There are variations on this method.ani*atd d  (33 Student: vector ^ls2)i+ (11 ^1"\6 I The radial and tangential parts are perpendicular to each other. Physicists usually choose counterclockwise as the positive direction.MRz Slab about perpendicular axis *rrotrgh Solid sphere about any diameter center Solid cylinder (or disk) about central axis I =+rM(az + b2'1 i I I t =lMRz . The further a\May from the pivot point the force is applied the greater the torque. You will find that the door does not open as easily or quickly. T\rtor: d.86 CHAPTER 70. but it's not necessary to do that. w€ get to pick the positive direction and a negative torque is one in the other direction. ldl . If the force is parallel or antiparallel to the moment arm. Thin rod about Hoop about central axis axis through center perpendicular to length 1= ]2ML2 7= f. Torques can be positive or negative.{ e3B m/"')2 + (rr ml"')2 ldl : 35 ^ls2 t The angular equivalent of force is angular force. Like velocities and accelerations. To find the magnitude of the use the Pythagorean theorem. T[y opening a door by pushing near the hinge rather than at the handle. or perhaps even at all.
and there is a right angle between them.87 EXAMPLE F Find the total torque applied to the shape around the pivot point.: How do I tell? T\rtor: Start at the force arrow and trace a circle that goes around the pivot point. Tutor: Good.m is positive. What is the torque that the I N force creates around the pivot point? Student: th. Student: Does that mean we need to find the components of each torque? problems that is needed.t.ll . but for most problems we just have clockwise and counterclockwise. would it rotate around the pivot point? . Do you trace in the clockwise or counterclockwise direction? Student: Counterclockwise. so Student: .m How can a force create no torque? T\rtor: If the 4 N force was the only force on the object.:TIHfi . and add them like we would forces. Tlrtor: In advanced r\rtor: rs that torque in the . rso FRsin@  (7 N)(3 ) sin35o  12 N. so the 45 N. I go clockwise. it is applied 5 m from the pivot point. What is the torque created by the 7 N force? Student: There is a 35o angle between the 3 m "moment arm" and the force. I'll pick counterclockwise a.: :. so  FRsin@  (4 N)(2 ) sin0o  0 N. Student: How do we do torques? TUtor: We find each torque. T\rtor: And is it a positive or a negative torque? Student: I need to choose a positive direction. T\rtor: What is the torque created bythe4Nforce? the pivot point.11].m Student: If I start in the direction of the 7 N force arrow and go around it's a negative 12 N torque. Student: Student: The angle is 0o.. is a force of g N.s positive.
m for Newtonmeters? Tutor: The problem with mN is that it could mean a force of a millinewton. So a disk rotated about a point on its edge would have a moment of inertia of I .. What about the 8 N The moment arm is 6 m. See the table for common shapes. but there is no angle. The moment of inertia is equal to Ia or I.it doesn't rotate. so r 45 N. Student: . The angular mass is called moment a combination of moment arm and inertia. meternewtons. but what if it rotates about a point on its edge rather than its center? The parallel axis theorem tells us that Ilcu+Md2 or the moment of inertia about any point on an object is equal to the moment of inertia about its center of rnass plus its mass times the distance the pivot point is from the center of mass.li.tmr? We divide the object into tiny little pieces.:ff student: And it goes crockw. Fortunately. We need to use lots of tiny pieces so that each piece is all the same distance from the pivot point. many common shapes have simple moments of inertia. Student: So the 5 m line is the part of the 6 m line that T\rtor: Yes.ma) so the same equation holds with the angular equivalents: T angular force equals angular mass times angular acceleration.88 T\rtor: Right. to use N. What is the torque from the force that is 4 m away from the pivot? Student: We need the part of the force that is perpendicular to the moment arm.ro"r. Or.H:. The moment of inertia of a circle (or disk) about its center is I .m I Just as Newton's second law says F . Look T\rtor: atthe5mline. the torque is the force times the part of the moment arm that is perpendicular to the force. ROTATIOII Student: I guess it wouldn't.o. It's like pulling a door outward from the hinges force? CHAPTER 70. then for each piece multiply its mass times the square of how far from the pivot point it is.]../cvr + Mdz: LrUn'+ MR2 .MR'. and it's much easier to look them up than to figure them out every time. .m * 0 N.iU n'. The torque is the moment arm times the part of the force that is perpendicular to the moment arm.m  20 N. Sometimes you might want to rotate one of these objects about a point other than the center.m  40 N. or do we have student: And it goes .. then add all of those together. the line from the pivot point Student: So the torque is is perpendicular to the 8 N force? that is perpendicular to the line of the force.m  12 N.J:L1r:J:l: T\rtor: What is the total torque about the pivot point? Student: We ) 20 N m just add the torques. so (5 N)(a fflilf .m _ 27 N.:".
". I /crrn + Md2 I /doo. but it is being rotated about the edge. 14 N. If there was another torque.2 kS. Do I need a positive direction? T\rtor: Since everything is happening in the same direction.46 kg  9.: . . Student: of inertia).. then we would have to be careful about direction...j:. .78 m) 2 . but with rotation.0. so from the pivot occurs at rhere are the pivot point.Tl.)2 iut' in.59 rad/s2 .46 kg m2 Student: Now I can find the angular acceleration.468 ks *' ? T\rtor: That would be the moment of inertia if the door was being rotated about the center of the door. To T\rtor: T\rtor: I need the force and the mass. Good.rkg)(0.28  1. *rtor: other. like friction at the pivot. how would you approach it? Student: If I can find the acceleration. find the acceleration. How long does a it take for the door to open (rotate to 90')? T\rtor: If this were linear motion instead of rotation.T]'l.Ia m' 1. so the moment of inertia is /doo.1l.li.Tl1. so the moment arm is zero.78 m wide and has mass of 7. I need the angular force (torque) and the angular mass (moment Student: What is the torque? There is only one force. we can call that positive and not worry about it any more. I can do a constant acceleration problem to find the velocity. Gravity doesn't cause the door to open or close. To find the angular acceleration.#ut'+ M (Ll2)' :lut' rr. The boy pushes perpendicular to the surface of the door.m r .2 kgx0. : iM L2  $fT. Student: So the other forces don't create any torque.89 EXAMPLE A boy leaving a store pushes on the door handle with a force of 18 N.:l"?rce Student: From above the door looks like a rod. and it is applied at a right angle at the edge. Student: So I need the parallel axis thingee. The door is 0.
4 m.ro rad. not like other units. is something like We could do it. T\rtor: The angular acceleration is in radians.ru works. ROTATIOIV Student: I see that the kg and the m2 cancelled the same units in the numerator. We could do the same thing. The 7 kS mass starts 2 m above the ground. A. We can insert them and remove them at will. but now the tensions aren't the same and we need a third equation for the T\rtor: Student: rotation of the pulley. and that the seconds squared came from the newtons.59 radf ? s2 Lfi : uot . we did energy. The pulley equation rzlr1R. Now I have the angular acceleration and I can do the constant angular velocity problem. so it's r radians. We can't do this with degrees or revolutions. because radians are assumed so that u . The difficulty is that we don't know the tensions. and solve the constant velocity problem. and had two equations. 4 kg and 7 kg hang over a 6 kg pulley. . The radius of the pulley 0. We . Thtor: Student: That sounds like a lot of work.) . Af. It's really just a word used to remind us but not really a unit. That's why we use the word even though it isn't a unit.f s2)t' radf s2 t0.. we did forces. and we have the angular acceleration.57s EXAMPTE In an Atwood's machine. two masses of. What is its speed as it hits the ground? is How are you going to attack this? Find the torque. T\rtor: Write down the five variables and identify the ones you know. and we'd need to write a Newton's second law equation for each mass.'s is zero.(o.(i*^.. so you'll want the angular displacement in radians.90 CHAPTER 10. T\rtor: You could do that.r > L0 ug+ug a)u a)a t>t r12 0 9. Student: Okay. find the angular acceleration. Student: 90o is onefourth of a revolution..a* . initial angular velocity c.(t) Student: It sounds like you think there's an easier way. Energy techniques work well when the acceleration is not constant and when we don't care about the time. find the moment of inertia. but where did radians come from? T\rtor: Radians aren't really a unit. Student: Angular displacement is 90o.. Remember that we did this before.ua)  (o).
Ttrtor: Fq: ?df w . when I find the final potential energy. T\rtor: What is the initial potential energy? Student: I'll take the starting point as height equals zero. Thtor: And since the forces are the same. but the moment arm for these forces is zero. Student: Consider the tension in the rope attached to the 7 kg mass.u' .(l*^r2 +!r*rr'*I*or') t / * mz + 1 \ w_' .91 don't care about the time here. then the speed of a point on the edge of the pulley is the W . I measure compared to it started. so I need L*r' for each of them.rrlT)g(2 ^) rrlT)g(2 Student: Look.1 (n . TUtor: Good. and the 7 kg mass moves down 2 m.. so let's try energy.8 rn) ^) :^ 2(3 o) kg (++T+*^lr')(z *)  2.*r) '2 (*+  ) + (*n  IrLT)sQ ^) Tutor: There are the tensions in the rope.)) It takes energy to rotate What is the kinetic energy? Both of the masses are moving. somethirg. w . The 4 kg ma"ss moves up 2 m. and pulls on the pulley. holding the pulley up. For each mass.K E r * (^as(+2m) + mz sezrr. are the two masses going the same speed? Student: Yes. Student: There's also a force at the pivot. so you have a different h . It holds back on the mass.+ PEi+W: KEy * PEr Tutor: What is the initial kinetic energy? Nothing is moving. the radius cancels. over the pulley.. just like it takes energy to move it. Student: Student: So i*r' becomes itr'. doing positive work.0 spot for the two Student: InASSES. T\rtor: The pulley is also rotating. and gravity on the pulley.(*^imz 1/ 1 +  TrLT)g(2 ^) t(n*mz+ m 2 2(^n rrlT)g(z *z)g(2 kg)(e. and the distances are the same.(i^^rz +!r*rr' .(i*. KEt. where Student: I can handle that. T\rtor: The two masses might not start at the same height. so no potential energy.(t*^. How fast is the pulley rotating? Student: Can I use u .2 +I*.R') w (:^) ') i (*n.Rti? T\rtor: If the rope is not slipping same as the speed of the rope.TrLT)g(2 ) T\rtor: When the 7 kg mass hits the ground. the rope length would change. . Student: Now we need to find the work done by forces other than gravity. doing negative work.9 m/s . so zero.rr') * (^n . If they weren't. so you need the kinetic energy of rotation. )f2. the total work is zero.
T\rtor: Student: K4+ PEi+W : KEy * PEt Student: The ball isn't moving at the top. so the initial kinetic energy is zero. rngh*W 'r*r'*. How fast is the bowling ball moving when it reaches the bottom of the ramp? * We don't care about the time. choose the bottom as Ttrtor: y.4 m high and 9. The initial potential energy is mgh.KEy *I4o What is the final kinetic energy? has Student: Ah.Iw2 92 . and speed connects directly to kinetic enerry. It **r' but it also has LIr'.timsh+w .0 kg bowling ball rolls without slippittg down a ramp.6 m long.Chapter 11 Rollingr Torqu€r and Angular Momentum This chapter is about angular momentum. we had this in the last chapter. EXAMPLE A 7.0. I'll h . The ramp is 1 . But first an example of rolling motion. Energy looks especially promisittg because we want the speed at the end of the ramp. so the final potential energy is zero. so I'll try energy.
1. T\rtor: What other forces are there? Student: The bowling ball is in contact with the ramp. Of course. then we can solve the equation. Ttrtor: What is the angular velocity w? Student: Is this where we use u . so the friction force doesn't do any work. Could we do this problem using forces? I\rtor: Yes. only if it slides. Does the friction force do any work? Student: The normal force doesn't do any work because it is perpendicular to the motion.93 Thtor: What is the moment of inertia /? The bowling ball is a solid sphere.pN? T\rtor: No. Student: So a bowling ball and a PingPong ball have different speeds at the bottom. but because it is hollow? T\rtor: Correct. Student: If the work is zero. Then we would have to write the Newton's second law equation. fdshrfrr'+ 1". Thtor: It may seem strange. rngh*W Student: 'r*r' * l mu2 Now we need to find the work done by forces other than gravity. and the bowling ball wouldn't roll. not because the PingPong ball is smaller or lighter. air resistance would also play a part. but because there is no sliding. We would need to find all of the forces. so we don't know how large the friction force is. Student: rnsh*w *o'.R cancel from the equation? It doesn't matter what the size or of the ball is.8 T\rtor: ma^ss m/s')(1. Student: Again.Ia). ro. it will have the same speed when it gets to the bottom. but we've conveniently ignored it.) Sfrr' sh: fr* . there is no displacement at the friction force.?*R'.4 m/s Did you notice how both rn and . .. T\rtor: Yes. so no mechanical energy is being turned into thermal energy by friction. so we look in the table and I .s it rolls. If there's a normal force. there would be no torque. this is true.(n. and we'd need to use u . T\rtor: If there was no friction force. and we would have gotten a different result. How large is the friction force? Student: Is it the limiting case where F .Ru? The point on the edge is moving around the center of the bowling ball at the same speed that the bowling ball is moving down the ramp? Ttrtor: As long as the bowling ball rolls without slippirg. so it must be static friction. there could be a friction force. does the bowling ball heat up a. I'm not sure about the friction force. Then we would need the Newton's second law equation for rotation (r . Or. the 215 would have been something else. so there is a normal force from the surface.Ru to connect the two.4 tn) :4. But if we used a hollow sphere or a tube instead of a solid sphere. Is it static or kinetic friction? Student: The ball isn't sliding.
T\rtor: If you can use energy.* AP . but for a point object moving around a point we use Pnsin. Alternatively. TORQUE.L1 Flor a rotating object. we could find the torque about the bottom. PTrra LIwPRsinl AP : Ft + AL . ROLLING. Then we could find o and find a.Pf + Lr. it usually is ea.* AL . they wouldn't create any torque.rt Pe. In order to triple her rotational speed. T\rtor: Student: Everything we did with momentum works with angular quantities. Student: It sounds like energy is easier. Since the normal force and friction force go through that point. w€ use Iw. what must she do to her moment of inertia? . AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM nI So we'd need to find the normal force and the friction force. EXAMPTE An ice skater doing an urel pulls her arrrur in to spin faster. Angular momentum is traditionally designated L.94 CHAPTER 77. where the bowling ball contacts the ramp. Angular impulse is the name given to the change in the angular momentum. which thus has the same units as angular momentum (kS *2/r).sier./.
Tutor: What forces are acting on her? Student: Gravity. All of those forces are on that line. Just pulling her arms in does this? Her arms are a small part of her mass. so it's not surprising that somethitrg cancels. T\rtor: Are they all the same as they were before? Student: No. K+aurcre : irr' and KE^rter : )t'(r')'." Student: Well. Student: So why couldn't we use energy for this? She does T\rtor: Student: Student: She must reduce her moment of inertia by u factor of three. Lr.l cancels! I'(3J/) Tutor: This is a "scaling" problem. We need to find all of the torques. Student: Iw *. and distance is squared in the formula for moment of inertia. Thtor: It wouldn't. Student: So the moment arms are zero and the torques are all zero. Energy is i. What about the angular impulse A^L? Student: That's equal to the torque times the time. her arms are most of her rotational inertia. What is the angular momentum beforehand? Student: Angular momentum .kf : I' (3r) IJl: Student: c.Ir'. Thtor: Are there any other indications? Student: We don't know the angular acceleration. I' :]l this by pulling her arms in. Tutor: Student: Find her energy before and after. so we must need to use that. T[rtor: So we leave them as variables. . we can't use energy to solve the problem. Tutor: The axis of rotation is vertically through her center. What is the angular momentum afterward? Student: Angular momentum ^L equals moment of inertia / times angular velocity w. but we'll see why later. but because they are so much further out than the rest of her. and maybe friction from the ice.L/ equals moment of inertia It times angular velocity wt I\rtor: Student: No. . We don't know any of them.(it) (3u)2 rr' Tutor: Student: They aren't the same! She does work when she pulls her arms in.L equals moment of inertia / times angular velocity w. we just heard about angular momentum. Thtor: Correct. I 31. so afterward the angular momentum .95 Shouldn't that be an "axle. We still don't know any of them. but maybe energy would work. Unless we know just how much work she does.*ALLy Iw*ALf'u)' I\rtor: What do we know about the angular velocities? We know that u)' :3 x cr'. the normal force from the ice." a^s in the thing a wheel turns around? it was invented by someone named "Axel. Ttrtor: Tbue.
which is larger by m(Ll2)2. sliding. Instead focus on what you can do. pivoting about its end. so it should work here. so it's negative. then strikes a 0. The pivot exerts a force. so it goes down by Ll2. 35cmlong uniform rod falls from vertical to horizontal. What is the speed of the putty after it is hit by the rod? where to begin. TORQUE. then you don't need the Lr*r'. What is the final kinetic energy? Student: The rod is rotating. What can you do? Student: I can probably use energy to find the speed of the rod after it falls. momentum. How far down does that Student: The center of mass is at the middle. If you use the moment of inertia about the center of the rod. . so do I need **o'too? Tutor: Very insightful. ROLLTNG. w:t(!*"). forces.85 kg. If you use the moment of inertia about the end of the rod. But the center of mass of the rod is also moving. Student: Now we need the work done by forces other than gravity. Student: I'll use the moment of inertia about the end. but that force is at the pivot. A]VD AIVGULAR MOMENTUM EXAMPLE A 0. What you mean by that is that you can't see the end from where you are now. go? w t(!*t'). T\rtor: You need to use the center of mass of the rod. so Lrtr'. and rolling. then you need the motion of the center of the rod. We've learned about constant acceleration. We found earlier that it's *m n' . and rotation. The block sticks to the end of the rod. Tutor: Student: I don't even know Mir4:w .'* Mgrlt.56 kg block of putty. We did this for objects falling.96 CHAPTER 11. and I'll use the initial positionas h:0.'+ T\rtor: Student: PEr What is the final potential energy? The rod goes down. so it doesn't exert any torque.KEr+PEr Tutor: All very good. The initial kinetic energy is zero. energy.
the pivot at the top of the rod will exert a force to keep the top of the rod in place. then it doesn't exert any torque. Do you know how big that force will be? Student: No. Now it's just algebra. f Right. what can you do? Student: The rod hits the putty. And the forces that the rod and putty put on each other will cancel. T\rtor: During the collision..97 T\rtor: Correct. momentum of the putty beforehand has to be zero. Tbtor: Correct. (l* T\rtor: "or') E: (i*od *o'. the impulse will be really small? T\rtor: The shorter the collision time. Lt*af2 t. (l* Student: And the angular oaL2 * ?rlpu *vL2) .Sb kg) + (o. T\rtor: There's no hurry. tut" I 3g L Student: Now we can plug in numbers and find the rotation rate.) Lr.35 m) ] (o. so no torque means no work. so I need to use momentum. And the work is r L0. That sounds like a collision./rod * Lpfity: Ifuf after Student: The angular speed of the rod before the collision is the same as the angular speed of the rod it falls. and when I multiply it by the small collision time.. because it isn't moving. and use mr2 .. so no angular impulse. 3g L * trputty : Ifwf T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What is the moment of inertia of the combined rod and putty? The rod is tMroaL' .. What about angular momentum? Student: If the force occurs at the pivot point. but that's not the right way. Just treat it as a single point.08 /s . Once you know how fast the rod is rotating.ar ks) (*to.(l*od * Tnputtv)*. just like with momentum. . but the table doesn't have an entry for putty. We need to keep that force out of the equation. the larger the force from the pivot will be. uf: ufLrM'oo (tMr"a * mputtv) lw \z 3(9. Can't I just pretend that it's small.8 (0.bo t g)) (r)f ^l12) :3. /rodt'.
When the string remainitrg is only 5. how fast is the object moving? (b) A roller coaster enters a spiral in which the radius of the track decreases from 17 m to 5.0 cm)  2.4 m/s.08 m/s EXAMPLE F (u) A small object moves in a circle on the end of a string on a horizontal frictionless table. the force disappears. u . Student: So it's perpendicular to the motion of the roller coaster.3o  \ Student: Part a sounds a lot like the previous example. We don't know the force of the string. If angular momentum won't work.7arrrls at the end of a 17 cm string. but by using angular moment.5 m/s Now I can do the same thing to part b. energy. and that's . Thtor: Student: .  Rln .mntRl (0. we can use L P Rsin / : muR PRsin@ for the angular momentum. If the coaster enters the spiral at a speed of 7 .0 cm. Student: And I want the speed of the point on the end. energy is supposed to be easiest. The string is then pulled through a hole in the center of the table. Tntor: Because it is a single point. try forces. ROLLTVG. what is its speed at the end of the spiral? l*l /\ f\ . Initially the object moves at 0. It's not toward the center.(0. So the speed of the roller coaster doesn't change.08 lr)  1. Lr*tf! r. If the force is perpendicular to the motion. P' R' sin S' 90o Student: The angle d is the angle between the momentum and the moment arm. it's a normal force so it's perpendicular to the track. the work is zero.98 cHAprER 11. so the torque doesn't cancel. TORQUE. AAID AI\IGULAR MOMENTUM T\rtor: Student: Shouldn't it be in meters per second? We found the rotation rate of the rod and putty. Not so fast! What is the direction of the force that the tracks put on the roller coaster? Student: It's not toward the middle of the circle? T\rtor: No. or momentum. T\rtor: T[y a different way. I need the force and direction. Student: Well..35 m)(3.0 m while staying horizontal.74 m/s) (17 cm) (5.
Zerc equatiorur.99 I\rtor: The difference between part a and part D is the direction of the force. Momentum is a vector and the direction of the roller coaster is changing. Student: Why couldn't I use momentum? The force is perpendicular to the motion so it doesn't create an impulse. Ilrtor: Ttrtor: Student: So I have to use energy for Yes. part b. It does create an impulse. . Student: Tlue.ngular momentum could change. or "pivot point." so the a. go the momentum is changing. In part D it was not tonrard the center. but it was easy.
but you can't get it from forces. T\rtor: Indeed you do. T\rtor: Time to choose axes. What is the reading on each scale? Student: Student: Back to forces. I choose +lfl T\rtor: Student: +Af2 mg*ilO Can you solve this equation? No. What are the forces on the board? There is a normal force from the first scale and a normal force from the second scale. It also means that the total torque is zero.Omlong. Student: But I need another equation. I need to do the r forces. I add the torques about the center of mass and set them equal 100 . up as positive.2 m from the left end. since all of the forces are colinear. I draw the freebody diagram. add the forces. There's also gravity acting at the center of mass. so that doesn't help.Chapter L2 Equilibrium and Elasticity The equilibrium point is where something can sit without moving. What else has to be zero besides the force? Student: Ah. EXAMPLE /^z. Tutor: It is good that you remember. choose axes. T\rtor: There are no r forces. one at the left end and the other 1. That means that the total force is zero. The forces might not be equal. there are two unknowns and only one equation.6. the torque needs to be zero.0 kg board is supported by two scales. so I'll call them l/r and N2. and that there is no angular acceleration. so that there is no acceleration. and write Newton's second law equations. Student: I only need one.
(6. T\rtor: Yes you can.2) (*g)(1.0. The gravity force of the diver. You could have used some other point as the pivot point.8 mlsz) : 0 Nl :10N You can always eliminate at least one torque by your choice of pivot point.7 m long and has two supports 0. board.2 m) (1) (*s)(1. If the forces are all colinear. Nz: (^g)(1. rather than the torque from a known force like rtg. like does You can always eliminate at least one torque by your choice of pivot point." To make the math easier.2) o Student: Now I have two equations and two unknowns. ^)1$ sin 90o : o Nl(1.0) 0 ^ls2) Student: H"y.8 .0 ks)(e.x" +N2(1. I can solve this one immediately. you might not be able to eliminate more than one. it helps to eliminate the torque from an unknown force rather than the torque from a known force. The torque has to be zero around anA point. T\rtor: Student: That's easier. it helps to eliminate the torque from an unknown force.2): +j(6.90 m apart. Try using the left end.4e N T\rtor: easier. Student: But Student: it still work? Yes. EXAMPTE A 75 kg diver (165 lb) stands at the end of a diving board. then you can eliminate two or more by choosing a pivot point where forces "intersect. DrIdo t Fratsin/6 2 o +(ms)(O)sin(?) Nl(1.0) l$. To make the math Nr. but if they are in two dimensions.0 m)(1) + *. Nr+Nzrzl.g0 Nr + (49 N) . The nearly massless board is 3.0 m)(1) : o . .101 to zero.0 ks)(9. with one at the far end from the diver. I can solve that.0)+N2(0. T\rtor: point. What is the force from each support on the diving board? Tutor: It's a massless Student: Student: There are two normal forces and gravity. T F:P'isin/6  Ia  o Nl(0) sin(?) + N2(1. but you could also go back to your y forces equation to find Nl. or the board would start to rotate about that Then I do another torque equation where Nz is applied so that I can solve for Nr? You could.
90) * o. I add the vertical forces. he pushes down on the diving board with a normal force. D Fu: *gdo Flfl+N2 rng 0 T\rtor: Student: I can't solve the equation. The forces on the diver are his weight and the normal force from the board. Is this force the same as his weight? Add up the forces on the diver. Student: Ok y.  D Yes. What are you going to use as the pivot point? Student: It wouldn't help to use the center of mass of the board. The normal force that he puts on the board is the same as the force the board puts on him.7 mX1)  Nzlo.7) : 0 : yosks)(e. Newton's third law says that the equal and opposite force is the diver pulling up on the Earth. so they are equal. so I need a torque equation. we might just call it his weight sometimes. it's our "special case" where there are only two forces and no acceleration. T\rtor: Student: Then why did we go through all that? Because sometimes they aren't the same.go) Student: Now ^lsz) . so we really do need to check. so I'll use the left end.Nz(0. using up as positive.t02 CHAPTER 72. EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY T\rtor: The gravity force on the diver acts on the diver. They add to zero.go (mg)(3. not the board.?r. so they must have the same magnitude but be in opposite directions. Student: Ok y. and having figured out that they're the same.8 Nz: @!^)!?^:z) t' " (o. T\rtor: Student: N N1 + 1 1 1 2T\rtor: 3.Ido +@g)(3. lfr+Nzrng0 .no *. I sin : o 90o .8020 N I can use the g forces equation to find ltrl. Having said that it's really a normal force acting on the board and not his weight. t N1(0) sin(?) Ft&sin/a .
There is the weight of the beam and the weight of the sign. Tutor: Student: . The left end of the board needs to be attached to the support. Tutor: Yes the board would have to rotate. Student: So we don't even know the direction of the force from the wall. The negative means that the force is in the opposite direction that you drew it.0mlong. so that the support pulls it down. Student: But a normal force can't do that! Tutor: Correct. so that the left support must pull the left end of the board down. T\rtor: Student: I thought that a normal force couldn't be negative?  EXAMPTE makes a 39o angle A 25 kg sign is hanging from a 3. It's really a tension.8 mf s2) : 0 lr1 A normal force has to be out from the surface. What is the tension in the wire? Student: First we draw the freebody diagram. 14 kg beam.103 l/r * (3020 N)  (75 kg)(9. The beam is attached to the wall. So the wall could be pulling the beam in? Yes. How do we handle that? T\rtor: Whatever the force is. Tty adding the torques around the center of the board what do you find? Student: All of the torques are clockwise. T\rtor: All true. and it could also be pushing the end of the beam up or down. We just use the components. There is also a tension up and a normal force out from the wall. it can be divided into components. like the diving board was attached to the left side support. The end of the beam is supported by a wire that with the beam. but it's the same as the weight of the sign.
Either it will snap or it will deform so much that it won't return to its "normal" length.o . Using (1. F A Su or S. and the surface bends or deforms as it applies a force.14 kg) + (25ks)) (e. or wood. or ?. the material will fail.s ^1.Mb. the Young's modulus E lets us determine how much the material will stretch AL The stretching is expressed as a fraction of the total length LLIL.M"iens(L)(l) 0 + Wa(0) sin (?)  Mueamsfir>(1) + r@)sin39o  0 . F .M"ieng + Tsin 39o  r .Ia . Student: I'll still use B as the pivot point. Frna * W. The elasticity is a measure of how much a material deforms under force. glass. EQUILIBRIUM AND ELASTICITY I choose axes and add up the r and y forces. so we can't solve either of these yet. I use .498 N because the unknown force remaining was the one you wanted 6 is a good choice to solve The other topic here is elasticity. The normal force keeps the object from going into the surface. Materials stretch and compress like springs whenever they experience a force. This idea applies for all solid materials. t W. I'll use Trrtor: You could Can also use A or C. * Tlrtor: Student: Student: B as the pivot point.4 even though it's not in the object? T\rtor: You could use Paris as your pivot point and it would work. By choosing the pivot point wisely.(0) sin(?) Frarsin@6 . We need to add up the torques. Using "4 eliminates the torques from Wy and T. Wo Tcos 39o : Trlbeuor6  Mv"am  Mrisn + Tsin 39o : Trtbeurnil] We don't know W*.104 Student: Now CHAPTER 12. The strength is a measure of when the material fails completely and breaks. L% of. When an object is in contact with a surface. The normal force is really a spring force. once the stretching has reached about 0.urng . . but the choice of Paris doesn't make the equations easier to solve. there can be a normal force.(l*rea e a Msie e) / sin 3eo rTutor: for.Wo. For many common surfaces. I can eliminate two of the torques from the equation.2)/sinBeo T . For rigid materials like steel.t AL Ar' L u' Given that a force F applies to a material with an area A. this bending is so small that we don't see it. the total length.
: zr(1. T\rtor: Perhaps you would like to be a little safer than that.07 x 10E m2 Student: That seems like a very small Stretch out your arms to make a big circle.136 \r'rrr\J m The wire stretches 13.105 EXAMPLE The sign in the previous example is to be supported by a steel wire (E : 200 x 10e N/*'. What is the area of that circle? Student: That area is zr times the radius of the wire squared.0 x loe N/*' Tooo x 1oo N/*' Wow! That's more than 10 times the stress needed to break the wire. How does the stress F lA compare to the ultimate strength Su? i T\rtor: Student: F (ffi (4e8 N) . Engineers use a "safety factor. . so you need to do some trigonometry. much less than that. so you can find the stretching AL. 498 N. E. what is the force F? Student: We did that in the last example." which is how much you could increase the force and it still wouldn't break.+ L 3a L.15 mm)' area. The force is the tension in the wire. A. S. and how close will the wire be to its ultimate strength? To find the amount of stretching. or Thtor: Student: in half and A. Student: Ok"y.5 x 104 *)2 7. how much will the wire stretch under load. How big would the wire have to be to avoid breaking? Student: So I need to find the area so that the stress is less than the ultimate strength. really. T\rtor: What is the area? Student: The outside area of the wire is the circumference times the length. . If a 0. What safety factor would you be comfortable with.400 x 106 N/*'). So I want the area of the wire so that the stress is onetenth of the ultimate strength. w€ need to know F. The wire has an area much.g6m cos Bgo T\rtor: The Young's modulus ^B is given. if you were walking underneath the sign? Student: How about a million? No.7. the wire is the hypotenuse and the beam is the adjacent side.07 aL# 10e (498 NX3. and L. so : hvp "dj.6 cm. but we don't know how high above the beam the wire is attached. What is the length of the wire? Student: We could use the Pythagorean theorem.rr2: T\rtor: zr(0. Good.86 m) x 108 *2)(200 x : N/*')  Q. and the area of the circle is less than one square meter. Thtor: The area we need is the "crosssection" area of the wire. Look at the right triangle formed by the wire. (2rr)L. IE+ Ar : T\rtor: Student: (7.. I\rtor: No. Imagine cutting the wire looking at the circle that you exposed.cos 39o 3. Is that a lot? Student: It seems like a lot for a steel wire to stretch.3mmdiameter wire is used. Wouldn't it break? Tlrtor: You can check.
EQUILIBRIUM A.3. .g8 mm zr(400 x 106 N/*') Student: I'd be okay walking under the sign if they used a 4mmdiameter steel wire. J .o.106 CHAPTER 12..IVD ELASTICITY d2r 2 rry z v TfDu to(nnt=T] . . .oo3g8 rrr .
The acceleration of gravity is the force of gravity divided by the mass of the object.35 x 1022 kg.ss of the Moon is 7. What are the forces on the Moon? Student: Gravity from the Earth attracts the Moon. Because the Moon is not at the surface of the Earth. IUS\ and the ma^sses. so just gravity.r92/kg2)(60 (0.Chapter 13 Gravitation Newton said that any two ma^sses pull on each other with a force of .370 weaker than on the surface of the Earth. or 0.3 m)2 ks)(l ks) _ 4 x10_8 N You pull on the book with a force this big.67 x 10u ry.. How long does it take for the Moon to orbit the Earth? T\rtor: Student: Couldn't we just look this up in the appendix? We could. When we move up 3 m (about 10 ft) the gravity force becomes weaker by about one millionth. the force is not mg. not to know one number. We usually ignore this effect because it is small. Because this force is so much smaller than the other forces acting on you or the book.67 x 1011 N.85 x 108 m. The mass of the Earth is 5. a:T 1 GMptanet At the height at which airplanes fly.0001% weaker. Because the force depends on the distance. EXAMPLE The Moon goes around the Earth in a circular path of radius 3. r07 . There is a gravitational force between you and this book ^' of about r is the distance between F_ GM\Mz: 12 (6..98 x I02a kg and the ma. u GMtMz 12 where G is the universal gravitational constant (G : 6. F *aT GM6^netTrtr \. Are there any other forces on the Moon? Student: It is not in contact with anything. Tutor: Good. we don't bother to include it in our freebody diagrams. and the book pulls back on you with the same force. but the goal is to understand gravity. does the acceleration of gravity change as we move up and down? Yes. gravity is about 0.
Student: But the Earth is at the center of the orbit. We don't have an equation for the period of an orbit. all one of them. On the right side. it's equal to the the acceleration. GMgu1tr6M14sen 12 ma^ss times  Mrvroont r Ttrtor: Tutor: Student: r represent? Student: It's The ma^ss of the Moon cancels. On the left side of the equation. Tutor: Now you can use the speed to find the time. GRAVITATION a a I a I I I I I t T\rtor: Newton says that when you add up all of the forces. Student: . Student: The Moon is going in a circle. it's the radius of the Moon's orbit. Use d . Student: The circumference of an orbit equals the speed times the period. Anything orbiting the Earth at the height of the Moon has the same orbit. from center to center. so they're the same.108 CHAPTER 73. T\rtor: Not everything needs a new equation. it's the distance between the Earth and the Moon. so the acceleration is u2 f r inward.ut. What does the variable the height of the Moon above the Earth.
This came from using a constant force of gravity rng. I'll let r be the radius of the orbit.u IGM 4n " GM _ atr. On the right side. we said that the potential energy of gravity was rngh. uStudent: Now nnr' tGM u_rrl * I can repeat the d  ut process like before. it's the distance between the two stars.7 x 1030 kg and the distance between them is 9 x the stars to make an orbit? ma^ss i L 1010 between them. How is it that we use r for both when they aren't always equal? Ttrtor: That's why it's important to know what each variable means. it's the radius of each star's orbit. T\rtor: Student: It's GM M wtvt7 GM. 4. Then the distance between stars is 2r. Now that we know that the force of gravity is not constant. How long does it take for \ . from center to center. The m../ at/ \ t   cor) ' Student: This is just like the last example! GMM 12 _Mt r ? What does the variable r represent? the distance between the two stars. T\rtor: On the left side of the equation. Student: But those aren't equal. tott *)t Earlier.V[ t u=t. t d a 2rr 13 vT (n.109 EXAMPTE A "binary star" consists of two stars of equal mass rotating about the point midway of each star is I. the potential energy is no longer . Student: Ok y.
The Earth rotates a little more than 360o in a solar dry of 24 hours . Leaving the proof to more detailed texts. and the rocket moves with the Earth. we don't have to move the satellite an infinite distance away. and r is the distance that to use conservation of energy. r. but we can do that later. but where do we get Rn and Mn? We look them up in a reference. T\rtor: The distance r is the distance from the rocket to the center of the Earth.6o)lT. we must find out how much work we need to do.25. we use K4+ PEi+W . so that afber it has rotated 360o. Student: So r is just Rn. Not this time. KEt+PEi+W:KEy*PEr The initial kinetic energy is zero. finding this work involves an integral. Student: So the initial velocity is (2rR1cos28. We'll have to use the new formula for the potential energy. Cape Canaveral sits on a circle of radius R6 cos latitude. The Earth rotates 360o in a "sidereal" day of 23 hours and 56 minutes. Remember GMM MtlO mare the two masses. . What matters is the change in the potential energy. the work we must do to raise somethitrg is less than mgh would say. What is the initial potential energy? Student: The satellite is probably high enough that we can't use mgh. then we can still use mgh as an approximation. If the gravity force between the initial and final points is close to constant. Since the force is not constant.m(.6" \ 2 r GM nm . where T .I d. T\rtor: Yes.y . We must add energy to lift something to energy equals zero) so the potential energy of gravity is always negative. To determine the potential energy.KEy * PEt and that the potential energy appears on both sides of the equation. The initial distance is equal to R6coslatitude. EXAMPLE How much energy does it take to lift an 875 kg communications satellite from Cape Canaveral (latitude 28. In many textbooks they are in the inside front or back cover of the book. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: Isn't that zero? 1 ( 2rLncos 28. Student: That's why they gave us the latitude.360o + 360'1365. T\rtor: Almost. The Earth is rotating. between them.6o) into geosynchronous orbit? T\rtor: Student: We want the energy. T\rtor: Student: . For simplicity. GRAVITATION rngh. What is the final potential energy? No. the potential energy of gravity is UPE where G is the same universal gravitational constant . so we'll obviously be doing conservation of energy. the same point on Earth is not facing the Sun. Since the force of gravity weakens as we move further away from the planet.110 CHAPTER 13. +t+t'\'KEv*PEr / rn is the mass of the satellite.(24 ht). We can fudge this. Very astute. This is because the Earth also rotates around the Sun. we choose zero potential energy to be when two masses are an infinite distance from each other. To move somethitrg from the surface of a planet to an infinite distance takes work. not the center of the circle in which it rotates.
Earth also rotates once in24 hours. The result is that the satellite is always above the same point on the Earth. so GMnm Ttr .6 :) T w. It only works over the equator.' t_ f Vr d IM 2trr . Symbols are easier to write than numbers. I don't have r or u. It's in synchro with the geo. T\rtor: Student: Now I can solve for r.u lt  a2 r.ryiGMnm Tbtor: I'm happy Student: r Do we really have to put in all those numbers? to skip it if you are we've already done the physics. but I have t : T. Student: Cool. Good.6o )'.ry+w KErGMnm Tutor: lhtor: What is the final kinetic energy? Student: Can we get the velocity from the equation above? Sure. Look what happened in the second example in this chapter. Let's hold off on that. How far away from Earth is it? Student: This sounds like the first example in the chapter. . Go through the first example and see how close it is.6" :. r: Tbtor: Student: Whew! Now I can put the numbers in.' T\rtor: Student: What is geosynchronous 111 orbit? That's when the satellite orbits the Earth in exactly 24 hours. We have a planet and something is orbiting the planet. Student: Ok"y. I'll substitute u into the last equation.mGMn GMnm 2rRn cos 29. Student: All of that still works. and that's why we want to put a corirmunications satellite there. Thtor: Yes. Student: Okay. The only force is gravity. KE:I*r' t*W 2nRn cos 29. Can we reuse the result? Tbtor: Taking an equation out of an example is a good way to screw up. The final potential energy is PEv  GMnm  GMnm 2nRB cos 28. That must be where the TV satellites go. Remember that everything  else .
GRAVITATIOI{ I . CHAPTER 13.TI2 is in newtons and seconds. so the time ? needs to be in seconds. Student: Ah. T is 24 hours times 60 minutes times 60 seconds. yes .
then the fluid above it pushes down and the fluid beneath it pushes up. We usually ignore this complication. but a. so that their densities do not change. This is equivalent to saying that fluid can't build up anywhere. At high altitude.Chapter L4 Fluids Fluids are liquids and gases. the density of air is less. appsay where p is the density of the fluid. One result of this is that the volume flow rate Rv is a constant as the fluid moves. Air at ground level has a pressure of The pressure in a fluid increases so the change in pressure is with depth. Y A . F A fluid exerts its pressure in every direction. The air exerts a buoyant force on you that is equal to your volume times the density of air times g.mfg where rn1 is the mass of fluid displaced. and by being in air.V TTI MA. This is because the lower fluid has to hold the upper fluid up. We treat fluids as being incompressible.SS volume When something is in the fluid. The fluid beneath it has a greater pressure and exerts a greater force.Au: corlstant What the constant is we can't say now. PA 15 pounds per square inch. or ma^ss of the fluid that would be where the object is if the object wasn't there. and airplanes need to be pressurized so the occupants can breathe. so that the air doesn't push you over (wind pushing you over is different pressures on your two sides).s a fluid moves the volume flow rate will stay the same. Fluids exert forces and have energy. and force. 113 . The difference in the forces is the buoyancy force or buoyant force FB . When the pressure of air increa. so that we can use fluids. because the calculations would be difficult and we can get most of the important information without it. Fluids exert a pressure. We want to know where and how much. often its density does as well. The same pressure. just a"s we ignored air resistance.ses. Rv . this pressure is exerted on every square inch of you. is exerted on each side of you.
FLUIDS As a fluid moves. Yes. So the buoyant force is equal to the weight. Student: So it's the mass of water that would fit in the volume of the submarine. What is the weight of the submarine? Student: The weight is mg. so that we can calculate one missing piece.[. What does that mean? Interesting. Come at the buoyant force from the other direction. T\rtor: An interesting conclusion. If the total force wa"s upward. Find the volume of the submarine and multiply by the density of water to find the mass of the fluid.0 x 105 N/*' all at 20"C and 1 atm EXAMPTE A submarine is approximately a cylinder 10 m in diameter and 88 m long. What's my? The mass of the fluid that isn't there because the submarine is there. What is the total force on the submarine? Student: It doesn't s&y.oouJu*J. n'Lg : *tg planet with a different gravity. like conservation of energy. so it must be zero. the force must be zero. but for two points in the same fluid. Something is wrong. but it's not what I meant.II4 CHAPTER 14. Student: g cancels. in an ocean on a different have to take on the same amount of water.9 x t06 kg Student: That's the mass of the fluid displaced. and it has to be equal to the ma. and it's also equal to Fg :'trlf g. with a ma^ss of 6. The buoyant force T\rtor: That's true. Some Useful Numbers I. T\rtor: Yes. the constant is the same. its pressure changes because of its motion. or Student: rrrtor: ^.ss of the submarine. It mI: pV : prr2L  (998 isn't. we can't say what the constant is. This is Bernoulli's equatior.2L kg/*t density of air density of water 998 kg/*t 9I7 kg/*t density of ice pressure at sea level 1. T\rtor: Student: kg/t)"(5 *)2(88 m) :6. is Fe "fil. Student: And if it was downward then it would accelerate down. How much water (ir *3) must the submarine take on as ballast so that it keeps a constant depth while submerged? This looks complicated. would T\rtor: It means that the same submarine. P+ ior'* 1 PgY  a constant Again.0 x 106 kg.^yr"" : mf g. Not Tutor: really. then the submarine would accelerate up. . what is the buoya "''"):5'e x 107 N Student: T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Good. To keep a constant depth.
We can't just multiply the volume by the density. so the submarine would normally float to the surface. the submarine takes on water in ballast tanks. because it applies to the example and not necessarily to any other situation. increasing the mass of the submarine.115 T\rtor: The buoyancy force on the submarine is greater than its weight. Student: The buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. rflwater . No. pT vm: p 9x105kg 998 kg/t  900 m3 EXAMPLE A 6 cm cube of wood with density 650 ke/*t is placed into a pail of oil and water. How do you know? Student: It was last time. Ibtor: AII problems are different. we have to do that separately for the oil and water. Tutor: Much better. That's why it is dangerous to take any equation out of an example. That's the difference in the two masses.mf  ?7}sub  6. Could the oil by itself hold up the wood . How much of the wood cube sticks out above the oil? The buoyancy force is equal to the weight. Student: The question was to find the volume of the water. To stay submerged under water. The connection between volume and mass is density. But we reuse techrriques. The forces are the buclyancy force and the weight. so the total force on it is zero. Student: The wood cube is not accelerating. so they have to cancel.9 x 106 kg  6.0 x 106 kg  9 x 105 kg T\rtor: Student: That's a lot of water. they must be equal. Tutor: Student: Fsmfg T\rtor: cube? Student: But the densities of oil and water are different. The lcmthick layer of oil has a density of 850 kg/*t. Student: So I need to find out how much they increase the mass by taking on water.
T\rtor: I'll let you decide. . The water pushes up that much harder than the air pushes down. Student: Okry.ou rn)(0. then we keep more digits.. If there was 1 cm of oil and nothing else. s. but the gauge pressure is zero. The absolute pressure of the air at the surface is 1. Student: Now that I have the mass of the water.06 )(0. Student: I'll let r be the amount of the cube in the water.: N. T\rtor: Student: Tflwater . Gauge pressure is the difference between the pressure and atmospheric pressure.4 g)  (30. The wood cube extends down into the water.oo m)(0. using pressure.8 g Is there a reason for keeping more significant figures than usual? When we subtract two numbers.6 s  pv  (sro kg/t) (to. FLUIDS The most oil that could be displaced would be 6 cm by 6 cm by rrloit 1 Student: cm. because gauges can record only the difference.01 *)) m)) Student: The mass of the block is rest on the bottom. the wood would 3#.::T:l$::lT]. The air is above the oil because the density of air is less than the density of oil.3.06 m)(")) r . it easier? Student: A force equal to the weight of the cube.2 N/m2 is the increase in pressure due to the liquid. F 1. we often lose significant figures.0306 rI .i:f:::1i:j::::::::"0 06 . If we think we might subtract later. we get the pressure at the bottom of the wood cube.0 x 105 N/'.94 cm. So if we can find the pressure.06 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The height of wood sticking out is 6 cm . Tutor: Correct. The weight is 1376 N student: Divide by the area.*. is less than the pressure of the air.uden.8 s  (ooa r<g/*') (to.6 g)  109. The air would push it down.pV 10e. Student: Where does the oil come into this? T\rtor: It causes a pressure difference between the top and bottom of the oil.116 CHAPTER 14. Student: Okay.3.0.376 N Pi: ffi :382'2N/m2 T\rtor: A newton Ttrtor: Student: But this pressure per meter squared (N/') ir sometimes called a pascal.140 4 g rrlwater: Trlwood  Trloir  (140.1 cm . T\rtor: And that volume depends on how much of the wood cube is submerged. . Your 382. Student: How do you know that the oil is on top? T\rtor: Because it has a lower density. Is  I.he T\rtor: Correct.06 crr There's another way to do the problem. The mass of that much oil is 30. The pressure change due to . which just balances the weight of the wood cube.. What is the force that the liquid has to exert on the wood cube? T\rtor: And if we divide that force by the area of the bottom of the wood Student: . So the difference must be the mass of the water displaced. then we can determine the depth at which that pressure occurs. You are confusing absolute pressure and gauge pressure. I can find the volume.
21 kg/m3)(9. The pressure at the top of the wood is m) : 0. or something close to that. T\rtor: Student: But I need a pressure of 382.23 N/*' T\rtor: We should have subtracted that.pg Ay. Student: So I need a pressure change from water of ap. The rest of the increase must be due to the water. But the density of air is so much lower than the density of water or oil that we typically ignore it. so the error we made by ignoring it wa^s p .0306 rI . from the 382.0I94 N/*' pressure of Toercor:ryx 0oo%)Hx true Student: I can live with that.8 ^ls2X") fi :0.2 N/m2.(998 t g/*t)(9. T\rtor: Student: As you would say.ps av 382.2 water. Since you're using gauge pressure. Okay..TL7 the oil is Ap  ps Ay  (850 t g/t)(9. using gauge pressure.8 Student: So if I take the pressure at the surface to be zero.83. A gauge pressure can be negative.01 *) : 83. the pressure at the top of the wood is negative.3 N/m2? ^ls2)(0. so it's at a lower pressure.(I.3 N/*' . let's check. then the pressure at the bottom of the oil is 83. goo%) . which means a lower pressure than atmospheric pressure.oilTo . pressure be negative? Student: It's the same thing. Student: But the top of the wood cube is above the surface of the oil.2 N/*' .06 cm Thtor: As it should be.o. Can Tntor: An absolute pressure cannot be negative.3 N/m2 Tutor: Yes.3.8 ^ls2)(0.
FLUIDS EXAMPLE One way to create ttdownforce" on a race car is with a narrowing channel on the underside. the air in area 1 is going the same speed as the air on the top.118 CHAPTER 74.6 m high.21 kgl^t)(9. T\rtor: tue. Pretend that the car is stationary and the air is moving across it at 90 mls. so p doesn't change. ^1"2X0.4 m T\rtor: Downforce is created when the pressure under the car is less than the pressure above it.1r) Pt + . What is the force on the top of the car? Student: The force is Ft : PtA What's the pressure in area 1 of the bottom? The bottom is lower than the top. h * irr? * psw : T\rtor: Student: 1. So area 2 is the same as area 1. pt:pt* pg Ay:pt + (1. except the air is moving faster? . So we're using Bernoulli's equation. Tutor: Student: h* T\rtor: 1r) . Pressure also changes as the speed of the fluid changes. T\rtor: Also.6 *) :pt+7 N/*' Now do area 2. What about the p's? We treat the air as an incompressible fluid. Student: How can the pressure be less below the car than above it? Pressure increases as you go down. h*PqUt:Pt*Pga. Calculate the downforce. so the pressure is greater.pu? * psyt The speeds are the same. 1.PUf * PgAt  a constant Student: What is the constant? The same as it was on top.8 T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Yes. whatever that was. but in the last example we saw that the change in air is fairly small. Assume that the car is traveling at 90 m/s and is 0. The net force from pressure is downward. Student: And speed changes the pressure.
3) kg pz: pt pz *7 N/m2 +iO.ff315m/s T\rtor: Student: The air in the channel is moving at 315 m/s.Mwzuz (I. the coaster accelerated down. The area in that equation is the crosssectional area.(7 N/*.8 *2) F .4 x 104 N/*' of the race car. The height of the crosssectional area is into the page.21 : pt l^t) ((90 ^lr)' pt (315 m/s)2) *7 N/m'2 55131 N/m 2  551 24 N lm2 I\rtor: Student: That's a big change. Student: So we can't see it. more than the weight Student: Student: Is that a lot? . Now you can find p2. Tutor: It's about 9000 pounds. Student: So the area of area 1 times the speed is the same as the area of volume 2 times the speed there.s what was needed to go in a circle. T\rtor: Careful about what you mean by area. . This isn't the same as a roller coaster doing a loop. * etsst pz 1.r : (p.4 m)(90 m/s) wtut u2:.119 How much faster? Use the volumerate equatioD..2 2) . So a race car could drive upside down? TUtor: Some of them.(0.(prx0. so it's the same ffi inches lower.4 m)(3 m) .55124 N/*'. +7 N/*'. Student: pr. Student: So now I'm ready to find the downforce.(pr)(4.@. Yes.)(3. but only as long a^s they were driving fast. T\rtor: Student: Student: So Mrtr. but the acceleration wa.)(0.8 ttt2) F . h * i*? t pssr: Pz + .4 *2) . . There. What's the pressure ps? Thtor: There is air there.pu'z.o @? . but would have to get going fast before turning upside down.(pr)(1. Here. which is the width times the height.4 mX2 m)) . it's about half of atmospheric pressure. Really it's a couple of F . so the pressure is maybe 1 kg/m3 higher. Ttrtor: Assume it's the same along the whole length of the car.@.4 m)(3 m) ..X3. the race car could drive in a straight line upside down.4 m2) + (55124 N/*r)(0.1. +z N/m') + f.4.4 m)(2 m) F . and it's also moving at 90 m/s.(pt) ((1. that the rate of flow is the same.
When the box is to the left of the equilibrium point the force is toward the right. We do this using the standard method for solving all differential equations: guess.E. The acceleration is the change in the velocity.Chapter 15 Oscillations Imagine a box attached to a spring and sliding on a frictionless horizontal surface. or a(t) is o(t)  (k l*)r(t).. which is the change in the displacement from equilibrium. but that doesn't mean that the box stops . or a(t) .so we find that the acceleration r20 . and we call this the equilibrium point. so let's try a sine or cosine function. and vice versa. but the angular frequency c. where the acceleration is minus a constant times the displacement.side the spring slows it. We want something that oscillates back and forth like a sine wave. Once the box reaches the right then pulls it back to the left. we can find the velocity and acceleration as well. u. stops it. The only horizontal force is the spring. Once we know the displacement as a function of time. trrn and Q can be anything. Anything that behaves in this fashion. Fkr:TrLa When the spring is neither stretched nor compressed the force is zero. This process continues until the cows come home.nmc^r sin (rt + il. and $ are constants. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity. If the box starts on the left then it accelerates to the right. velocity). and they add to zero since there is no vertical acceleration. is called a simple harmonic oscillator. The vertical forces are the weight and the normal force. At the acceleration is zero (not the equilibrium the force is zero. It coasts through equilibrium. The velocity is the derivative of the displacement. the biggest that rt gets is nrnt and it is called the amplitude. u . When we do this we find that the solution is r(t) : nrrrcos (wt + 0) where A.TrL#" dt2* . trTLw2 cos (rt + O).l must be equal to k m' Since the biggest that cosine gets is 1.i TTL &k To find out how the box behaves we need to solve this differential equation. It gains speed until it reaches equilibrium. kr . We could also use sine instead of cosine. Earlier we said that &s it had to be.
$ cm. Student: The displacement is zero at t . Instead. so the displacement goes from as high as *rrn to as low ffi frm.T2T The motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is char acterized by its frequency.15 ms. T\rtor: The period is the time before the motion repeats. Student: Then frrn :5 cm.cos (rt + il. and S? Student: Oh. When the oscillator is at manimum displacement. It says so above. because the motion repeats after 40. The maximum speed does not occur at the same time as the maximum displacement. or 10 cm? Tlrtor: Cosine goes from *1 to 1. the potential energy is zero and all of its energy is kinetic energy. Is r* equal to 4 because the displacement at t . The frequency is 40. ELrr"r. the frequency .n is the biggest that the displacement ever gets. and again at t: 35 ms. It is often useful to convert between the angular frequency cd (rad/s). Write an equation for the displacement of the mass as a function of time. Or is it 5 cm. amplitude. When the oscillator is at equilibrium. Should the period be 20 ms? T\rtor: The displacement is the same but the velocity is not in the same direction. The displacement is not always biggest at t: O. the maximum speed occurs when the displacement is zero. " 2"l U* : u1 I r frrn Also. so that isn't " repeating Tntor: . that's what they mean. and phase constant 0. while the maximum displacement of an oscillator is t the macimum speed is frrrrU This comes from the equation for the velocity. so the velocity can only be as large as frrnu).f (cycles l").. and the period (r). u.0 is 4? Tlrtor2 n. and all of its energy is potential energy.40 ms.imu2 EXAMPTE A 56 g mass attached to a spring oscillates a"s shown. a"s the oscillator coasts through equilibrium. But what are the values for ror. it is momentarily stationary. where the greatest that sine can be is 1. So the period T . 4A Student: 50 t(ms) The equation is n(t) : nnt. Student: So r.
. But what are the values for ro. The ma. while the maximum displacement of an oscillator is firnt the mucimum speed is : This comes from the equation for the velocity. so the velocity can only be a"s large ffi fi7nu). The displacement is not always biggest at t:0. so the displacement goes from as high as *r* to as low as nrn.0 is 4? Tlrtors frm is the biggest that the displacement ever gets.5 cm. and again at t: 35 ms. E _ Lrr". u. the potential energy is zero and all of its energy is kinetic energy. " zitr Uvn u1 + T frrr. that's what they mean. so that isn't " repeating Tutor: Student: . I\rtor: The period is the time before the motion repeats. and all of its energy is potential energy. 4/J50 f (ms) The equation is r(t) . It says so above. When the oscillator is at equilibrium. *. Student: Then frrn :5 cm. When the oscillator is at mucimum displacement. (rad/s). Should the period be 20 ms? T\rtor: The displacement is the same but the velocity is not in the same direction.40 ms.LzL The motion of a simple harmonic oscillator is char acterlzed by its frequency. the maximum speed occurs when the displacement is zero) as the oscillator coasts through equilibrium. or 10 cm? T\rtor: Cosine goes from *1 to 1. it is momentarily stationary. Is rn. because the motion repeats after 40.U Also. equal to 4 because the displacement at t .15 ms. Student: The displacement is zero at t .. the frequency f (cycles l"). Or is it 5 cm.:rimum speed does not occur at the same time as the maximum displacement. So the period T .nmcos (rt + il. and the period (r). amplitude. Instead. Write an equation for the displacement of the mass as a function of time. and phase constant 0. and Q? Student: Oh. Student: So rrr. It is often useful to convert between the angular frequency c{. The frequency is 40. where the greatest that sine can be is 1.mu2 EXAMPTE A 56 g ma^ss attached to a spring oscillates a"s shown.
The phase at t . but the problem is that there are two angles for which cos 0 . Something must be wrong. When you are done with your equation.(5*m) cos (tttt : /sec)(o) + d) 0.5 ms? Y'es.: o.':' . The phase is wt + 0.8 37" 0. (tttt /sec)(5 ms) * d) 0 o  (157 lsec)(0.005 s) : 0. Tntor: You need to not have a value for t. OSCLLATIOIVS the motion. If your equation did not have t in it.8 O : : cos (. zero? T\rtor: T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: One.64 rad ? Tlrtor: You could.8." The displacement at t .0. That is.andrAcil./)  arccos0. Here's another: what is the cosine of.0 and t . Student: Flom the period I can find the angular frequency u.::. u^L 2nrT 21 2r T\rtor + student: so the equation is r(t): (.78 T\rtor: It's hard to read a graph exactly. or the whole thing that we take the sine or cosine of. then it would be a constant displacement. not changing with time. Student: And the final equation is r(t)  (b cm) cos (ttsz lsec)t . Student: We didn't get the same value for Q. or everything inside the parentheses.do r determine r? z t is an independent variable. or 8o out of 360".0. What's the difference between phase and phase constant? The phase constant is d. and you can use your equation to tell me what the displacement is.llfl.0. but the period is not 10 ms either. but the velocity is in opposite directions. Ary equation for a function includes at least one independent variable. 4effi. Student: So the phase is zero at t . Student: So I don't need a value for f. T\rtor: That's the difference between the two angles. I can come along and pick any time t..r22 CHAPTER 15.14 out of 2tr. where the oscillator is at t . Student: Theoscillatoris at4whent0. Icansett0inmyequation. The difference is about 0. You need to be sure to get the correct one..o tt) . What does Q do? T\rtor: The phase constant O determines the starting point. Student: But I do need a value for /. The displacement is a function of the time..andsolvefor@.10 ms is the same as at t . Student: What's the difference? T\rtor: What's the difference between t . is zero) the displacement is a positive maximum. or 2To of a cycle. Student: So I have to find both values for @ and put them in the velocity equation to see which gives a positive result? I\rtor: That is one way to do it.10 ms? Student: The displacement is the same. So when the phase.0 is equal to the phase constant.
*.'") ) (0 ) 2 * )2+ ( 0. (!rr"a. I need to pick the other time to be when the mass has the T\rtor: Student: maximum speed.*d) + w : (r (50 N/*)(0. the total of the weight and spring force is kr. f and cl aren't interchangeable. Now I'll E use energy as you suggest. Ttrtor: Good.a ls eu r2n t I4. Why didn't it work in the last example? T\rtor: Since the energy typically doesn't depend on the time.4 ls 2n  2. we can't use energy to find the time. the displacement of the mass is r(0) :0. T\rtor: Student: (r. Find the frequetrcy. but in comparing the energy at two times or places. T\rtor: Yes. 50 N/m  1a. then the spring stretches until it balances the weight at the equilibrium point. If the motion is vertical. and acceleration one period later.:fr. when it works. and we can do all of the same stuff as long as we mea^sure r from the equilibrium point.le "z .?) Is the work I.s2 J Okay. When is that? Student: When it coasts through equilibrium. We're not really interested in what the energy is. Student: So I can use energy to find the maximum speed.. what do I do with it? Using the energy meant using Et.*W .z .19 m and the velocity is u(0) ...J l . I have the energy.3 Hz Student: If hertz is really just one over seconds. so we often use Hz as a reminder that we're using / rather than kr. Student: I'll start with the frequency. even though neither radians nor cycles is a proper unitr so that both are really one over seconds. 'ur"' *. Student: It must work here or you wouldn't suggest it.*. .123 EXAMPTE A 0. Student: So I need to come up with an equation for the displacement as a function of time. Student: So if I want t e maximum speed..0 .2. At t : 0.(r"2. T\rtor: You could do that.4.1. so it's the same as before. Energy is usually an easier way. and find the first and second derivatives. then why can't we write the angular frequency in Hz? T\rtor: Radians per second and cycles per second are not the same. Student: So I don't need the potential energy of gravity. even if the weight is moving vertically. But there are easier ways.7 equal to zero? Are there any other forces acting? Student: The weight? Ttrtor: If the motion is horizontal.1e ) ' +1.2a kg)(r.Ey.2akg)( .: : Tot *.^d) *w .rls) 2 . Student: Ok y.)' . T\rtor: Yes. . + (0.mn2 : Irro N/)(0. mucimum speed.1 m/s. then the weight doesn't do any work. As the mass moves from there. and radians per second is one over seconds.24kg mass is attached to a spring with spring constant 50 N/.
damping. what should it be? Student: The displacement is positive. dtr?. it is possible to show that & .24 kg)  39. could you find the acceleration? Student: I have the mass. the force of the spring is ler. T\rtor: True. What would you have to know to find the acceleration? Student: The maximum acceleration is rrnwz. The farther the spring is stretched. then the displacement as a function of time is If we r(t) : frrn"bt/2rn cos (r't + O) . h is the distance between the center of mass and the pivot point.. the oscillator repeats its motion. could you find the acceleration one period Student: Student: Is it positive or negative? T\rtor: later? one period. include this effect. T\rtor: TYue. T\rtor: Not necessarily.le m) (0. It is important. Correct. and resonance. decreasing the amplitude over time.. FYiction or air resistance in an oscillator will do negative work. so But if you knew the force.124 unL CHAPTER 15.wait the appropriate time to panic). where d is the angular displacement. so yes. w F kr mm (50 N/*)(0. Where does maximum acceleration occur? Student: At maximum displacement. The angular frequency is mgh I for a simple pendulum (a point mass on the end of a massless string) of length .. rnghsin0 . So if we restrict the pendulum to small angles (about 15" or less). If we care about the direction of the acceleration. the greater the force and the greater the acceleration. T\rtor: Is the displacement a maximum at t: 0? Tutor: Student: It would be the same.. and / is the moment of inertia of the pendulum. because it's a magnitude. then it is approximately the same equation with the same solutions. then 0(in radians) = sind = tan? when 0 is small This approximation is the same as using the first term of the Taylor series (don't panic yet for . Can a speed be negative? No. For a pendulum. Ah. We have three more topics is this chapter: the pendulum.I ..6 ^lsz Student: Is the negative important? When we did springs before. so the acceleration should be negative. What is the acceleration after one period? Student: Now I have to find an equation for the oscillator. If the angle 0 is small.9 m/s Tutor: It's a speed. OSCLLATIOIVS  4. wouldn't it? After T\rtor: Student: No. If you knew the acceleration at t . This is not quite the same equation that we had before.0. the minus sign was a reminder that the force was in the opposite direction as the displacement r.
regard Student: The amplitude rm cancels. AIso. . He chooses the ma. fractior e*. it cancels. but you can solve for the combination bl*. because less of the initial amplitude. What does the information about 73 minutes tell you? That 1 n. Trrtor: The original amplitude cancels. When he uses the clock. How much of the original amplitude will remain after 24 hours? How much does the damping change the rate of the clock? T\rtor: Student: Student: We need to determine the damping constant b. Do the units always have to cancel? We can take the exponent or log only of a number. so b will be positive. the later amplitude is 5/6 of the initial amplitude. The cosine part is the oscillation. Is that enough? b(73 min) Tutor: It's enough to answer the first part of the question. q 6  ob(rs min) /zrn T\rtor: Student: I still can't Student: solve for b. Remember .: n*ab(zs min)/2'ncos (w'(zlmin) + O) ? 6em T\rtor: A good start.firnah(rs minl lzrn L T\rtor: Much better. rather than what is the amplitude remaining. It is not clear that the oscillation is at mrucimum displacement at t : 73 min.1za hr. Student: Okay. : e#ffi12a hrl T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: to get your units straight. /q\ ln'\6/ Tbtor: 2* Are you bothered by the minus sign? Will b be negative? Student: No. How do we find b? We may not need to. the amplitude decreased by a sixth. so we have to get rid of units. still cancel? Tutor: Because the question is what fraction of the original amplitude remains. so fivesixths is left..r25 where the frequency is b2 4m2 EXAMPLE An experimenter tries to build a clock from a ma"ss on a spring. but we need to fix some things.ss and spring constant so that the period will be one second.Z* I\rtor: Student: b t"(8) (73 min) You can use this to find the amplitude afber 24 hours. Does r. and the other stuff is the amplitude. not to a sixth. he notices that damping reduces the amplitude by onesixth in 73 minutes.o. anyway. No. because the log of a number less than one is negative. 5 6 rm .
L26
Student:
Okay. 24 hours is (24 hr)(60 min/hr)
CHAPTER 15. OSCLLATIONS
:
L440 min.
fractiot}:"(,.8)t#:g(o.182)(19.7):0.0274or2.74To
there an ea,sier way? Well, we could say that 1440173  I9.7 73 minute periods pffis, and during each one the amplitude is decreased by factor of (516), so that afrber 24 hours the amplitude is
Tlrtor:
Student: Isn't
"
/=\
19.7
(;)
T\rtor:
Student:
But the way we did it is more general. Now we can find the real frequency.
(r)' :
:0
0274
TTL
kb2_:
4m2
Student:
The period is 1 second,
so
2r u):;_2r
ls
T\rtor:
And we know the combination
bf 2m.
Student:
So
Tutor:
Excellent.
Student: And we don't even need to know b or k or rn. Cool. Tutor: And what is it equal to? Student: 6.28f s.
T\rtor: T\rtor:
Well, we knew that. The change in the period is really small, but it's that difference that we care about. Take your number and subtract 2r to find the difference.
Student:
Zero.
But you know it's not zero. The equation is clearly not equal to 2r. Student: But it's really close. T\rtor: Yes it is. To find the difference, we need to use a Taylor series. Student: What! We did those in calculus class. I hated them. Thtor: As do many calculus students, because in calculus class they make you derive them. In physics, we look them up in a reference book.
\ffiT\rtor:
Student: And I just look this up?
Yes.
1
.in !"' * *"3 +...
outside the square root.
for
r <<
Student: But I don't have I + r. T\rtor: Make it 1 + r by taking the 2r
r27
T\rtor:
The righthand part is much smaller than one, so it becomes r.
,.,,
x
(2tr t
s)
(t 
; ( rffir)')
You included only the first two terms. Yes. That's the other reason that physicists and engineers like Taylor series. We only include the first nontrivial term.
Tbtor:
Student: Student:
Tutor:
The 1 is "trivial?" The 1 says that the real frequency
c.,r'
is very nearly the same as
u.
The second term is the difference
between them.
u' 
rt)
= Ir(rftflor)':22x1011
And that is why your calculator had trouble telling the difference between 2r and 2r minus that. The difference shows up in the twelfth significant digit. Student: So why do we care? T\rtor: The difference tells us how much the damping has changed the frequency. There are about r x 107 seconds in a year, and if we multiply by the error, we find that the damping causes the clock to lose 0.7
milliseconds per year.
T\rtor:
Student: That
looks small.
T\rtor:
Student: That's not much.
No, but then the damping is very weak.
The la;st topic in this chapter is resonance. The calculations for resonance are typically saved for a differential equations or more advanced physics class. The behavior of resonance is worth knowing now.
It
is possible to apply an oscillating force to an oscillator. That is, as it oscillates, we apply another force * Qa), called a driving force. We can do this without matching our frequenc! u4 to the natural frequency of the oscillator c.r m. Fa cos (rot
When this happens, the oscillator can oscillate at two frequencies, the natural frequency c.r and the driving frequency u)6. Damping will cause the natural frequency to disappear (sometimes quicker than others), but the driving force will cause the oscillator to continue to oscillate at the driving frequency. The result is that
any driven oscillator will oscillate at the driving frequency rather than the natural frequency. The closer these two frequencies are to each other, the greater the amplitude of the oscillation. When the
two frequencies are equal, the oscillation amplitude is the greatest and we call this resonance. For example, when you hear sound, your ear vibrates at the frequency at which the sound pushes on it, rather than the natural frequency of your ear. If this was not true, then any sound would cause your ear to vibrate at the same frequency, and you could only hear one frequency you could tell whether there was sound or not, but that is all.
Chapter
16
Waves I
Imagine a group of oscillators, connected one after the other. We take the one on the near end and shake it. It puts a force on the next one, which drives the next one, and so on. Remember that driven oscillators oscillate at the driving frequency. So the oscillation that we start will be passed down the line at the same
frequency.
The individual oscillators move up and down, but do not travel along the line of oscillators. Each oscillator stays in its place and vibrates. Similarly, when fans in a stadium do the "wave," each fan moves up and down as the wave passes, but the fans don't move to the next seat. What does not happen is that one section of fans stands up and then all of the fans scootch around the stadium. The waae that moves is the point at which the displacement is a maximum. That is, an oscillator along the wave moves up and down, and we find one that is up; an instant later it is no longer up but moving down. The next one is now up. An instant point that is at maximum displacement after that, the next one is up. This is the motion of the wave  the moves, and we call this the movement of the wave.
An important question then is how fast does the wave move. This is different from asking how fast do the individual oscillators move (still nrn  wrrn). An important principle of waves is that all waves travel through a medium at the same speed regardless of the frequency or amplitude of the wave. (A "medium" is whatever waves travel through.) Shaking our end of the train of oscillators will not cause the wave to move down the line any faster.
For any medium,
it is possible to derive a "wave
equation" of the form
ffiu(r,t):
: :
&
1&
ftWY@,t) t.
The solution to
where u is a constant, and g is the displacement of the medium at a spot r and at time this equation is a wave that travels with speed u. Solutions come in two forms:
U(r,t)
y*sin(k*
Iwt
+ do)
A@,t)
y,rsin(k")
cos(c^rt)
The first form is a traveling wave and the second form be cosines and the cosines could be sines.)
is a standing wave.
(Like oscillators, the sines could
In a traveling wave, the
phase 0 is the entire contents inside the parentheses (Qo is the phase constant). When the phase is n f 2, 5r f 2, or 91 12, then the sine is 1 and the displacement is a maximum. The distance along r between successive maxima (from 0  T12to Q 5112) is a wavelength,\. 128
r2g
As time increases, the phase increases or decreases, depending on the sign of the *wt term. To follow a maximur: we need to keep the phase the same, so r must decrease or increase. The ratio of k and u determines how much r must change as t increases, and thus the speed of the wave.
u_Ur_f\_+
The second form u  /,\ is the most commonly used, and can be understood as: the speed of the wave is the rate at which oscillations occur / times the distance moved per oscillation ). The wavenumber k performs the same task for distance that the angular velocity u does for time. If the time increases by one period T, then there is one oscillation and the phase changes by 2n. u is then the radians per second by which the phase changes. If the position tr increases by one wavelength ,\, then there is one oscillation and the phase changes by 2n. k is then the radians per meter by which the phase changes.
TK_T
i:il fl#r"f
#"T""1?#:[?
2n
2r
The signs in the phase determine the direction of the wave. If the signs of kr and wt are the same, then as time increases, r must decrease to keep the phase constant, and the wave moves in the r direction. If the then as time increa"ses, r must increase to keep the phase constant, and the
Remember that the speed of the wave depends on the medium. If we increase the frequency at which we shake the end of the medium, even though u  f the speed of the wave does not increase. Instead the ^ mea"sure or calculate the speed of waves. One common wavelensh decreases. For any given medium we could medium is a tightly stretched string, for which the speed is
Ustring :
\p
lL
T
for the period of the
Here r is the tension in the string, and we use r instead of ? because we are using oscillation. p is the mass density, or mass per length of the string (*u  mlL).
EXAMPLE
The figure shows a "picture" of a wave traveling along a steel wire at time t  2 s. The wave travels at 52 m/s to the right and the tension in the wire is 60 newtons. Find the wavelength and frequency of the wave, the mass density of the wire, and write an equation for the wave.
.A, t1 F{ L.
qt 1
Xo
_9
h
U
4
6
10 20 30
40
50
60
70
80
r (cm)
130
CHAPTER 16. WAVES
 I
T\rtor: We could. r(A,t) rrrsin(ky  c't) is a wave moving in the *A directior, with the oscillations happening in the r direction. Student: Ok y. The amplitude yn, is 5 cil, because that's the greatest that the displacement gets from
zeto.
This picture looks a lot like the one from the last chapter. Yes, but the axes have changed. r is no longer the displacement, but the position along the wire, and y is the displacement. Student: Why couldn't we use r for the displacement?
Tutor:
Student:
There are peaks at r  5 cm and r  45 cm so the wavelength ,\ is 40 cm. What is the velocity of the wave? Student: That's the u  /,\ one, rather than the nrn, : ufrrn, right? T\rtor: Correct . 'urn : uArn is the maximum speed of each piece of the medium. Imagine tying a ribbon to part of the wire. Then ?)nt. : uUrn is the fastest that the ribbon moves up and down. Student: And it's yn rather than rrn because the motion of the ribbon is in the y direction.
T\rtor:
Correct. Can you identify the wavelength?
T\rtor:
Student:
T\rtor:
Yes.
Student: But I want the wave speed u  f
^.
Lvvr f^ > rf ?Y,^hloocm130/s .tr 40cm 1m
Tutor:
Good.
Student:
Now
I can use ustrins: ,ft to find
the mass density p.
60 N
r usrrio ins:
T u) ) a tl A
^
lL
u,
Student: Now I need to write the equation for the wave. It should look like a@,t): Arnsin(kr tut+do). IknowtheamplitudeUrn:5cm.ThewaVenumberk+:ffi15.7lm.RadianSareavirtualunit, not a real unit, and I can write k  I5.7 rad/m. T\rtor: I don't think I've heard the phrase "virtual unit" before, but it fits. Student: Icangettheangularvelocityc..'fromthefrequency f,a2rf 2r(130 lr)8LT ls. y(r,t) :
(5 cm) sin [(r5.7
l^)r I
(817 l")t + do]
Student: The r and t are the independent variables, and don't have specific values. T\rtor: All very good. All that's left is to choose between * and r and to determine @s. Student: If the signs of kr and wt are opposite, then the wave moves in the *r direction, so they must be opposite. Does that mean I could write (k*  ut) or (k* * wt)? T\rtor: That's what it means. You might get different values of Qo depending on which you choose. Student: I choose (kr  ,.,t).
a@,t)

(5 cm) sin [(15.7
l^),  (8r7 ls)t + Qol
Now I look at the peak at r  5 cr, and that corresponds to zero phase, like in the last chapter. Not so fast. You have the right idea, but we're using sine instead of cosine. Student: Why did we change? T\rtor: We use sine here for the same reason that we used cosine with oscillators it improves the chances  is zero. Because we're that the phase constant is zero. But that doesn't mean that the phase constant here using sine, a maximum occurs when the phase is r f 2 rather than at zero. Student: Soat r Scmand t 2sthephase isrl2? T\rtor: Yes, or 5112, or 9112, or so on. It doesn't matter which you use. Student: Then I'll use r 12.
Tutor:
Student:
[(1b.T lrr4(0.05 m)
 (812 liQ s) + dol  ;
131
T\rtor:
There's a quicker way to an answer.
a@,t)
:
(b cm)
ri"
[(
rs.T
l^)@ 
0.0b m)
 (812 lil]p  2 *t/ + 1l 2J
T\rtor: It's clear that if r T\rtor:
As we move away from r  5 cm, the phase changes by L5.7 rad/m, the wavenumber. And as time changes, the phase changes by 817 rad/s, the angular velocity. Student: Yes, those must both be true, and the signs for r and t are opposite, so the direction is correct.
Student: It seems simple, I guess. How do you know that it works? 5 cm and f  2 s the phase isrf2, yes? Student: Sure, because the first two terms of the phase are zero.
waves
If you take two solutions to the wave equation and add them, you get another solution. This is how we get that are not shaped like sine or cosine, by adding many sine or cosine waves together. All of the waves
travel the same speed because they are traveling in the same medium.
There are three important cases of adding waves that appear many times, and are worth learning about:
o two (or more) waves traveling the same direction, identical except perhaps for a phase difference,
o two waves traveling the same direction, identical except for
a slight difference in frequency, and
o two waves, identical except that they travel in opposite directions.
When two identical waves travel the same direction, they add together to form a wave that is twice as big, having twice the amplitude. When the waves are exactly "out of phas€," or one is half a wavelength behind the other, they are exact opposites and they add to zero. We call these constructive interference and destructive interference, respectively. If they are somewhere in between, then using a trig identity
st' (4\ ino*sin p 2sin (Zn 2 \ )cos\.
sr sin (k*
so they add
'
/
sin

ut +
il * a,nsin(kr 
ut)

2cos
(;t)
yn
(r"  wt . Lf)
to form a new wave, identical to the first two, but with an amplitude of 2 cos (+0) times the original amplitudes. Sure enough, for 4,  0 this is 2 and for Q  n this is 0.
When two waves have slightly different frequencies,
sin
a * sin p
2
sin
ff)
.o,
(+)
t) sin
y*sin(k*  u1r) +y,'sin (k* wzt):2A,ncos ((r, u1)
(f" "
t",)
The result is a wave with the average frequency, with an amplitude that oscillates at the difference in the two frequencies. We call this phenomena beats, and the difference frequency is the beat frequency.
EXAMPLE
What phase difference must there be between two otherwise identical waves so that their sum has half the amplitude of each of them?
T\rtor:
Student:
This seems pretty straightforward.
Okay. How are you going to do it?
similar to the first but 7r 12 behind and with half the amplitude. Tntor: Student: It would be cos 0. 2 cos (.sses a point. T\rtor: Student: But the original amplitude cancels. In physics. We can draw another vector.t) urn Yes.arccos (.r) :i /1\ . but the right side doesn't have units. Oh.r32 CHAPTER 76. Because the waves have the same frequency.0 . yes. these rotate at the same rate. But what if the waves don't have the same amplitude? we have a formula for that? Tutor: We have a technique that we call phasors.64rad Do Student: There. in this problem we are comparing to the original amplitude. I need the amplitude that the waves start with. but then rotates counterclockwise. . . WAVES the formula above. Like any unit. we add the vectors together.I Student: With 2cos(.a/ T\rtor: Student: Does it matter whether I use radians or degrees? No. To add the waves together.4 T\rtor: Student: urn:t ? : Ir* The units on the left are length. What would the o component As long a^s we measure 0 from the r ucis. it's a way be? to add waves by adding vectors. let the vector rotate at angular velocity w. instead of to meters or cos(. Something must be wrong. because centimeters. 1 O 2 arcco' (i) : 151o : 2. As the wave pa. I did both for good measure. and then the o component is the displacement. in the gr direction and half as long. Imagine a vector that initially points in the *r direction. you need to write the units and use them consistently. Student: Isn't that some kind of stun gun? I\rtor: Only in science fiction. Now imagine that we have another wave.
133 T\rtor: T\rtor: So the sum is a wave with amplitude tre)'+ (0. producing a node at the endpoint. And we can add more than one vector this way? Student: As many as you want. and when they point in opposite directions.sin (k* * Some places have an amplitude of 2Arn and others have an amplitude of zero. So how can you explain beats with phasors? Tutor: Because the two waves have slightly different frequencies.2y.ut) . the wavelength must be twice the length of the string. for . but instead of moving one after the other. This is the basis of musical instruments. r. Student: That's kind of cool. It is a general principle of waves that when a wave encounters a change of medium. Because these waves don't move left or right. ^. in a * sin 0 2 sin ff) .5)' : I.o. if both ends must be nodes. How can you get two identical waves but going in opposite directions? You tie down one end of your string. or 2L where n is any positive integer. in which the wave would go a different speed. (+) wt) * Arnsin(kr . g. This means that there are many acceptable wavelengths. they add to zero and the amplitude is small. some of the wave is reflected and some is transmitted. the amplitude is large. we call them standing waves. and the angle of the resultant vector tells us the phase of the resulting wave. then the length of the medium must be an integer times half a wavelength. . the vectors rotate at slightly different frequencies. they all move in sync. If the boundary is especially hard.n. then the entire wave is reflected and we have an identical wave going the opposite direction. then the wave is flipped upon reflection. which is how the difference in the vectors changes. so that none of the wave is transmitted. so If both ends of a string are bound then the wavelength is constrained. When they point in the same direction. but they are a discrete set guitar. In a example.I2? Yes.\ L. so that the incoming and reflected waves add to zero. 3L 2 . Student: The last important case is two waves traveling in opposite directions. If the medium off of which the wave reflects is one in which it would go slower.only those wavelengths will work. Student: But they don't rotate together. but they rotate much faster than the difference frequetrcy. but oscillate in place. Tutor: No.ncos (rt) sin (kr) Each piece of the medium is an oscillator. and the spots where the amplitude is a maximum antinodes. or an integer times that. We call the spots where the amplitude is zero nodes. Nodes are half a wavelength apart.
if a medium is more than one dimensional. but then we hold the string down partway along its length.ft". ft+. we can .ulbufor" : ubefore : uafter : f^ft"r)"ft".\.. When someone plays a guitar. or equal to the fundamental. WAVES .fo. I'll show you in a minute. Do I even need to find the wave speed? Nope. there may be allowed frequencies that are not integer multiples of the fundamental. so the medium has changed. Student: Because the medium hasn't changed and the velocity is the same. then the fundamental is fs_ Does that mean that the first harmonic is equal to the fundamental? Indeed it does. Student: So it's really two different strings. or where it doesn't apply. and is the number of antinodes present. How far from the end would you have to hold the string down so that the third harmonic is the note F (1398 Hz)? Student: I don't see how to get from here to there. The first overtone is the first frequency above the fundamental./. f ^nft The important point is that there is a fundamental frequency . picture the waveforil. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Very good. apply L : nt or . or the second harmonic. T\rtor: Student: rf.\ . and find the frequencies.310 glm has a fundamental frequency of. One of the most common mistakes made with standing waves is to pull out a formula for the frequencies and use it improperly. is 1398 Hz./) to determine the frequency. But since you've opted for the third harmonic. Initially the fundamental is 440 Hz.+. Sometimes these higher frequencies are called overtones. so the wavelength will be shorter and the frequency higher.fi. called harmonics. T\rtor: How does the fundamental afterward come into it. so the speed of the wave is the same. You could use it. but with the same speed. and the word overtones covers these. It is always better to learn to use a few equations well than to memorize more equations.I We can then use u . and the other allowed frequencies are integers times the fundamental. Student: I know Student: the frequency before and after holding down the string. The first harmonic is one times the fundamental. The difference is that."  (1398 Hr))u.440 Hz (the note A). T\rtor: So Student: If the third harmonic start with what you would need. The integer n is the same integer for how many halfwavelengths fit in the medium. EXAMPLE A 74 cm strittg clamped at both ends with a mass density of 0. So I can write "fb. Instead. they hold the string down on a "fret" along the guitar's neck.134 CHAPTER 16. What is the wavelength of the 466 Hz fundamental? Student: How can the fundamental be both 440 Hz and 466 Hz? T\rtor: It isn't both.ry . That shortens the string. Tutor: The tension is the same and the mass density is the same. and especially here.466H2 T\rtor: Student: Yes. so much as first one and then the other. I strongly recommend aga'insf memorizing an equation for the frequencies of a standing wave. (440 Ht))b"fo. use a . right? But we've changed the string.
have certain allowed wavelengths. right horizontal they start both to the then they will add to a vector that varies from *2 to 2. or you could change the tension or mass density and thus change the speed. Student: Can you explain standing waves using phasors? Tutor: If you like. Remember that changing the speed will change the frequency because the wavelength is fixed by the length of the string. causing them to vibrate at the same frequency /. so thicker strings are used for the lowest notes. it's the third Good. . it's only half a wavelength. (440 Hr)(148 cm) Student: It's the length of the string. So the wavelength is 2Lf 3. and we get a node displacement ever. The strings vibrate at a frequency f . Guitar strings are of different thicknesses so that they can have the same length and tension but play different notes.) The high notes are short strings and they get longer for lower notes. consider a piano. so long as you matched wavelength and frequency. as he probably thinks about it. The two vectors now rotate in opposite directions. or 148 cm. with nodes at fixed points. Any two waves in the same medium have the same speed. You could change the length.9 : 4. For the second. A wave keeps the same frequency as it crosses from one medium into another.9 cm from one end. How can you use the wavelength of the third harmonic? harmonic. It didn't matter which you used.135 use that. and strike the air molecules. because the strings are different lengths? Tutor: Yes.6 cm T\rtor: Student: That's right.I cm from the other end. Is that one wavelength? Student: No..  (1398 Hr)lurt". then they will always add to a vertical vector with no r component. )after : (440 Hr)(148 cm) (1398 Hr)  46. not the fundamental. Student: Now I can solve. Eventually the strings would become too long. What is the wavelength of the fundamental before? T\rtor: Think about what the waveform looks like. If the start both vertical. and we get an antinode. 69. and we can't really put more tension in the strings. If (+"). We've seen examples of the first and last. but then the wavelength would have been 2L instead of 2L13. then you would have gotten a wavelength of about 140 cffi. The fundamental (pardon the pun) equation for all waves is O: f \ Here's how to keep straight which of the three variables is determined. The fundamental wavelength (can we say that?) is twice the length of the string. If you had used the fundamental frequency afterward instead of the third harmonic. T: T\rtor: Or 74 Student: 2L )"ft"r : 46'6 cm L .69. Student: Is that why grand pianos are curved. (You tune a guitar or piano by changing the tension.9 cm The guitar player has to hold the string down 69. o Standing waves.
room temperature) the speed of sound is 343 m/s. So the allowed wavelengths of an open pipe (open at both ends) are sirnilar to those of a string. contain about 102e molecules per cubic meter. so that when a spaceship in a science fiction movie blows up.4I/ 3 . At standard conditions (atmospheric pressure.4r/5 L. So an open end is a pressure node but a displacement (of the air molecules. At the closed end. Having described string instruments in the last chapter. A closed end is a displacement node but a pressure antinode. we examine wind instruments here. Liquids and solids. the air molecules are free to move.f. Confusing? Remember that the two ends of an open pipe have to be the same. f. The speed of sound depends on the molecules in the air and the conditions. But the open end is literally out in the open. so that it changes with temperaturc. Instead the pressure of the air oscillates. the molecules in air move around.Chapter fT Waves II Air may seem empty. Air contains about 101e molecules per cubic meter. because it would leave a vacuuln in the end. nothing would happen if both ends were closed) the length must be . Imagine a pipe with one open end and one closed end. the air can't move very far.. n=2 LzI. and so on. Really. for example. because there are so few molecules in outer space. but that is merely relative. you would see the explosion before hearing it like lightning on Earth. so the pressure there remains atmospheric pressure. while the pressure in the closed end can change./2= I n=  n= 3 L= 4L )n3 n= 4 h  21.2L/4 = I/2 n=5 L 136 . for comparison. But for a closed pipe (closed at one end. At the open end. but this is not strictly true. but the two ends of a closed pipe have to be different.f. and this region of slightly higher pressure is the wave that moves. changing by a small amount of maybe #dd of atmospheric pressure. Because of the lower density. It can be helpful to think of sound as the molecules in the air vibrating. travelling a short distance (centimeterlike) before colliding with another air molecule./3 )v . you wouldn't hear the explosion at all. in and out of the pipe) antinode. This is much slower than light. f.f.
Student: Ok y. Student: I was hoping for an easier way. because the frequency is five times the fundamental frequency.:f\ L_ !: 2f 3L.21 71 cm . the length of the pipe is a quarter wavelength (L : ifl. and subtract. because it's open at one end and closed at the other. w€ need to make the open pipe longer. When the two pipes are played at the same time. You do have the important thing. Student: Havi. If gets bigger. Student: In a standing wave.g fewer equations and putting them together is easier than having an equation for every need. nodes and antinodes are a quarter of a wavelength apart.\ and the second overtone is when it is i. we hear a beat frequency of 3 Hz. Does it matter which is which? T\rtor: Usually not. one is a node and the other is an antinode. Student: So the frequency of the open pipe must be 790 Hz. But when L . the wavelength is + what it was. but let's start with the fundamental. A medium with a node and an antinode at the two ends doesn't have even harmonics.r 2h . only odd ones.+ 2 k . we're going to make f smaller. which is that they are opposites.6cm  T8T Hz Okay.1 . but incorrect terminology.f.\ and the third is when it is i. The second harmonic is when the length is fi. For the third harmonic Tutor: Student: L9. Do we have an equation for the change in frequency? T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: No. The first overtone is indeed when the length is i. Student: So if L . Student: So what's the second harmonic? Ttrtor: There is no second harmonic for a closed pipe.2(790 Hr) .f.!11? t1') .7 cm.?) T\rtor: Student: ln?=T/' 0. L1."'. Of course we'll need the third harmonic eventually. It would depend on whether you're looking at air pressure or at air molecule displacement. ^ T\rtor: So to rnake them match. T\rtor: Student: Very good. T\rtor: You have the right idea. but we could determine the length. You mean a single step? Yes. and then the needed length. then the wavelength gets longer too. T\rtor: Or 790 Hz. How much longer must the open pipe be so that the two frequencies match? This looks complex! Where can I start? Can you find the frequency of the closed pipe? Student: Which.137 EXAMPLE A closed pipe in standard conditions has a length of 32.436 m 43. When an open pipe is played at the same time.7cm) f . So for the fundamental. the beat note between the fundamental of the open pipe and the third harmonic of the closed pipe is 3 Hz. So the frequency from the open pipe is 784 Hz.l it's the fifth harmonic? T\rtor: Yes. Student: So I'm stuck? The open pipe frequency is 784 or 790 Hz and I can't tell which? Tutor: The problem does say that to make the two pipes match. then / gets smaller. the fundamental or the third harmonic? Tutor: Either.l. We'd have nearly infinite equations. The length of the open pipe is half the fundamental wavelength. Student: Okay. and the frequency is three times higher.I.1 43r+ ^!^r*ft. Does the frequency increase or decrease as the pipe gets longer? Student: If the pipe gets longer.l. You can't tell from the beat frequency which of the two is the higher frequency. Student: Well. so we call it the third harmonic.
08 cm. A^L:lLzLtl * lf constructive interference destructive interference EXAMPTE A person stands near two inphase speakers as shown. If a peak from one wave arrives at the same time as a dip (marimum negative displacement) from the other. The same is true if the further wave travels for an extra two. l3m T\rtor: Student: I want destructive interference." meaning that they produce peaks at the same time. you take two of the pieces and pull them just a little apart. In general. Therefore. Pulling them 1 mm apart can change the frequency by a couple of hertz. so I need Good. If peaks arrive at the same time. Hr) 0. If the wave from one has to travel for an extra half period. It doesntt matter that the waves came from different directions.. We now consider adding two waves coming from arbitrary directions. T\rtor: Student: That's not very much. then a peak from that wave arrives just as the next peak from the closer source arrives. or is that LJ I\rtor: It doesn't matter. threer or any integer number of periods. Find the three lowest frequencies at which destructive interference occurs. L2 is 3 meters.138 CHAPTER 17.79 cm . What is A^L? Student: The difference between the two distances.7e cm !1*?I1') .8 mm To tune a wind instrument. . then a peak from that wave arrives just as the next dip from the closer sources arrives. and we don't care whether the difference is positive or negative. then we get destructive interference. WAVES r. or any halfinteger (integer plus a half) number of periods. like a clarinet.2I. .2f. constructive interference occurs when one source is an integer number of wavelengths further away than the other. There are many examples of interference. then we have constructive interference where the waves meet. J such as standing waves when you add two waves traveling in opposite directions.II Lz :. but with the same frequency. two and a half.e '' . or "inphase. If the wave from one has to travel for an extra period. AL . Usually the two sources are coherent. Because a wave travels one wavelength in one period.2(787 21.7I clr  0. destructive interference occurs when one source is a halfinteger number of wavelengths further away than the other.(m + *lf . The same is true if the further wave travels for an extra one and a half.Lr  2I. when two or more waves add we call it interference.
If an equation is used over and over..o.L is X. . then it makes sense.00 : 0.L.y per time.60m? T\rtor: Yes. As the light leaves the flashlight it spreads out. then I can find Student: Ah yes. it wasn't. The further away from the flashlight. The math is easier.60 . T\rtor: Student: Student: Fair enough. because then A. T\rtor: But experience teaching this topic has taught me that it is prone to misuse. The brightness or intensity of any wave is proportional to the amplitude squared.(* ++)r". 2. and not prone to misuse.3. But the frequency hasn't shown up in any of the Ttrtor: You can still use u the wavelength. Student: Then the difference is 3. Student: And m car' be any integer.. If I can find ^. I put in 1. T\rtor: It could. m0 + f (r)(bz2Hz)286H2 mr > f (BXsz2Hz)8b8Hz m2 + f (t)(b72Hz)r43oHz How far can we go? You could keep going. one and a half wavelengths. Is it hard to do the math? Student: No. The intensity is the power divided by the area of a sphere over I . We describe this energy by its power and intensity. but the power is the same. This was true for elastic collisions.!J)AL (^ ! j)' . or (m f . The flashlight bulb emits a certain amount of power in the form of light. is difficult to do mathematically.s * .  0.139 equations.. The lowest frequency occurs when m Student: Oh yes. the lower the intensity.  f the frequency. Two out of three says to stick to two simple equations and not try to memorize something else. Student:SoIcanjustSaythatonedistanceis3mandtheotheri"'ffi3. Is this something that we'll need many times? Student: It seems like it could come up more than once. AL is half a wavelength. The question is whether we should.nl.60 m.. Imagine turning on a flashlight. Student: Couldn't we just combine what we've done and get a formula for the destructive frequencies? Thtor: We could do that for any problem.L . and so on.6o m Tutor: T\rtor: Very good. but the human ear doesn't hear well above about 20. point source that radiates uniformly in all directions.000 Hz. We often describe not the intensity of sound waves in W/m2 but the sound level in decibels B  (10 dB) r. Light from the Sun brings or brought us most of the energy we use (brought for fossil fuels). . and there this. as before. The intensity is the power per area. where we had two equations and one of them had u2 in it.(m + i)672 Hr) so + ilr . as the light spreads out over a larger area. This is true for any type of wave emanating from a point source. The power is the energ. In many cases we use a are many sources that come close to which the power is spread. I Waves carry energy.
wait a minute. or 23 dB (200 times ^[s.P"rt". lbefore: lafter: ano W W T\rtor: Yes. You need to remember that you add dB to multiply the intensity. Normal conversation l^'is approximately the threshold of human hearing. Student: And you don't multiply? T\rtor: You never multiply dB.89 dB. Student: Ok y.(3) + (3) + (3) dB is three factors of 2 or 8 times less. then . \ I 6. n before is the same as 7r afterward T\rtor: Tbue but not enough. it doesn't say how far away from the jackhammer he starts. Decibels can be used in a relative or absolute sense. . or threshold). so I7 dB is down a factor of 50. because dB is "factors of ten." 4' than compared to /s. But see where it says "twice as far away" ? Student: It's a scaling problem. then double r and find the new intensity. the intensity is 9 times less. By the w&y.6 . or 200 times greater than 0 dB. Tutor: Good. It's 95 . . so it's between 9 and 10 dB. You could also say that 4 is two factors of two. Decibels are "factors of ten. T\rtor: 10 dB is 10 timbs less. so 23 dB is two times greater than 20 dB. WAVES . you add dB. then up a factor of 2 (+3 dB). I write the equation before and after. he starts at 95 dB. and the change is 6 dB. or 100 times greater than 0 dB. so he hasn't really reduced the sound much. if he moves 20 times further away? If we moves twice as far away.II so where Io :1012 W 10 dB is 10 times greater than 0 dB (0 dB is not zero sound). then down another factor of ten (10 dB). . Student: Ah. it asked for the sound level. use decibels because the ear is logarithmic. How can I find the power? Tutor: You can't. Tutor: It isn't.  (10 dB) 1". then 3 dB more for the second factor of two. or about a million times more intense than the threshold of hearing (six factors of ten). The ear perceives a factor of 10 in intensity to be "one notch" in sound. No. (W. rPb"for"r.for. What if he stands 20 times further away? Tutor: Student: Seems simple.02 dB T\rtor: True. what will the sound Student: So I have to use the decibel equation to find the power of the jackhammer.16 dB. and 20 dB is 10 times greater than 10 dB." is about 60 dB.  (10 dB) roe *q /b. What is the same between the two? Student: Well. the power is the same before and after. and 9 . That doesn't seem like much of a change. Student: We're using dB in a relative sense. Student: And if he stands three times further a\May. Think of 20 dB as "2 factors of ten above 0 dB." Student: Can you always do this tricky stuff? What's I7 dB? T\rtor: If you go down a factor of ten (10 dB).140 CHAPTER 17. so 3 dB for the first factor of two. so one signal can be +23 dB relative to another (200 times as large). so the result is 95/6 .) EXAMPLE A man hears level be? What a jackhammer at a sound level of g5 dB. the problem didn't ask for the relative sound level. rather p Student: Now rafter :2rb"forer so vv {orl"' /b"fo." 3 dB is approximately a factor of 2. you're at 17 dB. but the radius has changed.
If we move. Which of * and do you use? One way is to remember that motion of the source or detector toward the other increases the frequency. The submarine is moving at 8 m/s and the ship chases it at 20 rnf s. 69E} is three factors of 2 or 8 times louder than normal conversation. use the bottom sign or * sign in the denominator.in the numerator. We perceive a shorter period than the source does. and the sub is the detector. and a higher frequency. use the top sign for motion toward the other and the bottom sign for motion away from the other. ff we move toward the source of the sound. and u is the speed of sound. To detect the submarine. then one period later. If the ship sends out a 700 Hz sound wave. The sub hears a different frequency than the ship sends. then use the * sign in the numerator. If the detector moves toward the source. 26 Tntor: Excellent. so there's no change. Written the way I have it here. If the source moves toward us. what frequency do they hear for the return wave? The speed of sound in water is 1500 m/s. frequency of the sound changes. sending out a sound wave and detecting the reflected sound. Student: The detector moves away from the source at 8 m/s. the previous one is not a full wavelength away it is a wavelength minus the distance the source moved in a period. and it's hard to have a Student: conversation near one. then the Peaks of the sound. 400 is 10x 10 x2x2.T4T Then the intensity is 202 400 times lower. ?)d. Our last sound phenomenon is the Doppler effect. spots of slightly higher air pressure. and because it's toward we use the top Tutor: It's not quite that simple. the ship uses sonar.r r (u*ua\ \'+'") / is the frequency of the source . so we receive the peaks at intervals of a period. where EXAMPTE A ship is chasing a submarine. The ship is the source Student: . or the source of the sound moves. Student: Even though he's moved 20 times further away?! I\rtor: That's why you should wear ear protection when operating a jackhammer. The source moves toward the detector. Waves travel one wavelength in one period. are a wavelength apart as they move toward us. and because it's away we use the bottom sign or . so (10)+(10)+(3)+(3) dB.  The frequency that a "detector" hears is st r . and u" are the velocities of the detector and source. as it emits the next peak. then it takes less time than a period (* mea^sured by the source) for the next peak to get to us. The ship is both source and detector. 26 dB below 95 dB is 69 dB. and use the sign to produce the desired result. If the source moves away from the detector. respectively.
If the sub moves at the speed of sound. rather than the steel of the submarine. we would get a very small error in our answer. Student: So the ship is the detector and hears T\rtor: Student: (1500 m/s) 1500 /s) + + (8 /s) T\rtor: and the Yes. Student: But the ship would be moving faster than sound. And the equation would say that the received frequency was infinite. Student: And the ship can use this to determine where the sub is? T\rtor: They can use the shift in frequency to determine the speed of the sub. Student: Okay. hears. Student: That's how you get a sonic boom.r". Now the submarine is the source of the reflected wave. because the source is at the same place as the previous peak as it releases the next one. Here. then each peak is on top of the previous one. Student: Can't they just look? T\rtor: Light does not travel far through seawater. Is that because the steel of the submarine is a different medium than the water? T\rtor: Very good. saying that the sub was stationary Student: The sub is movit g away from the ship. The error is small because the speeds of the vessels are so much slower than the speed of sound. Couldn't we have used the relative velocity. Sound travels quite well ffi) (TobTHz) (ffiH) :TtrsHz * through seawater. Can that happen? Tutor: It is possible to move faster than sound. so the submarine isn't visible.u r(H)(7oo H.II sign or in the denominator. Shouldn't they hear a lower frequency? Student: Ok y. We want the frequency that the T[ue. and you used the + sign in the numerator because the ship wa^s moving toward the source. .) ( (1500 */s)  (1500 m/s) (s m/s) (20 */s) )(7ooH. and that reflected wave starts with a frequency of 705 . then the peaks never reach the sub. reflecting that all of the peaks would arrive at the same time. WAVES . sign in the denominator because the sub was moving away from the detector.7 Hz. Tutor: The ship is moving toward the sub faster than the sub is moving away from it. Tutor: More or less. The waves reflect off of the submarine. But we have the frequency that the submarine ship hears. If the source moves at the speed of soutrd.. They mea"sure the time that it takes for the reflected wave to arrive to determine how far away the sub is. even though the ship is moving faster than the sub. Whenever a wave encounters a change in medium. Most of the sound reflects off of the air inside the submarine. some of the wave is reflected.L42 CHAPTER 17. if we used relative velocity as you suggest.) (ffi) zobTHz and the ship moving 12 mls? Ttrtor: We can't because the sound travels through the water. . Supersonic airplanes are ones that move faster than sound in air.
when using a temperature difference.Chapter 18 Temperatur€r Fleat) and the First Law of Thermodynamics What happens when we cook food? If there is no force exerted over a distance. In chemistry. o 5 ('C) + gz' where 100'C is the boiling point of water and OoC is the freezing point of water. There are many scales for measuring temperature. we often use K oC + So the boiling point of water is 373 273. no heat flows between the two because they have the same "energy density. We say "100 degrees Celsius" but "373 kelvin." Because the difference between Celsius and kelvin is only adding 273. When placed in contact. other than by doing work on it.LQ  LWaone by where LQ is the heat transferred into the object. so a positive LW decreases the internal energy. Celsius and kelvin are the t43 . The first law of thermodynamics is conservation of energy. in energy per atom rather than per volume.. Two objects at the same temperature do not necessarily have the same amount of internal energy. We can increase the internal energy by transferring heat into or by doing work on the object. then how can we move energy into the food. heat would flow from the hotter. but would need to have a higher energy density or temperature. because heat is the transfer of energy." not "373 degrees kelvin.15o K. Throughout these chapters. A. lower temperature bucket. Every object has internal energy Eint Temperature is a measure of the density of the internal energy. Therefore. the most familiar is Fahrenheit (65"F is a pleasant spring day)." The small bucket could have the same internal energy as the large one. &r increase of one degree Celsius is the same as an increase of one kelvin. Heat is the energy we move into an object other thar by work. higher temperature bucket of water to the colder. Then when placed in contact.LQ + Lwdone on . In the United States. and where does the energy go? There is a second way to move energy into an object. so . In physics. No object has heat.Eir. Ti Kelvin. the Celsius scale is often used. LW is the work done by the object. A large bucket of water has more internal energy than a small bucket of water even though they have the same temperature.
then the motion is in the opposite direction as the force and the work done by the object is negative. The work that the gas does is the pressure it exerts times the change in volume. The curve AB is pV . . E t6  o 5 U' o l o) L 0 Volume (mg) T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: So Don't you like doing integrals? NO! I have to do an integral W . Student: If we're looking for the work. TEMPERATT]RE. and then a little less hard at the end.corrstant. T\rtor: Look at the path from B to C and tell me about the pressure. T\rtor: Correct. Student: So the work is negative? Tutor: Yes.I pdv.I pdv . or pressure times area. which is an important point in thermodynamics. Because the pressure of a gas or liquid is exerted outward. EXAMPLE Find the work done by the gas undergoing the process shown. When the volume decreases. . I get it. Student: I'm all for that. We push a little harder to get it compressing. so it is compressed. as most changes in this chapter do. but with the same pressure during the compression. A]VD THE FIRST LAIA OF THERMODYNAMICS same. so no work. HEAT. Just like work. of course. Temperature differences can also be in kelvin. Then we should look for ways to avoid doing any more than we have to.J[pav where p is the pressure the object (often a fluid) exerts.pAV. Student: . Tutor: Very good. and there is no area under the curve. an increase in volume means that the motion was in the same direction as the force and the work done is positive. then our pressure is the same a^s the gas's. But zero kelvin corresponds to zero internal energy. We're pushing in on the gas harder than it pushes out. That means that the integralw . Therefore use Celsius only when finding a temperature difference. Student: The pressure times the change in volume.r44 CHAPTER 18. . What about from C to A? Student: There is no change in the volume. don't we push harder on the B&s. Student: It's a constant. Now we need to determine how to find the heat and the work and what they object is do. The work is the area under the curve. . all temperatures must be in kelvin. The work done by an w. Student: Shouldn't that be the force. times dfr? T\rtor: But dr times the area is the change in volume. T\rtor: But the change in volume from B to C is negative. so shouldn't we use our pressure? Thtor: If the change happens slowly. T\rtor: It is the same as work. .
It is also possible for the fluid to change form. The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature is QCATcmLT where C is the heat capacity and c is the specific heat. Add the work from the three Student: 1.32x105 N.m  1 . it increases the internal energy. and a material has speciftc heat.3)_h(1')](3atm.m.)l. The heat of fusion is the heat needed to go from a solid to a liquid. Any one of them should convert to any other of them. Student: How did you come up with that? Tlrtor: The power is the energy over the time. then we did something wrong. Student: But from A to B we have to do an integral.m3..m3. Student: All of the energy and work and power stuff still applies? T\rtor: Would you rather you had to learn new energy and work and power stuff? T\rtor: Student: Student: No. (3 atm)(1 rn3) . really). Because the internal energy is the same af.32 x 105 J/3600 s ..36 W. The heat needed to transform an object is QLm where ^L is the heat of transformation.v :(3 atm. or 4180 J/kg. so we can write pV : wrs: I pd. so the temperature increases.v: 3 ut"''*t /.3 atm. or water turning into steam.33.m3 . An object has a heat capacity..013 So x 105 N/'. there must have been heat AQ into the gas somewhere during the process. Along the curve the pressure times the volume is a constant. and from C to A is zero) so the total work done is Tutor: T\rtor: Yes. . I can convert.ber a complete cycle.30 atm. If we can't turn atm m3 into joules. and the heat of vaporization is the heat needed to go from a liquid to a solid. We use temperature to measure this internal energy (energy density. the greater the heat capacity.00 callgK.m3) [hyrl il: (3atm. .m3. to another state of matter.30 ffif*3) x (1'0rt.m.1< 105 N/*'. Student: Ok^y. Student: So the internal energy of the gas decreases by that amount? No.t d. An example of this is ice turning into water. The heat of fusion of water is 333 kJ/kg.)l. let's finish the problem in the units we have.32x105 J Is that a lot? About enough to run an LCD computer monitor for an hour.ffi(3atm.30atm.) (l^"ffi)  1 .r45 Tntor: Yes.\rTutor: steps.K. Now I can see whether the work is really joules. When heat or work is added to an object. (1. so I. The specific heat of water is 1.3)[tn1s. T\rtor: Before you do that. . Student: Then we can set up the integral. the internal energy is determined by p and V. and the heat of vaporization of water is 2256 kJ/kg. Student: Student: Shouldn't the answer be in joules? 1 atmosphere (atm) of pressure is 1. The work from B to C is 2 atm. T\rtor: There are many units we could use for work or energy.. The more of the material.
It takes a lot of energy. Student: Or turn 15 kg of ice into steam. The energy needed to melt the ice is Tutor: it's true that Q . so with more liquid nitrogen than that.77 MJ Tntor: That's about 13 kilowatthours (kwh). The heat you need to remove from a banana to freeze it is sufficient to boil only a small amount of liquid nitrogen.e0x 106 J6. But you've forgotten the heat of transformation. T\rtor: Where did most of it go? Student: Into the last step.Lm is (2256 kJ/ks)(lr kg) :33. So Q cmLT  (41s0 Jlkg.63 MJ to heat the ice up to 0oC. so that would power a house for 68 hours. of course. and radiation. Your use of specific heat is good. T\rtor: It requires appropriate equipment. but a long time to boil it all away. A typical house uses L2 kilowatts.00 MJ The table in the book has a heat of fusion of hydrogen. Student: And the large heat of fusion is why coolers work.840 kJ:33. Q . HEAT. If you start with hot water. to freeze something you remove the same amount of heat that you added to melt it.00 + 6. Student: You make it sound easy. . That's why it takes only a few minutes to boil water on a stove. You cool hydrogen down to 20 K. and degrees Celsius and kelvin are the same because it's a temperature di. but it's not difficult. Then you cool the liquid down to the melting point and remove the heat of fusion and. s&y from the hotwater tap.90MJ ? Partly correct.30 + 33. convection. Liquid nitrogen sells for a couple dollars per liter and is commonly used in physics experiments and demonstrations. Steam can get hotter than that.146 CHAPTER 18. Student: Like the one where they freeze a banana and use it as a hammer? T\rtor: Yes.Lm  (333 kJlkg)(l5 kg) :5000 kJ :5.84 MJ Student: The total heat (0. Student: The Q .63 + 5. That makes using ice in a cooler effective. then remove the heat of vaporization to turn it into liquid hydrogen. then it takes 10 times the energy to vaporize the water as it does to heat it. TEMPERATIJRE. AAID THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS EXAMPLE How much energy does it take to turn 15 kg of ice at 10"C into steam? T\rtor: Student: Student: What's the temperature of steam? Water has to be at least 100oC to become steam. you can freeze a banana. presto.(10'C)) 6. Student: Does the heat of fusion work the same each way? Tutor: Yes. Then we add 6. and using the temperature difference is good. solid hydrogen. or 13 kilowatts for an hour. Student: Ok y.30 MJ of energy to raise the temperature to 100oC. T\rtor: Yes. right? Trtor: Yes.K)(15ks)(100"C . Student: Ok y. Then we need to melt it into water.84)  45.Lm part? Tutor: Yes. Heat transfers by conduction. You can have frozen hydrogen? Yes. It takes 0. turning the hot water into steam.fference that we need. There are three ways to transfer heat. The energy to melt ice is the same to cool ten times more water by 8"C. and add the heat of Ttrtor: Student: vaporization.
What must the emissivity of the Earth be? of the Sun? That would help us find the energythat the Sun gives to the Earth. It looks like a circle of area rR2. The area of the Earth is 4nR2. less than fiberglass insulation. A is the area of the object. T\rtor: Yes. (nR')I : oe(4nB')Tn . and we will not try it here.r47 Conduction is when heat moves between two objects measured by the power.oe AT4. The air resistance was expected to heat the plane considerably. and 7 is the temperature. In air. . Now what's the power out from the Earth? Student: That's radiation. T\rtor: Except that the Sun is not above every spot on the Earth. The speed of the heat transfer is P9:kAY tL where k depends on the material through which the heat transfers. EXAMPLE The intensity of sunlight at the Earth's surface is about 1000 W l^'.Ka). then. this warm air moves up the smokestack because of its lower density.6704 x 108 W/m2. but we already have that. the oxygen and nitrogen molecules race around at speeds close to the speed of sound. because I is larger so the heat transfer is slower. so it's P . what we call "steadystate. T\rtor: True. All objects give off thermal radiation. The SR71 "blackbird" airplane was designed to fly 3 times the speed of sound. Calculating the heat transfer from convection is very difficult. with the same internal energy. and as the density decreases they tend to rise. Convection is the nonrandom motion of molecules in a gas or liquid. This nonrandom motion is called convection.026 W/m. A is the crosssectional area through which it transfers. Emissivity is a measure of how much radiation an object both absorbs and emits (same number for both). They go only a short distance before colliding with another molecule and bouncing off in a random direction. how much of the Earth do you see? Student: Half of it.K. Student: Okry. but not what I had in mind. Tutor: But even that half you don't all see at normal incidence. is the emissivity of the material. right? Tutor: Yes. rather than moving randomly either into the room or the chimney. L is the length or thickness through which it transfers." Tutor: Student: Don't we need to know the temperature . Radiation is heat transferred by electromagnetic waves. . . for example. times the intensity is the power into the Earth. The power or heat transfer rate from radiation is P  oeATa where o is the StefanBoltzmann constant (o 5. This is why thicker insulation keeps houses warmer. . or energy per time. Student: . and is one for a completely black object and zero for a perfectly reflective object (neither of which can actually be made). such as light or infrared radiation. the power out has to equal the power in. As a fire in a fireplace warms the air. If the Earth is to stay at the same temperature. The average temperature of the Earth is about 58"F. A layer of air can be used to insulate an object. If you stand back from a globe and look at it. What is the area you perceive? Student: Ah. and the designers painted it black so that it would radiate heat more quickly. because the thermal conductivity k of air is small at 0. and LT is the temperature difference. that are in contact. But when air gases get warm they expand.
That's one of the things that makes climate modelling difficult. LA: A(2o)LT AV  V(3") AT . So it's an absolute temperature. and I need to use kelvin.Laar or AJ L  .297.64 = The emissivity of the Earth varies with the surface. Clouds change the emissivity? So the emissivity of the Earth isn't constant. The expansion is AL . rather than averaging the emissivity.fference? No. land.6 K (1ooowl::]. TEMPERATURE.150 r4. Student: When the temperature of a solid or liquid increa. Because 2D objects expand objects in three.6T04x Tutor: Tutor: even clouds. the object expands.. AND THE FIRS" LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Do Student: Is I need to use kelvin here? it Student: a temperature di. 108 Wl^r. HEAT.m: 4(. w€ need to calculate the power emitted from each area and average the powers.ses.  L4.LT in two dimensions and 3D where a is the coefficient of thermal expansion. 58oF:3("c) K +32o + 273.4oc I 7:e.4"C . with different values for water.148 T\rtor: CHAPTER 78. pavement.K4)(2876Ion :0. Student: Can't we take an average value? Tutor: Because the temperature goes to the fourth power.
nRT ln(V1 lU) WpLV.0 o L n cn o L q J lsobaric Work done in one cycle lsothermal l. L.const AEi. Q: AEi't : nCvAT 0 so AEi"t AS AS  0 Qlf r49 .ry+ Volume adiabatic isothermal isobaric isochoric isolated constant T constant p constant V Q .t . PV'Y .W .: 6 o cl J o ing AW T (! =.W.QnCrLT W ..0 so Q .0.
Our goal is to calculate the change in energy AE.8.3145 J/mol . Because the temperature doesn't change. A mole is Avogadro's number. Not all of these are travelling in the same direction. Whatever a single molecule does. 150 . k . after which it has a new velocity. K is the gas constant. one for atoms (or molecules) and one for moles of atoms. and that can aid us in our calculations. The heat in Q . pV nRT:NkT Again it comes in two forms.nRT In(Vy lW. Na : 6. has a mass of 14 grams. Conservation of energy still holds. The chart on page I49 shows these important processes.3807x 102t JIK is the Boltzmann constant. so the heat i. neither does the internal energy. often 1020 or more. An isothermal process is one that occurs at a constant temperature. is the molar specific heat at constant pressure. and the work done I4l. Because T is a temperature and not a temperature difference. The average kinetic energy of an atom or molecule in a gas is: E^u" The total energy of a large number of atoms is: 2r. There are many specific processes that appear often. Finding the work requires an integral. and the result is W . it typically travels only a short distance (micrometers at 25"C and 1 atm) before colliding with another molecule. with mass number L4. We can evaluate the sum of all atoms or molecules in a gas using the ideal gas law.022 x 1023 atoms.r Q must equal the work done by the gas W . or even at the same speed.1.Chapter 19 The Kinetic Theory of Gases Gases consist of many molecules. An isobaric process is one that occurs at a constant pressure. and R . where C. so nNlNe. it must be in kelvin. and RNok A mole is significant because one mole of atoms has a mass so one mole of nitrogen.nCpLT. the heat flow Q. statistics works very. 2 Ein n (i*) n(."') The difference between the two forms is that the first form uses the number of atoms (N) and the second uses the number of moles of atoms n. in grams equal to the ma"ss number of the atom. How can we deal with so many objects? When the numbers are that large. The work I pdV : pAV is easy to calculate. very well.
sy to calculate. and the change in energy AE for each step of the process of the diatomic gas. An adiabatic process is one that occurs with no heat transfer Q.7 is the ratio "y . Does that apply both at A and at B? Tntor: Yes. L. E^ue : nf and Cv : Orn. or temperature at A? Student: We know all three. T\rtor: Student: . Student: This looks complicated. where Cv is the molar specific heat at constant volume. has two additional degrees of freedom: spinning around each of the two axes perpendicular to the line joining the atoms.0. the quantity pV1 is a constant. the change in internal energy is the opposite of the work done by AEi"t . Do you know the volume. But we might be able to calculate the temperature using the ideal gas law. In an adiabatic process. 2 A F . inout. What's the pressure at C? T\rtor: Yep. so pV lT is constant anywhere on the graph. The work I pdV :0 is again The heat in Q . So for a diatomic molecule. but the volume has increased to 2 m3 and we don't know the temperature. the work W . leftright.nCv LT. Better yet. A diatomic molecule. So for an atom. it applies anywhere on the graph.! v E rabat c o L Q U. The process goes clockwise around the enclosed area. Because Q . right? The volume is 1 ffi3. E^u" . Monotomic atom I Diatomic molecule EXAMPTE Find the heat Q. pressure. and 7? It depends on the number of "degrees of freedom" of the atoms or molecules. the pressure is 2 atm. and the temperature is 300 K. start with what you do know. room temperature but twice the pressure. An atom has three: updown. \  q) rL 1 Volume (me) 2 Tutor: Well.W. What about B? Student: The pressure is still 2 atm.CrlCv. What are Cr. two atoms together like Oz. the number of moles n doesn't chatrg€. Cv. which is 5/3 for an atom and 7 15 for a diatomic molecule.151 An isochoric process is one that occurs at a constant volume. We don't even have all of the data.n. ea.tnf and Cv .
pcvA4 + pc: pB (7. T\rtor: Student: pp(3 ttt3) 190 K : nR: 1 atm mB lK 150 :0.4 atm and Vs. but not the other way around.5 2 A 300 EA loopl _? E?  E:? ?  E:? ? so Student: Now I can use the ideal gas law to find the temperature at B. Below 100"F. But BC is an adiabatic. Student: Like we did in the last chapter.* 150 ^s Ts :600 K Can we keep using units of atm m3 lKt Shouldn't we convert to something? Our pressures are all in atm.m3 ? ? ? ? ? 2 3 3 ? 1 ? ? ? ? D E ? C'D 180 180 D+E 1. At D the temperature is 180 K. ^l . V . do they? T\rtor: No. Is the temperature at C the same as the temperature at B? Student: They don't have to be.i: I. I can find po and I/B the same way.r" PrVt^ (2 atry)(2 m3) Te : nR _ (2 atm](=l_m3) (300 K) ('!rrrrr atm rl lK . The temperature isn't the sarne as either B or D.0. Tntor: We don't really need to know n. because they are always pV together. Student: This is where it matters that our gas is diatomic.1s atm T\rtor: Very good. I can find the number of moles n. and our temperatures in K. Tutor: Student: p (atm) A B C 2 2 ? v (t) 1 T (K) 300 ? ? a I n lot A+B BC ? ? ? ? ? ? all in atm. so these will work fine. Back to the ideal gas law. We can convert the energies to joules at the end.5 atm)VB 180 K t Student: But I can't do point C that way.nRT > nP  PnVn r" . T. Student: So we don't know the temperature at B or C. our volumes in ffi3. and I don't think I can read the pressure off of the graph. THB KIATETIC THEORY OF GASES Okay. so the temperature is also 180 K at E. At C we know that the volume is 3 m3. and any adiabatic change will change the temperature. Student: Ts : nR: + 150 atm ^. p"vA4 " .) (t.r52 CHAPTER 19. (1.13 at:r)(3 m3) (2atm) e4)'n ' \3 m') _> : 1. T\rtor: Yes. very cold. Student: The path from D to E is an isothermal. but they're not the same.8 m3 Po . I know p.4. lK Tc :b10 K . so pV1 is a constant along the curve. . Tntor: True. We know the volume at D and the pressure at E. From B to C is an adiabatic path. and of course R. What we need is the combination frR.
Cp : $n.lrd.m' W : pAV . t_t R^It _ lnRrt :r(* 2.5 atm. so Cv . An isobaric process is one that travels along an isobar on the chart.13 0. Cp : Cv I R..J[ rd.E .W to find the change in energy.0. Finding the work is going to take an r.LE. Fhom BC is adiabatic.Wl Tutor: It's nice to know that energy is still being conserved. Q Yes. w. Student: The * is because it's diatomic.f.'0"(+) " d. .Q . and refers to the process. How do I find the heat transferred to the gas during A+B? T\rtor: The path from A+B is an isobar (constant pressure).4 1. yes? Yes..m3 Student: That's the same as A.Et.Ee .'/n .v: l.(800 K)) 2atm.Q .m3 T atm.n (!rRf).153 p (atm) A B C 2 2 v (t) 1 T (K) 300 600 510 180 180 al*lo" A+B ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? all in atm. Student: What's the difference between isobar and isobaric? Tutor: Isobar is a noun. right? Yes.v:pvelt #) ff) "] .nCpAT . atm *'/^) (600 K) : 10 atm'm3 .  0.nilrz:Z(* AE .m3 . . and the gas is diatomic Q An adiabat.10 atm. so Q . Isobaric is an adjective.n. 5 atm 'lt )(300 K) :5 atm'm3 integral. Tutor: Student: What do you call the line for an adiabatic process? Student: Ok y. Student: Stop being sarcastic. Tutor: Student: Tutor: Student: So an isothermal process is one that travels along an isotherm? Yes. Let's do the integral first.m3 : 5 atm.V atm .!r(* . Oh. br! you can also calculate it directly. Now we can start on the right side of the chart.m3 ? ? 2 3 3 B*C C'D D+E E+A 1. conservation of energy.8 1 A 300 loopr E? ?  _? E?  E? ? Well done. e lrnuar Student: The work is easy. and refers to the line on the chart. The energ"y is ^E .(2atm)(1 rn3)  Tntor: Tutor: Student: I can use AE .5 2 ? ? ? D E 0. so if I find A^E then W . so Q ..  nCpLT !r"nm ) ((600 K) Tlrtor: There's the combination nR again. Es Tutor: Tutor: Student: There's an easier way.
and the D+E work wa.b atm. . Student: Do you mean below the E+A line but above the D+E isothermal curve? T\rtor: The work from EA is the area under the EA line and above the ancis.:+lboatmm' Student: Now I'll do it the ea.m' AE . and exerted less impulse on the walls as they bounced off.Ec .m3 Student: What does it mean that Q is negative? 8.I54 CHAPTER 79.m3 +1.m3 ._tL) I can find the change in energy o 5 .5 atm. we'll add all of the works.z *') : 0.t( rt. With the volume held constant. pV . Student: That's right.Eg .b atm. T\rtor: But you could find the work I.Es:8.s negative because we were going left on the graph.7.5. THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES :Wl t+)". and there's no rea^son to do it every time.(+) "] '. so the energy doesn't change.m3.Eo .constant is an isotherm.m3 Es: Eo :3 atm'm3 Student: And we can find the energy like we did before.aE Student: Flom CD is an isochoric. w .59atm.(b10 K)) : b.ncvLr AE . W_nRTIn(V7lu)(*atm*'/K)(180K)ln(#):1.Et .m3 . The temperature doesn't change. so no work.nCv AT? e . Student: From E+A is not any of our special curves.2.b atm. so Last one. and that's equal to the heat. it's just a trapezoid. To find the total work done in a cycle. Can you find the heat directly? Student: You mean using Q . nurs:Z(* _ atm *t/^) (180 K) :3 atm.3 atm. AE . Student: Ok"y. Ec:lrnuTs 2r(* 0 atm *tl^) 10 (b10 K) :8.nRTln(VylU).m3 : 2 atm. It looks like we need to do an integral to find the work. so less speed. the pressure decreased. I'll cheat by using W .b atm) + (z atm) ) (o.sy way.5 atm'm3 AE /w atm'm3: 1. T\rtor: It's not cheating.5 atm.m3 + w .m3 .En .m3 Tutor: Student: LE is zero. Student: Doing another integral? Tutor: It's the area under the curve.5 atm.5 atm. We did the integral in the last chapter.3b atm.59 atm.(rr+ ra) Lv . I is also 1. with no volume change. T\rtor: We didn't call it that then because we didn't have the ideal gas law yet..m' Tbtor: We lowered the temperature by removing heat from the system.m3 rnnr:r(* atm *'/^) ((180 K) .3 atm.m3 Student: Flom D+E is an isotherm. Each molecule had less energ"y.
or +229 kJ.m3. For a complete cycle We get work out. they add up to +2. What about the work. Student: What is "net heat?" T\rtor: In some of the steps we put heat in. Tutor: Student: That's a lot to keep track Make a table.8 1  1. ?r Tz: 390 K. It goes through an adiabatic process and then an isothermal process and finishes with a pressure of 1.m3 aho.5 x 105 Pa Pr ? p2 :1. we get zero.mr +2 +1. and if we're back to the same temperature. What is held constant during an isothermal process? Student: The temperature.  . Tutor: Student: +2.5 x 105 Pa po :3 m3 Vr ? Vz 7 Vo :600 K Tt ? Tz :390 K To Student: I can use the ideal gas law to find V2: PoVo n PzVz : Tr'r1' . Does that make sense? Student: The energy depends on the temperature. EXAMPLE An ideal monatomic gas at 600 K has a pressure of 2.5 2  1. of.26 atm.59 A 2.5 x 105 Pa and a volume of 3 m3. it's the same as the net amount of heat that we put in. Find the volume of the gas after the adiabatic process but before the isothermal process.155 p (atm) A B C 2 2 v ('''t) 1 T (K) 300 600 510 180 180 a I n lo" A*B B'C CD +7 0 all in atm. then we get Tutor: Tfy adding the Q's. Ah.f.59  1.5 x lob Pu)(6oo ^I 3'25 m3 T\rtor: Student: But I can't find Vr because I don't know the pressure or temperature. :2. though? If we add all of the works.13 0. The second step is an isothermal process.5 0 +5 2 3 3 1. we find that we don't recover the heat out.4 1.35 300 Ioopl E? ?  E? ?  E:? ? Tntor: If we add all of the AE's.5 D E b.b 5. How do we get work out if the energy is the same? Oh.5 x 105 Pa and a temperature of 390 K. th Vz pzTo (1. Net heat is the difference.5 0 2 D+E EA 0.35 0. then it should be the same energy. In the next chapter.26 atm. and in some we got heat out. and this limits our efficiency. and this has to be true.
600 K :3.5 x 105 Pa ? Ts . but the temperature can be anything ga^s Good. so calculate entropy. Now write that down.1 .5 x 105 Pa ? p2 : Po Vo:3 m3 Vt Vz 1. The gas is monatomic. so ".156 CHAPTER 19. THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Pt :2. so it's two equations and two unknowns. w€ can o L I J m 0 o o L Volume . p4f Student: I know /3 : poVi/t and PtVt Tt : nR:'+ ?o and ?r. Entropy isothermal processes. and write down the ideal Student: Okay. Student: Why would anyone if want to do such a thing? is easy to calculate for adiabatic and we can get from point A to point B using an adiabat and an isotherm. Pt:oifff #vl/':pili/' fr':'3: v:/' vt:(+)''' vo:(m)''' (B *') bzm3 T\rtor: In the next chapter we'll want to calculate entropy.513. law.25 m3 Tt: Tz :390 K 390 K Tutor: T\rtor: Student: it wants. What has to be true along an adiabat? The pressure and volume have to match pvl  constant.
I/. then we can calculate the change in entropy for the reversible process.Chapter 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics I'd like to explain entropy in a clear. with no volume change ASsolidliquid : I# . so AS . We don't have a good way to calculate AS for an irreversible process. in his book CommonSense Thermodynam'ics. .LQ lT. intuitive manner. For a closed syst€D. A reversible process is one where the entropy change is zerol so that a positive entropy change means that the process can't be reversed. so we find a reversible path that goes from the starting configuration to the final one.nRmY V. it is possible to calculate the entropy.r gas * . Robert Jones. They are important because they are easy to calculate. Being a state function also means that if we can find even a single way to calculate the entropy.0. While usually the change is both easier to calculate and more meaningful. and for a solid or liquid. at least without some outside source of energy. ? is a constant so AS . and T there is a welldefined value for the entropy .on results when a quantity . Reversible processes happen infinitely slowly (and are therefore no fun to watch). the entropy can never decrease. So what can we say about entropy? Entropy is a state function. LQ : 0. writes: No simple "intuitive reason" can be given to explain why a state functi. Unfortunately I don't have such an explanation.. Lengthier calculations include an ideal gas ASia". And indeed Clausius [one of the pioneers of thermodynamics] himself took 15 years in developing a concept of entropy that satisfied his own doubts. that for any combination of We are typically interested only in changes in the entropy AS. . The change in entropy is As : ln'# nCy m* tt Two important special cases are adiabatic and isothermal processes.S. For an isothermal process. For an adiabatic process. is divided by the temperature. then any other way to calculate the entropy must give the same result. which means of heat p. To decrease the entropy requires work or energy from outside the system.
158
Remember
CHAPTER
20. E I"ROPY AArD THE SECOI\rD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
that Cv is energy per kelvin per mole, and c is energy per kelvin per kg, so these two equations
are very similar.
EXAMPLE
A 30 g ice cube at 5"C is placed in 508 g of 23" C water. Find the change in entropy A,S of the water and ice as the ice melts and the system comes to equilibrium.
T\rtor:
cools,
Student: What's equilibrium?
After the ice has melted, it will be OoC. The melted ice will then warm as the cooled water further until they are all the sarne temperature. Student: What is that temperature? Tutor: We don't know. We have to figure it out. How much energy does it take to warm the ice?
Student:
The mass times the specific heat times the temperature change. Q
 mcLT 
(0.030 kg)(4180 JlkgK)(5
K)

627 J
Tutor:
Student:
Good. You saw that a change of 5"C is the same as 5 K. Yes. Now I need to find the energy to melt the ice. Q
 Lm 
(333 kJlkg)(0.030 ke)
 e.ee J
?
Tutor:
Uh, that's kilojoules.
Oops.
Student:
Q
 Lm 
(333 kJlkg)(0.030 kg)
 e.ee kJ :
eee0 J
Tutor:
Student: I was wondering
Q
why it took so little heat to melt the ice. It's good to see whether your answer makes sense. How much will the water cool while the ice melts?
 mcLT +
(627 + 9990) J
:
(0.508 ke)(4180
Jlke.K)AT > LT:
5K
The water is cooled to 18'C as the ice melts. Good. Now find the equilibrium temperature. The heat that the melted ice gains is equal to the heat that the cooled water loses, until the temperatures are equal. Student: But I don't know the temperature. Tutor: Then make up a variable.
Tutor:
Student:
 Ql  Qz: m2/LT2 (0.030 ks) g  0o) : (0.508 kg)(18'  r) (")(0.030 ks * 0.508 kg)  (0.508 kg)(18") (0.508 kg) (18')ff\\^ / (o.o3o kg * 0.508 kg)  r.o
m1/LT1
T\rtor:
Student: And we still haven't done the entropy. Student:
Now we can. What is the change in_entropy of the ice as Can we use ASrorid,tiquid  TTLCIn fi?
Yes.
it warms to 0"?
T\rtor:
o,"t:":K)
rn
rtrtor:
T\rtor:
How are you going
Student: I must have made a mistake,
."*T
+
?
"j[:ff:::
yes?
Yes. When you found the heat to warm or melt the ice,
it was a temperature
difference. . .
159
Student:
. . . so
I
could use Celsius, but when
I divide temperatures I
need to use kelvin.
AS

(0.030 ks)(4180 Jlkg.K)ln
, ry_5+t
2.32 JIK
T\rtor: I don't have a good explanation for that, just like I don't have a good one for entropy.
Student: Ok y. Then the ice melts,
and that happens at a constant temperature.
Student: What kind of unit
is a joule per kelvin?
AS: 9T
Student: And then the melted
S
ice warms. (0.030 kg)(4180
JIK ry:36.ss 273K
J lks.K), In

IUzs
o+2n 7.58J/K
T\rtor:
Student: And the water cools. Student:
Remember to include the cooling that happens as the ice melts. Oh y€s, the initial temperature of the water was 23".
As

(0.508 kg)(4180 Jlkg.K)
is:
' l' Y23+273
JIK):3.01 JIK
Student:
Then the total change in entropy
As

(2.32 JIK) + (36.5e JIK) + (7.58 JIK) + (43.48
Tutor:
Good.
T\rtor: Correct. Student: But I could put 30 g of the water in the freezer and turn it into ice again, and 23"C is room temperature, so if I leave it sitting out it will warm again. I'll be back where I started, so the entropy will
be the same as it was. That's what being a "state function" means, right? Tutor: AII true. The change in entropy of the water as you move it back to the initial conditions will be 3.01 J lK. But the freezer will use electrical energy, and the water will absorb energy from the room, and if we include that in our system the change in entropy will be positive. You can reduce the entropy only by bringing work or energy in from outside the system. Student: So if I take the water back to the initial conditions, the change in entropy of the freezer and the room must be positive and greater than 3.01 J lK.
Student:
The change in entropy is positive. That means that this process is irreversible.
Tutor:
Yes.
The effect of entropy is to limit the efficiency of thermodynamic processes. In the last chapter, we said that
we could not recover the heat
out. Now we tell why.
First we need to know about reservoirs. A reservoir is an external body at a particular temperature. The reservoir is large enough that we can add heat or take heat out and not change the temperature of the reservoir. Though not perfectly true, it works well for doing calculations. To make a heat engine an engine that turns heat into work requires two reservoirs. Find a liquid that boils at a temperature that is lower than the hotter of the two reservoirs. When the "working fluid" is in contact with the hotter or higher temperature reservoir, it boils into gas or steam. When the working fluid is in contact with the colder or lower temperature reservoir, it either condenses to liquid or is still ges, but lower temperature gas with a lower pressure. If we put a turbine or propeller or fan between the two reservoirs, the higher pressure from the hotter side will spin the turbine. We can connect this turbine to a generator and get electricity, or use the torque directly. If we had only one reservoir, then both sides of the turbine would be at the same pressure and the turbine wouldn't spin or do work.
160
CHAPTER
20, E]VTROPY AATD THE SECOIVD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
The process must lose heat to the lower temperature reservoir. When the working fluid is in contact with the hightemperature reservoir, it absorbs heat from the reservoir. After going through the turbine, the fluid comes in contact with the lowtemperature reservoir, and heat comes from the working fluid to the reservoir. Not all of the heat taken from the hightemperature reservoir can get turned into work.
Heat engine
The efficiency is the ratio of the work out efficiency is
Tr.
to energy in. The highest possible
Tn
:
Ts
 Tr,
Tn
which is obtained
isotherms.
"Carnot cycle," consisting of adiabats and
heat pump takes heat from the lowtemperature reservoir and moves it to the hightemperature reservoir. Heat does not normally flow this w&y, so we need to put energy in to the heat pump in the form of work. The coefficient of performance for a heat pump is the ratio of heat extracted to work supplied, and is also limited by the laws of thermodynamics:
A
r..
. <' r'E  lQrl rHrL [,
Tr
Air conditioners and refrigerators are heat pumps. A refrigerator takes heat out of the colder inside and puts it into the warmer room, typically through coils on the back. An air conditioner moves heat from the
cooler room to the hotter outdoors. To do so takes work, and we use electricity to power an electric motor to do this work.
How can work move heat from a cold reservoir to a hot one? Imagine that you have a box of gas, designed so that you can push in one side to change the volume, and so that heat can flow through the sides of the box. Standing inside, you pull out the side of the box, expanding the gas. As it expands, the gas cools. It is now colder than the room, and heat flows from the room to the box. You now walk outside while pushing in on the box, compressing it. As the gas in the box compresses, it becomes hotter, so that it is hotter than the outside air. Heat now flows from the box to the air. As you walk back inside, you expand the box again, repeating until the inside air is cool enough. The second law of thermodynamics can be expressed in many ways. You can't turn all of the heat into work, heat doesn't go from cold to hot on its own, and AS"roredsyste* 2 0 are just some expressions of the second law of thermodynamics.
EXAMPTE
A solar pond uses salt to trap the heated water at the bottom of the pond, so that the energy does not escape to the atmosphere. Such a pond can achieve
80"C temperature water in this bottom, heated layer. This water is used to make steam out of a working fluid with a suitably low boiling point. Use 450 W l^' for the intensity of solar radiation, with the Sun shining only 6 hours per d.y. How large a solar pond would be needed to make a 1 GW power plant?
T\rtor:
Student:
One gigawatt seems like a lot of power. About enough for an American city of half a million people. Student: Why is the Sun shining for only 6 hours per day? T\rtor: The Sun is not always directly overhead. Take a piece of paper (or this book) and turn it so that
161
you are looking somewhat along the page, rather than normal to the page. The area you see is less than the area of the page. When the Sun is not directly overhead, we need to include a factor of cos 0, wherc 0 is the angle between the Sun's rays and the normal to the surface. It averages out to about 6 hours a day, 7 or 8 in Arizona, S in Ohio. Student: Okuy. If I need 1GW of power, then I need 4 GW for 6 hours aday, because Iget nothing for the other L8 hours a day. T\rtor: You haven't taken the efficiency into account. You can't collect all of the energy that reaches the pond. That comes from the second law of thermodynamics.
Tutor: Multiply the power reaching the pond by the efficiency to see how much power you can get.
P1rrxePo.rt4GW Student:
To calculate the efficiency, I need the high and low temperatures. The high temperature is 80"C,
Student:
So
I
need
to multiply by the efficiency.
but what's the low temperature?
Thtor: Tutor:
Student:
Take something rea.sonable. Okay. The average temperature of the Earth is 15oC.
I'll
use that.
Good choice.
difference.
T\rtor:
Student: And I need to use kelvin because it's not a temperature
Really you only need to use kelvin in the denominator, but
it doesn't
hurt.
e_rr_T,Tn
Tutor:
Probably not even that much.
(80+2Iq) _(15+273) (80 + 273)
_0.18:
t8%
Student: I can get only 18% of the power out?
Pin
x (0.1S):
rn
Pout

4 GW
n^19 0.18
22cw
r!+ L tA!'3 Il9: Y4.exLorm2 A ' I 450W1^'
About 19 square miles. So one of these "solar ponds" could power a city with an area of 4 miles x 5 miles? Ttrtor: Theoretically. There are issues involved with doing so. For example, you're collecting 5.5 GW, or average, but generating 1 GW, so you need a reservoir where you can dump 4.5 GW of waste heat. Student: Do coal and nuclear plants have the same problem? Tutor: Yes, but they operate at higher temperatures and are about 33% efficient, so they only have 2 GW of waste heat to dump. Most power plants are located by rivers or lakes so that they can dump the waste heat into the water. Remember that water has a high specific heat and can store a lot of energy.
T\rtor:
Student:
Chapter 2L
Electric Charge
So far, every force on an object has been exerted by something else in contact with it, except for gravity. There is a second type of force that can act without being in contact, and that is electricity. Eventually
there will be a third such
force
gnetism.
Electric forces occur between two objects that each have a special character about them. For lack of anything better, w€ call this special trait charge. Charge comes in two types, which we call positive and negative. Then a charge (the object) ir an object that has charge (the character trait). We use the word both ways and use the context to determine which way we're using the word each time. When we want to include the charge in an equation, we typically use q or A for amount of charge (the character trait) that a charge (the object) has. Either q or Q is used, but if both occur in the same problem then they refer to different amounts of charge (the trait). While q is a variable that could be positive or
negative,
charge.
*q
implies an unknown amount of positive charge and
q
implies an unknown amount of negative
The most basic charges (the objects) are the proton and the electron. (This is not entirely true but works well until the last chapter of the book.) Protons have positive charge and electrons have the same amount of negative charge. Because the charge of a proton or electron appears so often in physics, we give it a special symbol e. e is the arnount of charge on a proton or electron, so the charge of an electron is e.
Charge is measured in coulombs, abbreviated C. The charge of a proton e is 1.6 x 101e C. Inversely, a coulomb is about 6 x 1018 protons or electrons. The charge on an electron is 1.6 x 101e C.
Any two charges create an electric force on each other. Two charges of the same sign repel each other, while two charges of opposite sign attract each other. The magnitude of the force they create is
,T2
where q1 and q2 are the charges (the amount, or
is
klqrllqrl
trait) and r is the distance between them. The constant k
k
1
4Tes
gxloeN.^, lc,
EXAMPLE
Three charges, of +3 FC,
respectively. Find the total force on the
5 pC, and +7 FC, are arranged
*7 pC charge.
r62
along the
r axis at 0,
10 cffi, and 25 cffi,
163
T\rtor:
Where do we always start when dealing with forces? a freebody diagram. Tntor: What forces are acting on the *7 p"C charge? Student: There is nothing in contact with it, so only gravity and electric forces. Tgtor: Often when there is an electric force we ignore gravity, because the force of gravity is much smaller than the electric force. Student: Then just the electric force. Tntor: What is the force that the *3 p,C charge puts on the *7 p'C charge? Student: Is the *3 ptC charge blocked by the 5 pC charge? Tgtor: If I hold my hand under somethirg, does the mass of my hand block the gravity force from the mass of the Earth?
Student: With
T\rtor:
Student: Student:
No.
So one charge does
The
*3
not block the force from another. pC charge creates a force on the f7 p"C charge that is
(9
r 10e N. ^2 lc')(3 r 106 c)(7 x 106 c) _ ? n N
(0.25 m)2
Tutor:
Is the force to the left or the right? The force is positive, so it's to the right. T\rtor: We haven't chosen axes yet, so there is no positive direction. When we did forces before, w€ used the diagram to get the direction of the forces right, and the equations never told us the direction. Student: They are both positive charg€s, with the same sign, so they repel. T\rtor: If the +3 p,C charge repels the +7 pr,C charge, what is the direction of the force on the +7 p'C
Student:
charge?
T\rtor:
Student:
Away from the *3 p,C charge, or to the right. What is the force that the 5 pC charge puts on the *7 p'C charge? Student: The 5 pC charge creates a force on the *7 p,C charge that is
(9
"
10e
N.
r ^' lc')(5 (0.15
106 c)(7
x 106 c)
)'

14.0 N
Tutor: What is the direction of this 14 N force? Student: The charges have opposite signs, so they attract. The force on the *7 pC charge is toward the 5 pC charge, or to the left. T\rtor: Are there any other electric forces? Student: We did every charge except the *7 ptC charge, so we have all of the electric forces, and there
are no other forces. T\rtor: Now we can finish the freebody diagram.

3N
Tutor:
Now you have to choose an axis.
Student:
Only one axis?
What is the total force on the I'll take left as the positive direction. and the charges are the same. What is the mass of the third charge? How is the mass connected to the charge? Never mind that. lz3 . Where do we start? Student: With a freebody diagram.j at . The force is up and to the T\rtor: Now we can finish the freebody diagram. A third +25 pC charge stays 12 cm above the midpoint of the first two charges. so it's also 200 N. lc. q7""i @" &lo crr > . Tntor: What are the forces on the +25 p. so ?z? is a variable. Tutor: What is the electric force that the left bottom charge creates on the third charge? Student: They are both positive. so they repel. T\rtor: There's the connection.C charges are fixed 10 cm apart on a horizontal line.13 m)2 C) :200N T\rtor: What is the electric force that the right bottom charge creates on the third charge? Student: The distance between the charges is the same as the distance we just did. pC charge? *7 N F(+taN) +(3N) :+11 Student: 11 N in the positive direction.C charge? Student: There is nothing in contact with it. ELECTRIC CHARGE Tntor: All of the forces are colinear.)(15 (0.3 l.164 CHAPTER 27. x 106 c)(25 x 106 ^. EXAMPLE Two +15 p. or to the left. lefb.I t a L . so gravity and electric forces. We don't know the ma"ss. What about gravity? Student: The gravity force is down with a magnitude of mg. and the force on the top charge is up and to the right: Tutor: Student: r(g 13cm 10e x N. T\rtor: Student: Since the greater force is to the left.
Tutor: What axes will you use? Student: I'll choose the r axis to the right and the g axis upward. FR.. Fn. are placed along the r axis at 0 and 10 cm. so the cosine of the angle is (12113). Tutor: Student: 0  arccos(I2113)  22. T\rtor: Student: What is the A component of the electric force created by the bottom right charge? The U component is adjacent to the angle. the top charge wouldn't be above the midpoint. + (77 N) + (0) : 0 T\rtor: If the r T\rtor: If Student: But Student: What did we learn from that? forces didn't add to zero. break the vectors into components.  200 N sin 22.6" : 77 N T\rtor: Student: What is the g component of the electric force created by the bottom left charge? The gr component is adjacent to the angle. the EFo (185 N) TTL. of *2 pC and 7 pC. How do we add vectors? Student: We choose axes. It goes to the left so it's negative..165 Can we add the three forces. so it's sine. Fl.9'8 m/s2 38ks EXAMPLE Two charges. Where can a third charge of +5 pC be placed so that the total electric force on it is zero? .u  200 N cos 22. Tutor: Now we can write our Newton's second law equation.6" : 185 N T\rtor: component of the gravity force? is no r component.mg : 0? Forces are vectors.. so it's sine. then the top charge would have to move. so it's cosine.6"  185 N Tutor: Student: What is the r component of the electric force created by the bottom right charge? The r component is opposite to the angle. 2 x 200 N .  200 N cos 22. the bottom charges weren't equal. so there EF" (77 N) : TTL..6" T\rtor: Student: What is the r component of the electric force created by the bottom left charge? The r component is opposite to the angle. so it's cosine. FL. + (185 N) + (*g) ' 0 (370 N)  ms ttoT= m"'/ . Student: And the acceleration is zero. T\rtor: What is the angle between the electric force created by the bottom left charge and the g axis? Student: It's the same as the opposite angle. r forces have to add to zero because the problem is symmetric. What is the r Student: Gravity is parallel to the y axis. and add the components.
What if the f5 p. Student: So that won't cancel and won't add to zero. T\rtor: Could it go to the left of the two charges? Student: Then the first charge creates a force to the left. We have to put the third charge on the r axis. what are the forces on it? Student: The first charge creates a force up.1 rn)2 Tutor: Student: It doesn't We'll see why in the next chapter. How do we decide which is bigger? Tutor: Could it go between them? Student: Then the first charge creates axis.1 m)2 0. above the first charge? Student: Anywhere on the g axis? T\rtor: If the third charge is on the g axis. could the electric forces have the same magnitude? Student: The 7 p.1 )2 (r)' matter how big the third charge is. so no.j.5cm J . but the f2 p. T\rtor: Could those forces add to zero? Student: No. and the second charge creates a force to the right."rt lq2 pc)\bpeT fte p. (z pc) (7 pc) (r * 0. so it could. T\rtor: If the +5 p. But the difference between (100 rn)2 and (100. T\rtor: Somewhere in between there must be a spot where the two charges create the same force.C charge is a long way to the left? Tutor: Student: then the *2 pC charge creates a bigger The *2 p.C charge would be closer.166 CHAPTER 21.C charge is really close to the +2 ptC charge. so it would create a bigger force. The 7 pC charge would be bigg€r. Student: So the larger charge would create a larger force.121) 1)(") : 0. the first two charges will create that aren't colinear. ELECTRIC CHARGE Where do we start? it be on the y axis. so that is where the magnitudes are the :"r. The forces couldn't add to zero.2(r * tffi (r)\/ 0. and the second charge creates a force to the right. (r)' 7(r)' .1 m ) 0. T\rtor: If we put the third charge anywhere other than on the r a force to the right. force. T\rtor: If the third charge is to the right.C charge would still be closer. there would still be a component to the right.c)\WT (r * 0. since it cancels.1 ttFz tz w7 .1 ttt)2 is very small. T\rtor: Student: Could T\rtor: forces What if the third charge was above the midpoint between the first two? Student: Then both of them would create forces to the right. and the second charge creates a force down and to the right. T\rtor: Could it go to the right of the two charges? Student: Then the first charge creates a force to the right. and the second charge creates a force to the left.1 m 1ry  (r + 0.115rrl11. We've already gotten the forces in opposite directions..C charge would be bigger and closer. but in opposite directions.
I disconnect the spheres and then I have two spheres of *q and q." Ground can supply an infinite amount of charge without becoming charged itself. Then I connect a second sphere to ground and use the first one to pull positive charges onto it. T\rtor: Yes. charge splits exactly in half? . or connect it to ground through a wire. Plastic is a good insulator. I disconnect the sphere and move the rod away and the charges are still there. so we put it on the outside of wires so that the charges don't go through us. and the third is neutral. Student: Okuy. so we make wires out of copper or aluminum. T\rtor: And if you connect a sphere to ground with nothing else nearby. If we used cubes. but if the charged rod is closer to one of the spheres than the other. they have to have the same charge after the charges are done moving. Tutor: That would give you two spheres with opposite charges. What could you do so that you can get charges of 1. but charge does not move easily off of the insulating rod. opposite charges will be attracted from ground onto the sphere. and a conducting wire.r67 The other important thing in this chapter is how charges behave. then we'd have much more difficulty getting the geometry to be symmetric. EXAMPTE You have three identical conducting spheres on insulating stands. You also have access to ground (the Earth). But how do I know that the T\rtor: Using symmetry since the spheres are identical. The charges will move so that the two spheres are equal. and zero on the spheres? That is. the sphere will become positively charged. Not necessarily.Q. Most metals are conductors (made of conducting material). Student: So I connect one sphere to ground and use the rod to pull negative charges onto it. What happens if you connect two spheres together or touch them to each other? Student: Charges can move from one to the other. but it would be very difficult to get the right amount of charge on each sphere. so long as one of the spheres has a negative charge on it. That's why we're using spheres. you need to make sure that they are both neutral beforehand. _iq. Now you need to take the q and split Student: I'll it in half. it will become neutral. Trrtor: Maybe some. will the spheres be equal? Student: No. If my conductor is connected to ground and a positive charge is brought close to my conductor. the nearby sphere will have more negative charge than the far one. T\rtor: it to something with the wire. but not in an insulating material. I connect one sphere to another and put the rod near the first sphere. then all of the charge can go from the conductor onto ground. we often refer to "ground. If the rod or another charge is nearby. Is there another way to get charge onto a sphere? Student: If I rub the rod on one of the spheres. attracted by the positive charge. T\rtor: The charges can move. like ground or another sphere. the sphere will get some charge on it. then negative charge will come from ground onto my conductor. because ground is SO big that the charge is dispersed too small to detect. you don't care how big the charges are. Student: So if I hold the rod nearby a sphere and connect the sphere to ground. T\rtor: To make sure that the charges are equal. Do this by connecting each to ground with no other charges nearby. another has twice as much positive charge. In dealing with charges. It is not true that any object connected to ground must be neutral (uncharged). take the negative sphere and connect it to the third sphere. Student: I could Student: connect T\rtor: If you connect a sphere to ground. what happens to the charge on the sphere? The sphere becomes neutral. Tby a different way of getting some charge on a sphere. Ground does not itself become charged. If you have a charged conductor and you touch it to ground. Describe how you could achieve this. Charges can move around in a conducting material. a positively charged insulating rod.
then it will become neutral. and Lrq. ELECTRIC CHARGE charges I have le.168 Student: So now CHAPTER 21. _ iq. J . If I connect the third sphere to ground. with the other far away.
If I were to put a 1 C charge nearby. a field Imagine now that you repeat the process. The force on your charge is proportional to the amount of charge you use. Therefore the negative charge creates electric field toward the negative charge. the normal force would be tilted. In the previous chapter we had charges creati. Imagine that a positive charge is creating the electric field. In mathematics. Imagine taking a single charge and moving it around among other charges. but with a greater charg€. A 3 C charge in a 4 N/C field experiences a force of 12 N. or N/C. the force that each other charge creates would be twice as big. The set of vectors. Just like everything else we've done involving vectors. On a hillside. so the total force would switch direction. At each point. either field or force.Chapter 22 Electric Fields means that at each point in space there is a vector. the equation only tells us the magnitude of the vector. then the negative charge would attract my charge. one for every point in space. That was a simplification.rg forces on other charges. so the total force would be twice as big. and electric field creates forces on charges. so that it was perpendicular to the hill's surface. So the units of electric field are newtons of force for each coulomb of charg€. twice as big. This is because the force my charge would experience if I put it nearby would be away from the positive charge. the positive charge would repel my charge. Charges create electric field. we need a way to determirre the direction of the vector and an equation to determine the magnitude of the vector. The electric field that a char ge Q creates is E _ ke 12 169 . creatirg a force toward the negative charge. and a charge at that point experiences a force from the electric field. if you imagine that a negative charge is creating the electric field. If you switched the sign of your charge. This set of vectors would be a field. For each step. creating a force away from the positive charge. QEF Each of these steps produces a vector. Imagine walking around and measuring the normal force that the ground puts on you. One way to think about electric field is that it is the force you would have on a charge if there was a charge there. The field exists whether there is a charge there or not. is a field. Likewise. all of the forces would switch direction. Therefore the positive charge creates electric field away from the positive charge. A point in space has an electric field. and at each point you measure the electric force on your charge. On flat ground the force would be the same as your weight and upward (since there are no other forces and no acceleration).
The total electric force on the electron is 4 x 1017 N to the left. with the proton to the left of the electron. Student: Do we need to include the field created by the electron? T\rtor: Good question. Student: How can there be more than one electric field? Tutor: Every charge creates electric field. The proton creates electric field where the electron is. If we add the fields from all of the charges. F . Otherwise we might conclude that the charge can push itself. It is an externally created electric field. but ro. So we have two ways to calculate electric fields. in addition to the field created by the proton. More on these later. If q is negative. Student: So are we doing the Q + E step or the E + F step. electric fields are often 105 N/C or more. ELECTRIC FIELDS it experiences a force of F:qE Notice that this is a vector equation. What are the direction and magnitude of the external electric field? The proton creates an electric field at the electron.)(1.I7O When a charge q is placed in this electric field.m apart in an electric field.qE). and the charges we don't see create electric field where the electron is. CHAPTER 22. EXAMPLE A proton and an electron are located 2 p.) Why do we bother with electric fields at all? Electric fields can do things between the time they are created and the time they act on a charge. (2 x lo1e ^. lC. Tutor: But the force is already given.E. we get the total field.kQ lr'). then the force on the negative charge is in the opposite direction as the electric field. Like any equation. Student: Okay. there are some types of calculations that are only possible with electric fields. we look at the first step (Q . but not as helpful at this time. then find the force. Also. . right? Tutor: Right. and the electric field creates a force on the electron.6 x 106 )2 C) : 360 N/C T\rtor: Student: Is this a big field? No. we can do each step backwards if necessary. What is the direction of this electric field. when we want the field acting on the electron we don't include the field created by the electron. Student: So what is there left to find? There is an external electric field. If we have the charge(s) that create the electric field. That field plus the external field is the total field. Meaning that it doesn't exist internally? T\rtor: Meaning that it is created by charges that we don't see charges other than the proton. If we have the charge that experiences the electric fieldr w€ Iook at the second step (E + F. The proton creates an electric field Student: Thtor: Student: Ep: kQ 12 (9 x loe N. We find the electric field. (It is possible to write the first equation as a vector equation. T\rtor: You were correct in saying that we can find the electric field that the proton creates. E . Student: That would be the Q + E step.
so it must be negative. F and Etotur will have opposite signs.6 x 101e C)Etot"r Etot^r  250 N/C Tutor: Student: Student: The total electric field is positive. What is the external field? Student: The total field is the sum of the proton's field and the external field. Now you can find the total electric field acting on the electron. (4 x 10tz N) . T\rtor: Yes. Does that make sense? The electron has a negative charge.17t T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: It goes away from the proton.qE equation. Or you could define a variable for the external field.(1.Ev*8"*t (+zso N/c)  (+360 N/C) + Ee*t Ee*t: 110 N/C Student: The external field is to the lefrb. so the field is to the right. Yes. Tutor: True. so the field and force should be in opposite directions. Tutor: Good.6 x 101e C)Etot"r ? T\rtor: You need to be careful about your signs. only backwards. . Is ^Eo positive or negative? Student: It was to the right. and put it into the F . The force on the electron is Student: F:QE (4 x 1012 N) . The force is to the left. EXAMPLE Find the electric field at the center of the square. It's a matter of personal preference. but what is the direction of this field at the electron? Away from the proton would be to the right. write an equation for the total field. T\rtor: Good. indicating that they point in opposite directions. The charge of the electron isn't a vector. Student: Which is better? T\rtor: They're the same. Student: How can I do that? I don't know the externally applied field. so it's positive. It works. so you can find the field at the electron. so do Student: I include the sign? T\rtor: Yes. but you know the force on the electron. Etot^t.(1. Student: You mean using the E + F step. Student: I'm going to find the total field. so it points to the right. Is the force on the electron positive or negative? Student: It's to the left. Because the charge q is negative. Correct. What is your positive direction? How about to the right? T\rtor: Okay.
The bottom *4 p. and the distances are the same.C charges cancel? should be the to zero. Away from that charge is downward. Do they have the same magnitude? Student: The charges are the same.C charge creates field away from it. draw fields. or to the left. What about the other fields? . or up and to the right. Either we have the charges that create the electric field or u/e have the force created by the electric field. Tutor: True. Student: There is no charge at the center of the square. but we have the charges that I find the field from each one and add T\rtor: Remember to add them as vectors.C charge creates field away from it. The 2 p. or upward.C charge creates field toward the negative charge. ELECTRIC FIELDS How are you going to start? We want electric field. so we need to use either the Q + E step or the E + F step. Start with a diagram. create the electric field.C charge creates field a\May from it because it is a positive charge. so the magnitudes same. How can we have the force created by the electric Tutor: Student: field? T\rtor: them up.172 CHAPTER 22. We don't. And last. Student: Ah. Student: Okay. except that instead of drawing forces. y€s. I\rtor: They add Student: Do the fields from the *4 p. They cancel. b T\rtor: They are in opposite directions. the *5 p. The top *4 p.
even if the vectors are electric fields now.84x 106 N/C Eu: *Essin45o  (9.C charge 5 cm from the center of the square? ' No. Student: It goes a little left and a lot up.05 m)2 c):18x 106 N/c ? Is the *5 p.0 x 106 N/c decide whether to add them or subtract them. the angle is arctan( ):82. Ttrtor: For a 45o45o909 right triangle. Are the field vectors colinear? Student: No.84 x 106 N/C).36 x 106 N/C To find the magnitude of the field. So the *5 p. Student: Yeah. The y component is much bigger than the o component.).L73 Student: I need to find n^ . + (+6. m2 lCrXS x 106 C) _ g. Do I have to find the components like we did back in Chapter 3 or something? T\rtor: Yep. that's right. 106 E_ Tlrtor: Student: It's (8.86 x 106 Nnt :6. I need to use the Pythagorean theorem.C charge is rt x 5 cm from the center. _lcQ . The point 2 cm above the midpoint of the rod. The angle of the vector should show that./(0. T\rtor: Student: Now I Er: Ez* Student: Escos 45o_ (7. E.bo EXAMPLE A charge of fl. What is the electric field at point P? Q:L2 L . Measured from the ranis.2x 106 N/C) + (9. the hypotenuse is fr times the length of a side.urtF (g x 10e N. : .urz the magnitudes and add them. _ ItQ _ .0 x 106 N/C)sin45" : *6.m2 lcrx2 x 106 c) _ 7. J P is a distance  pcC is spread out uniformly over a rod of length L L2 cm. + (Er). Adding vectors hasn't changed. it's further. I have to add the components using the Pythagorearr theorem.42 x N/C almost the same as the y component.F (g x 10e N.2x106 N/C Esryv rz Tlrtor: Student: (ex 10e N'.0 x 106 N/C)cos 45": 0.T1{c2)(5x 106 (0.
Then you find the electric field from each piece and add all the electric fields created by the pieces. The length of each piece is equal to the distance from one piece to the next. this is sounding like an integral. but what do I use for r? T\rtor: That is a problem.174 CHAPTER 22. what would be the charge of each piece? Student: The total charge is 12 p. say. You can use that to find the charge on each piece. If there were exactly one million pieces. What is the length of each piece? Student: Is that dr? T\rtor: It is. and the charge q of each piece is . which is dr. maybe more. or 12 x 1012 C. k dq The . Student: That would have to be really tiny. you need to divide it into pieces. isn't it? Since not all of the charge is at the same place. then the charge of each piece is really.C. Student: So the number of pieces is Lf dr. so any piece of the same length has the same charge. but not zero. T\rtor: We need to do all of the pieces at once. Pick an arbitrary piece. How can I tell? The charge is spread "uniformly" over the rod. T\rtor: Student: T\rtor: Don't panic. but not the first or the last. Student: Why not the first or the last? L Student: So it could be any piece. each so small that we can say that the whole piece is at the same place. T\rtor: Do all of the pieces have the same charge? T\rtor: Student: Uh. 1 cm to the right of the middle of the rod. r to the right of the middle of the rod.. There'd be hundreds of them T\rtor: Yes. Got magnitude of the field is it. Tntor: Very small.ttQ lr'. r can then be anything from 6 to 6 cm. Student: Like. I think so. ELECTRIC FIELDS How do we find electric fields? We use E . and the first and last pieces are special and aren't representative. What's dq? dq is typically used to represent the charge of each piece.. Student: But there are hundreds of pieces! Wait. so a millionth of that. Pick one piece. u Then I find the electric field from the piece using r. if there are millions of pieces. T\rtor: Like. really small. s&y. What is the charge dq of the piece? Student: Well. '"T\rtor: Student: @'+d2)2 Picking r from the middle makes the denominator simpler.
Isthatwhatyoumean? T\rtor: Yep. using the lengths of the sides. Now you can write down the r conrponent of the electric field. Student: So the field created by each piece is n k(Q drlL) ft:@ T\rtor: That is the magn'itude of the field created by each piece. T\rtor: Again. so it's sin. e T CI 0 r T\rtor: True. The charge density is the charge per length. and then the r component is adjacent.O cm to *6 E. t::. Student: But there are millions of fields. But you don't really need 0. Tutor: So we have to find the r and g components of each field. so it's cos. Remember then the r cornponent of the electric field is negative. Student:Thecosineof0isrdividedby!ffi. Look at the triangle you drew to find the arrgle. kQr L(*' + d2)tl' dr kQ L r:. Instead of finding the angle. Another way to get the same result is by using charge density. What are the limits Student: r L . If we multiply the coulombs per meter @ I L) by the meters of a piece (dr) then we get the coulombs of a piece @ dr I L). that if n is positive. r components.175 dq a number of pieces L I dr a Adr L T\rtor: Very good. (*' + rdr d2)3/2 . The fields all point away from the charge but not all in the same direction. do it once for the piece at r and it will be the same for all of them. Student: Okay. just cos 0 and sin d. Do the electric fields created by each piece point irr the same direction? Student: No. find the cosine and sine of the angle. or coulombs per meter. while the y cornponent is opposite. F k(Q dr I L) \1 r na@xffi:W Tlrtor: for r? kQ* dr Then the total goes from r component is the sum of all of the individual cm. I need to find the angle d.
Student: Oh.176 CHAPTER 22.o2m) ^'lc')(r2 pC)  8. ELECTRIC FIELDS Tutor: Student: Now we have to do the integral. + a2)3/2 L J_rp@Now dn kQd. You still need to do the A component. If I flip the problem left to right. Tutor: Look at the symmetry of the problem. dn We look in the appendix of the book. dW (o. except that it's the opposite over the hypotenuse. Student: It should be very similar. where we find I T\rtor: I (*.5 x 107 N/C . yeah. rdr + a2)3/2 1 (*t + a2)r/2 This is the same integral that we have. where we find D 'r' kQd. T\rtor: Good. f Lt' [dn:r I (*. L Lffi)_"p I n 1"t' Ldrl@kQ I L 12 ffi L12 Student: I can put in the numbers. r d. We look in the appendix of the book. or some other integral table. Llffiaaz)_rp 1 1"t' is the same.r D kQ ["t' LtrLJ_rp@ kQ . the problem Student: Zero? Isn't there some easier way to do this? Eu: Student: ["'' ryx rL/2ftWf ^ +a2 ry fL/z (*' + a2)r/2 kQd. so we can use their answer. so the answer has to look the same. so it has to be along the y axis. kQ (9 Ey: x 10e N.
8. multiply times the area of the tiny piece. and add the results for all of the tiny pieces. For a field line to come out of a surface. The mathematical expression for Gauss' law is QB Snet €g where Q6 is the electric field flux coming out of the area. Electric field lines start at positive charges and end at negative charges. . Despite the scary appearance of this integral.l[a : 0. at each piece find the component of the electric field that is perpendicularly out of the surface (normal to the surface). We only do the integral when it's when not doing this integral leads to a much nastier integral. You could reduce this rate by using a smaller bucket. A closed surface is one with no if you are inside the surface and you want to get out you need to exits pass through the surface. This is Gauss' law. or by tilting the bucket sideways. The surface does not have to be real imagine number of or invent any surface you want and Gauss' law tells you the electric field lines coming out. and es is 4rk . What is electric field flux Q n? Imagine that you are out in the rain holding a bucket. Qn dA which says to divide the surface into tiny pieces. Mathematically. it either has to start inside (. it's not so bad.t a positive charge) ot enter somewhere else on the surface. Count the number of electric field lines coming out of each surface. You should find that lr{z : l/1 and Afs .85 x 1012 C'/N m2. This is not mere coincidence. Remember to count a field line going in as a negative line going out. Qnet is the net charge inside the area. by going to a place with less rain. 177 dirt simple. The electric field flux 06 is effectively a count of the number of electric field lines passing through a surface. Flux would be the rate at which raindrops enter the bucket.Chapter 23 Gauss'Law Examine the surface below. Gauss' Iaw works for any closed surface.
To do that we need to know the electric field at each spot on our imaginary surface. centered on the charge q with a radius of r (r is a variable.side of the imaginary sphere is the same as the field on the field on one other side.E d. so we'll use a sphere.A cosoo . It has to be because of the symmetry of the proble it looks the same from any angle. so a negative field is inward or toward the negative charge.178 Let's see how it works.E dA Because the field E is the same everywhere on our imaginary "Gaussian" surface en:lnd. Because the field is perpendicularly out. We want to find the electric field created by a single point charge q away? We can invent any surface we want to use with Gauss' law. Gauss' law tells us that the flruc is equal to the charge "enclosed" by the imaginary surface divided by EA. the area is 4rr2 Qnet €g E(hrr') tr u Qnet Qnet €g 4trr2 es (4nes)r2 12 This is the same thing we got in the last chapter (whew). GAUSS'LAW We want to do the integral to find the flu>c. so it's equal to the area of the imaginary surface. Pick any two spots on the imaginary sphere. We can only do that if the symmetry in the problem lets us do the critical step above the electric field. it could be anything). At any spot on our imaginary sphere the electric field is perpendicularly out of the surface and has the same magnitude. CHAPTER Gaussian 23. We don't know that's what we're trying to find. The goal is to use Gauss' law to calculate the electric field.C? Everything would have been the same until we put the negative in and got a negative electric field.Anlat The integral that remains is to add up the area of each tiny piece. is the same everywhere on the imaginary surface so we can pull it out of the integral. E.2 p.dA.EA e6. and the electric field is the same. We always mea"sure the field out from the surface. What we do know is that the the field .en Because the surface is a sphere. oo UJ E Iad. never in. so the electric field is the same at any angle. symmetry Gauss' law EA:la dA:'r"T . What if we had used a negative charge q . whatever it is.
Draw an imaginary sphere that is concentric with the conducting sphere and has radius r. is the same everywhere.' is the same.. and we couldn't say that the electric field is . How do we find the electric field? We divide the charge into Student: (as vectors). Okay. You can rotate it any way you want around the center. This is the key to using Gauss' lawr I choosing a surface where the electric field. Don't we have to pick a value for r? Tutor: We could. the area gets bigger. r is the distance to the point where we want the electric field. Find the electric field T\rtor: Ttrtor: law. Tutor: Student: What's r? Isn't it the same as R? R is the size of the sphere. Student: So the electric field is the same everywhere? Thtor: Not necessarily. when we rotated j the Gaussian surface with the sphere. Our result might be a function of r.5 cm. If the field is the same everywhere. and add the electric fields We could do that. but everywhere on a concentric sphere the electric field . T\rtor: It is good that you're thinking ahead.\ \ where? I F a a  \ So that we can calculate the flux. We divide the area of the surface into tiny pieces. whatever it is. T\rtor: Student: o 'DrDrDlr '\ and the problem looks the same. A charge of Q :14 pC is placed on a hollow conducting sphere of radius R . but that's not complicated. but the resulting integral would be very difficult.'\ \ the same everywhere. so that at different values of r we get different Student: Ttrtor z electric fields. We don't know what the electric field is. As r gets bigger. also has to look the same (remember doing this when we . multiply by the (tiny) area. did center of mass?). Is A the area of the conducting sphere or the imaginary Gaussian surface? I\rtor: It's the area of the Gaussian surface 4trr2. '. but the beauty of leaving it as a variable is that it works for any value. Instead. the problem would : o . . but the number of field lines T\rtor: \ doesn't increase." Yes. and add them. the area increases and the flux increases. but why a sphere? Because of the symmetry. " look different. If we chose some other shape. Student: But a"s r gets bigger. so E does depend on r. I Student: Why does the field have to be the same every. the electric field must get smaller so that the flux stays the same. so the flux O is equal to EA. Student: But we want the electric field everywhere. T\rtor: Correct. find the electric field from each. Q""t €g eB EA Student: I thought that we had to do vector dot products and stuff like that. and we don't know. Then we only have to do the problem once. write down Gauss' law. little pieces. then this is the same as EA. find the electric field through each. Therefore.E. let's try using Gauss' So we need some kind of "Gaussian surface. Once you have chosen your Gaussian surface.179 EXAMPLE magnitude everywhere. but the number of field lines doesn't increase. Student: Okay. Imagine that you want the electric field at a point that is a distance r from the middle of the sphere. Student: Ah. Look at the problem. the answer . Therefore.
What if Correct. so the cos d is 1. it means both inside and outside the sphere? Yes. T\rtor: Yes. Correct. I know. Student: And the field is the same everywhere. Now it is for a sphere. 4rr2 . Let's start inside. what is the direction of the electric field? from the sphere. Ttrtor: If r ) B and the Gaussian surface encloses Student: Then none of the charge is enclosed. the sphere.*4 pC. T\rtor: Correct. If none if the charge is enclosed. our electric field depended on r. How much of the field is perpendicular to the Gaussian surface. Is the electric field for a sphere the same as a point charge. what is the area of the Gaussian surface? Student: The area is the area of a sphere . and all of the charge is enclosed. All of the field is parallel to the normal. though? T\rtor: As long as you have spherical symmetry. and because the field isn't constant. Student: So any sphere has the same electric field as a point charge? . T\rtor: Student: And by askittg what the field is everywhere. T\rtor: Student: Directly away T\rtor: +How much charge is enclosed? eB . GAUSS' LAW T\rtor: We do. Look at the Gaussian surface.Qp: E( nr') 9€6\ . then everything we did works. Student: Yes. What about outside the sphere? Q"n' €g . then yes. J . but to be able to use Gauss' law.E(4nr') kQ Tutor: r. At each point on the surface.E(4trr2) r < R? Tutor: Student: All of it. so the integral equals EA. Now.r a iJ@: Keep in mind that the purpose of the example is not to reach such a conclusion. A . Because of the symmetry. parallel to the normal vector? Student: All of it. but we need the field to be at least p'iecew'iseconstant in order to use Gauss' law. You just did the vector dot product. Correct. what is the electric field? M':oa: €g E(Anrz) 0 . the field points directly away from the sphere.E(4rr2) E _0 Tutor: Student: There won't be any electric field. Student: That's the same thing we had before! Tutor: Before it was for a point charge. More on that in the next example.180 CHAPTER 23.
so I choose a cylinder. and that's good because the field wasn't constant as T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Then Student: If r ) it moves out from the cylinder along the R. T\rtor: All very good.'d. I want a Gaussian surface with the same symmetry as the charge. Multiply the length enclosed by the charge per length to get the charge enclosed. My imaginary cylinder has a radius of r. which might be more of less than ^R. including the ends.d (2trr2)(0) Student: So the 1 and the 0 are the cos 0's? Correct. Yes.  QB : E ia * "(2trrL)(1) 8".'r_OE:EA €g Student: The area is the area of my cylinder. but they don't tell us the total charge. where L is the length of my imaginary Gaussian surface. The charge is 3 coulombs for each meter of length.. Now it's time to think about the electric field. Student: Then I write down Gauss' law.. the more charge it has. Eu. Student: Ok y. insulating cylinder of radius R electric field magnitude everywhere. Tntor: Very good. cornbined with the difficulty of dividing the charge into little pieces. The longer the cylinder is. . What is the flux through the top and bottom of the Gaussian surface? Student: There isn't any. T\rtor: Radially outward. the charge enclosed is all of it. concentric with the cylinder of charge. What is thgdirection of the electric field? Student: It points outward from the cylinder of charge. it tips you off to try Gauss' Iaw. disappears from the equation.181 EXAMPLE A long. Of course. solid. The field skims the surface but doesn't go through.  6 cm has a uniform charge density of ) Student: So the symmetry. T\rtor: Correct. T\rtor: So Gauss' law becomes ? I\rtor: ends. We're never entirely sure something will work until we can see the end. which is (2mL) + 2(nr'). tips me off to use Gauss' law. Q".
Tutor: Student: Note that . so the field increases. Tutor: The field increases as we move away from the center. so long as we are still inside the cylinder. What is the electric field atr:0? Student: It is zero Tutor: Which it has to be because of symmetry. Now the charge is spread throughout the cylinder. How much of the charge is enclosed? Student: I don't know. then half of the charge is enclosed. If the cylinder were made of a conducting material. Good  EXAMPLE Ad electric field magnitude everywhere. As we get further ifr<R? T\rtor: Student: 2rr/eo 2Tesr r from the cylinder. Student: So I find the volume enclosed. The charge in a volume nR2I is Q"n"). the field gets weaker as the field lines spread out.\ is negative. T\rtor: How much of the volume is enclosed? Student: What does that matter? T\rtor: If half of the volume is enclosed.r. Not true this time. What Then the enclosed charge is zero. the field should go towards the negative charge. GAUSS' LAW Student: : ^L? *enE(2nrL) ETutor: Good.c 23. so the field is going into the Gaussian surface. Almost.)x T\rtor: #)x # ^L.r82 CHAPTER So Q. and multiply by the charge? T\rtor: Essentially. The charge ? enclosed is Q"n. . As we move a\May. *x(r^rl x #)er E(2nrL) r2 EQrr) + eOR2 L r'J Student: \r 2rregR2 The field increases as we nrove away from the cylinder. Student: So if r 1R. Student: Ah.Lx# Tutor: Now back to Gauss' law. Student: The volurne enclosed is rr2L. divide by the total volume to get the fraction enclosed. then the charges would move to the surface and that would be true. it would be different. some of the charge is enclosed? T\rtor: Correct. so the field is zero. if it wasn't zero j and we rotated the cylinder around its axis. The total volume is rR2L. the charge enclosed increases faster than the area.
right? T\rtor: Correct. so you get to choose. What does the electric field look like? Student: It points perpendicular to the plane of charge. whatever that is. Yes. Ttrtor: As long as the right side is inside the plane (r < d. and the width is r. but not all of the Gaussian surface contains charge. The field at the center is zero.183 a I a ? ? ? ? o O a a . the problem looks the same.l D t.f I . . :+ l*. '. and the charge is rAp. What is the charge enclosed? Student: It's the volume in meterss times the density in coulombs per meter3. Student: Then I write down Gauss' law. Erp€g T\rtor: Tutor: Student: What if r ) d. . Okay. Correct.12. Student: So the volume is frA. so the only side that has field is the right side. It better cancel.! € I I : T\rtor: Student: I need a Gaussian Tutor: Does it go in both directions? Student: Can we use symmetry to determine that? If I flip the problem surface that keeps the symmetry of the charge. or goes up or down the paper. Tbtor: Good.1  rl I ''. lefttoright.l2). Nothing side? comes out of the paper or goes into the paper. T\rtor: Good what's the volume? Student: Thewidth times the height times the depth.o 't rl .. and the right side is outside the plane? The area is still the same.eB: EA Student: The area does cancel. so it goes both ways and has to have the same field each way. T\rtor: The height times the depth is your area A. The field better not depend on the size of your imaginary surfac different surface but that wouldn't change the field. Q"n' €g eBEA Tutor: What is the area? Student: I only include the area that has field coming out of it. But what is the area of the right T\rtor: It's your Gaussian Student: surface. I might imagine a rAP €g . Draw a Gaussian cuboid that starts at the center and goes out a distance tr. because it skims the surface rather than going through. The area is A.
23. so the enclosed charge stops increasing once we leave the plane. since there won't be an electric field inside the conductor.o f2es. by measuring out from the center. If the field goes in both directions. and the 2 appears because. row your boat) for coulombs per meter3. row. then you use the equation with the 2. If the field goes in only one directior. It's a tipoff or reminder of how the charge is distributed. fs this the 2 inthe equations? Tutor: Somewhat. This happens if you have a conducting plane with charge on the surface. then you don't use the 2. . Greek sigma o for coulombs per meter2. Greek lambda . and Greek rho p (pronounced "row" as in row.\ is typically used for coulombs per meter.o l ro and E . Student: So what's with the Greek letters ) and p for charge? Tutor: We still use a or q for charge. w€ include only half the charge. but we use Greek letters for charge density.L84 CHAPTER Oh. The field here goes in both directions. GAUSS'LAW Student: (dlz)Ap €g _eB:EA pd 2eo E Student: I saw the equations E .
how latter part. How did we use conservation of energy earlier? The energy you start with plus the energy you put in (work) is the energy you end with. 185 .KEy * PEt The work done by some forces (gravity and springs) is easier to deal with by using potential energy. K4+ PEi+W . the part that depends on position. The potential energy is the product of the size of the rock (*) and somethitrg that depends on the position (gh). while with gravity the mass could only be positive. often without noticing. then as the rock rolled down the hill we could get electricity to power our stereo and make tunes. Conservation of energy is so effective in dealing with charges that we do it all the time. If we moved a rock that was twice as big then the potential energy would be twice as big. This Jlk1. The work that gravity does during the process is the same no matter how we get the rock to the top. The work that we do that is stored as potential energy is mgh. which is the purpose of physics. and then we don't include them in the work term. which depends on the position. Work done by electric force is the other work that is easier to do with potential energy. If we tied a string to the rock beforehand and wrapped the other end around a generator. but can we use them effectively to solve problems? Conservation of momentum doesn't help us because some of the charges are usually "glued down. Gravity pushes in the opposite direction as the motion and does negative work as the potential energy increases." and we don't know the force on them so we don't know the impulse. With electricity.Chapter 24 Electric Potential We've learned to use forces when we deal with charged objects. The units of gh are ^'l"'or much work it takes to move one kilogram of rock. or joules per coulomb. How did potential energy from gravity work? Potential energy is work that wetve done that we might get back out. Can we use conservation of energy and conservation of momentum? Certairly energy and momentum are both conserved. One joule per coulomb is a volt and is sometimes called voltage. When we raise a rock we exert a force equal to gravity n'Lg (a little more at the beginning to get it going) while we raise it a height h. Since we push in the same direction as the motion we do positive work. 1V:1* The only significant difference is that the charge can be negative.) The potential energy in joules is equal to the charge in coulombs times the potential. UPEqV (U is often used for potential energy. is the potential. the potential energy is equal to the product of the size (charge q) of the thing we move times the potential V.
If the field is constant. aPEot'J piece. then the potential Vpoint charge : kq R This assumes that the potential is equal to zero at infinity. To calculate the electrical potential energy we have to find the work we do pushing against the electrical force.E I is ffi . then the integral becomes A%o.. but potential and potential energ:f are not the sarne. The part that depends on the path (and not the charge) is the potential.AE if the field is created by a point charge.E times the length of the tiny The potential enerry is the product of two pieces.qE  . 8. A location has potential. dfr . Therefore we divide the path into tiny pieces so tiny that we can say that the electric field is constant for the whole tiny path. we do negative work (or get work out) while the potential energy decreases (some of the potential enerry is turned into work).dfr You might conclude that we're going to be doing lots of integrals. The question then is: how do we determine the potential.Ff .186 CHAPTER 24. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Remember that potential and voltage are the same thing. or the negative work done by the electrical force. The ca^ses are point charge and constant field. the amount of charge that we move and somethittg that depends only on the path along which we move it.s us from needing to do an integral.dfr where ^d . dd is the component of the electric field parallel to the tiny piece d. Since these come up regularly using potential often keep.E. dfr . . and a charge at the location has potential energy.. When the charge moves on its own and we hold it back. LPE. Av: f{ J_8. increasing the potential energy. but this is not so. Then we add the work we've done (increase in potential energy) for all of the tiny pieces of the path.q4rcosl Often the electric field is not constant as we move the charge.stant : I E . When we push a charge against the electrical force we do positive work. There are two cases for which it's rea"sonable to work out the integral and reuse it.
and we can calculate how much work it would take to get to infinity. . of course. It takes something like half of the work to move the proton the first 40 cm. then it would have a positive kinetic energy. we cut the potential energy in half. because the universe is finite. Is the proton moving when it gets to infinity? T\rtor: If it was. How can a proton move to infinity? T\rtor: It can't really. and half of the remaining work to move it the next 80 cm. Student: So by the time we've moved it three meters. True.187 EXAMPLE What is the work needed to move a proton from P to m? 30 cm T\rtor: Student: Student: The problem asks for work. so that means we'll need to use energy. Now we need to calculate the potentials at P and oo. Student: So. Student: So the kinetic energy before is zero. KEt. but we'd never really get Tutor: Student: it there. Student: T\rtor: Okuy. We don't want to do that. Student: So the kinetic energy afterward is zero. Student: So I find the potential at P due to each charge and add the potentials? . is it? Tutor: The problem doesn't s&y. and half of the remaining to move it the next 160 Student: How do you come up with that so easily? T\rtor: If we double the distance. We need the potential energies. we've already done 90% of the work needed to move it to infinity? T\rtor: Yes. What is the equation for conservation of ener gy? Energy before plus energy in equals energy after. and we'd have to do more work. Fqievp+w:r$fev* I\rtor: Very good. + PEi +W : KEy * PEt What is the kinetic energy before? The proton isn't moving. . Both kinetic energies are zero. Good. so that implies that it isn't. The potential energy due to electric forces is qV .
you need to include the minus sign so that a negative charge creates a negative potential.6 x 1015 J . The potential at P due to the *5 p.22. the potential is zero at infinity. We'll do one of those Tutor: Student: next. The values you just found are the potentials created by each charge.6 x 101e c) )K0 w . x 101e c) ( 22.5 kV) .188 T\rtor: Yes. Student: Oh good! Anyway.C charge is VkQ: r Tbtor: Student: :9x1o4v Correct.m/c TUtor: Yes.s kV T\rtor: That's one of the reasons to use potential.(1. it's zero.25 x 104 V) : (1.2b x 104 N. Student: No vector stuff at all? Great. Student: So the potential is always zero at infinity? T\rtor: Whenever we use V .(1. Yep.3. Student: Okry. ELECTHIC POTENTIAL Student: The potential at P due to the v  kQ r  5 pC charge is kl: p? (40 cm)  11. Now I need to find the components and add the r and A components together. then the equation for potential would have been more complicated and harder to calculate. 22.(1.5 kV) +W . so that you got a positive value for the magnitude.b00 V . If we had picked anywhere else. now (1. A newton times a meter is a joule. then you should have used the absolute value of the charge. Potential doesn't have direction. for point charges. We chose the potential to be zero at infinity. The other common situation is a constant.field. and a joule per coulomb is a volt. What is the potential if r is oo? Student: Uh.6 x 101e c) ( 22. Since potential isn't a vector.6 x 101e C) (22. Tlrtor: No. T\rtor: Yes.kQ l.6 I can find the work. and then we can't take the potential to be zero at infinity.6 x 101e C)y* Now I need to find the potential at infinity. CHAPTER 24.skv) +w . If we had been doing a vectoq. (g 104 Vp: x V) + (1t. and you just add the potentials together.
{iqvc+w Wlevo T\rtor: You're doing well.E x d.D E. The problem is that the field is a constant. Student: So I have to start at infinity.q(Vo Vc) Student: So I have to integrate only from C to D. You don't need the potential at infinity. and the integral is easy. because the field got smaller as we went further away.KEf + PEf Again. the potential energy is qV. (300 V/*)(0. Student: Ah. Volts per meter are equal to newtons per coulombs.50 m) : 150 V ? field were newtons per coulomb. in theory. you need only the difference in potentials between C and D. and again.40 m) : 120 V ? . (300 V/*)(0. and I can't integral the electric field from infinity how can I find the potential at C? T\rtor: It's kind of a trick question.eVc .189 EXAMPTE What is the work needed to move an electron from C to D? oC . T\rtor: Correct. right. They are. where the potential is zero. Fortunately the electric field is constant. it is important that you integrate from C to D and not from D to C. What is the potential at C? Well. and integrate the electric field Student: a^s I come in to C? T\rtor: That would work. remember that only the part of the displacement that is parallel to the electric field matters.eVo . so the final is D and the initial is C. Where are the charges that create the electric field? Tbtor: We can't see them. Student: Oh. and the integral converged. We didn't have this problem with a point charge. In fact. Also.300V/m *40cm+ Student: It Student: asks for work again. big math term. so T\rtor: Student: I thought that the units for electric AV . W . So if I can't see the charges that create the field. Student: Oh. that is a problem. so we'll be using consenration of enerry again. and integrating & constant over an infinite distance gives an infinite value. initial. K4+ PEi+W . the particle isn't moving before or afber.E x d. The potential difference is Because a change is always the final minus the T\rtor: Student: How can you tell? AV . y.
Because the solid sphere is also spherically symmetric. I won't need to do any work. and that's what's important. taking the potential to be zero at infinity.(1. Student: So 2 must be at a higher potential than C. The displacement in the direction of the electric field is 40 cm. Electric field always LV.92x 10t7 J Tutor: Does it make sense that the work you need to do is negative? Student: The electric force will push the electron to the right.190 CHAPTER 24. If the field is constant. and 4 isn't positive. the displacement is to the electric field is to the left. the field outside the sphere is the same as for the hollow sphere. W  I EXAMPLE A charge of Q . so it must be positive So Vo is negative? We don't know. Our second way to find a potential is that if the field is created by point charges. The T\rtor: (300 V/*)(0. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Now you need to make sure that you have the sign right. Find the potential at Nothing about energy.positive.6 x 101e Cxtzl V): 1.Vc is. Yep. then we can find the potential from each point T\rtor: Student: . We do know that Vxt ) Vc. Student: The field isn't a constant. How do I do that? T\rtor: One way is to follow the math.C is spread uniformly over a solid sphere of radius R the center of the sphere. .*4 p. Tntor: Yes.s the electron moves. T\rtor: Not quite. Tntor: But 4 is greater than 7. Student: . and therefore Vo .  5 cm. We have three ways to do that. just find the potential.E. We found the field due to a hollow conducting sphere. and we don't care. . Ttrtor: Student: Student: It's greater than the potential at C. I can finish the problem now.. .a0 m) Another way is to look at the electric field. As you go from C to D. q(Vo Vc) . T\rtor: Negative work means that we can get work out of the process a. then the potential difference is the displacement times the parallel component of the field. T\rtor: Is the potential at 2 positive or negative? . so T\rtor: Student: right. so it will go there on its own.Lil 120 v to lower goes from higher potential potential. Student: Okay. We found the field in the last chapter.
d. so 8. What is the electric field inside the sphere? Student: We need to use Gauss' law. Yes.J vn'. What is the direction of the electric field? The field points away from the sphere. and integrate the electric field to the point we want. but it isn't zero. T\rtor: It may be really small. T\rtor: Yes. T\rtor: Student: Thtor: Yes. Now the potential Vn at R is vn: Tutor: Student: Student: That's the same as the potential for a point charge! I: Edn: I: ydnkel. Student: So the field outside the sphere is kQ l12? Thtor: Correct. How much of the electric field is in the direction of the step? Student: They are in the same direction. Student: The charge is spread out over the sphere. we are using r to represent our current position.*i ^v . Student: If it's infinitesimally small. T\rtor: Good. then it doesn't have direction. so the integral of the field is also the same. we have to get the displacement from R to oo.ilEdn T\rtor: Student: That's how we deal with the vector stuff.J* "2! Trrtor: I have trouble with minus signs when integrating from a higher value to a lower one. picking an imaginary sphere to keep the symmetry of the charge. vn: Ttrtor: Student: l: E dil The field outside the sphere is kQlr2. T\rtor: Yes. so we would have an infinite number of point charges.Yx  f+ [" 8. Q"n" €g o^e : EA E(4nr2) 1 ( "'J"t ftY"a x (charge of .191 charge and add the potentials. What is the direction of dfl Student: What is dtrl T\rtorz d. ke[:*] : E The field is the same as for a point charge.pr. so we need to find Q"n" like we did in the cylinder example from the last chapter."r")) €s \ volume oI Spnere / . Student: So the direction of each step. so I'm going to reverse the limits and add a minus sign. Student: The only place where we know the potential is at infinity. T\rtor: So we start there and integrate in. 8.fr is the infinitesimally small length of the steps that we take as we move out to oo. small though it is. When we add up all of the steps. As we move from ^R to oo.] . is outward from the sphere. The third way is to start at a point where we know the potential. How much of the electric field is in the direction of the step? Student: All of it. Now we do the same for the field inside the sphere. dfr . T\rtor: Tbue. Only part of the charge is enclosed.
Ir" E dn#* Student: What's wrong with that? Io" W dn ? r.05 m) 1 Vn: 2kQ R . you used r for that distance. What is the potential at P.ET kQr Wonderful.ig .dfr from someplace where we do know the potential. If the field is constant. I prefer to reverse the limits.E .y : r. Nory we can do the potential integral. Thtor: Yes. T\rtor: The field inside the sphere is a function of how far we axe from the center of the sphere.E T "/c'X+a pc) (0.#ln'o'l :E.I E . because otherwise I'm likely to make a sign error. we use Tpoint charge : H. as 0 goes from 0 to .R. then we integrate the electric field AV . but in the potential integral we're using Student: So the field inside the sphere is W when we do the integral. Which way are you going to try here? . AE. Tutor: Very good. If the field is from point charges. ELECTHIC POTENTIAL * (#"4) ' EJ: T\rtor: E(An") #':E(4n") Qrs : 4v^psrz Qr nrop. then we use A%oostant . We have three ways to find the potential. a distance d away from the L Student: Let me see if I have this right. In using Gauss' law to find the field. If we can't do either of those. vo:vn*.44MV I EXAMPLE A charge Q is spread uniformly over a length center of the line of charge? L. vo:vn* Jn fo . dn Tlrtor: Agaitr.44 x1o6 . Vo: I"Wdn#*#lo"*dn *'J::8.L92 CHAPTER 24.
It's probably easier to integrate the charge. so we can't do that. What is the potential created by each tiny piece? the charge divided by the distance. Or we could integrate the field. each dn long. the charge of each piece is dQ: (length of piece) x (charge of rod) (length of rod) f A ? I I I I \ L Ttrtor: Student: k times Good. As before. .193 Student: The field isn't a constant. an maximum values for r? T\rtor: Student: Can I do the integral now? Sure. the variable of integration. Which way is easier? T\rtor: We can do it both ways for practice. Student: We divide the rod into tiny bits. but we could divide it into point charges and add the potentials using an integral. but the ph ysics of the problem is done. everything there is a constant or r. We have to do an integral either way. r/^ [k(Qdrlt') YPJW T\rtor: Student: r What are the limits for the integral? What are the minimum goes from L12 to *L12. The charge isn't a point charge. Vp: rw (Ll2) + (Ll2) + rn dr vp:ry fr"("+ Vp (t L12) + T\rtor: We can do algebra to simplify this.
ELECTHIC PO"ENTIAL Vp. Student: Arrg! We have to integrate over the charge to find the field? Thtor: Yes and no. To get the potential at P. because we did that in an earlier example. But the field is not created by a point charge. As r moves from P to oo.194 CHAPTER 24. and that means doing an integral. No. Student: But [ Edfr then you want to integrate the other way. Student: True. we have to find the field. 8. integrating the electric field. since n is our variable of integration. Yes. vp:voo.kQ L "'\(Ll2)+ Vp: F7py (Ll2)+@\ (Lt2)+@) vp:Yr^( ) /r vp:'#t"( Tntor: Student: Now you want to integrate the field for practice? Sure. Student: The electric field is kQlr2. start at oo and go to ) P. we need the field at a distance fi. T\rtor: Good. we don't have to now. But the field does depend on where we are.dfr T\rtor: Just because r is the variable you're integrating over doesn't mean that the field depends on tr. T\rtor: It's easier to get the sign right that way. Ea: kQ .
195 Student: There's no r. vpkelo*ffi Student: So we get the sarne answers either way. then we let s go from d to oo. T\rtor3 No. Er(t) the field. . d was the distance from the rod to the point where we found Student: So we replace d with c.  Ilrtor: Yes.
After a while (which might be only microseconds) this process slows down and stops. and placing them parallel to each other but not touching. If you start with a bunch of (equally 196 . Positive charge flows out of the positive end of the battery to the first cookie sheet (really it's negative charges flowing out of the negative end of the battery onto the other cookie sheet. the charges are trapped on the conductors. The amount of charge Q that can be stored on a capacitor with capacitance C is QCV Equal amounts of positive and negative charge are stored on the two plates of the capacitor. Then connect the two ends of a battery to the two cookie sheets. Other positive charges from the second conductor take the place of the previous charges. What if we were now to disconnect the battery from the cookie sheets? Could the charges on the conductors foresee what we're about to do and rush back into the battery? No.Chapter 25 Capacitance Imagine taking two large flat pieces of metal. but the effect is the same). It takes work to store charge on a capacitor. We could now connect the conductors to the two ends of a light bulb. The units of capacitance are farads (F). and meet up with the excess negative charge on the other conductor. creating a momentary current. Since this energ"y can all be extracted later. When the positive charges get to the first conductor (cookie sheet). we can express as a potential energy (Icnp: it l . One way to understand this difference is to imagine stacking books.AV This is similar to the equation we had for the potential energy of a charge (U : qV) except for the onehalf. going into the negative terminal of the battery and leaving behind a net negative charge. We have a device for storing small amounts of charge. they can go no further so they collect there. and Q is the absolute value of one of these two charges. and the excess positive charge would go through the bulb. such as cookie sheets.
The second book takes a little work. V. the third more. but then there would be an infinite number of equations. which is half of the final voltage. but use U . Likewise when two devices are connected so that they must have the same voltage. we can solve for the others. which is lifted to half the height of the pile. The average is the work for the middle book. Student: An infinite number of equations would be hard to remember. . Likewise it takes no work to put the first charge on the capacitor because with no charge it has no voltage. The total work is the charge times the average voltage. Q_CV 333 pC : C (12 V) C28p. we say they are in parallel. What can you find? Student: I can solve for the charge Q.qV for individual charges. We have four variables (C. Tutor: Student: So why so many capacitors are mea"sured in microfarads or even picofarads. and so on. I guess I can find the capacitance after all. then we have ways of dealing with them. and C.oo2 J) : ia(12 pC v) Q 333 T\rtor: Student: That seems like a pretty small charge. an equation with those three. but if they are then we can do something with them. When two devices are connected so that all of the charge that leaves one must go through the other. V. Use U . and t/) and two equations. since it must be moved up by the thickness of the first book.ieV when each successive charge takes more work than the next. The third book takes even more work. Student: Now that I have the charge. it doesn't take any work to put the first book on the floor. Q. we can find the other two using our two equations.F Thtor: One farad is a big capacitance. you can find the others. until the last book takes the most work. We could add the work needed for each book. It's better to remember fewer equations and to combine them when necessary. Q'+ 2u:cv ) ut"r' The next difficulty comes when we have two or more capacitors at the same time. V T\rtor: We could come up with an equation for every problem. or multiply the number of books by the aaerage work for each book. It's also true that we don't have (Jcrp:lO' (o. don't we come up with another equation? We could . we say they are in series. It is not true that any two capacitors must be either in series or parallel. Most capacitors aren't very big. EXAMPLE What size capacitor would you need to store 2 mJ when connected to a 12 V battery? Student: If we know any two of the four.. T\rtor: It's true that if you know two of the four. If two capacitors are connected in series or in parallel. If we know any two of the four variables. but I need an equation with [/.L97 sized) books on the floor. and the last charge takes the most work. but then 2 mJ seems like a pretty small amount of energy. The second charge takes some work. They store only a little charge..
If by doing this you can get your fingers to lie at the two ends of C+. such as a capacitor or battery.{ CE How do we determine whether two capacitors are in series? Consid er C1 and Cz above. then C3 and Ca have the same voltage across them and they are in parallel (they are. How do we determine whether two capacitors are in parallel? Consider Cs and Ca above.198 CHAPTER 2 5. Now try moving your fingers. and you should be able to do this). so that they are geometrically parallel. The capacitance of this replacement or "equivalent" capacitor is CpCt*Cz EXAMPLE Find the voltage across each capacitor. Even though both are drawn vertically. If two capacitors are in series. and place them at each end of Cs. Charges that pass through Cz to point D can go either through C3 to F or through Ca to H. The voltage difference between your fingers is equal to the voltage difference between the ends of Cs. Ct and C2 are in series because the charges that pass through Ct must then go through Cz. . C APACITAI. then they can be treated as if they were a single capacitor. The capacitance of this replacement or "equivalent" capacitor is G cr. or by going through the battery and C1 (also not allowed). We could only do this by jumping from one wire to another nearby wire (not allowed). Cs and Cz are not in parallel. then they can be treated as if they were a single capacitor. I 111 If two capacitors are in parallel. but only along wires and not across any circuit element. Take a finger from each hand. Are Cg and C2 in parallel? We can move a finger from E to D but we can't get from F to C. Flom there the charges can only go to C and through Cz to D. Aty two capacitors do not have to be either in series or in parallel. The charges through Cz and C3 do not have to be equal.c. or the voltage across C3. so Cz and C3 are not in series. and the charges that pass through the two must be equal. they are not electrically parallel. Charge passes from A through C1 to B. Therefore.
Student: So the 6 pF capacitor is not in parallel with the battery. then it has the same voltage across it as Tutor: Student: the battery does? Yes. T\rtor: T\rtor: Good. Does all of the charge that comes out of the bottom of the 6 pF capacitor have to go into the 4 pF capacitor. Charge goes from the 6 to the 4. but we don't know that yet (and it won't be). A 6 volt battery creates a 6 T\rtor: volt potential difference." use "voltage across. and I slide the bottom one over. How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery. The voltage across the 5 pF capacitor is 6 volts. or voltage difference. . Are the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 frF capacitor in series or parallel? Student: They are in series. all of the charge from one must go into the other. Is the 5 pF capacitor in parallel with the battery? Student: Why does it matter? T\rtor: Two things in parallel have the same voltage across them. T\rtor: It isn't necessarily 6 volts. Thtor: Correct. The 5 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. T\rtor: Slow down." I put one finger on each side of the 5 pF capacitor and try to move them to the ends of the battery. then it has the same potential across it as the battery does. How do you check? Student: I do the "finger test. &t the two ends. Student: So the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 pF capacitor aren'tin series. T\rtor: Let's check." The voltage across is the difference in the voltages. or potentials. T\rtor: How do you know that the voltage across the battery is 6 volts? Student: Uh. and that's 6 volts. Student: Nor is the 4 pF capacitor in series with the 2 pF capacitor. Student: So what can I do? Neither the 2 p.199 The voltage on the 5 pF capacitor is 6 volts. Tutor: If you can find two capacitors in series or parallel. . T\rtor: That's not enough. or could some of it go somewhere else? Student: Some of the charge could go into the 2 pF capacitor. . It might be 6 volts. I put one finger on each side of the 6 pF capacitor and try to move them to the two sides of the battery. Student: So the voltage across the 5 pF capacitor is the same as the voltage across the battery. Rather than "voltage on. T\rtor: Correct. You just did three steps. Student: So if the 5 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. Ttrtor: That's not enough. The top one slides over to the top of the battery. T\rtor: Also correct. The bottom one has to jump over the 2 pE capacitor or the 4 fB capacitor. Student: . and the 8 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. then you can replace them with a single capacitor. A battery creates a potential difference. Student: And the 6 pF capacitor isn't in series with the 2 pF capacitor either.F capacitor nor the 4 p. Student: So the voltage across the 6 pF capacitor isn't 6 volts. Student: Okay. and it can't do that. I slide the top one over. Is the 6 pF capacitor in parallel with the battery? Student: Here we go again. Student: So I can replace the 6 pF capacitor and the 4 pF capacitor with a 10 pF capacitor. . because it's a 6 volt battery? Tutor: Yes. Tutor: It gets faster with experience. and I'm there.F capacitor is in parallel with the battery either. T\rtor: . all of which we need to check. Student: If the 6 pF capacitor is in parallel with the battery. T\rtor: How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery. T\rtor: To be in series. The voltage across the 6 pF capacitor is 6 volts.
CAPACITANCE Thtor: T\rtor: Student: Are some of them in parallel? Check. 25. The 6 pF capacitor and the 5 pF capacitor are graphically parallel. Isn't the 5 pF capacitor in the way? T\rtor: It may be between the battery and the trio.200 CHAPTER Correct. I put one finger on each side of the 4 pF capacitor. The voltage across the trio is 6 volts. but I can't move the other from the bottom of the 4 to the top of the 6. but do be careful. but nowhere else. so you need to check for electrically parallel. but not always. The trio is in parallel with the battery. Student: Now the trio of capacitors is in parallel with the 5 pF capacitor. I can move one from the top of the 4 to the bottom of the 6. How do we add capacitors in parallel? Student: We add the capacitances. but not necessary. Student: So I can replace the 4 pF capacitor and the 2 pF capacitor with a single capacitor? T\rtor: Yes. 11121 Tntor: . like 116 + 116: IlI2. Student: So I can replace them with a single capacitor. T\rtor: Yes. Tutor: Student: I had almost forgotten how much I enjoyed fractions. I'll check to see if the 4 is in parallel with the 6. or with the 42 pair. T\rtor: So the 6 fE capacitor is in series with the replacement capacitor. T\rtor: Right and wrong. Tlrtor: But you can move them to the two sides of the 2 pF capacitor. but it doesn't affect whether or not the trio is in parallel with the battery. Earlier you tried to add capacitors that you thought were in series. Student: Okay. Student: The charge that comes out of the bottom of the 6 pF capacitor can go into the top of the 4 pF capacitor. The replacement capacitor is not I 13 p. Student: Oh. T\rtor: Yes. One over the replacement capacitor is I 13 p. Student: T\rtor: Tbue. I can move one finger from the top of the 6 to the top of the battery. tu rty T\rtor: Be careful that you don't do something silly. and try to move them to the two sides of the 6 pF capacitor.*(urtt GrrFt 1apE. or into the left side of the 2 pF capacitor. so the voltage on the trio is 6 volts. so the voltage on each of the three capacitors is 6 volts. T\rtor: No. What does it mean that the trio is in parallel with the battery? Student: They have the same voltage. They aren't that hard. 111 Cs Cr C. Student: Oops. Student: I don't need to combine the 5 pF capacitor with the other trio? . but that doesn't mean that the voltage on each capacitor in the trio is 6 volts.1opFt * c*^*CpE. Sometimes we call it the equivalent capacitance of the trio of capacitors.F So the replacement capacitor is 3 pF. How can the 4 pF capacitor and the 2 pF capacitor be in parallel when one is vertical and the other is horizontal? I\rtor: There's a difference between electrically parallel and graphically parallel. 11111 c*^*. but not electrically parallel. and the other from the bottom of the trio to the bottom of the battery. Student: Is the replacement capacitor in series with the 6 pF capacitor? Check. Often two capacitors that are graphically parallel are also electrically parallel.F . T\rtor: T\rtor: CpCr*Cz C+uzCa*Cz(4pF) +(2 pF) 6/rF Good.cu+ c*r. Student: It is.
How much energy does the coulomb of charge "spend" to get through each capacitor? Student: Does it spend 3 joules and 3 joules? T\rtor: Student: No? T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes. so they have to have the same voltage across them. Good.cr+ cu: 1e1.r. Student: How can we be sure that it's 3 and 3? Tbtor: Because the two capacitors (6 and 42 pair) have the same capacitance. Why are you asking about the charge? T\rtor:  2 p. So for each charge it's 3 volts plus 3 volts.F Student: . so I'll check that first.20L One volt is one joule per coulomb. are in series or parallel. then the three capacitors in the trio each have 3 volts across them. then through the 42 pair (which is also 6 pF). Student: But if the capacitors TUtor: Yes. First the charges go through the 6 p. it has nowhere to go other than into the 6 pF capacitor. Student: I think that they're in series. 111113 co*. Student: What if the 6 and the 42 pair didn't have the same capacitance? T\rtor: Then they wouldn't have the same voltage. which is 6 volts. cbcrc. Neither capacitor is in parallel with the battery. L2V 6rlt 12 Student: volts. How do we combine capacitors in series? Thtor: When charge comes so they are in series. Let's do that in the next example. That's 9 volts! Each coulomb of charge goes through first the 6 pF capacitor and then either the 4 pF capacitor or the 2 pF capacitor. T\rtor: What is the charge on the equivalent capacitor? Student: We're trying to find voltage.F capacitor. so it has the same voltage as the battery.* Cpair 111 turtt GpF) What is the voltage across the 2 pF pair? The pair is in parallel with the battery. out of the 3 p. capacitor. so each coulomb of charge leaves the battery with 6 joules of energy. then I can replace them with a single capacitor.F Student: By adding their reciprocals. so the voltage across the capacitors isn't Tbtor: Good. so 12 volts. Student: But EXAMPLE Find the voltage across each capacitor.
: CV.I C Vs:XVo:XThey need to..C of charge on each capacitor?! Yes. Student: So capacitors in parallel share charge. The 4 and the 2 would not each have the same charge as the 6.#H?'. we can find the voltages. 24 p. Remember that Q find the voltage.tlllrl: .lT:'. Positive charges stop on one plate. the 42 pair would have the same charge as the 6? T\rtor: Yes. Student: In the last example. and different positive charges leave the other plate. so the charge can't go any further. 24 p. T\rtor: Student: Look! They add up to 12 volts. and 24 p. they each have all of the charge.ff :". and it stops.s it goes through the two capacitors. but their combined charge would be the same as the 6. QCV v. so if we know the charge we can : CpaivVpair  (2 pF) (I2 V) : 24 p'C T\rtor: Tntor: Think about what happens to the charge . coming out of the bottom of the first capacitor and going into the top of the second capacitor. There's a gap. CAPACITANCE Tlrtor: Because that's how we get to voltage.C of charge comes out of the battery and goes into the first capacitor.T'lf :lif.C of charge takes it's place. The rules for adding capacitors in series and parallel were invented so that the voltages would add up to 12 volts. ::T'r:"TL'. Student: The charge on the equivalent capacitor is Qp^i. Student: How much of that charge is on each capacitor? Half on each? Ttrtor: Student: So there's 24 p.202 CHAPTER 25. when the 42 pair wa^s in series with the 6. Student: But you said a moment ago that the charges can't go through a capacitor. There it stops.fi ffi ffi"'iffi .*r:. Student: Now that we know the charges on the capacitors. T\rtor: Yes. When capacitors are in series. but in series they each get the whole charge.'JIT1T""H:JHilt?#.C of charge from the bottom of the second capacitor goes into the bottom of the battery. because each coulomb of charge uses up 12 joules a. T\rtor: True.
. Of more practical importance is Ohmts law. V. =1. the faster coulombs of charge go through. and p is the resistivity of the material (o . but an electric field causes current density.se omega (1 O . Consider also the energy used in the resistor. . is P The units of power used earlier work here (1 v)(1 A) iV 1w  volts times amps equals watts.1 V/A). So far we have simply Not anymore. the quicker energy is turned into heat in the resistor. The current appears because the valence electrons drift in the conducting material. Each charge uses an energy that depends on the change in the potential is volts. or 6 joules per coulomb.if the voltage difference between the two sides of the resistor 6 then each coulomb of charge uses 6 joules of energly getting through the resistor. can find the other two using our two equations. and the current density is equal to the density n of charges times the charge e of each times the average drift velocity 't)4. the symbol for ohms is the Greek letter upperca.1 I d. w€ have not had moving charges or electric fields in conducting materials. or rate of energy used in the resistor. we know any two of the four variables. J+(ne)da:oE! \ /w p A The current density J is the current i divided by the crosssectional area A. we To find the resistance of a wire. So the power.se (60" with a zero. o is the conductivity of the material. we use R:+ 203 . To avoid confusing an upperca.Chapter 26 Current and Resistance So far. An electric fteld in conducting material causes current moving charges.sured in amperes (1 A . Resistance is measured in ohms.1 C/t). An electric field in a conducting material causes a current density ? J'. V:iR The difference in voltage (or potential) between the two sides of a resistor is equal to the current through the resistor times the resistance of the resistor. waited until the charges quit moving and the electric field disappeared. Most of the time we care more about the current than the current density. and P) and two equations. Current is mea.(1 rl$$El"):1 rlrIf We have four variables (n. i. The more current. These two are connected.
120V. I could use it to find the PiV 100W:i(120V) Yes. but I don't know the current.0.100Wand V . I can use Ohm's law V .83 A)n 12ov r44e R. Your second statement said that the potential difference was equal to I20 times the potential difference. Student: resistance.83 A T\rtor: Student: It seems like we could We could. How much power is lost in the wires? . EXAMPLE A light bulb uses 100 watts of power when attached to I20 volts. but I can't use it to solve for the resistance. You'll need to find the current in order to use Ohm's law. P iv: (t*) u: # of formulas would Tlrtor: We could invent a formula for euery situation.iV. Better to be able to use a few formulas many ways. Iknow P. It to say that V . just so long as it has the same cross section over its whole length. invent a new formula for this. which is not correct. so I should be able to find the i_#0. Student: I could use P . I do have two of them. I'm going to have to be careful. Remember that variables are in italics and units in regular type.83A V:iR (120 V) : (0. What is the resistance of the light bulb? V : IR and P: IV v2 P D_v v 'uI Plv Rq4g (100 w) seems strange r44e Student: If Iknowtwoof thefour.204 CHAPTER 26. Icansolvefortheothertwo. current.iR. It is not necessary for the wire to be round or cylindrical. and ^L is the length. Ttrtor: tue. then put that current back into Ohm's law to find the resistance. Tutor: Be careful. Your first statement said that the potential difference (or voltage) was equal to 120 volts. T\rtor: Very good. which is correct. EXAMPTE A power plant delivers 100 MW of electrical power to the big city at 50 kV. The power travels through wires with a total resistance of 2 O.I20V. CURREATT A/VD RESISTAI{CE where p and A are the resistivity of the material and the crosssectional area above. but after a while the number become too large.
T\rtor: Is the number of charges passing through the wire equal to the number of charges passing through the big city? Student: You mean. so you could find the other two if you wanted. I want the power.icityV. P"ity . I suppose I could. so what's the problem? T\rtor: The problem is that there are two resistors. One is the resistance of the wires to the big city. but y€s. What do you know about the T\rtor: Student: The power is 100 MW and the voltage is 50 kV. so with three of the four this should be In fact. but don't give up. I know only one of the four. The current isn't mentioned. are the two resistors in series? T\rtor: We'll handle series and parallel resistors in the next chapter. But you could find them. Student: So I don't know the voltage across the wires.  ?'city : 100 MW 100 50kV x 106 W 50x103V  2000 A P*ir" : iwireT*ir" : i*ir.8 MW . and I can't do the Student: problem. You know two of the four for the big city.itv 100 MW icity (50 kV) T\rtor: Student: Yes. have the power and the voltage and the resistance. T\rtor: It is true that you know only one of the resistance of the big city? four. (i*iruRwire) . I have the power and I want the power.205 easy. that's what I mean. then that would be the current through the wires. I don't know the current or the resistance. Student: They are in series. Is the voltage 50 KV? T\rtor: 50 kV is the voltage across the resistance of the big city. Wire City 50 V kv MW i R 2Q ? 1OO P What happens to the charges after they go through the wire? Student: They go through the big city.(2000 A)'Q q .8 x 106 W . T\rtor: So if you found the current through the big city. and Student: I the second is the resistance of the big city. Tutor: What do you know about the resistance of the wires? The resistance is 2 Q. So the currents are the same. You would know two of the four and could solve for the power in the wires. Student: I could do that.i'*rr"Rrvire .
before and afber.r' Student: Excellent. but we do know something about it. So my electric bill is 8% higher because of energy lost in the wires? Tutor: To avoid this.206 Tlrtor: Student: CHAPTER 26. and the power in the wires is L 149 as much or 98% less only 0.27o is lost. You want to get the diameter involved. the electric company delivers electricity at much higher voltages. then the resistivities are the same. . Lz:7Lt . by what factor must we change the diameter of the wire so that the resistance remains unchanged? No numbers. Rz:'. tu_tu d'.That's better. and likewise ev R4PL Student: erything So I'll else. the current is oneseventh as much. Student: EXAMPTE f If the length of a wire is increased by a factor of 7. RtTutor: o_r!rr. T\rtor: It is true that we don't have a value. CUHREN" AND RESISTANCE About 8 % of the power is lost in the wires./ r\ 2 Arr27r(. The area is . like 350 kV. This is one of those "scaling" problems. Tlrtor: What is the length of the wire afterward (Lz)? Student: The problem doesn't say. 4pzLz Student: If the wires are made What do you know about the two resistivities? of the same material. At seven times the voltage..) rd2 use R1 for the original resistance. and R2 for the resistance afterward. d2. 4prl D dRt:1t'2@ T[tor: The 4 and the zr cancel. What is the appropriate equation? RT\rtor: Student: PL A Almost. and divide or substitute equatiorrs. We change the diameter so that the resistances are the same. How do you deal with scaling problems? T\rtor: Student: I work out an equation Student: Isn't it just Student: for each case. Student: We know that the length afterward is seven times the length beforehand. T\rtor: It is. What do you know about the two resistances? They are the same. Very good.
Student: The question was: by what factor do we need to change the dia.207 Ilrtor: 4:T So the length cancels. 1 (7) Fr:@ Ilrtor: Ilrtor: Ilrtor: Student: I still can't d. Solve for d.meter. And that's true regardless of the specific values.. . solve and get a rnalue'for d2. And we need to multiply it by rt.z rlre:rt d. Lr (7L) with the factor of seven left behind.2 anJrway.
such as a resistor. Note that these rules are the reverse of the rules for capacitors. Now try moving your fingers. Place a finger at each end of R3. or in parallel. or the voltage across R3. and now we'll do it with resistors. resistors can be in series. or neither. but only along wires and not across any circuit element. The voltage difference between your fingers is equal to the voltage difference between the ends of . When two devices are connected so that they must have the same current. Like before. and the currents through the two must be equal.Rs. Two resistors in series act the same as a single resistor that has resistance BsRr*Rz Likewise. we say they are in series. Two resistors in parallel act the same as a single resistor that has resistance 111 Rp Rr R. Flom there the charges can only go to C and through Rz to D. Current passes from A through B1 to B. Rt and Rz arc in series because the charges that pass through Rr must then go through Rz. when two devices are connected so that they must have the same voltage. The currents through R2 and R3 do not have to be equal. then Rs and Rq have the same voltage across them and they are in 208 .Chapter 27 What happens if you have two (or more) resistors in the same circuit? We did this with capacitors. If by doing this you can get your fingers to lie at the two ends of Ra.Ra above. we say they are in parallel. capacitor. How do we determine whether two resistors (or capacitors) are in parallel? Consider R3 and . so ^Rz and R3 are not in series. How do we determine whether two resistors are in series? Consider Rr and R2 above. Charges that pass through Rz to point D can go either through Rs to F or through Ra to H. or battery.
and I'm there. and the techniques involved are very similar. and you should be able to do this). Likewise Q : CV can be applied to any capacitor. Even though both are drawn vertically. T\rtor: That's not enough. When doing more complicated circuits.cross the 5 O resistor is 6 volts. It's important to keep track of what value applies to what circuit element or group of elements." I put one finger on each side of the 5 O resistor and try to move them to the ends of the battery. EXAMPLE F Find the voltage across each resistor. Rs and Rz are not in parallel. Therefore. but it can also be applied to a pair in series. If the 4 Q resistor is in parallel with the battery. We have found that Rz and Rs are neither in series nor in parallel. T\rtor: How do you know? Student: Because it's in parallel with the 6 volt battery. they are not electrically parallel. Is the 4 Q resistor in parallel with the battery? Student: Oops. The voltage across the 4 Q resistor is 6 volts. T\rtor: How do you know that the voltage across the battery is 6 volts? Student: Because a battery creates a potential difference. T\rtor: It is a lot like that example.209 parallel (they are. but it can also be applied to a pair in series. or to any group of resistors. T\rtor: Yes. The bottom one has to jump over the 3 C) Tutor: Student: .I R) can be applied to any resistor. Two things in parallel have the same voltage across them. then it has the same potential across it as the battery does. How do you know? Student: Because it's a 6 volt battery. or voltage difference. I slide the top one over. The 5 CI resistor is in parallel with the battery. and I slide the bottom one over. How do you check? Student: I do the "finger test. Ohm's law (V . The top one slides over to the top of the battery. I put one finger on each side of the 4 Q resistor and try to move them to the two sides of the battery. We could only do this by jumping from one wire to another nearby wire (not allowed). T\rtor: All good. Student: Student: This looks a lot like the capacitor circuit example from a couple of chapter ago. Two resistors do not have to be either in series or in parallel. or to any group of capacitors. or by going through the battery and Rr (also not allowed). Let's see how much you remember. The voltage o. Are . we often do the series and parallel thing many times. A 6 volt battery creates a 6 volt potential difference.Rs and Rz in parallel? We can move a finger from E to D but we can't get from f' to C. so that they are geometrically parallel.
T\rtor: So the 4 Q resistor is in series with the replacement resistor. Vrio: itrioEtrio . T\rtor: Excellent. so each coulomb of charge leaves the battery with 6 joules of energy. One volt is one joule per coulomb. so the voltage fioules per coulomb) on the 4 Q resistor is higher. 2 dl. R. How do we'add resistors in parallel? Student: We add the reciprocals of the resistances. or with the 36 pair. but the reciprocal. + +60  6o _ 2a The replacement resistor is not I12 O. 27.io . T\rtor: True.R+ * Rsu6 . Student: I believe that the 3 O resistor is in parallel with the 6 O resistor. Student: Then I can replace them with a single resistor. but not necessary. I can move one finger from the top of the 4 to the top of the battery. T\rtor: Doing well. I can move one from the top of the 3 to the top of the 6. 111 ^Rp R.(4 O) + (2 O) : 6 Cl Student: The trio of resistors has an equivalent resistance of 6 Q. I put one finger on each side of the 3 O resistor. Isn't the 5 O resistor in the way? T\rtor: It may be between the battery and the trio. So the voltage across the 4 Q resistor isn't 6 volts. but nowhere else. resistor are in series. Student: It is. So the 4 Oresistor is not in parallel with the battery. and the other from the bottom of the trio to the bottom of the battery. and I can move the other from the bottom of the 3 to the bottom of the 6. This trio of resistors is in parallel with the 5 CI resistor. so the voltage across the trio is 6 volts. or into the left side of the 6 CI resistor. and try to move them to the two sides of the 6 Q resistor. Student: Does aII of the current that comes out of the bottom of the 4 Q resistor have to go into the 3 Q resistor. Tutor: Check to be sure. then through the 36 pair (which is 2 Q). What does it mean that the trio is in parallel with the battery? Student: They have the same voltage.2 Q Student: The replacement resistor is in series with the 4 Q resistor. but it doesn't affect whether or not the trio is in parallel with the battery. so we can determine the voltage on the trio. Student: So how do I find the voltage across each of the resistors in the trio? T\rtor: You need to find the current through the trio. CIRCUITS T\rtor: Correct. That doesn't mean that the voltage on each of the three resistors is 6 volts. Rt*T\rtor: Student: 1111131 R. First the charges go through the 4 Q resistor. They are in parallel electrically. or could some of it go somewhere else? Some of the current could go into the 6 O resistor. Tutor: If I can find two resistors in series or parallel. lhtor: Can you find two resistors in either series or parallel? Check to see if the 4 O resistor and the 3 O It can't do that. Student: So the 4 Q resistor and the 3 O resistor aren't in series. It takes more joules for charges to get through the 4 Q resistor. Student: The current that comes out of the bottom of the 4 0 resistor can go into the top of the 3 resistor. Student: Like finding the charge in the trio a couple chapters ago. 3 CI R. then I can replace them with a single resistor. Yes.2r0 resistor or the 6 CI CHAPTER resistor. The trio is in parallel with the battery. T\rtor: To be in series. all of the charge or current from one must go into the other. even if they are not graphically parallel. Rsuo . Sometimes we call it the equivalent resistance of the pair of resistors. Ttrtor: Correct. O Rs:Rt*Rz Rt.
because none of the charges go through all three resistors of the trio. Now you can use Ohm's law to find the voltage across the pair. that. Look at the 4 Q resistor and the 2 Q pair. We need more powerful tools. because the voltage across the trio is not affected by the presence of the 5 Q resistor. There is a current of I. And it's not a problem that 4+2+2#6. resistor? T\rtor: Oh yes. sometimes you can do and often they aren't even integers. changes along any closed path in the circuit is zero. Yes. and either way the sum of the voltages is 6 volts. Also. so that the total current from the battery is 2. or through the 4 and the 6. Student: What do I do. The current through the pair is 1 A. Kirchhoff has two rules for dealing with circuits: . Yes. and then through the 36 pair. the voltage must add up to 6 volts.2LT 6V:itrio(6O) itrio  1A One amp of current goes through the trio. or 6 joules for each coulomb of charge. The are in series. one twice as big as the other. T\rtor: Student: V+: i+Rq. What is the voltage across the 3 O resistor? Student: Doesn't the 3 Q resistor get all of the 2 volts? Tbtor: It does. o The loop rule: The sum of the voltage . The voltage difference across the pair is the same as the voltage across the 3 and the same as the voltage across the 6 CI resistor. va(r T\rtor: A)(4Q) :4V What is the current through the 36 pair? Student: All of the current that goes through the trio goes through the 4Q resistor first. In more complicated circuits. now that I know the current through the trio? Tntor: What is the current through the 4 Q resistor? Student: AII of the current that goes through the trio goes through the 4Q resistor first. They go through the 4 and the 3. then sometimes.2 A. T\rtor: Correct. If the numbers are nice. Vpair :'ipairBpair Vpair  (1 A)(2 Q) : 2V T\rtor: The voltage across the pair is 2 volts. When the numbers are nice. This is true regardless of the 5 O resistor. equivalent resistance is not enough. T\rtor: Now you can find the voltage across the 4 Q resistor. The node rule: The currents into any point or element in the circuit is the same as the current out of that point or element. The current through the 4 Q resistor is 1 A. Usually the numbers aren't nice. Can you think of two numbers. T\rtor: Student: So V3 Vo:Vpair:2V. The 4 Q resistor has twice the resistance as the 36 pair. so it must have twice the voltage. Student: Using Ohm's law. In general. and then through the 36 pair. so they have the same current. no. Good. and the current through the pair is 1 A.2 A. so that the two numbers add up to 6? Tntor: Student: Isn't there some shortcut? T\rtor: Student: Four and two. Student: Ct resistor No. Student: Is there a current through the 5 C.
we follow complete loops adding up the voltage changes. we choose a direction to be positive current through the resistor. We do what we always do in physics when we want to put a value into an equation and we don't have a valu invent a variable. adding all of the changes be zero. EXAMPLE What is the current through the 5 O resistor? 3 o b Cl Y T\rtor: Are any of the resistors in series or parallel? Student: Is the 3 0 resistor in series with the 2 O resistor? I'll check. When we get back to the starting place. we usually come across resistors. Student: Ok y. T\rtor: The 3 CI resistor is in series with the 6 V battery. This variable or symbol represents the current through the resistor. Kirchhoff's loop rule says that the energy that each charge has (12 joules for each coulomb if it comes from a 12 volt battery) must be exactly used up by the charge as it goes from the positive to the negative terminal of the battery. It is important that we use our choice consistently. This is why in a complex circuit the sum of the resistor voltages is not equal to the battery voltage. This is the same idea we have used to say that two devices in series had to have the same current. T\rtor: T\rtor: Is the change positive or negative? How do Student: I tell? Which end of the battery is at a higher potential? Student: The end with the longer line on the symbol. but and a resistor in series. which is the top end in this circuit. Instead the sum of the voltages along the path that any charge takes adds up to be equal to the battery voltage.2L2 CHAPTER 27. when you returned to your starting spot In the process. T\rtor: So as you move up over the battery. It is not important that our choice be correct negative value indicates that the current is opposite to our choice. (This is essentially conservation of energy . In practice. A complete loop is one where we start and stop at the same place. do you go to a higher or a lower potential? . I don't see anything in series or parallel. but we don't have a rule for replacing a battery 3 Q resistor left to right could go down through the 2 Q resistor. and go around a loop adding the voltage changes. Because the current could go in either direction. The voltage across the resistors depends on the current. the sum of the voltage changes must if you took a mountain hike. The 3 CI resistoris not inserieswitheither the 2Q resistororthe 5 Q resistor. and we don't know the current. and the voltage across the resistor is I R.the sum of the changes would be zero. First I go through the 6 volt battery.) in elevation. I'll start at the bottom left corner. T\rtor: Pick a point. Current that goes through the it could also go right through the 5 O resistor. and the change is 6 volts. CIRCUITS Kirchhoff's node rule says that charge cannot collect anywhere. Student: So we need to use the advanced tools.
Student: I'll use i2. you got to decide whether the car was moving in the positive or negative direction. So the voltage across the 3 CI resistor is (3 Cr)(is). Student: Wait a minute. so the change in voltage is negative. The current is certainly going one way or the other. so I need to invent a variable. You already chose a variable and direction. you go from a lower to a higher potential. We have two variables and one equatior. Student: Okay. so the change in potential is negative. Draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit so that you'll remember what you chose. +6V(30)i3 QQ)i' o T\rtor: Good. so I'll choose downward as positive iz. How do I tell? Ttrtor: Current goes from higher potential to lower potential. Student: So I add all of the voltage changes and they have to add up to zero. they are not equal. Draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit. you're going to lower potential. T\rtor: Careful. Student: I'll do the righthand loop. We're going to have more than one current that we don't know. Is the change in potential positive or negative? Student: The change is to increase the potential. you're going to higher potential. solve so we can't Ttrtor: Tutor: it for anything. but only the sign you used to represent the motion of the car. If you go with the current. Can you solve this equation to find the current through the 5 CI resistor? Student: That current isn't even in this equation. Is the change positive or negative? Student: I'm not sure. I'm moving across the resistor from left to right. How about using i3? Student: The three must be for the 3 O resistor. When a car was moving on the highway. First I go through the 2 Q resistor. Your choice of axis did not affect the motion of the car. Pick either direction. How can I be the one to decide? I\rtor: True. I choose i to be the current. Here you are choosing an axis. Tutor: Yes. Is the voltage change positive or negative? Student: The current is going left to right. The voltage across the 3 O resistor is equal to the resistance times the current. So you need to do another loop. so it is positive. and your choice does not change the actual current but rather the sign you use to represent the current. need to choose a variable and direction for the current through the 2 Q resistor. and if you go against the current. We already determined that they aren't in series. with the current. Now do the next circuit element. T\rtor: Good. and all I have to do is use the direction I chose consistently. The current is going left to right. I don't know the current through the resistor. Okay. What if I'm wrong? T[rtor: Then the value of i3 will be negative. You get to choose which way to call positive. starting . from higher potential to lower potential. I at the bottom middle. Student: Which way is the current going? Tutor: You get to decide. the current is going one way or the other. But if I choose the current direction wrong then those will be reversed. I need to pick a direction. Yes. I'm going downward. it doesn't matter as long as you use it consistently.213 T\rtor: Student: I go to a higher potential. then they are in series. The voltage across the 2 O resistor is equal to the resistance times the current. Now you're back where you started. Student: Now I go through the 3 Q resistor. T\rtor: Good. T\rtor: Good. so the higher potential is at the left and the lower potential is at the right. toward lower potential. Thtor: And then the negative value of i3 will make everything work out right. T\rtor: Is the current through the 2 Q resistor equal to the current through the 3 O resistor? Student: If it is. Student: I go down across the 2 Q resistor. T\rtor: So you need a different variable name for the current through the 2 O resistor. I draw on the circuit. The higher potential is at the top and the lower potential is at the bottom. so we'll need more than one current variable. so no. determined by the circuit configuration. Student: Okay.
T\rtor: Student: Now I have three equations and three unknowns. Student: Now I go across the 5 Q resistor. Do I need a variable for the current through the battery? No. T\rtor: Tempting though that might be.(5 O)ir . 5. I'm going with the current. Tutor: Good. so the change in voltage is negative. Student: You may be getting the hang of this. Tutor: Student: T\rtor: Student: But I'd have three equations and three unknowns. so the change is positive (2 CI) (iz). same as if we added the two equations you already have. so I choose is and left to right is the positive direction. current and toward higher potential. The voltage difference across the battery is the same. That is your third equation.Ct b 6V 4V T\rtor: T\rtor: battery. because there are two unknowns in the equation. I draw an arrow and the symbol on the circuit. you have to use the direction you chose earlier. That wouldn't help. Charge can't build up there. Look at the spot midway between the 3 O resistor and the 5 O resistor. toward lower potential. T\rtor: Student: How does that work? T\rtor: Student: So i3 in has to equal i2 * is out? ig:'iz*is Correct. I don't have a variable 3 Cl . Is i5 what you're trying to find? . You need to do a "node rule" equation. regardless of the current through the so the change is negative. 4. I can solve for i5. where the connection to the 2 Q resistor comes in. Maybe around the outside. I'm back where I started. Now Student: Okry. I could solve them. I'm going upward. The resulting equation would be the of the loops you've already done . . Tutor: Correct. but I can't do another loop. I need to do another loop. so the current going into that spot has to equal the current going out of that spot. back through the 2. Going around the outside is the same as doing both 3. so the sum of the voltage changes is zero. + (2 Q)i.6. Student: So I need another equation.4 V: o Good. 2. You wouldn't have three 'independent equations. so again I can't solve yet. Student: I don't get to choose against the for that yet. I'm going toward lower potential. Now I go across the battery. Student: So that's what you mean about using the direction consistently. The voltage difference on the battery is 4 volts. Tutor: Can you solve the two equations together? Student: Then I have two equations but three different unknowns. it won't help. you would cancel stuff until you got to something like 6 : 6. CIRCUITS T\rtor: No. When you solved them.2L4 CHAPTER the direction again? 27. Can you solve this equation to find the voltage across the 5 CI resistor? No.
+6V. L3  iz *is z) ?. Vs : isRs . with positive is being left to right and i5 having a negative value. (6. shouldn't I reverse the direction on my drawing? T\rtor: No.215 Student: No. came out negative.( 3Iol +( lis (5 O)iu . Which side of the 5 O resistor is at the higher voltage? Student: The current really goes from right to left. so the right side is at the higher potential. Student: Since the current ended up being negative. .2Q)i1(5Q)iu 4V:0 o Student: It left.o + (2 cl)i ( 5(o))iu4v0 2 ?.(0. and then "node rule" equations for each Tutor: Slow down. But if I know i5. There is a tendency to use the most recently learned technique for everything.3 volts. What is the voltage across the 5 O resistor? law and the current to find the voltage. It's perfectly okay now.2 0)is : 1. T\rtor: Student: Thtor: Correct.1. then I can find the voltage.g V (30 )xi + 6'l u) . ig + v( 3\ v . each of the loops.3 V Remember that the negative indicates direction. Then you'd get confused over the direction of the current.(2 Q)i.(:3iQ )it .26 A That means that the current through the 5 O resistor is really right to T\rtor: Student: I use Ohm's Very good.26 A)(5 O) .(2 Q)i2 6 (5 CI)iz: o 3 Ifo))i.4 V : +(2CI) ( +(5 0) ') +2. EXAMPLE Find the current through each resistor.(3 o)i5 + (5 0)i 21.c + i.+ r6 t)i 6V. I need the voltage across the 5 O resistor.6 V is : 0.4V (1 . So I'd say that the voltage is really 1. It might . right? T\rtor: Right. J 2 O 3 o l2v 5C)+8V Student: I need "loop rule" equations around of the nodes.
All of the current that goes through the 3 O resistor has to go through the 1 Q resistor it has nowhere else to go. That equivalent resistor is in parallel with the 8 volt battery. The batteries and the 2 Q resistor form a loop.: A So if we haven't learned anything new. they have to have the same voltage. Tbtor: But it is in parallel with the 12 volt battery. Student: So does the 2 Q resistor. the 5 Q resistor. The 5 Q resistor isn't in series or parallel with any of the other resistors. T\rtor: What does that mean? Student: Because they are in parallel. The current through the 5 Q resistor is 6:+:ry2. I can put one finger on each end of the 5 O resistor and move one from the top of the resistor to the top of the battery. Why are you so excited about your loop rather than mine? T\rtor: How many variables are in your loop? Student: One for each resistor. Student: But I can't combine all of the resistors using series and parallel. Student: It's not in parallel with +12V(2Q)ir8V:o 4v . I can replace them with a single resistor of 4 O. Look at the two batteries. What can you tell me about the 3 O resistor and the 1 O resistor? Student: They are in series. and the other from the bottom of the resistor to the bottom of the battery. Student: So look for series and parallel pieces and simple loops before resorting to lots of loop equations. is : it==ipair: Voair 8 V :2 AO E. two to go.216 CHAPTER 27. T\rtor: How many variables are in my loop? Student: One for the 2 Q resistor. Student: It is. CIRCUITS not be necessary. The voltage across the 5 0 resistor is 12 volts. What about the 2 Q resistor? either the 12 volt battery or the 8 volt battery. why did we do this example? To make the point that you don't have to use your "best" tool for every job. so two. f see. Tutor: Student: .(2 Q)i. and the 8 volt battery.4A Rs 5O Ttrtor: T\rtor: One down. We can solve the equation from your loop but not mine. T\rtor: Exactly. iz:2 A Tutor: Two down.
' If q is negative. When we did electric field. We don't typically use the vector equation. the magnitude of the magnetic force is Fn  lqlrB sin @ where d it the angle between the velocity of the moving charge and the magnetic field.Chapter 28 Magnetic Fields Charges create electric field. To determine whether the magnetic force is into the page or out of the page we use the righthand rule. Imagine a proton moving out of the page in a magnetic field that points left to right. Moving charges create magnetic field. for each step we need a way to find the direction and a formula to find the magnitude. and magnetic field creates forces on moving charges. for each step we needed a way to find the direction and a formula to find the magnitude. then that reverses the direction of the magnetic force. 1f u and the angle between them is zero and there is no magnetic force. this equation contains both the magnitude and direction information. Also. : iLB sin @ Then we need to find the direction of the magnetic force. then 217 .where does your thumb point? Up the page. When lots of charges are moving in a current. This chapter is about finding the magnetic force created by the magnetic field. The magnetic force on a moving charge is always perpendicular to the magnetic field and is always perpendicular to the velocity of the charged particle. The equation for magnetic force is F'u qd  t a' Because it is a vector equation. Hold your hand so that the fingers point out of the page (as in the figure) keep your fingers pointing out of the page and rotate your hand so that the palm points right curl your fingers from out to right . Note that any magnetic force problem must be threedimensional. B are parallel. Instead. Is there any direction that is perpendicular to both out of the page and right at the same time? Only up the page and down the page. The next chapter is about finding the magnetic field created by the moving charges. and electric field creates forces on charges. For magnetic field. the magnetic force a the wire is Fn where Z is the length of the wire.
Fa: Tlrtor: Student: It's (10 pC)(5 t 106 m/s)(0. Tlrtor: Now. while keeping your fingers pointed in that directior. Maguetic field is measured in tesla: 1T1N/Am1Nt/Cm A tesla is a large magRetic of 0. the speed. To describe a vector out of the page we use the dot of the a. So I point my fingers to the right. or 60o. T magnetic field toward Tlrtor: Student: How are you going to do this? We have a formula to tell us the magnetic force. How do I do that? Begin by pointing your fingers in the direction of the velocity. so the angle is twethirds of the way from 0o to 90o. What would the angle be if the magnetic field pointed tonrard twelve o'clock? Student: Then it would be 90o.1 T. but drawing one into or out of the page is less so. Tutor: If the magnetic field pointed to three o'clock. Here it's less than 90o. if the page were a clock.3 N Thtor: Thtor: What is the direction of the magnetic force? Force is a vector and has direction.01 T to 0. it would be parallel to the velocity. Student: I have to find the direction too? Tbtor: Student: I need to use the righthand rule. and the magnetic field. Fn : lqlrB sin @ Student: I know the charge. MAGNETIC FIELDS Drawing a vector up the page or right is easy. Oh. Fn : (10 pC)(5 x 106 m/s)(0. Find the magnetic force on the charge. Student: .218 CHAPTER 28. field strong handheld magnet typically produces a magRetic field strength EXAMPLE fA +10 pC charge moves from left to right at a speed of 5 x 106 m/s. There is a 0.04 T)sin60o : 17. like in a 3D movie. To describe a vector into the page we lne the tailfeathers of the arrosr going asray from us (8 or x symbol). rotate your hand so that the palm points in the direction of the magnetic field.04 T)sin/ What is the angle /? the angle between the velocity and the magnetic field.04 one o'clock.rrow coming at trs (O symbol).
south east. Ttrtor: Those don't have to be. We can create both of those.. west. right. Ttrtor: That's the direction of the magnetic force. Student: But if I do both . into the page? T\rtor: Correct. Find the velocity that an electron would have to have that the magnetic force balances gravity. the fingers move. and out of. There are many ways to determine the correct direction of the magnetic force. up. Student: And if the charge wa^s a negative charge. T\rtor: It could be a combination. could the magnetic Student: How can I decide? force be up? . The force is upward.2r9 my hand. Now let's check. then the force would be the other w&y. EXAMPLE so The Earth's magnetic field is about 50 pT northward. but the magnetic field and the velocity are not perpendicular. it's up and to the right. B sin / is the component of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the velocity of the Tutor: point? Now my palm is up and my fingers point to the right. So I have to decide whether it's into the page or whatever? T\rtor: There is no "page" here. Draw an imaginary line to the right. The direction of the magnetic force has to be perpendicular to both the velocity of the charge and the magnetic field. Also. When we use the compass as our reference. you have to do the velocity first and then the field. . When we do 3D problems with the page as a reference. east. or down. so we care only about the T\rtor: Student: If I rotate upward component. It is important that you have a systematic approach. relative to the page? Student: It points out of the page. so that you can always get the right answer. But nature decides what direction the magnetic force is. and down. s&y southeast. T\rtor: charge. Student: What if I use my left hand? T\rtor: Then you'll get the opposite answer. up. T\rtor: The rightward component of the magnetic field doesn't create any force. Student: Just how far should I curl my fingers? Tutor: Basically 90". our directions are up. Up compared to north is not the same as up the page. So this time I already know the direction of the magnetic force. Could the velocity be up? Tutor: Student: T\rtor: If the velocity is up. Student: Student: Is that what the sin r/ does? Yes. They no longer point to the right. Student: So the velocity is either north. west. Student: But the magnetic field isn't up. down. south. and nature makes the force perpendicular to the velocity and the field. into. T\rtor: Student: If points toward me. left. Is it? Student: Yes. What direction does your thumb What direction does your thumb point. or you'll get the opposite answer. Yes. so they can be in any direction. but what is the direction of the velocity? Student: Oh. This is the way we teach you Tutor: to do it. What now? Curl your fingers toward the magnetic field. This is the axis that you rotate your hand around. until the palm points up. our directions are north.
Yes. because we were comparing to gravity. Student: But we couldn't ignore it here. so it causes the electron to change direction. I point my fingers to the east. T\rtor: The force on a positive charge would be up. T\rtor: Student: Why would .l:1 l::ll . so the force is up. Student: Yep. it's negative. Then the force is perpendicular to the new velocity. Student: So if moving charges create magnetic fields that create forces on moving charges.8 mls2) x1o6m/s speed. so the velocity can't be up. so the weight would still be balanced.ili* . student: r courd use some other angre. so the velocity is the other w&y. or westward._1'1 Tutor: Student: That's a really small (9. how do permanent magnets pick up steel? T\rtor: The magnet is made of atoms. and every atom has little electrons moving inside of it. What is the charge on an electron? Student: Oh..1 x 1031 ks)(9. I look up the mass of the electron in the inside back cover of the book. Tutor: No. EXAMPTE What magnetic field strength is necessary so that an electron moving with a speed of 5 x 105 m/s travels in a circle of radius 1 m? the electron go in a circle? The magnetic force is perpendicular to the velocity. I need an upward magnetic force. ms u. Tutor: Student: T\rtor: Guess. Let's keep it simple and assume that the velocity is either east or west. Student: I'll stick with directly westward. The force is up.220 CHAPTER 28. My thumb points up. so the force on an electron would be down. Student: Which one is it? Then I curl my fingers toward the magnetic field. but the eastwest component is the same for all of them. with my palm to the north. The magnetic force would be zero. Magnetic forces are much stronger than gravitational forces. but the velocity has to be east or west. then see if you're right.*rent verocity. Steel is also made of atoms with moving electrons. what was the direction of the acceleration? Student: In toward the middle of the circle. the force is perpendicular to the velocity. we sometimes call them antiparallel. T\rtor: And therefore perpendicular to the velocity. Student: Ohy. When somethirg was going in a circle. I'll guess eastward. and the south component wouldn't create any force.. T\rtor: When two vectors point in opposite directions. Or Student: down. but the westward component of the velocity would be the same. or northward. Tutor: Now you can find the speed. T\rtor: It could be southwest. and so on. A charged particle in a magnetic field goes in a circle. The west component would cause a magnetic force that balances the weight. T\rtor: tue. MAGNETIC FIELDS No. Student: Ok y. FB Could the velocity be southward? Then the field and the velocity would be parallel. Student: So there are two answers? T\rtor: There are many answers. That comes up in a later chapter. We often ignore gravity if there's a magnetic field around..
.T T\rtor: Does it matter what direction the magnetic field is? Student: The direction of the field will determine which way the charge goes around it's clockwise or counterclockwise. The force on the left side is into the p&ge. whether I Consider the loop of current shown. To find the torque. it's F . toward the center. What if the magnetic field had been out of the page? The magnetic force on each side would be inward. Let's take Q to be 90o. start by finding the magnetic moment.22L T\rtor: force? Student: Student: So now we need a new formula. Arything that creates a magnetic field has a magnetic moment. With the same length and current. but it won't affect the size of the circle. curl the fingers of your right hand around the loop in the direction of the current.8 x 106 T  2. Not necessarily. rotating it clockwise as seen from the top of the page. the circle.1 field strength B.Are these equal? Thtor: The force needed to get the particle to go in a circle is provided by the magnetic force. There is no force on the top or bottom. in a magnetic field that points to the right. these add to a net force of zero. B D Magnetic fields do not always create torque on current loops.muz lr. and in the same magnetic field. Magnetic moments are vectors. because these currents are parallel to the magnetic field.8 p. Tna rq x 1031 ks)(5 t 105 m/s) (1 m)(1. What is the magnitude of the magnetic The magnetic force is Fn : quB sin /. Then your right thumb points in the direction of the magnetic moment. and there would be no torque. so yes. with the magnetic field perpendicular to the velocity. To find the direction of the magnetic moment vector. The magnitude of the magnetic moment of a loop of current is lp]  NiA where a loop of l/ turns of current i has an are a A. We can use two that we already have. T\rtor: qaB mu2 qB+ Student: I need to find the magnetic E (9. What is the force on somethirg going in a circle? Student: Looking way back.6 x 101e C)  2. But they do create a torque on the loop. and the force on the right side is out of the page.
At what angle / will the loop reach equilibrium? That is. Along the ucis of the current loop. The magnetic field from the compa"ss comes out of the north pole. The torque from the Earth's magnetic field causes the compass needle to rotate until it lines up with the Earth's field. Thus the geographic north pole of the Earth (where Santa's workshop is) is the magnetic south pole of the Earth. This is how a compass works. and aligns with the magnetic field from the Earth. A magnetic field of 0. but only at large distances." or the radius of the current loop. EXAMPTE A single rectangular loop of wire 14 cm x 20 cm carries a current of 18 A in the direction shown. times the component of the second that is perpendicular to the first. or magnetic moment. MAGNETIC FIELDS The torque on a magnetic moment in a magnetic field is iF^E The magnitude of a "vector cross product" is equal to the magnitude of one vector. This equation does not apply close to the current loop. The needle is a small magnet. the field is ELo 2r < t'L z3 where z is the distance from the magnetic moment.222 CHAPTER 28. at what angle d will the magnetic and gravitational torques cancel? (! . which comes out of the Antarctic and toward the Arctic. Magnetic moments also create magnetic fields.24 T points vertically up.B sin0 The direction of the torque is such that the magnetic moment rotates to align parallel to the external field. T . found with the sine of the angle between them.p. The loop ha^s a ma"ss of 47 grams and is hinged at the upperleft (darker) longer side so that it can rotate up and down. As alw&ys.Fa J li U # . large means "compared to other distances in the problem. free to rotate.
1a m)( x sin /) Student: Remember Yes. Ttrtor: F : iLB.a.0.50 Am2 The torque is p. and my thumb points up and to the right. Student: Then the torque is (0. is the other.I{iA r (1)(18 A) [(0. 0 is the angle between the magnetic moment and the magnetic field.121 Nm) (0.  (0. and sin(90o . Yes./) The angle 0 .223 doesn't seem like torque is the issue here. the torque from the magnetic field is (0. Should we be more interested in force? The end where the loop is attached can provide all the vertical force we need. Student: The angle / isn't the same angle as 0? Tutor: Tutor: No. but if it's stationary then we can look at it from a torque standpoint.90" .20 m)] : 0. The torque from the magnetic fiel the magnetic field.0 aT kg)(9. Student: And that turns it counterclockwise. When they are aligned.121 Am'T)(cos /). a is one angle and 90o . The moment arm is 14 cm x sin d.*)(cos d). because sin 0o . Student: Ol*y.I21 N. Now we find the torque from gravity. Thtor: Correct.sln cos / (0. the angle Q in the diagram is 90o. and we have the units we expect. What is the direction of the magnetic moment of the loop? Student: I point my righthand fingers around the loop in the direction of the current. Student: If there's no current then the loop falls.0. so (0.121 Nm)(cos . but that upward force is not through the center of mass of the loop. Student: That's nasty. there is no torque.50 Am')(O. So we Yep. so the equation would give maximum torque. The side that is adjacent to o is opposite to 90o .88 r.047 kg)(9. so that sine over cosine is tangent.a) : cos 0.88 : 62o . Student: Is that always true? Tntor: It's one of the trig identities.14 m)(0.14 m)  1. so a newton is an amp meter tesla. in from gravity.8 ^1"2X0. Tutor: Student: It T\rtor: Tutor: Good.8 T\rtor: ^lr2) (0.Bsind  (0. doesn't it? Trrtor: That's one way to look at it.a. 0  arctan 1. the angle is zero and. In a right triangle. so it causes the loop to turn. Student: Student: Student: just find the two torques and set t The magnetic moment is tL . p ind tana.24T)sin@ ? Ttrtor: In the equation for torque. When the magnetic moment is vertically up and aligned with the field.
a 2 d? :. A single moving charge creates only a tiny magnetic field. The difference is that each piece of the current is usually a different distance from the spot of interest. if you prefer) process. Multiply by the other stuff and you get the tiny amount of magnetic field created by that tiny piece of current.[ P dB (into page) Finding electric fields wasn't this complicated. Let's try to explain this. The vector r is from the tiny piece of current to the spot where we're finding the magnetic field. using the righthand rule. Doing this calculation is a long (or painful. the greater the error in pretending that it is infinitely long. then the wire would need to be a meter or so long. If the distance to the wire is 10 cffi. How long is long? The length of the wire must be much greater than the distance to the wire. The magnetic field created by a long straight wire is B*ir" ttoi 2nR where R is the distance from the wire to the point.ttt 4n 13  4tr x 107 T m/A. so we'll only worry about the fields created by currents.is found just like we did in the last section. so the t's are silent). Add up all the tiny magnetic fields (and there's a lot of such tiny pieces) and you get the magnetic field. The shorter the wire is.dsxr . The cross product di x r. or currents. and so we have to use calculus to do this. 224 . We need a way to determine the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field created by a current. &t least at the beginning..0 . We do this with the BiotSavart law (they were Rench. so we take a few common situations to work it out and remember them. create magnetic fields. Divide the current up into tiny pieces of length dg. dBwhere po lto ?.Chapter 29 Magnetic Fields Due to Currents Moving charg€s.
and point the thumb in the direction of the current. wire creates? . curl your fingers with the current (counterclockwise) and your thumb will point in the direction of the magnetic field in the center of the loop (out of the page). pick a spot on the wire loop and use the righthand rule: thumb in the direction of the current and curl your fingers. Find the magnetic force that the long straight wire exerts on the rectangular loop of current. and in the same plane as. The magnetic field at the center of the loop is Bloop : To get the direction of the magnetic field. EXAMPLE A rectangular loop of current 6 A is beneath. like you're trying to "hitch" a ride. The fingers go around the wire in the same direction as the magnetic field.225 How do we find the direction of the magnetic field? Magnetic field lines never end. 10 12. Another common situation is a circular loop of wire. a long straight wire with a current of 8 A. They circle around a long straight wire.*y to do if your pencil is in your right hand). What is the magnetic field that the long straight Student: The magnetic field from a wire is B*ire : 1tsil2TR. as long as you don't use your left hand (. T\rtor: Okay. Alternatively. What's i? Student: Whoa! This looks complicated.6 < 6A +4lcm+ T\rtor: It's not. If the wire is coming at you. but always circle back onto themselves. Either method works. Take your thumb. then the magnetic field lines go around the wire counterclockwise. out of the page. How do we know whether they go clockwise or counterclockwise? We use another righthand rule.
Tutor: Yes. the fingertips point in the direction of the field. and my hand goes toward the point where I want the field. bend them into the page. What is the force on the top side of the rectangle? Student: The force is 4oo  (6 A)(0.41 m)Btoo sin@ Tntor: Good so far. 8 amperes. Student: Righthand rule: I point my thumb to the right. the first righthand rule. Student: Oh. What do I use? l\rtor: We always use the closest point. To find the force on the top of the rectangle. The forces are opposite.126 m) Tutor: Yes. so the angle d is 90o. Student: So my thumb goes with the current.L ^ po (8 A) 2n(0. and the thumb points down. T\rtor: When you go to find the direction of the force. The field is into the page.{ETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS wire. bend them into the FeB€. Student: My fingers go into the page. and bend into the page. T\rtor: Student: That's the current in the long straight Student: So ltoi. T\rtor: That's the direction of the magnetic field. The magnetic field is down. Fingers to the right with the current.226 CHAPTER 29. remember to do the current first. and bend your fingers at the knuckles. so you do use 10 cm and 26 cm. the fingers point up the page. T\rtor: What about the sides? Student: For the left side. I point my fingers to the left. then the distances are even greater. and down doesn't go around it. and the 6 A current is to the right. D "t'oP 2nR troi D. To find the magnetic force. and then when I bend my fingers at the knuckles. Student: and the thumb points up. The magnetic field goes around the 8 A current. The force on the top is up. What's R? Student: That's a good question. you need to find the magnetic field at the top of the rectangle. You need to use both. and the thumb points . If I pick a different point on the long wire. Good. T\rtor: What is the force on the bottom? Student: The magnetic field at the bottom is also into the page. Take your hand the way you had it. r'bottom 2trR .10 m) po(8 A) 2r(0. . What is the angle between the current and the magnetic field. or shortest distance to the long straight wire. but weaker. Tutor: So we need to know the direction of the magnetic field. Some of the rectangular loop is 10 cm away and some is 26 cm a\May. then the field. so I need to subtract. and my fingers go down. MAGI. Got it. Student: It's Q? Tutor: I don't think you're doing it right.
the two pieces wouldn't be symmetric. so we don't need to.4x 10s P force. the dividing point is the closest point on the wire. Student: They'll add to zero. . Student: What do you mean .T into the page? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: I need to find Correct.(0*m))  Buotto"') . F trioo  Fbottom  (6 A)(0..41 m)Btoosing0o  (6 A)(0. But the field changes along the length of the side. so the forces are the same.41 m) (Brop F(6A)(041 F *) (ffiffi) . . the fields are the same for the left and right. What must the current be so that the magnetic field at the center of the loop is 100 p.but stronger than gravity. force? Tutor: How do the magnitudes of the forces on the sides compare? Student: Well. Is each piece exactly onehalf of a long straight wire? "exactly" half? Tutor: If I take a long straight wire and cut it into two equal pieces. Ttrtor: Magnetic forces are generally weaker than electric forces Student: . EXAMPLE The long wire was a single turn of radius 12 cm.rsin90o F (6 A)(0. If I split it somewhere else. but . the magnetic field from the long straight wire and from the loop and add them. Student: That seems like a small so it's a small force. They cancel. T\rtor: Now you can finish adding the forces. Student: But the wire is split in two.. Student: Right. Taking upward a^s positive. How do I find the magnitude of the Tutor: We'll have to do an integral.227 left.41 ttt)Bbotto. though they change along the length of the sides. T\rtor: To find those individual forces we would need to do an integral.. T\rtor: .. The currents are the same and the lengths are the same. . What about the right side? Student: The force on the right side is to the right.(4n x107 r m/AX6 A)(8 A)(041 ^)+(#) F 2. and we have two magnetic forces that partially cancel.. .
The figure shows the magnetic field lines from a current that goes into the page. I point my thumb up. it is possible to use field lines to envision an electric field. So I need to find the direction of each piece and add components. To find the field from the rightward current. we had Gauss' law. Student: I pick the left edge of the loop. Magnetic field lines never end. When we did electric fields. I can use +ffi to find the field from each of them. You've picked the field you want to be positive field. My fingers bend into the page.4n. Student: To do the upwardgoing current. *lFoi *l Foi B!pot 227tR. Each of the two halflong wires ends at the closest point along the line. .r 44/' circuit Tm lNi lot of current. Magnetic field is a vector . and up out of the page. any spot. . and this is the other way. but I don't have a full loop.r2"R Tutor: Student: ? o You have the right idea. Tutor: Something like that. All pieces of the loop create field in the same direction. and is negative. then they each create the same magnetic straight wire. but you're skipping a step. Now I add the two fields. but go in loops. I point my thumb up the page and hold my hand to the right. and symmetric field  half of a long Student: Okay. The equivalent with magnetic fields is Ampere's law.1 4n. Tutor: Yes. and if you end up with a negative current then the current is really the other way. clockwise around the loop. T\rtor: So pick a direction as positive. so they are each lralf of a long straight wire. so I have threequarters of the field. Student: I see. Student: I know that the magnetic field from a full loop is Bloop : ffi. Student: Like doing circuits. I point my thumb to the right with my hand toward the top of the page. The field lines get further apart a^s we move away from the current Just as because the field gets weaker. How do I do the loop? T\rtor: Pick a spot on the loop. and find the direction from there. for the whole loop.) B 100x106TStudent: That seems like a Gn x 107 w . you have half the field. . Foi * 3 ltoi 1 Foi rhrR. it is possible to use field lines to envision magnetic a field. If you have half a loop. You're simply choosing an axis for the current. When I bend my fingers at the knuckles. Student: I choose positive current to be in from the left. T\rtor: Or anything in physics where you have a direction. T\rtor: Each piece of the loop contributes the same magnetic field. What is the direction of the magnetic field created by the long straight wire? Student: What direction is the current going? The problem doesn't say.rhrR ttoi ttoi(3 1\ D_3ttoi _ E 4n. T\rtor: It's more than you'd have in a household  they typically top out at 20 amps. and the fingers bend out of the page. because I want the field to the right of the piece of wire. Student: And I have threequarters of a loop. T\rtor: Good. hand to the left. they point out of the page. T\rtor: Now you have to deal with the loop. so the field that the loop creates is positive. so the field is out of the page.228 CHAPTER is good? 29. MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS Tutor: If the two pieces are symmetric.hrR: 2R \A .
Ampere's law uses a closed loop. Let's see how this works. As you travel along this route. We want to find the magnetic field created by . As with Gauss' law. Take the component of the magnetic field ^d ttrut is parallel to your next step ds. from the righthand rule this magnetic field will be parallel to the path. This is not the current going along the path. but it doesn't help us find the magnetic field strength. : Pick any closed loop PoLen" that is. When you add up the product for all of the steps. start somewhere and go anywhere so long as you end where you started (using f instead is a way to say use a closed path). . Ampere's law says that you get ps times the current enclosed by the loop. We draw an imaginary "Amperian loop" around the wire at a distance r. This is because electric field lines start and end at electric charges. Magnetic field lines don't start and end. This is good to know.and multiply them. so the magnetic field flux through any closed surface is always zero. we got a total that was related to the charge inside the surface. at each point find "f / the magnetic field. but passing through the surface of which the path is the edge. The problem has symmetry if I rotate the problem along the axis of the wire it looks the same the magnetic field is the same everywhere on the imaginary path (if the wire was bent rather than straight then this would not be true). w€ only do the integral when it's dirt simple. Also. Instead of using a closed surface.229 Wre with ctrrrent into the page When we calculated the electric field flux. long straight wire with current i.
A wire is wrapped evenly 140 times around the toroid and carries a current of 7 A.s Ampere's law tells us that this integral is equal to Foi"n". Ampere's law is always true. Because we've already dealt with the vector part (the magnetic field is parallel to the path) it is the length of the steps and not the displacement of the steps. fe . .L.B JI a. MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURRENTS i (o= o) J I a.u f f o. There are fewer geometries where Ampere's law is useful than there are for Gauss' Iaw.ds: a d. The last integral f ds is the sum of the lengths of each step for all steps. so f ds .BL . so B(2rr). symmetry BL:f f B + dg:Foi"n Amperets law EXAMPLE An extruded rectangle is curved into a toroid.s . the outer radius is 50 cffi. .B(2nr) d. but we can profitably use it only when there is symmetry in the problem. Find the magnetic field inside the toroid. This is the length of the path.FoI"n:Foi BLike Gauss' Iaw. ds : f a . so that the inner radius is 40 cil.230 CHAPTER 29. and the height is 15 cm.
Student: So I can use Ampere's law. T\rtor: Student: .s. because the symmetry still holds. Student: If I rotate the whole toroid. So if I draw my path through the middle of the inside of the toroid.s . But at the same from the center.B t' a' . the field is the same everywhere? T\rtor: Use symmetry to explain how. So E . What is the direction of the magnetic field inside the toroid? the inside. &s vectors.Bd. "Uniform" means that it's the same everywhere. Student: Like this? T\rtor: Uh. it looks the same. Even if we did. Student: But we don't know the magnetic field. J 4 e . you get to choose r. Student: And B is constant. is the same everywhere. I\rtor: Yes. to find the length of your path. Student: That sounds familiar. T\rtor: Careful. Student: So r is the radius of my path. no. we'd have L40 fields to add. the magnetic field has to be the same all around the toroid. Student: Can r be less than 40 cm or more than 50 cm? Tutor: Sure. ds : f f B d. T\rtor: Student: f f Trrtor: Student: It goes around B'di: Foi"n. Ttrtor: Very good. dg . the same everywhere along the path. "Constant" means that it doesn't change with time. so it comes out of the integral. T\rtor: True.radius inside and outside edges. T\rtor: We don't know how to find the field from a loop at a spot off of the axis. Student: Ouch. Tutor: How much of the magnetic field is parallel to your Amperian path? Student: All of it. whatever it is. We use symmetry to say that the magnetic field.B2trr Is r the inside or outside radius of the toroid? Look at how you used it. T\rtor: Correct.23r How can you do this? We can find the magnetic field from each of the 140 loops and add them. so the field 'ins'ide the toroid is constant. Draw an Amperian loop around the toroid. oops. We need to find a path where the magnetic field is the same everywhere on the path. Presumably we can use the symmetry and Ampere's law. The magnetic field inside the toroid isn't necessarily uniform it could be different along the . so the answer has to look the same.B(tength of path) .
. On the outside of the toroid. even inside the toroid. so they count as negative currents. What if 40 cm ( r 150 cm? Student: Then the wire goes through the loop. Student: So the enclosed current is 140 x 7 A. And that field is B2nr:Fo(140x7A) B  Po(140)(7 A) 2rr Student: So the field gets weaker a^s I go further out. We have to use symmetry to argue that the magnetic field perpendicular to your path is also zero. Ttrtor: The wire goes through the loop 140 times.232 CHAPTER Okay. Student: So the only place where there is a field is inside the toroid. Ampere's law has given me 29. because your path becomes longer but the enclosed current stays the same. means that the magnetic field is zero. the current is going the other w&y. Tutor: Yes. and the enclosed current is 7 A. Yes. Student: Do I count every time that the wire goes through the loop? Student: What is the enclosed current? Student: That T\rtor: T\rtor: Tutor: Yes. T\rtor: The inside currents are still enclosed. Student: So it would be 140 x 7 A. is greater than 50 cffi. MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CURREN"S Student: B2trr : Foi"n Ttrtor: If you pick r to be less than 40 cm. T\rtor: Student: And the field is zero if r > 50 cm. Yes. The magnetic field parallel to your path is zero. Student: So the inside and outside currents cancel?! T\rtor: Student: And if r Tutor: Yes. then there is no enclosed current. then the enclosed current is 280 x 7 A.
If the loop moves down. BX XX If the loop is entirely in the magnetic field (rather than partly in the magnetic field) then the positive charges at the top of the loop also feel a force to the right. However. and as you move it away from the coil there will be a current in the coil. 233 . and the result is no net current.Chapter 30 Induction and Inductance If you connect a coil of wires to an ammeter (a currentmeasuring device) and place a magnet nearby. where the magnetic field itself doesn't cause a current but a movement in the magnetic field does. the positive charges along the bottom of the loop experience a force to the right. This is similar to the magnet and coil. They push a current counterclockwise around the loop. you will find that no matter how strong the magnet there is no current in the coil. as you move the magnet into position near the magnet there will be a current in the coil. What's happening? XXXXX XXXXX B XXXXX XXXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX Imagine a loop of wire on the edge of a magnetic field.
We could say that one point in the loop had a higher voltage than the next. dABA f definition of flux The derivative (d. That is. o": Jf B. or by tilting the bucket sideways. which had a higher voltage than the next.J B . . and may bring to mind Escher's waterfall. The loop "wants" to keep the same flux it had (zero.) Imagine that you are out in the rain holding a bucket. Despite the scary appearance of this integral. in this case). We typically use EMF t (electromotive force) for an electric field like this.234 CHAPTER 30. into the magnetic field. Initially the flux through the loop is zero since there is no magnetic field where the loop is. so constant field magnetic field is the same oB . As we move the loop down. and so on until we got back to the original spot. The magnetic field flux is effectively a count of the number of magnetic field lines passing through a surface. the it is). An induced current is caused by a change in the magnetic flux. Typically. the magnetic flux into the page increases. This clearly can't be true. there will be an induced current in the direction that causes a magnetic field to pass through the loop out of the page. The use of the word voltage here is somewhat misleading. One way is to point your thumb in the direction that you want the magnetic field through the loop to go (out of the page). dA which says to divide the surface into tiny pieces. then the fingers curl in the direction of the current (counterclockwise). The minus sign in the equation is a reminder. How does this work? Consider our loop on the edge of the magnetic field. at each piece find the component of the magnetic field that is perpendicular to the surface (normal to the surface). and reserve the word voltage for static EMFs. The direction of the induced current is opposite to the change in the magnetic flux. Then the thumb goes around the fingers in the direction of the current (counterclockwise). You could reduce this rate by using a smaller bucket. created by a changing situation. multiply times the area of the tiny piece. In which direction would this current be? There are two ways to figure it out using the righthand rules from the magnetic field section.) or delta (A) indicates that it is not magnetic field that creates an induced voltage or current. Flux would be the rate at which raindrops enter the bucket. I'll use the word voltage. Mathematically. but my doing so will make some physicists cringe. and add the results for all of the tiny pieces. everywhere on the surface (or we'll pretend it's not so bad. The other is to point the fingers in the direction that you want the magnetic field through the loop to go. I]VDUCTIOI{ A]VD I]VDUCTA]VCE The voltage induced in a loop by u magnetic field is t dQB Aos dt Lt if the loop is where Qs is the magnetic field flux passing through the loop. so it creates magnetic field out of the page. by going to a place with less rain. What is flrur? (If you remember this from Gauss' law then this is a repeat. This voltage causes a current closed (complete).
so that the field through the coil is weaker. opposite to the magnetic flux. Student: I'm sure that's what I meant. The effect of moving the coil is to create less magnetic flux into the page. T\rtor: So the magnetic flux is into the page." Student: Ok y. As the coil moves away from the wire. in what direction must the current in the coil go? Student: That's the second righthand rule again. we create less magnetic flux into the page. The magnetic field goes into the page. Student: Ok^y. right? Student: It gets smaller. put my hand up toward the coil. What happens to the magnetic flux through the coil? Tutor: You will be.235 EXAMPTE Find the direction of the induced current as the coil is moved in each of the directions shown. By moving the coil. to replace the flux that isn't there anymore. If the coil wants to create an induced field into the page. Happy? . For the second direction. and the coil creates field into the page. and the total flux stays the same.t /z +3 l4 # T\rtor: Constant i What is the direction of the magnetic field that the long straight wire creates where the coil is? Second righthand rule. T\rtor: So the coil tries to replace the flux that was there and isn't anymore. T\rtor: Yes. I point my thumb to the left. what happens to the magnetic Student: field? T\rtor: Tutor: Student: The field gets weaker. By that you mean. The field that the coil creates is called the induced field. Student: It's as easy as that? T\rtor: Field into p&Be. T\rtor: Yes. replacing the lost flux. T\rtor: It is the change in magnetic flux that matters. T\rtor: It will be helpful here if you specify a direction. so the loop tries to create magnetic field in which direction? Student: Out of the page. so the coil creates flux into the page. We create less flux into the page. so there's less flux into the page. the coil moves to a place where the field is weaker. Student: Even though the flux is into the page. The coil wants to keep the same flux. because it's the change in flux that matters. flux into page. Student: So the coil creates magnetic flux into the page? Tutor: Yes. "Less magnetic flux into the page. . and bend my fingers into the page. the field also gets weaker. Student: You said that.
Student: Ok y. The loop needs to rotate at 60 Hz and generate an average voltage of 120 V.236 CHAPTER 30. So let's look at onefourth of a rotation. each 50 cm in diameter. So a clockwise current in the coil creates a magnetic field into the page. Student: The coil creates magnetic field out of the page to opposite the increase in the magnetic flux. Student: Fingers out. Which way does your goes clockwise. The change happens in onefourth of T\rtor: Student: a period. only the rnagnitude of the is 25 1 (# s) induced voltage. Because the magnetic field lines don't go through the coil? Tutor: Correct. Student: Into the page. what is the induced current? Student: There isn't one. in a 0. then the flux is back to what it started at. the coil moves to a stronger magnetic field. Bend your fingers like you usually do. The radius cr. Very good. EXAMPLE A circular coil consists of an unknown number of turns of wire. The original flux is BA. hand go? Yes.4 T magnetic field.4 T)A Is it my imagination or are we being sloppy with minus signs here? We are.4 i(# l)(0. The field comes out of the page. the flux drops to zero.196 m2 . No matter how big the flux is. c _ nrA(D" 'At 'J nrO . The period is one over o ('' T\rtor: Student: n(o. Student: Okay. How many turns must there be in the coil? Student: If the coil rotates induced voltage. Tutor: If there is no change in the flux.rR2 r20V _ )' s) 0. Student: In the fourth direction. and the final flux is zero.25 .1e6 ') .^r(0. the period? Student: The frequency is 60 per second. since magnetic field lines never end. A so the area is 7r(0. T\rtor: Correct. ir since each turn induces a voltage and the voltages add. What's 60. so the flux doesn't change. completely around. so the change is "more flux into the page. and the thumb follows the hand counterclockwise. if it doesn't change then there is no induced current." T\rtor: Student: And outside the coil? T\rtor: T\rtor: Excellent. Student: It At least in the middle of The magnetic field circles around. and there is no As the coil rotates onefourth of the way around. / IDUCTIOI{ Al{D 0\rDUCTAIVCE T\rtor: Tutor: Tutor: the coil. Now keep them there and move your hand in a circle.BA T\rtor: We need to include the factor l/. We're not interested in the direction of the induced current. the field doesn't change. In the third direction. Student: Ok^y. following your thumb. then point the bent fingers in the direction of the field. But we care only about the field in the middle of the coil.
237 ^Ar  (120 vXiX# s) (0. divided by a second is a volt. We would have to change one of the other parameters so that N came out to be an integer. TUtor: What is the magnetic field? Student: We can use the magnetic field from a loop.4 T\rtor: T\rtor: What are the units for l/? have &ry. Student: It shouldn't EXAMPLE A small circular loop (8 cm diameter) of 100 turns sits in the plane of and inside a large loop (28 cm diameter) of 100 turns. T\rtor: Which r? Student: . So I need a factor of 100. Is R the big loop or the small loop? Ttrtor: It's the radius of the loop that is creating the magnetic field. Bloop T\rtor:  ltsif 2R ? That's the magnetic field from each turn.4 T)(0. Student: So the units all cancel. What's the magnetic flux Qa? Student: It's the magnetic field times the area. The current in the outer loop is 5 A and is increasing at a rate of 180 A/s.196 m2) :6. Student: So it's the big loop. A tesla meter squared is flux. What is the voltage induced in the inner loop? r/t >D Student: The induced voltage is A ('' L dQn dt T\rtor: Good. should it? No. T\rtor: Now what's the magnetic flrur through the small loop? Student: It's the magnetic field times the area Trr2 . and there are 100 of them. Shouldn't the number of turns be an integer? I\rtor: It should.
14 m) ) / (180 A/r) (zr(0. We can pull the area outside of the derivative? The area isn't changing. Tutor: Yes. it's the area of the inner loop. 9B.. Use clockwise induced current as corresponding to positive induced voltage.238 CHAPTER 30. so r is the radius of the inner loop. then the induced voltage is tBLu ^L is the length at the edge. Student: But we don't know that. 30 cm XXXXX 15 cm B=0.0 4 .t) T\rtor: Student: . i in the outer loop is changing. The change in current causes t . The longer the length at the edge. T\rtor: Student: Good.1 mv When the flux changes because of motion. t(*") A(*. (*')@") a change in magnetic field. Student: So it's the change in the current that causes an induced voltage in the inner loop.l: ( !!) t . the quicker the flux changes. where EXAMPLE Plot the induced voltage as a function of time for the single rectangular loop. and an induced voltage. and R are constants. I. and the faster the motion.IVDUCTION AND INDUCTANCE Uh. a change in magnetic flux. T\rtor: So put the equation for the field into the equation for the induced voltage. s(#) T\rtor: Student: But I can't pull i The current out. and the greater the induced voltage.T m/A) 2(0.W@") T\rtor: l/ .1 x 103 v : 4.42): 4.( \ (100)(4?r x 10?.d9P: dt dt \d. We know what the field is. # is how fast the magnetic field is changing. so it is constant. Fo. so you can pull them out of the derivative too. and the size of the change in current that determines the magnitude of the induced voltage.27 XXXXX XXXX XXXXX XXXXX .
t . the greater the flux. Is the flux increasing more rapidly att . As it enters the magnetic field. what is the induced voltage? it takes 5 seconds. T\rtor: What's the slope of a constant rate. so 2 s until t . Student: The 3 cm/s is in u. The induced voltage is a constant as it enters the magnetic field. The loop tries to create field out of the page.12 s until t .3 s? Student: No.2 T)(0. I x ( { ( ( ( x t t t t { T\rtor: Yes. Student: Ok y. When moving into the field. What is the induced voltage as it exits the magnetic field? Student: It will b" just the opposite as when it enters. for the entire time that the loop is entering the magnetic field. and the 6 cm is in So the induced voltage is ^L. As it exits. And which side is L? T\rtor z L is the width where the flux is changing. and the greater the voltage. at 3 cm/s. How long does it take for the loop to enter the magnetic field? Student: It from t The further into the field it goes. How would you get an induced voltage that increased as it entered the field? I'd use a triangular loop. but check the direction. It doesn't start to change untilt2s. I\rtor: Very good. the change is more flrur into the page. Student: Okay.239 T\rtor: What's the induced voltage when time begins? Student: There's no flux. then there will be an induced voltage. Tutor: It is possible to have an induced voltage without a magnetic flux. the flux will increase at a constant rate until the loop is inside the field. If I waited one second.7 s and exits from t .06 r")(0. Good. What matters is how fast the flux is changing.36 mV. T\rtor: Yes. but changitrB. or negative. What is the induced voltage between t . T\rtor: The magnitude will be the same. Tutor: Good. It enters Student: Thtor: Student: DolusetBLu? Yes.6 x 104 V  0.L2 s. against the change in flux.6 s than att .03 m/s) :3. of a straight line? Student: It would be constant. so there's no induced voltage. At t . If the flux is zero. the result is less flux into the page.17 s. Tntor: So the voltage is 0. Is the 0.0 there is no flux and the flux isn't changing either. Since it isn't changing. there is no induced voltage. as the loop travels through the magnetic field? Student: The flux is constant. the area of the loop with magnetic field in it would increase by how much? Student: T\rtor: Student: By3cm/sx6cm. current. More flux does not correspond to more voltage.BLu T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: (0.36 mV positive or negative? Student: I need to find the direction of the induced Student: t r r Oh.36 mV Yes. so that L increased as it got further into the field. so the loop creates flux into the page to .7 s and t . What is that constant? Ttrtor: T\rtor: has to travel 15 cm to fully enter the magnetic field. so the induced current is counterclockwise.
240 voltage is +0. INDUCTIONAND INDUCTANCE replace the flux that's disappearing. The it exits the field.36 mV as CHAPTER 30. +t(s) . and to create flux into the page the loop needs a clockwise current.
left over from induced voltag€s. If R w) this becomes infinite. Consider a circuit with an inductor.) The inductance .  0. and that induces a voltage. As the charge changes. but the resistance of the circuit won't ever be zero. so does current. If the circuit is ever to reach a steady state. Instead. The voltage across an inductor is Vt': L# (Some physics sources have a minus sign.lR (ra  cera is the forcing frequency and t*is the amplitude of the forcing voltage. the current through the inductorcapacitor circuit oscillates with a frequency When we studied oscillators. A steadystate situation is one in which none of the currents or voltages are changing. we saw that a forced oscillator would oscillate at the forcing frequency. then that current through the capacitor causes the charge on the capacitor to change. then at resonance 24r . because a nonzero voltage indicates that the current is changing. and so does the voltage on the inductor. What if an inductor and a capacitor are placed in the same circuit? If the current is steady. The closer the two frequencies were to each other.Chapter 31 Electromagnetic Oscillations and Alternating Current A coil in a circuit is called an inductor. the greater the amplitude of the oscillation. then the voltage across the inductor must be zero.L is measured in henries. and no charge. but it is incorrect to have one for an inductor. the voltage. The only possible steady state is zero no voltage. and the amplitude of the current of the oscillation is Iwhere tn t. This is true of electric oscillators. the magnetic field chang€s. rather than the natural frequency. As the current changes.
Student: # of that. mHz is millihertz instead of meg ahertz E \ . but how do I get wl .8 x 105 H .2n x 108. E (r'26 T . and u . Student: Student: How am I supposed to do this? There are no numbers.\r. ir # the Tlrtor: apart.2 mHz..6 Q. ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCLLATIOIVS A]VD ALTER]VATING CURRENT EXAMPLE Choose approximate values for ^L and C for an FM radio so that the amplitude of the next station amplitude of the "tuned" station.w2? T\rtor: Careful. But if I don't know one.ob3 pF C (a. FM stations have frequencies of about 100 MHz. I need e) : h to be 108.48 p. t\t L) L. Student: The difference is 0. 0. Tutor: There are other criteria to match. and are 0. that weren't in the problem. we haven't made any assumptions The units don't seem right. So LIR has units of seconds.2 MHz.2 MHz) x Loz T\rtor: Tntor: A henry.2 MHz)(2rI00 MHr) \ ^ . Do I just .3 . I can't get the other. Student: Okay. They are merely disguised.)(0.242 CHAPTER 37.(raw)(ra+w) = (waw)(2r) x (210. n2 E\ / 'W IU I fi{2"0. you need the amplitude to be So the denominator must be 100.6 o) I. r+ ('3")':104 ! R2 \ u4 ) rL' t= xI02 rv 'r'r ) Student: Is 100 MHz the natural frequency u or the driving frequency ua? T\rtor: The natural frequency c^r is the frequency of the radio station that you want to hear. Student: So far. x 106 rt) = 102 (10.8 x 105 H)(2r x 108 tt)'  b.2 MHz So make one up? Tlrtor: The frequency / is 108.H Student: Now I can find the capacitance C."t. is equal to O times a second. What's the amplitude of the current at resonance? So if wa . given that the circuit has a resistance of 0.2 MHz either higher or lower.u is 0. the unit for L. that's right. and Hz is ll".  2tr x 108 sl x 1014 F : o. T\rtor: Student: It's t*lR.26 x 106 sl  4. so the left side is unitless. So h .2rf Student: Oh.2 MHz)(2rr00 MHz) L ( (2n0. We're given the resistance R. (r'or'\ @3w2) . The driving frequency crra is the frequency of the next station over.
divided by two factors of seconds is an ohm/second.. If the current is 100 times less. and all of the signals arrive at your antenna and try to "force" your circuit. The instantaneous current is i(t) . the "secondary. but in Europe is 240 volts. But over a complete cycle. he may take a travel transformer. then the power is 104 less and down by 40 dB. Every circuit has some capacitance. "Stepdown" Student: Isn't it? .tude of the oscillating current. then take the square root and invert is 1 over seconds. so there is a voltage induced in the other wire. and in the home for dimmer switches and model trains. Imagine two coils wrapped together that is. Therefore.I is not the instantaneous current but the ampli. or current amplitude /. the magnetic field through each changes. This is not true at every instant. so the power out is equal to the power in. whether you put a capacitor in or not. EXAMPLE Electric power in the United States is 120 volts. You would need to control the "stray" capacitance at this level to tune the radio properly. When an American traveler goes to Europ€. Always? transformers are used to decrease the voltage for neighborhoods.isinc. ve v" At lve Transformers cannot create energy. The magnitude of the induced voltage increases if there are more turns in the second wire.rl. We typically call the first wire the "primary" and the second. if the output (secondary) voltage is greater." The voltage out. two wires wrapped around the same space. The magnetic field stores energy and the power out will increase and decrease as the instantaneous current chang€s. take the inverse to get second/ohm. is determined by the ratio of the number of turns. or secondary voltage.. Maximum current in the primary and secondary do not occur at the same time. Student: So the lower voltage is the second ary? T\rtor: "Stepup transformers" are used for longdistance transmission and highvoltage equipment. That seems like a small capacitance. Because it is the change in the magnetic field that causes a voltage in the other coil. Student: Tbansformers change the voltage in a circuit. transformers only work with alternating current. which is a farad . but which is the primary and which is the second arv? The higher voltage is the secondary. LC is (ohm second)(second/ohm) ir second2. Student: Is this how a radio works? l]rtor: It's one way. Only one of them has a frequency that matches the circuit's frequency. All of the radio stations in the area broadcast their signal. VoIr:PpP":V"1" Why do we use ^[ here for current instead of i? Because .243 How do you get farads out of that? T\rtor: A henry is an ohm times a second. the power in and out are the same. Ttrtor: It is a small capacitance. which allows him to use his American devices in Europe. so all of the others produce much smaller amplitudes. If the current in one changes. the output current must be less. but usually we are interested in the maximum current. How many turns must be on the primary and secondary sides of such a transformer? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: I need to use V"lVp: N"lNo. or output wire. and not with direct current. like T\rtor: No. taking energy stored in the magnetic field. Student: Yes. Student: Okay.
Ttrtor: T\rtor: Student: But I still don't know Student: No. . it's not likely to be 2:L. So that's the primary. T\rtor: Student: ((in" to the transformer..s on the So it could be 200:100. .L20 volts. Student: So which is which? Tbtor: The device is designed to work in America. the Yes. how many turns are on either side. so it must need a voltage of . but you know that Np secondary.2N". That's what it can get out of the wall. Student: That's the secondary.. 120V 1 Np Ve 240 \I . ELECTROMAGNETIC OSCLLATIONS AND ALTERNA"ING CURRENT mosquito zappers.. AL V.244 CHAPTER 31. T\rtor: And the voltage that the transformer has to work with is 240 volts. or 60:30. that there are twice as many turns on the primary a. Student: But it's not important to know how many turns there are? T\rtor: Only the ratio of turns. Tntor: So the transformer has to output L20 volts. or 2:I? Well. The magnetic field created in the transformer would be so weak that it wouldn't work as well. Student: . .
dg: Fo. It also leads to electromagnetic waves. says that the magnetic flrur coming out of a closed surface is zero." When current passes through a capacitor.. Gauss's law for magnetic fields. But the changing electric field between the capacitor plates creates a magnetic field. so every magnetic field line that enters a surface has to leave it somewhere. The fourth equation is a modified version of Ampere's law.i"r. The flux coming out of a closed surface is proportional to the enclosed charge.Chapter 32 Maxwell's Equations. the current causes a magnetic field. The induced voltage is the sum of the electric field around the loop. a fifth is often included with the group: Fn(E+6. The sum of the magnetic field around a loop is proportional to the current through the loop. charging the capacitor. The third equation is Faraday's induced currents. 245 . This is because magnetic field lines never end. #rrr) While not one of Maxwell's equations.dAT fe . This is because electric field lines start at positive charges and end at negative charges. even though no real current passes through the capacitor. There is also a magnetic field around the capacitor. seen in the next chapter. Magnetism of Matter All of electromagnetism is summed up in Maxwell's equations. eB:f E.E) The first equation is Gauss's law.." * ps (. The second equation. plus the piece in parentheses called the "displacement current. just like a current would.
7 pT T\rtor: T\rtor: Ttrtor: Student: Student: Excellent.03 )  26. We need the change in the electric flux. What is the electric field inside the capacitor? Student: There is a constant field between the two plates. Find the magnetic field magnitude 3 cm from the wire. Is this a closed surface? means no Gauss's law.S EQUATIOIVS.246 CHAPTER 32. and 3 cm from the center of the capacitor. Now for inside the capacitor. Tutor: Constant means that it doesn't change with time. We draw a circle around the wire with a radius of 3 through our point. Can we use Gauss's law? What is the surface you are using? What is the loop you are using? Student: I'm drawing a circle around the center of the capacitor with a radius of 3 cm. but finding an equation for the flux is a step in that process. so Student: Isn't that the circle passes di: BL: B(2rr). rl ti tt i. That .po(4 A) (4n x 107 T m/AX4 A) 2r(0. T\rtor: Correct. MAXWELL. The enclosed current is 4 A. The magnetic field is the same everywhere on the circle. MAGNETISM OF MATTER EXAMPLE A capacitor is made of two parallel circular disks. A current of 4 A passes through the capacitor. Do you remember that? Student: I think so. B(2rr) . We need to find the electric field flux inside the capacitor. 6 cm in radius and 1 mm apart. id this just like what we did with Ampere's law? Tutor: Yes. Uniform means that the field is the same at all Student: No. lr' \i Tutor: The surface is the area surrounded by the loop.
The flux is OB . The increasing flux acts like a current. but not the area of the capacitor. then we would have gotten the same answer. In some materials.R is 6 cm. where .po(o) * t o(. z rr2 is the area of your surface.r. This makes the magnetic field even stronger.r. Lr'dQ d^n_ d9r' dto dtesR2 eoR2 dt / f + . Good. We call these materials paramagnetic. onefourth of what we had before. overcoming the energy from being aligned. That's because your loop enclosed onefourth of the area. .onnB . only the current. with the field going only one T\rtor: Student: I meant there way T\rtor: Very good. Ferromagnetic materials are similar to paramagnetic. So I take the derivative. the atoms are free to "rotate" so that their field becomes parallel to the external field. ( !^). the atoms align randomly. so onefourth of the flux. T\rtor: Yes. fil# i r.s+Irni. Good.. / B(2nr) B . or: EAQl("R') €g T\rtor: Student: (nrr) ' t 9( ryTR2eg eoR2 !r'. dg: Foi". This  so that its magnetic field is parallel to the existing the compass is a small magnet and it rotates so that its field lines up Many atoms and molecules have magnetic moments. field. If such a magnet is heated then the energy put into the magnetic can demagnetize the material. The atoms remain aligned because they have less energy aligned than when their magnetic fields are random. called the displacement current. esft2" Student: The change in the charge is the current. T\rtor: Yes.247 points inside the region is a uniform field between the two plates. What is the area A? Student: The area of my surface. or : EA . meaning that they act like tiny magnets.*? It's a uniform field near a plane of charge. *#r) (2nr) . The area of the capacitor is rR2. Student: If my loop had enclosed all of the flux..o 1nr2) €g T\rtor Student: o is the charge Q divided by the area rr2. Tutor: Student: It's just A magnet in a magnetic fteld tries to rotate is how a compass works with the Earth's field.[ EdA: EA. When the external magnetic field is removed." * ps f 'rr\ (. Iron and some alloys of iron are ferromagnetic materials and are used to make permanent magnets. except that the atoms can remain aligned after the external magnetic field is removed. What's the electric field? Student: Can we use E . The Curie temperature is the point at which a magnetic becomes demagnetized. What we really want is the change in the flux. so that they tend to cancel each other out and they no longer create a net magnetic field. I don't need to know the charge. right? It's n'(3 cm)2. Student: Oops.
What is the maximum magnetic field strength that this magnet can create 3 mm above its surface? kg/*t Student: Each atom acts like a magnet. How will you find the number of atoms? Student: Well. EXAMPLE A coinshaped piece of iron has a thickness of 1 mm and a diameter of 1 cm.oo3 m)3 0'96 J lL'm2 Shouldn't the units be teslas? We typically measure magnetic field in tesla. Student: Then a newton per amp.^rX Tutor: Nicely done. So Student: B_4rxI07Tml 2n T\rtor: Student: A0. T\rtor: Good. MAXWELL.meter. . How do I find But that's not the magnetic field. the magnetic field? The magnetic field from a magnetic moment is E_ttoF= 2r z3 Tutor: This is the field along the axis of the magnetic moment. . We get a magnetic field of 1 tesla.248 CHAPTER 32. T\rtor: I remember teslas by using F : iLB. rather than attracted.0. The atoms are not free to rotate. so a newton is an amp. MAGNETISM OF MATTER Materials that are neither paramagnetic nor ferromagnetic are diamagnetic.rJ JIT T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Oh. but the external field changes the orbits of the electrons in the atoms. so it's newtons per amp. with its own magnetization.meteris a tesla.meter. if I use the density and find the volum€.6 x 1021)(2 t 1023 JIT) .13JlT (o. Is this the same as teslas? Student: A joule is a newton meter.Nt p"  (6. Diamagnetic materials are repelled by magnetic fields. Now # ry tL n(o"i#]i{]. Then I divide by the mass of a single atom. Diamagnetic materials develop a small magnetic field opposite to the external field. Student: I multiply by the magnetic .S EQUATIOIIS. That's the magnetic moment. Iron has a density of 7900 and an iron atom has a magnetic moment of 2 x 1023 J lT. I can find the mass of the magnet. I find out how many atoms there are and multiply by the magnetic moment.?'lilry66x1021 moment of each atom.tesla.
then the change in the electric field would create a magnetic field.'l 'ExE lto The magnitude of the Poynting vector is equal to the intensity. and so on. We can replac e B with E I from above. Because the speed of light shows up so much in physics. we need a factor of two. The result is a wave equation involving E and B. The solution also gives the speed for the wave. c lM 3x108m/s it is given its own symbol c. I power area cFo Remember that the RMS is maximum divided by t[2. Because the rate at which the electric field is changing is changing (it has a second derivative too). Remember that the intensity of " any wave is proportional to the amplitude squared. The solutions to the wave equation are waves. and these electromagnetic waves are radio wave. and Xrays. B 249 . and electromagnetic waves are no exception. visible light. so it would create an electric field. To find the average or RMS intensity. fn we were to create an electric field that varied like sine. E and B arc always in The instantaneous intensity is given by the Poynting vector ji. phase with each other and perpendicular to each other.Chapter 33 Electromagnetic Waves Maxwell's equations show that a changing electric field creates a magnetic field. and a changing magnetic field creates an electric field. the magnetic field would be changing. and the direction of the vector gives the direction of travel of the wave.
We can polarize light by putting it through a polarizer. For a typical incandescent light bulb. To describe the direction in which the electric and magnetic field oscillate. Ttrtor: Correct.m.250 CHAPTER 33. When we put unpolarized light through a polarizer.75 N/C  12. The intensity is the power per square meter. What we have now is the RMS value of the electric field. half of it comes through: IIurrr' 1"nOlariZed 2 1_ I .75 N/C T\rtor: Student: It worked.4 rn)2 What's the average intensity? Intensity is power per area.6 m2 Student: 0.203 Wfm2  (3 x 108 m/s) (4n x 107 T m/A) E?^":76. and the next horizontal. Tntor: It's the average electrical Student: Is 100 watts the maximum intensity Tutor: A .4nr2 . ELECTROMAGNB"IC WAVES EXAMPLE A 100 watt light bulb is 1. only 5% of the electrical energy is turned into light.rr" : 8.75 (N. because the cross product has to be perpendicular to vectors that are cross products.T.'r:8. T\rtor: Over how much area is that power spread? Student: If it radiates uniformly.m. and the next somewhere in between.N/s. T\rtor: Or the same amount of light with onefourth the electricity. One "photon" of light may have its electric field vertical.n  ERu rth  8.4n(1. You can save on your lighting bills by using compact fluorescent bulbs. They ought to be N/C True. Student: The 5To means that the light power is not the same as the electrical power. Student: So you get four times the light. The rest is turned into heat. Most light that you see is not polarized.4 N/C Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves. E? rms Er.75@ I\rtor: Student: I'm not sure about the units.A2 : 8.*). Light is polarized when all of the light is oriented the same way.4 m. Envs E..5 w'T lr'A or V/m. What is the light power from the bulb? Student: It's 0. we use polarization.m. This is clear mathematically from the Poynting vector.05 x 100 W or 5 watts.4 m away.soNA. which are about 20% efficient. Student: And we want the amplitude.  24.75  8. What is the amplitude of the electric field oscillation? or the average intensity? power.N/r' : 8. The light bulb is 5% efficient. meaning that the electric field is perpendicular to the direction that the wave travels. then over a sphere of radius 1.75 W. E . Thewaylrememberteslasiswith FiLB.and1T 1N/A.
rized cos2 d where d is the angle between the polarizer and the polarization of the light. 0 is the angle between the light and the polarizer. Correct. one of the polarizations is not reflected at all. The .0. or light that reflects off of irregular surfaces like trees. Tutor: How much comes out of the second? Student: The light going into the second one is polarized. So the angle Correct. and 105o from the common reference axis. If you try to put horizontal light through a vertical polarizer. right? It matches the first polarizer. When we put polarized light through a polarizer. none gets through. to use when it goes through the third polarizer is 65o. so only the other polarization remains.first polarizer? How much light comes through the Student: Because the light isn't polarized. Is: T\rtor: Student: I2cosz 25"  (287 W l^') cos2 650 : 51 W l^' Now if the angle was 90o. This is why polarizirg sunglasses work they remove half of unpolarized sunlight. T\rtor: How much light intensity goes into the first polarizer? . How much light comes out of the third polarizer? 40o. so no light would get through. If you shine polarized light on a wall or anything that isn't mirrorlike.I1 cos2 25"  (350 W l^') cos2 25"  287 W l^' T\rtor: Student: Student: And this light is parallel to the second polarizer. then cos90o . At Brewster's angle. one polarization is reflected better than the other. So the angle d is 25o. When light reflects from a surface at an angle (not normal incidence). EXAMPLE 700 W l^'of sunlight goes through three polarizers. T\rtor: How much light goes into the second polarizer? Student: What comes out of the first one: 350 W l^'. Light can also be polarized when it is reflected.  I1cos2 40o ? T\rtor: Why 40"? Because that's the angle of the polarizer.350 W l^'. but they can remove much more than half of glare from reflective surfaces. the reflected light will be unpolarized. Student: Is there a way to depolarize light? T\rtor: Sure. T\rtor: Correct. T\rtor: Student: Iz:. They are especially effective at glare from water. the fraction that comes through is I Ipor. because it has gone through a polarizer. the amount that comes through is T\rtor: I 12 fpolarized cos2 P Student: Wouldn't that just be 700 W lm2? T\rtor: It would. isn't it? T\rtor: Yes. Is this light polarized? Student: Natural sunlight isn't polarized no. not the polarizer and the reference axis.25L but the light that does come through is now polarized parallel to the orientation of the polarizer. Student: Since it is polarized. The three polarizers are oriented at angles of 15". half of what went in: (ZOO W l^') . What is the direction of polarization of the light that reaches the second polarizer? Student: It's not 0o.
T\rtor: True. ^ n1 sin 91  rl2sin d2 This important thing to remember is that we always measure angles from the normal to the surface. In the figure.252 CHAPTER 33. and now that light has a nonzero component in the direction of the third polarizer. never the surface itself. Student: But if you stick another polarlzer in between them. Note that there would be some light reflected anyw&Y. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES component of the electric field in the vertical direction is zero. some light gets through. This is true regardless of the material that the light starts in. It We characterize the speed of light in a material with the index of refraction of the material n. and increases from ther n is the ratio of two speeds. then dr would be unsolvable . If the angle 02 was to increase. This is true of light as well. We can this refraction. Since the light still more.  Whichever material has the larger n has to have the smaller sin 9. it must all be reflected back into material 2. : n is one for vacuum. then 01 would reach 90o. This can only happen when the refracted (outgoing) angle is larger than the incident (incomitts) angle. and thus the smaller angle 0. Because vacuum Some Indexes of Refraction 1 (exact) I water I air I t. but when the incident angle is too large. . light only goes slower as it goes through material. some of the wave is reflected and some is transmitted. and the eouation that we use is Snell's law. Student: Strange. material 2 has the smaller angle (measured from the normal). or when the light is going into a material with lower n. Because some gets through the second one. is a general principle of waves that when a wave encounters a change of medium. so it rnust have the larger index of refraction. in which the wave would go a different speed. all of the light is reflected. Our first and last polafizers were 90o apart.the can't exit. This can lead to an interesting situation. If 02 increased sine of h would have to be more than one.33 1.0003 1. Reflected light is always reflected at the same angle as the incident angle. called total internal reflection. a's shown on the right side of the figure.5 glass I One effect of the change in speed is that the transmitted light is deflected. it has no units.
rcsin(1. oz:arcsin fry)sin75"\ \ $.0o : n1 sin 01 oz Student: But what's the angle? n2sin 0z (1. .00 : 42. it isn't the angle that you need to use. The bottomright angle of the triangle is 180o .57) from air as shown. Then the incident angle at the second surface is 90o . nr sin0r  Tt2sin02 (1.0o. w€ often use L anyway. So I need to use 0t :90o  15o : 75o .0003) sin02 :arcsin (ffi ) o.048) 1? Tbtor: Student: T\rtor: How do you take the arcsine of a number greater than You don't.253 EXAMPTE Light enters the glass block (n  1. Find the marked angle. Tutor: Use the geometry of the triangle.T):38'oo Tlrtor: Now you need to do the second surface. does that mean there is total internal reflection? Yes.0003) sin 75"  (1 . Whatever.0o. Student: So.0o.00 : 48.80" . Student: The bottomleft angle of the triangle is 90o .52.38. T\rtor: Very good.57) sin42.0o : 52. (1. T\rtor: Student: Student: Then The angle isn't measured compared to the normal.48.57) sinflz T\rtor: Student: Even though the index of refraction of air isn't exactly 1.
Visible light is the relatively narrow range of wavelengths from 400 nm to 700 nm. and we use 700 because it's about right. Infrared. but as you go further into the infrared your well. for example. ELECTROMAGI{ETIC WAVES We use names for ranges of electromagnetic frequencies. is about 1011 Hz to 1015 Hz. (W" use wavelengths for visible light and higher frequency electromagnetic waves. .) The reason for the different names is that electromagnetic waves of different frequencies interact with matter in different ways.eye works less that your eye can see 699 nm but not 70I rffi. Therefore you have to use different techniques to generate and detect infrared waves than you use for ultraviolet waves. There is not a distinct cutoff where a technique stops working it is not true .254 CHAPTER 33.
You could flip it upside down. you turn the book around you reverse left and right by turning the book. The mirror reverses . The object is not there. but all of the light that we see from the mirror is the same as if it were there. Examine the figure below. One myth that persists about mirrors is that they reverse left and right. and in doing so left and right would not be switched. Instead. in which case you also could see the text.the book front and back. Someone looking put at nose in the mirror will really be looking at a spot behind the mirror. we locate the image. To view the book in the mirror. Imagine that you are reading this book and decide that you want to read its reflection in a mirror. and pretend that the object of our attention is indeed there. Iocated behind the mirror. and you find that all of the light that leaves the nose and then reflects off of the mirror appears to come from one spot. because you didn't switch them. the sticker on the mirror will not be. This results in the creation of an image. This is not true. the reflected angle is equal to the incident angle. The location of this image is behind the mirror. This allows us to deal with mirrors without working out all of the reflected angles.Chapter 34 Images When light reflects off of a mirror. of course. so to see the text of you have to turn it around. Your reflection is not at the mirror. and vice versa. the same distance from the mirror as the object but on the other side. You can try this yourself a sticker or tape a paper onto a mirror and then look at yourself in the mirrorl when your reflection (your image) is in focus. 255 . but behind it.
We could. The math is nearly the same for mirrors and lenses. but there's an easier way. How far is it from Betty's image to Joanne? Student: In a straight line? T\rtor: Student: 7. and it would work. The equation that tells us where to find the lmag els 11 fp f. so we'll deal with them together. Student: Is that 2 m behind the mirror? Tutor: Yes it is. But I've learned that it works because images work that way the image. just as if she was there and the mirror wasn't. it's the same as if Betty was there. but the location of the image is different than if the mirror was flat. Anyone looking at Betty's reflection will see it at the same place. The same is also true of lenses. the location of the image. How far away does Betty (at the top) appear to be from Joanne (what focal length must she use for the camera lens)? 6m / We could draw the path of the light. to not do an extensive calculation.256 CHAPTER 34. and lenses have one on each side. because I first saw this "solution" in a book of brain f the light behaves as if it comes from teasers. All of the light from Betty appears to come from there. Thtor: I felt that way for years. they are deflected so that they all hit the focal point. IMAGES EXAMPTE Joanne (at the bottom) wants to take a picture of Betty's reflection. Student: It feels like cheating. When parallel beams of light reach the mirror or lens. somehow. I' 1 111 or j:E+a .8m o a a a' Is that it? Yes. and then set up similar triangles. Every curved mirror has a focal point. Once we know where the image is. Tutor: Student: What if the mirror is curved? There is still an image. Where is the image of Betty? Student: Doesn't that depend on where Joanne is? T\rtor: No.
p is the distance from the mirror/lens to the object (many books use do). or distance from the mirror/lens to the focal point.257 / is the focal length. Concave mirrors and convex lenses are converging. Each of f . and h can be positive or negative. and have positive focal lengths. i. or diverge less rapidly. and n'L) we can find the other two. The magnification is the ratio of the size of the image to that of the object where : h'i np Of TTL : ho h. or converge less rapidly. do If we know any two of / . and there are meanings attached to each. lf (a) Ff (c) . h' . i) rn) A common stumbling block in dealing with mirrors/lenses is in handling the minus signs.r.r :__ d. A converging mirror/lens causes the light beams to converge more rapidly. and have negative focal lengths. p. and i is the distance from the mirror/lens to the image (many books use dr). A diverging mirror/lens causes the light beams to diverge more rapidly. Convex mirrors and concave lenses are divergirg. porx m f converging real diverging virtual flipped upside down not flipped horhl A mirror/lens can be either right side up converging or diverging. p.
You can still see a virtual image looking at the mirror/lens. The last piece before we start sorne examples is how to make a mirror. . it positive I12 or negative I12? The image needs to be upright. if the image is where the light goes. and see the image on the piece of paper. so the image isn't flipped. Student: Okay. That means that the magnification is positive. If you can't . which we won't deal with here.slide so that the image is right side up. There is a similar but more difficult equation for lenr. Rearview mirrors with the warning "objects in mirror are closer than they appear" create smaller images. then it's right side up. so it's +I12. If the absolute value of the magnification is greater than one. so that you can see more. If the you have to be image is where the light doesn't go. so the magnification is positive. Student: Aren't you being a little picky? If the image isn't flipped. You can only have a negative object distance.258 CHAPTER 34. and is it convex or concave? T\rtor: Student: Is The image is half as big. then the image is larger than the object. or right side up. so the magnification Tn: I12. Whatever direction the light comes from as it reaches the mirror/lens is the positive direction for measuring the object distance. Whatever direction the light goes when it leaves the mirror/lens is the positive direction for measuring the image distance. but may distort your mental perception if you do not account for the demagnification. A negative magnification does not mean an upside down image . and so is the image. For I\rtor: the magnification to be positive.then it is a virtual image with a negative image distance. If a mirror has a radius of curvature r ) then the focal length is f +. the height h' needs to be positive. Key to this is knowing which way is the positive direction for measuring the image distance. so the slide must be inserted upside down Sometimes the image is flipped . projectors flip the image. then the image is smaller than the object. A negative magnification corresponds to a flipped image. it is a real image. EXAMPLE The side mirror on a car is designed so that an upright truck 100 m behind the car will appear upright and half as big when viewed in the mirror.r. seeing the light that comes from it. Virtual image 1 f It l is also possible to have a negative object distance. The object car is right side up. right? T\rtor: The object really could be upside down. IMAGES If you can hold a sheet of paper up where the image should be. and if it is less than one.the object might be upside down and the image right side up." if you have more than one mirror/lens. Therefore. What is the radius of the mirror. it is a virtual image. meaning a "virtual object. then it is a real image with a positive image distance. Student: T\rtor: Good. A positive magnification not mean does that the inrage is upright.
would there be an image on the T\rtor: No. 111 Ip?' ^t I 1 f *1oom 5om 100m f .259 Student: I need another one. 50 m in front of the car. so the image is 50 m toward the front of the car. If p is positive and / is negative. TTL AIso. then your statement might not be true. but he couldn't see it. The image distance is positive. would he look behind him to see the image? T\rtor: The image would be 50 m behind the car. : ?. so the object distance is 100 m. That's why it's a virtual image. T\rtor: If there was a screen or piece of paper screen? Student: Student: Oh. this is how I learned to remember the shapes. there is only one mirror or lens. A diverging lens is a concave lens. it's 100 m. We'll Is always creates a Student: do one of those later. he wouldn't see the light that reflected off of the mirror. If you have a virtual object.. T\rtor: Good. Student: How do you remember convex and concave? T\rtor: A concave mirror/lens is one in which the bear can hide.100 m 1oom T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Is there a connection between the 100 m to the truck and the 100 m focal length? No. but the opposite for lenses. then i has to be negative. Correct. and the truck is behind the car. so the object distance p has to be positive. . The object is the truck. f . Student: Negative focal length means diverging mirror. so it's +100 m. *100m  i50m What does the negative image distance mean'? The table says that it's a virtual image. T\rtor: Yes. p t '2 Tutor: Student: 1?. it's coincidence.mirror is Student: So a divergirg a convex mirror. the light bounces off of the mirror and doesn't go there. Tutor: Yes. To remember that a concave mirror is converging. Now you should be able to solve. think about where parallel incoming beams of light would go would they converge or diverge? . then find the focal length. it true that a negative focal length causes a negative image distance so that a diverging mirror virtual image? T\rtor: Not necessarily. and then the radius. and the truck is 100 m from the mirror. T\rtor: Positive or Student: The light comes from behind the car. If he looks backward. so your statement is true if the object is a real object. The driver looks forward to see the image of the truck. so that's the positive direction for the image. Seriously. T\rtor: Where is the image? Student: 50 meters from the mirror. Student: I can find the image distance. Student: If the image distance was +50 m. T\rtor: But on which side? Which way is the positive direction for measuring the image? Student: The mirror faces the back of the car. besides. and the light that bounces off of the mirror goes toward the back of the car. Yes.
2f :2(100 m) : 200 m seems like a big radius. The problem says that the image is real. Tutor: Student: That EXAMPLE I Find the object distance necessary for a *36cmfocallength lens to form a real image three times as large as the object. m is T\rtor: Good. and p4 . the same distance behind the mirror that the object is in front of it. Is the magnification positive or negative? Student: It doesn't s&y. If you wanted a virtual image. Pick a point 2 football fields in front of the car. Tbtor: But you don't know what the magnification is. TTL: 3.260 CHAPTER 34. (+s0 cm) : *48 cm T\rtor: Signs are important. What do you know about the object and image distances? Student: That I can solve for them. The radius of a plane mirror is infinite the mirror gets flatter as the radius increases. Good. and the virtual image is behind the mirror.1 3+1 (+SO cm) p ' 3p 3p 4 3p z. length / is +36 cm and the magnification is 3. It does help if you have common units for f . The focal values. and we increase the radius until the mirror is completely flat. p. and that's the point around which the mirror is centered. so it's a real object with a positive object distance p. 11 > z:p The light bounces off of the mirror. Now look at the equation for magnification m Student: If p and i are both positive. T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: There is only one lens. so it must be positive. so you could only determine two possible sets of Tutor: Student: I have to know two of the four. even if the problem didn't come right out and say so. We can explain a plane mirror using the same equations. but that doesn't mean that the magnification is positive. !plpl' and :?' 1 *I D3p +i3p 1 1.*. T\rtor: It may not say explicitly. Now you can do the problem. then you'd need a negative i. T\rtor: Student: Do I need to convert the 36 cm to meters? No. then m must be negative. The magnification is TTL : ! pp . 6pL t r 0 . but sometimes they aren't explicit. It's not a lot of curvature. so it's positive. IMAGES r .
 EXAMPTE A 2. Again. The object for the second lens is the image created by the first lens.p arrd m: *1. Student: Okay. The virtual image is on the opposite side of the glass that the light goes. i . I have two of the four. Tn: ?. T\rtor: Correct. Take the lenses one at a time. so the image from the first +30etr lens is 30 cm to the right of the first lens. What is the size of the final image? in front of a +10 cm convex lens.26r so the image is the same size and unflipped. so we might have a negative object distance. the first lens. but the same side that it comes from. Is the object distance for the second lens +39 cm? No.!p +I\*ftr o 2 T\rtor: Tutor: Student: So far so good. p and 111 Ip?' al I I 11 *10 1 1 cm 1 goes lrr . The object is on the left. so I can solve for the other two.7 32 1 1 i Student: *10 cm *15 cm 30 cm 30 cm i*30cm The light that leaves the first lens to the right of the first lens. The focal length of a flat piece of glass is infinite.4mmhigh object is 15 cm cm concave lens. We can likewise examine a flat piece of glass. 'lTL1 . so the object distance p is positive 15 cm. 24 cm behind the convex lens is a 10 direction for measuring the object. Now we do the second lens. so the left is the positive Student: We have two lenses. That's where the light . The focal length is *10 cm. and the same distance away as the object it is at the object.nt . The light comes from the left.
6 cm? 1 i 1 35 2 cm cm 10 6 30 cm 30 cm i*15cm right because that's 1 111 10cm 6cm =i Student: The final image is a real image. Student: So I multiply. . The light into the second lens doesn't appear to be coming from a spot. (2.262 CHAPTER 34. IrL2  !p  +r:ffir Aefrr  +2. Student: But the image from the first lens is on the right side of the second lens.5 and the second image The first image is is 2. _ 12 mm Student: And the negative height means that it's upside down. 15 cm to the right of the second lens where the light goes when it leaves the second lens.4 mm) x (2) x (+Z. T\rtor: Student: How do I combine the magnifications? 2x the first object. so it's a negative object distance.S. Ttrtor: Very good. but going to a spot 6 cm to the right of the second lens. T\rtor: Student: So the object distance for the second lens is Yes.5x the second object. then it becomes the second object. IMAGES into the second lens appears to come from. Tutor: And the light into the second lens comes from the left.
but we do care what the difference in the two distances AI is. we have constructive interference. then they add to zero. If the second wave is a halfinteger (0. 2. this usually involves two beams of light that are parallel.) behind the first. If two waves are identical except that one is one wavelength behind the other. then we have destructive interference. . . Interference takes place when two waves add. This is like adding 3 and 3. We don't care what the two distances are. they add and you get one wave that's twice the size. and the sum is twice the amplitude. a. we encountered interference. + Typically the two light waves start at the same time. then it looks the same as the first wave and they again add to give a wave twice as large.5.L 'J\(+*)r where m is an integ€r. There are many geometries we can use to create the difference in the two path lengths. but regardless of geometry. For light..Chapter 35 Interference When we looked waves and sound. or half a period in time. If you have two identical waves travelling sidebyside.5. and the sum is zero. The general idea is that if one wave is an integer number of waves behind the first.[y^ constructive interference destructive interference 263 . identical except that one is half a wavelength behind the other. 1.5. . any integer. If you have two waves. or nearly so. so one is behind the other because it has a greater distance to travel.
Movable Yes. Student: So the question is: What do I have to do to change the path length difference by a wavelength? Student: Shouldn't the waves either cancel or not? The viewer should see bright or dark. When the T\rtor: T\rtor: . the two lights cancel and there is no light. then that path increases by two wavelengths and the other T\rtor: doesn't change. the light from the two slits goes the same distance.407 um rx 1 3 10ox : 1n llltl Student: And it is. so that LL ^. Do I move it a wavelength? The light has to go out and back. light from one of the slits has to go further than light from the other.  The difference in the two path lengths for this geometry is LL  dsin 0 where d is the distance or separation between the two slits. Student: We saw six fringes.264 CHAPTER 35. When this difference reaches LL . As you go a little ways away from the center. Student: So the difference LL would increase by responds to moving one mirror by X. but it does  When the light goes straight through. the pattern shifts by 6 fringes. It may seem strange that the light would see Huygens's principle. so we moved 31. So one fringe cor T\rtor: Yes. If you're using visible light. we use trigonometry: A . then you should expect the result to be in that range.\. One of the most common geometries for interference is Young's doubleslit experiment. Maxima (plural of maxirnum) occur when we go further. one mirror by 6 x .Dtan? . If you move one mirror out by a wavelength. Student: Student: Do I just move one of the mirrors or both? Typically one mirror is fixed and we move the other. We call this a bright fringe or a maximum.(m + i)f.lX. spread out as it goes through the slits.L{H+})r constructive interference destructive interference To find the position A on the screen of the maxima and minima. \ /\. Two narrow slits are made in an opaque surface. If we get to another maximum. What is the wavelength of the light? T\rtor: In reality.1 _ 3) : I. difference in the path length changes by one wavelength. and the light is bright. We call this a dark fringe or a minimum. and minima at LL . IIfTERFERE/VCE EXAMPLE A Michelson interferometer is shown below. LL m).. Visible light goes from 400 nrn to 700 nm.407 pm 469 w l0_t ) Tutor: It's handy to remember the wavelengths of light. the fringes shift by one. When one of the mirrors is nroved by 1.407 pm. and the light goes through them. 2. the difference is zero. So dsino_ L. there are fringes due to slight differences in the paths to the telescope.
(2+ 1)f. and ine third at AL  . Student: So the first maximum is at TTL :1.. 0 : 0o . What is at m . with m . and the second maximum is at m . What's m for the first maximum? Student: The central maximum isn't the first one? T\rtor: No. and m . so we can use tan? l << d when 0 is small To check whether the angle is small. Yes.AL .0.265 D+ T I Path length differen ce L.(m++)) for a minimum. between the zeroth and first muima? Student: m has to be an integer.0. with TrL. Student: Student:  So the first minimum occurs at m . The central maximum is the "zeroth" one. where ( typically means 100 times EXAMPLE T Light of wavelength 562 nm is incident on two slits with slit spacing 80 plm.0 and LL . check for either less than.L v where D is the distance to the screen. On a screen 2.\. What would you call it the first minimum? Sure. LL . . or a K D.0. What is at So that's what you mean by m .+ There is a minimum there.(0 + +)^.L: Tutor: Tntor: ixz Student: . T\rtor: Good.3 for the third one. Student: At L. And the second minimum is at LL (1 + *)f.6 m away. T\rtor: Yes.2.. The central maximum is at LL _ 0 and the first maximum is at AL Student: I use dsin0 . T\rtor: Okay. how far from the central maximum is the third minimum? T\rtor: What is m for the central maximum? the center. Often in doubleslit experiments the d(in radians) = sin 0 x angle 0 is small.
Student: .r{ {J x ut q o . If m .562 pr.order Zsothorder maximum maxlmum' / maximum \ t/ .\ is less than a hundredth of d. Eventually you get to an angle that you Ttrtor: Student: You mean past 90o? Yes. How many interference ma. be a limit? As you go to higher values of m.J sl il o Third minimum I Center of pattern.m. the angle I fTL :34? Student: It would be more than 90o. You would need to find an angle such that the sine of the angle is greater than You can't have a sine greater than 1. so . T\rtor: Student: + *xo aN? :sing nY tan o # *(0.rima are there in the whole pattern? Tntor: cantt Student: Why should there use. INTERFERENCE order First. d is 80 pm. Student: is 90". is the angle small? How small? T\rtor: Small enough to use sin0 = tan?.266 Second CHAPTER 35. . _ (19 ry_mXt) : (0.6 m) :0'0457m45'7mm EXAMPLE Light of wavelength 562 nm is incident on two slits with slit spacing 19 Ltm. Student: Of course. 1.il O rl q . T\rtorz rrl does have to be an integer. Tutor: So the angle is small.rl . What would the angle be if we used No. 0o Student: Then the angle is dsin0AL(z+*) I Before doing the arcsine. How high would m have to be so that the angle 0 is 90o? m _ dsing0o dsin0ALm).8. or 0. as in ) << d.8 T\rtor: ^ so we round.\ is 562 ril.562 /rm) 33. you get larger angles.562 pm)(2.33. nz has to be an integer.
Light reflects normally off of the film.8 wavelengths apart. and vice versa. . you need light from one slit to be 12 wavelengths behind the other. EXAMPLE A thin film of soap is stretched across a coat hanger. some of the wave is transmitted and some is reflected. But if one is flipped and the other isn't. If a beam of light strikes a piece of glass.81. When a wave reflects off of a surface in which it would go slower than it would in the medium it is in. despite the figure. You can't get a path length difference of 34 wavelengths. plus the central maxima for Student: total is 33+1+33:67 Is there some reason? To get the 12th interference maximuil. Student: So we truncate rather than rounding. If both waves or neither wave is flipped. we need the extra distance to be equal to an integer number of wavelengths. We will a. then what would have been constructive interference becomes destructive. then nothing changes. Yes. The slits here are only 33. where t is the thickness of the glass.ssume that the light hits at normal incidence. So you can't use m . Remember that a general principle of waves is that when a wave reaches a change of medium. some of the light is reflected from both the front and the back surfaces of the glass. (Most glass is too thick and doesn't have a uniform enough thickness we usually observe this with much thinner films. Find all wavelengths of visible light for which the reflection is especially bright.24. The film is 575 nm thick and has an index of refraction of 1 .) Because the extra distance occurs in the film. \n:: So 2t: AL : constructive interference destructive interference There is one more change in thin films.34. So if the material that the wave bounces off of has a greater n. the wave is flipped. using the wavelength in the film. We get the So the lst through 33rd interference maxima on each side. so you can't get the 34th interference Tutor: Student: maximum.267 T\rtor: Ttrtor: m 0. the wave is flipped. so the greatest path length difference we can get is 33. One beam goes 2t further than the other.
5 1426 nm 1.24)(575 nm) 1426 nm (* + Lr) m0 mI + (*+ : 2852 nm 951 nm *) )) L426 nm 0.00.24. 2(1. but make a quick drawing. regardless of whether the reflected light is flipped. At the second surface. with n : I. so a quick drawittg is important. Student: I want brighter light. Tutor: No. means constructive interference. Student: Is the transmitted light also flipped? Student: Really? it is flipped.5 . It bounces off of air. so Ttrtor: Very good. It bounces off of soap. which T\rtor: All of them.24. with n . with n_ 1.I. The thing it bounces off of has a greater n than what it's in. Student: Okuy. The thing it bounces off of has a lesser n than what it's in. The light is in air. il* ffi ffi destructive interference constructive interference Tbtor: Good. Tutor: You need to determine whether the waves flip on reflection. IN?ERFERENCE the formula. so it is not flipped. Student: Okay. so the equations switch. with rr:1. the light is travelling in soap. T\rtor: Good. Student: I start with 2tAL+) * constructive interference destructive interference Tutor: Okay. Ttrtor: T[y it. The transmitted light isn't flipped as it moves into the second medium. Student: What value do I use for m? Student: All? That could take a while.00.268 CHAPTER 35. Student: One of the waves is flipped and the other isn't.
a total of four surfaces. of the wire have to do with fringes? The light reflects off of the top and bottom of each piece of glass. This interference will change from constructive to destructive to constructive and so on as the thickness of the "air gap" increa^ses.5 1426 nm 4. when we move away from the center of the pattern.5 1426 nm 3. As m gets even bigger.5 : : 570 nm 407 nm 317 nm TUtor: Which of these correspond to visible light? Student: The first two are infrared. or something in between. but whatever it is it doesn't change. when using 632 nm light.269 )^ 1426 nm 2. and the light that reflects off the top of the bottom piece of glass. There are LL4 bright fringes between the left end and the wire. the path length difference increases and we see fringes. The light from the top and bottom of the top surface interfere constructively or destructively. and it's already too small for visible EXAMPLE Two pieces of glass are placed with a thin wire separating them at one end. also interfere. the wavelength will get smaller. Find the diameter of the wire. T\rtor: light. and the last one is ultraviolet. Only 570 nm and 407 nm are visible light. Like the twoslit experiment. Yes. The light that reflects off of the bottom of the top piece of glass. Do you need to keep going? Student: No. T\rtor: Student: What does the diameter Thtor: Student: So the changing interference causes fringes. .
270
CHAPTER 35. I]VTBRFERE]VCE
So the first thing
Student:
I do is write down the
( mL
equation. constructive interference destructive interference
2t: L,L:
Student:
Then
t r#*
+)*
I
make a
little drawing.
glar3
Student: The top beam is traveling in glass (n = 1.5) and bounces off of air (n * 1.0), so it is not flipped. The bottom beam is traveling in air and bounces off of glass, so it is flipped. One is flipped and the other is not, so the equations are flipped.
Mdestructive 2t: L,L: [ ** . (constructive + \ +)* ffi T\rtor:
Student: That
interference interference
Doing well. At the far left end, is it dark or bright? would be the top equation, so it's dark. f'm not sure that makes sense. T\rtor: The second beam goes no extra distance, so there is no change from that. One of the beams is flipped, so the two beams are opposites and add to zero. Student: Now I need to relate the fringes to the thickness f, which is equal to the diameter. T\rtor: The first dark fringe is at TrL  0 and f  0. Where is the first bright fringe? Student: At m equation.
2t:
T\rtor:
Student: What value should I use for n? Student: Air. So I use n t
1.0.
(113 +
ili
What material is there where the extra distance takes place?

*tt13.5)^

*tt13.5)(632 nm) :35866 nm:35.9 pm
Chapter 36
Diffraction
In the previous chapter we examined interference from two sources. It is possible to have interference from
more than two sources.
A diffraction grating (ot interference grating) is a series of slits, so that there is interference from 100 or more sources. If the slits are evenly spaced, then the math is the same as with two slits. If the light from the second slit is one wavelength behind that from the first, then light from the third is one wavelen$h behind that from the second, and so on. The maxima are in the same place, but are narrower because, if you go a little ways off from the maximur, there are more sources and they cancel each other out sooner.
A more interesting question is what to do with a single slit. It may seem that with only one source, there should be no interference. But light from the far edge of the slit has to go a little further than light from the near edge of the slit. To deal with one slit properly, we need to divide it into an infinite number of slits.
When the interference is from different points in the same slit, we call
it diffraction.
Consider the point in the middle of the slit. If the light from here goes half a wavelength further than light from the near edge, then they will cancel. Working across the slit, light from each point in the near half is canceled by light from a point in the far half of the slit. All of the light cancels, and we get a minimum. This occurs at fisin 0  , *here a is the slit width. In general, the diffraction minima occur at
osin0m),
This equation is similar to the one used in twoslit interference, except then more slit) maxima, and here it is for diffraction (one slit) minima.
it
was for interference (two or
27r
272
CHAPTER 36. DIFFRACTIO]V
Totally destmctive interference
Pr
Central axis
Path length difference
Viewing
screen
Incident
wave
C
EXAMPLE
Light of wavelength 570 nm goes through a slit of width 30 pm. What is the width of the central diffraction maximum on a screen 1.5 m away?
What's the "central diffraction maximum?" At the middle of the pattern on the screen, light from all points in the slit travels the same distance, so they all interfere constructively, and the light is the brightest. If you move away from the center to the spot where o sin 0  ), then the light from the bottom half of the slit cancels the light from the top half and
Tutor:
Student:
there is a minimum.
Student: Wait aminute. Insingleslit diffraction,
the minimaoccur at osin0
so shouldn't there be a minimum in the center of the pattern?

rn),.
If m 0 then 0:0,
T\rtor: A good question. In diffraction the minima occur at every integer value of m ercept m  0. There has to be a maximum there because all of the light travels the same distance. Because there is no minimum at m  0, the central maximum is twice as wide as the others. Student: So there is a maximum at 0  0, which is m  0. How do I determine the width of this central
diffraction maximum? T\rtor: The edge of the maximum is where the minima are. Student: So I need to find the minimum corresponding to m
T\rtor:

I?
Yes.
Student: And they are at
a sinfl
:fr^I
T\rtor:
Student:
Yes. There is one on each side, the same distance away from the center. So I can find one and double it. To find the distance on the screen I use
A
 Dtan?
Is the angle small enough to use d(in radians) = sin I x tan?? How do you check? Student: With twoslit interference, w€ compared the wavelength to the slit separation d. T\rtor: So with singleslit diffraction, compare the wavelength to the slit width a. If ,\ ( a, then sin 0 is
T\rtor:
small.
Student:
273
Student:
So the
ratio ),la is
T\rtor: Tfy it both ways and see.
Student: It needs to be 1/100 or less, doesn't it? Student: If I make the approximation, then
A: Da
width
::ffi
tan 0 =sinO

]
57 mm

za
m)  2^D  2(0'57#,')(1t5  0 .xsl rD 
T\rtor:
Student:
What if you don't do the u*lo*rl,,onrtto*' Then I have to use arcsine to find the angle.
sino
e
 la
30pm

arcsin(0.019) :1.0887"
width
 2y:2Dtan 0 
2(1.5 )(0.0190034)

0.0570103
rrl
57.0103 mm
So the difference is that with the approximation, the width is 57.0 mm instead of 57.0103 mm. Correct. 57.0103 mm is the true width of the central diffraction minimum. Student: So I didn't need to be worried that the angle was too big? Tntor: It depends on how much precision you want. The difference between sine and tangent reaches ITo at about 8" or 0.14 radians. If two significant figures is enough, then you need * < 0.I4. To keep the error below 0.I%, you need an angle less than 0.04 radians. Your angle was less than 0.02 radians. Student: So if the slit width is 110.04  25 times as large as the wavelength, then I can use the approximation and my error will be less than 0.I%? Tutor: Yes, using 1/100 is more restrictive than you need to be.
T\rtor:
Student:
Having determined the location of the minima, we now ask what the intensity is at any spot on the screen. For two slits, each of width a and separated by d,, the intensity is given by
r(o)
where
_ro,(ry)'{.",2
B)
affsinl and P!rr^e
I,n is the maximum intensity, found at the center of the pattern (P  0). This may seem mysterious, but is not that bad.
The cos2 B factor is the effect of the interference of the light from the two slits. At the center of the pattern,
p0andcos2p
interference minimum. This happens at
7trd1 ;: 0:^sin0
> ;^ 
dsin?
That is, cos2 p goes to zero at the angle where we know the first interference minimum is. The first interference minimum always occurs when cos2 P T12,, regardless of the wavelength and slit separation, because P uses the ratio of these two. Interference maxima occur wherlever cosz p 1, or at P

274
CHAPTER 36. DIFFRACTION
2,
71 3n
dsin0
dsin0],1,$,f,...
The
T, T'
5n
''
', which is at
minimum. This happens at
(Y)' factor is the effect of diffraction of each of the slits. At the center of the pattern, a (%")' 1(asalimit). Whena  7r, sin a_ 0, sotheintensityis zero) corresponding to the first diffraction
7TATrCL
sind >
^ know the first diffraction That is, sin o goes to zero at the angle where we minimum is. The first diffraction minimum always occurs when sin a  7r ) regardless of the wavelength and slit widths, because a uses the ratio of these two. Diffraction minima occur whenever sin a asin 0 The diffraction maxima are close to a t,+,+,..., but not at exactly these spots. Consider a point in the pattern where cos2 P  1 and sino0. The cos2 p part says that the point is an interference maximum that the light from the two slits is in phase, because light from one slit goes an integer number of wavelengths further than light from the other. The sin a part says that the point is a diffraction minimum that for each slit the light from part of the slit cancels the light from the other part, so that there is no light from the slit. The light from the two slits would interfere constructively, except that there is no light from either slit. The intensity is I  1,.(0lax1)  0. The a in the denominator causes the pattern to lose intensity as we move away from the center of the pattern. In the first diffraction maximuffi, light from the middle third of the slit cancels light from the top third, and only light from the bottom third remains. In the second diffraction maximuil, light from the second fifth of the slit cancels light from the top fifth, Iight from the fourth fifth cancels light from the third fifth, and only light from the bottom fifth remains. As we continue, each diffraction maximum is less intense than the one
before.
^osin0
^,2^,...
since no light would go through such a narrow slit, becomes zero regardless of the angle, and (Y)'
In the last chapter, we treated the slits as being infinitesimally narrow. This is a practical impossibility, but it works well mathematically. When o  0, then a
all directions. We had to take only interference into account.

1 regardless of the angle. Light diffracts out evenly in
EXAMPLE
Light of wavelength 614 nm goes through two slits with slit width 73 pm and slit separation 214 prr^. What is the intensity of the second interference maximuffi, compared to the intensity at the center of the pattern?
and p. p? T\rtor: There's an easier way. What's Student: Don't I need to know the angle? T\rtor z p is zero at the center and r at the first interference maximun, regardless of d, Student: So 0 2r. T\rtor: Yes. What's a? Student: Presumably you'll say I don't need the angle for that one either. T\rtor: Yes, you don't. What's the ratio of p la? So
Student:
I find the angle 0, then calculate c
I, or 0.
Student:
Most of the stuff cancels.
p_a
ff
t' sind :
sinO
d a
T\rtor:
You can use the ratio to find c.
a]e: P*^Qd_
2.r4r
275
Tlrtor: If you know one of o and p, then you can use the ratio to find the other.
must mean something. does. The ratio dlo tells us what the last interference maximum inside the central diffraction maximum is. The ratio here is 214173  2.93, so the second interference maximum is inside the edge of the central diffraction maximun, but the third interference maximum just misses. This is true regardless of wavelength. If we increased the wavelength, the pattern would get narrower but would keep the same shape and intensity ratios, the whole pattern getting narrower together. Student: Interesting. Now I can calculate the intensity.
Student: That was easy. Does it Student: That
always work like that?
Tntor: It
r(o)
r*(ry)'{.""2p)
*:(ffi)'{."s21zzr;)
T\rtor: Tlrtor:
When you take the sine of o, remember to have your calculator in radians mode.
Student:
Is that important?
Yes. The equation was derived with o and 0 in radians. Student: Does d have to be in radians, if we had found d? T\rtor: It can be in whatever you want, and have your calculator in the correct mode. A hint that a and B are in radians is the zr in the equation for them. (0.3e2)' (r.0)
:
0.154

15.4%
Student: So the second interference mucimum has 15% of the intensity of the central interference maximum, regardless of the wavelength of the light. Ttrtor: Yes. It is determined by the ratio dlo.
EXAMPLE
The figure shows intensity as a function of angle (0" in the center) for a number of slit arrangements. Which figure corresponds to
o a single narrow (a << ^)
slit?
3a)?
o two slits with slit separation three times the slit width (d : o many narrow (o < A) slits?
Yes. DIFFR ACTIO]V J\ ll It tl lt tl tl lt II i) tt /l t! t\ /t t'l /'r of evil bonehead question is this? meant to see if you can distinguish between interference and diffraction. where is the first diffraction minimum? Student: The diffraction minima are at Tutor: Student: What kind asin 0 . Student: The leftmiddle graph looks like interference.276 CHAPTER 36. Is it two slits or many slits? Student: How can I tell? T\rtor: Compare the leftmiddle graph with the bottomright graph. If a { ). Student: So the leftmiddle is two slits and the bottomright .m). One Student: There's nothing to calculate. we get the topleft figure. then light spreads way out. sin0 . Tntor: You might find a little. If a > topright graph? lfrtor: T\rtor: Yes. Student: So is that the topmiddle graph? T\rtor: Yes. Tutor: That's what you get when you have many slits narrower bright spots. The first diffraction minimum occurs when light from one side of the slit goes a wavelength further than light from the near side. Student: They're similar. there isn't room for this to happen. When the slit is very narrow. The central maximum is the same size as the others and they don't get much smaller as we go out. T\rtor: Good. Tutor: There isn't one. Because the slit is less than a wavelength wide. is many slits.(1)l a Student: If a ( ). the diffraction minima move way in. then the right side is greater than one. Student: And when they're about the same. We can't solve for the first diffraction minimum. Student: And when the slit is wide. You can tell that the minima are caused by diffraction rather than interference because each minimum is so much smaller than the previous one. but the maxima in the bottomright graph are much narrower. and because the central maximum is twice as wide as the others.
and d is the diameter of the hole. The slits in the bottomright graph are wider than those in the leftmiddle. so Student: 0xtan0_ D Y Tutor: Student: where g is the length of the nose and D is the distance to the nose. it again forms a diffraction pattern. When light travels through a circular hole rather than a slit. The angle to the first diffraction minimum is 0 . EXAMPLE An athlete is at the far end of a sports field. The small angle approximation applies.r. Excellent. The diffraction minima and maxima are circular in shape. 100 m away. So d graph? T\rtor: graph? Yes. so they're like the topmiddle graph. they may appear to be a single object. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: What wavelength should I use? The problem Pick one in the visible light range. Student: Is this the same angle 0 as in the previous equation? Yes.\. How large a telescope would be needed to distinguish the athlete's nose. so d . but the intensity is zero there. but there is no light from either slit due to diffraction.4a.wherea<. T\rtor: Yes. If we look at two 0n: I'224 d. but still smaller than a wavelength.Od . The light from one slit travels three wavelengths further than light from the other. Student: The middle graph has the second interference maximum missing. doesn't say. How wide are the slits? There isn't much diffraction. Student: Is that the difference between the rightmiddle and the bottommiddle graphs? They look the same but with narrower slits. Rayleigh's criterion for being able to tell the two objects apart is that the center of the second object has to be outside the first diffraction minimum of the first object. . What about the bottomleft Student: The fourth interference maximum is missirg. and d  3a for the rightmiddle and bottommiddle graphs. and there's no diffraction minimuil. objects that are close together but far from us.22I where 0 is in radians and the small angle approximation applies (d = sin 0 x tan 0) .277 Ttrtor: Student: Yes. Iike the hole. T\rtor: Very good. Notice that the third interference maximum in each is missing. There is a third interference maximuil. This diffraction minimum depends on the size of the hole through which we view the object. and get weaker in intensity as you go further out. Student: Is that because there is a diffraction minimum there? T\rtor: Yes. 3 cm long? T\rtor: Student: Why do I want to see his nose? To see if his opponent broke it. Okay.
If you use 25mm{ia. DIFFNAC"ION Like 500 nm? Tbtor: Student: Sure. If.meter binoculars.0mm That's about the size of the pupil of the human eye.22xD A !'22(500 "0. #=01. Tbtor: So you should just be able to see that there is a nose. but not tell the shape of the nose. Student: Let's see.22) d  r. then y goes down. d goes up.there you from seeing the nose. But what if the binoculars are 7x binoculars? T\rtor: If the limiting factor is diffraction. then it's the ratio of the diameters that matter.278 CHAPTER 36. So I should be able to see the nose. then you can see details 12 times smaller. This is assuming that diffraction in the eye is what limits your eyesight are other things that could keep . but diffraction limits you to just barely seeing a nose. T\rtor: Student: .0020 m :2.03 m t9n m)(100 m) : 0.
in our own frame of reference. The important thing to remember is that nothing in relativity changes what we've covered so far. The issues begin when you need to change from one frame of reference to another. But you see yourself as station&ry. you see the car not moving. I believe that I am standing still and that you are moving. I believe that they are not simultaneous. Forexample. I subtract off the travel time of the signal to determine when the event happened.01 s. I realize that it took 0. If the driver of the car steps on the brakes. There are two basic postulates that we start with in relativity. they measure the world differently. This is not because one of them is less competent. All 279 . The world is just different to two people who are moving compared to each other. If you are moving compared to me. but the PingPong ball will continue nroving forward. rather than c * u or c . The most immediate result of these two postulates is that two frames moving compared to each other will not agree on whether two events are simultaneous or not. As I move compared to you and look at the same events. Note that any frame of reference that moves with a constant velocity compared to an inertial frame of reference is also an inertial frame of reference.u. If you drive by me at 60 miles per hour.0. You believe that two events happened simultaneously. the car will slow. Noninertial frames of reference typically involve acceleration that causes objects to accelerate without forces. holding out your hand. and you see me . all of a sudden. if I shine a laser beam and measure the speed of the light. compared to which all measurements are made. As long as you stay in one frame of reference. The first postulate is that the laws of physics are the same in any inertial frame of reference. the PingPong ball accelerated forward without any horizontal forces on it. with a PingPong ball on your hand. you get the same speed c. This is not because of the delay in my seeing the events. you were just sitting there when. so that the event really occurred at t . nor is one right and the other wrong. Flom your standpoint. In particular.01 seconds for the light of the event to travel to ffi€. Both of us are right. If an event happens somewhere in my frame of reference other than in front of me. I get c. An inertial frame of reference is one in which Newton's laws apply. and these lead to some interesting results.Chapter 37 Relativity When two people are moving compared to each other. The second postulate is that the speed of light is the same for all observers. and measure the speed of the same light beam. What is a noninertial frame of reference? Imagine that you are in a car. One of the points of relativity is that there is no "standittg still" frame of reference. all of physics works just fine.by the side of the road . Note that we don't say that one is standing still and the other is moving.as moving toward the rear of your car at 60 mph. If I see sornething at t0 but 3 x 106 m awayfromffi€.
RELATIVITY observers are considered smart enough to compensate for the travel time of the signals. one frame of reference measures the "proper length" Lo.r' Lt'"y(AtbA") t ^l where ? is the Lorentz factor and u is the velocity between the two frames of reference. but this does not explain the effects of relativity. where proper is a name and not a description. Many of the most important effects of relativity can be understood in terms of proper time Ato and proper length Ls. Krank isn't moving and McClay is moving to the left at 0.866c and Vapid is 26 It yr away. From Krank's point of view. How long does Krank's trip take. To convert spacetime coordinates between frames of reference. T\rtor: Student: If we can use proper time and proper length. Who measures the proper length for Krank's trip? McClay is not moving.u At) t L. so he is the one measuring proper time and length. can me&sure the distance between two points.(A. and the proper length is not the correct length. and the proper time is not the correct time." Each person is standing still in their own frame of reference. Captain Krank travels at 0.280 CHAPTER 37. Everyone is correct for their own frame of reference. One frame of reference measures the "proper time" Ato. These are never the same Person r Lo ll and At : . it is still true that d ut. The person who sees the two ends stationary measures the proper length.y Lto EXAMPTE Captain Krank leaves Earth to go to Vapid to visit Smerk while McClay stays behind on Earth. A second result from these two postulates is that two observers.866c. For each. and t. and everyone else is moving. we use the Lorent z transform. but they have different values of d. or the time between two events. then that will be easiest? Student: .866 c 26 lt Yt Yes. Similarly. and will get different values. Student: How do we tell who is moving and who is standing still? Tntor: There is no "standing still. moving compared to each other. u. as measured by Krank? K 0. The person who sees both events (start and end) happen directly in front of them measures the proper time. . where proper is a name and not a description. T\rtor: Being on Earth does not mean that he isn't moving. both as measured by McCIay. .
Gamma is not negative. from relative motion still works. What is the length as measured by Krank? He mea. trK..ct^vf "l  (26 lt yr) l@  13 It yr T\rtor: I\rtor: Student: tick questio Krank isn't Student: Student: Yes. w€ can use the KrankMcClay according to Krank.866)2 T\rtor: How far is the trip according to Krank? Student: Since McClay measures the proper length.Cluy : du"cl. you can do that.281 T\rtor: Student: But I can use d : ut. Student: And if I take the distance measured by Krank and the velocity measured by Krank. 'r 0.y ^rrvvral : 26 It yr 26 lt vr  uMcClay 0. Now we calculate how long the trip takes according to Krank. right? Fbr each person and each frame of reference. tM. 0.r Lv r L Thtor: We could also have found the time according to McClay and converted the time into Krank's frame. The Good. How fast is Krank going according to Krank? Is it just 0. McClay sees the proper length because the endpoints aren't moving in his frame of reference. To him. T\rtor: Correct.. Ttrtor: Correct. How fast is Krank going according to McClay? Ttrtor: I\rtor: So I need a minus sign.sures a different length.866c ltYr.".866c lt yrf yr  1g. "Y 11 1 (0. . right? Tutor: Right. Student: So McCIay measures the proper length for the trip because the planets are not moving in his frame of reference. LLoll T\rtor so + trKr"rrk  LM.clavf ^f Student: What is 7 ? zj comes from the difference in speeds between the two frames of reference. Earth and Vapid are stationary. so it's the time measured by McCIay. When we square the negative velocity the sign disappears. It is always a positive number greater than 1. Very good. Student: Okay. So Student: +d t'a 26 lt yr 0.866 tKrank: dK""k _ t=t]ll' :g uKrank 0.866c? dl'e: deA.866 It yr /yr 3oyr 26 T\rtor: That is the distance measured by McClay and the velocity measured by McClay. I get the time measured by Kratrk. And what is this "proper length" ? e T\rtor: Student: Student: 26 lt yr.866c  30 yf T\rtor: Tutor: Who measures the proper time? since he measures the proper length? No. but not yet. What is the distance measured by Krank? Student: It isn't 26 lt yr. the proper time is measured by the person who is at Earth when Krank leaves Earth. and is Student: Wouldn't that be McClay.k 1to find the distance : LM. moving according to Krank. There are some times when the sign of the velocity matters.
so they will also measure velocities differently. CHAPTER 37.+u measured in the other. Each frame of reference measures things and gets different results. we u use where u is the velocity measured 1+ u. At : "." where one twin stays on Earth and the other Can't we say that the one in the rocket stays put while the one on Earth goes away and comes back? T\rtor: Good question.. so he is younger when they get back together. We use relativity to change measurements from one frame of reference to another. This moment of noninertial frame of reference is the difference. which is shorter.'k   (30 yr) I Q) : 15 yr Student: goes away and comes back.. everything in the rocket ship that is not bolted down picks itself up and flies against the front of the ship. To transform a velocity from one equation into another. and in each piece the twin in the rocket ship experiences the proper time. When the twin in the rocket turns around. EXAMPLE In the previous example. RELATIVITY T\rtor: Student: That Correct. but their measurements are correct for their frame of reference. Student: So I can use d . There is no "correct" frame of reference. When the rocket ship turns around. Student: But if McClay measures proper length and Krank measures proper time. So we have to do the problem in two pieces.282 also at Vapid when Krank arrives at Vapid. if only from positive to negative. Scootie according to Scootie? leaves Earth toward Vapid at 0.f Ato Atu"c Atu"clay uv 11 : I Ltxrank Atx.ut as long as all three are measured in the same frame of reference. This never happens to the twin on Earth.866 c 26 lt Yt . The equations we use in this chapter assume a constant velocity between two frames of reference. How long does Krank's trip take K 0.uf c2 in one frame and u' is the velocity  u.943c. which one is the correct frame of reference? T\rtor: Neither. Now I've heard of this socalled "twin paradox. would be Krank. Just as two observers will measure lengths and times differently. the velocity between the twins changes.
Then. We would find the proper time. and then find the gamma factor 7 between the frame with the proper time and Scootie's frame. the world looks like this.866c) (o.10 Student: Now if I used T\rtor: 2 and 3 to 1.10)(15 yr)  16. but Tutor: That is the speed at which it is still in McCIay's 1 + 0. In the numerator. so Af .866c0. Is there some way to go trom Student: Ok y. Can I subtract? 0. can find the time.283 Can we use At 1 Ltg? We can. (0.866A l/  0. I'd get 3. I got 2. but not necessary. Whoever measures the .943c. Student: So I take the speed between Krank and Scootie .077c ? a McClay sees Scootie gaining on Krank. proper time measures the shortest time.5 yr Student: Since Scootie is going faster.e43c) 1+ + (0. Now we need 7 between Krank and Scootie. ^l is always more than 1.7 mph.s43\(0. How do I keep u and u' and u straight? Ttrtor: It's possible. . : ^f Lto Ats"ootie : I Ltxrank  (1.42)2  1. With 0. That's the speed between McClay and Scootie.6 mph and the other chasing it at 94.866c) lc2  ? Tutor: More like this. . "Y 1  (0.10? 0. so any other time is longer than the proper time.866c (0. just use them in the denominator. and everyone else measures a longer time.e43c)(0 . Precisely. Student: Could we have done the calculation in Scootie's frame of reference? T\rtor: Yes. one going 86.943c 0. According to Scootie.943c0. do what you already did. Student: So we need to use the complicated formula. T\rtor: Good. Student: Krank measures the proper time.866c.42c T\rtor: Student: Student: So if one of them is negative in the numerator. you would say that the second was gaining on the first at 7.3 mph.943c and found 7. it is negative in the denominator? Then I find 7 from this velocity. T\rtor: Student: T\rtor: I\rtor: Which is? Student: Student: 0. shouldn't he see a shorter time? T\rtor'. Student: Like this? velocities.15 yr. whatever values you used in the numerator. It is the difference of two frame of reference. The equations in relativity are highly nonlinear. If you sa\M two cars on the highway. Now I At Not really.
_ lt yr lyr 16."ct^yll  (26 lt yr)l(3) : 8. but Scootie sees Krank moving toward the left in the picture. and by how much? f : 0. Helen races by Ashley at . Which flash does Helen observe first. RELATIVITY 0. both at t . one red and one blue. Because of rounding in intermediate steps. That is.943c  0. according to Scootie. but Scootie is gaining on Vapid faster than he is gaining on Krank.le ruDcoof. EXAMPLE Ashley obserttes two flashes.r.ootie is the speed Student: Is that uscootie : at which Vapid gains on Krank.523 g. G T\rtor: Student: It's not quite the same.523c? Afs"ootie : AdS"ooti" Uscootie 0. and 7 between Scootie and McClay is 3. Ar rruDcoof.0.6 y.284 CHAPTER 37.5c. .42c Yes.le : T\rtor: AdS"ootit uscootie  T\rtor: Student: What is Adscootie? Student: How much distance Vapid must gain on Krank.42 c + 8.Lt. 0.7 lt yr T\rtorr T\rtor: us. trscootie : Ly. According to McCluy.7 lt yt The question for Scootie is: how fast is Vapid gaining on Krank? Student: So Krank is facing toward the right but moving toward the left? T\rtor: Everyone sees Krank facing toward the right. according to Scootie. Also at n . What is that distance according to Scootie? Student: McClay measures the proper length. that's 26 lt yr.0.  0. Scootie is gaining on Krank. T\rtor: Very good.
measured by Ashley because it is unprimed. andt'e is the time of the red flash as measured by Helen. No.y(A. Student: Then ta : 0. To use the Lorentz transform. Like when we chose the potential of a point charge to be zero at infinity didn't have to. they really happened at the same time. is Helen moving in the positive or negative direction? Student: Positive. so that t'.:r(r3") 11 1. both people must have there raxes parallel. a At) I At'"y(AthA*) T\rtor: Student: Does it have to be that way? t. Student: Does that mean that we need to use the Lorentz transform? Yes. but if we didn't then the equations would be messier. Take Helen as the "primed" frame. But she concludes that. and then the blue one 1 ps later. Student: And we want to know which one Helen "observes" first. So neither of them measures the proper time. Is u positive or negative? T\rtor: According to Ashl"y. We do know fn. fr. andu' are measured by Helen. Her "observation" is that they happened at the same time. once she corrects for the travel time of the signal. because the blue light had to travel further. and fs is the time of the red flash as measured by Ashley. after she subtracts off the travel time of the signals. Tlrtor: Take Ashley as the "unprimed" frame. She sees the red one first. Does that mean u' is negative? T\rtor: It does. I\rtor: They might be the same. x'. T\rtor: Correct. I Ar'. Student: Ok"y. t : tt fi : r' :0 at the moment that the one passes the other. ts. which is different from which one she ttseestt first. and u. she might conclude that the one she "saw" first really happened second. Now I can find the times according to Helen.155 . but not doing so would lead to messier equations. Ttrtor: Yes. Student: So which of Helen and Ashley mea"sures the proper time? T\rtor: Which one is at the red light when it goes off and at the blue light when it goes off? T\rtor: Student: What do we mean by "observes?" T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Neither. so that t. and u are mea.sured by Ashl"y. For both of them . fr7. So u is positive. not antiparallel.285 H ele Ashley l*100 m 3oom# Blue Ashley does not see the light of the flashes at the same time. but y€s. Student: u is the velocity of Helen as measured by Ashley. frR. Student: We don't know that.
E1mc2:mc2+K For slow speeds .rs2r')) .(0 . it will be greater than the time difference between the flashes in Helen's frame times the speed of light? T\rtor: Yes.286 CHAPTER 37. In Ashley's frame of reference. (+1oo 1 ) x 108 /r) I. the energy that something has even when it isn't moving. because one can't cause the other in Ashley's frame of reference.ct (3 * 108 /s) (f.346 m d .173 m I l L.. The total energy is E_ ^ymc2 The difference between the total energy and the rest energy is the kinetic energy K. or vice versa. Another useful equation involving energy is x E2: @")r+(*"r). which the blue time is more negative.I92pts t'B :. For a third person that Ashley sees going in the opposite direction as Helen. first in Helen's frame of reference. there would not be time for the red flash to "cause" the blue one. it happens first.a ar)  Student: So she concludes Helen sees the flashes 346 m apart. This is the rest energy. For example. Student: So one observer might say that "the bomb went off before the fuse was lit. Often nuclear physicists will describe particles with their kinetic energy. that one couldn't have caused the other.lmd "y For objects moving much slower than the speed of light. so that Helen concludes that the blue one could not have caused the red one.^t(A" .bc)(0)) ." T\rtor: An interesting point. it can't cause the other in any inertial frame of reference.000 electron volts.770ps) . (r" 3 "")  (1 lbb) Y(+aoo*)) : T\rtor: The negative times me isatt:0. pc. long enough after (> 1 ps) that the blue one could have caused the red one. . Therefore two observers can observe different orders for the events. RELATIVITY t'R: t (t" 3"") t'n Y 2(3 (+1oom)) rll (. but in the time between them light could only travel 173 m. They happened at the same time in Ashley's frame of reference.92x107s0. Student: So if I find the distance between the flashes in Helen's frame. and mc2 all have units of energy. The second one already happened before the light or signal from the first one arrived. that person would observe the red flash first. a 100 keV electron is one with a kinetic energy of 100.1bb) (tsoo m) .155)(+aoo m) 2(3 x 108 /s) Helen "observes" both of the flashes before she passes Ashley. The momentum is pi .mc2. Note that 8. I Energy and momentum also have relativistic values.r' (1. = 1 and we get the same equation for momentum One of the most well known equations from relativity is E . If the red flash happened after the blue one in Ashley's frame.(0. Tutor: It happens Student: And because (1. It is possible to show that. then there is no frame in which the red one happened first..0. K lmu2. Here E is the total energy.. Student: Let's check. . that we have always had.
So if a single photon has enough energy. This is called the photoelectric effect. but not greater energy photons. It is possible in these next few chapters to do the calculations in joules. It is easier to use units of about the right size. it behaves like a wave. The characteristic behavior of particles is that they can't be arbitrarily divided. and then found something that showed this behavior. Interference and diffraction are wave behaviors.Chapter 38 Photons and Matter Waves In the last few chapters. In particular. and anything that demonstrates interference and diffraction is acting like a wave. showing indivisibility. showing interference. If I want to reduce the power of a wave. it behaves like particles. and the other units that you've become familiar with. Therefore light sometimes acts like particles and electrons sornetirnes act like waves. I cannot continue to reduce baseballs I . but it took Einstein to explain it using photons. we would know that this something was a particle. Now we ask the question. When light interacts with matter like atoms. and small particles like electrons show interference behavior. an atom can absorb only one photon and therefore only the energy of one photon. People knew about the photoelectric effect.hf :X where h amount of energy that can be taken from light has to be an integer multiple of the photon energy. then an electron can escape from the metal.eventually get to one baseball and I can't go any further. or E. then the electrons can't escape at all. > O. In this way light is indivisible and behaves like a stream of particles. If the photons do not have enough energy. what kind of behavior is a characteristic behavior of particles? If we could identify such a behavior. But an atom can absorb only one photon. we have examined how light acts like a wave. The stunning observation is that light shows this indivisibility feature. When does light behave like a wave and when does it behave like particles? In general. Given sufficient enersy. electrons can escape from the atoms in the metal. Any excess energy that the photon has above the work function shows up as kinetic energy of the electron after it escapes. I can always reduce the amplitude. The energy in each photon is E. no matter how intense the light. The energy needed. when light interacts with light. Light behaves like little particles called photons. meters. called the work energy O. such as electron volts ("V) and 287 . is typically a few electron volts. Consider what happens when light hits a metal. More intense light is more photons. You can't take half of a photon's worth of energy from a beam of light.
Student: Then what can I do? T\rtor: Can you find the work energy? T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: Student: How do I do that? Don't I need a formula? How much energy is in the 470 nm photon? 2. Remember that 1eV . Student: That seems like a strange way to do things. So we use an electric field to slow it down until it stops. to find that.938 x 106 eV EXAMPLE When light of.470 nm strikes a metal.(e)(1 V) :1. Student: So 2.288 CHAPTER 38. Student: And I use hcl ). Ttrtor: It Student: I see.10e m. T\rtor: Yes. Look for h TTLe Thrn into hc TfL.2. because the work energy does not change.6 x 101e J and that 1 nm .16 eV. "maximum kinetic energy?" Some electrons are easier to remove from the atom than others. It's easy to detect the presence of an electron.02 eV .511.48 eV .c2 Value 1240 nm. So 3.44 nm.54 eV. PHOTOIfS A]VD MATTER WAVES nanometers. and substitute the value in the right column. there is less energy left over for kinetic energy. then the stopping voltage is 0.0. Student: But the work function is still the same.eV mp ffipc2 p U pc ulc ke2 k momentum in energy units velocity parameter 1. Now the 410 nm light hits the metal. of the photons. Student: Why do they talk about the what's this "stopping voltage" about? in which the experiment is done.16 eV . What is the stopping voltage and the speed of the ejected electrons when 410 nm light is used? Tutor: Student: I need to know the energy Yes. that would help.48 eV must be the work function.000 eV 938 MeV .0.2.eV 511 keV . look for the item in the left column. ^ 470 nm EY l T\rtor: Student: 410 nm Is the kinetic energy of the electrons proportional to the photon energy? No. So the stopping voltage is the kinetic energy divided by the charge of the electron. And comes from the way . We create a potential difference and gradually increase the potential difference until the electrons can't make it any more.0.16 eV is left over and goes into kinetic energy of the electron. If the kinetic energy is 0. When a hardertoremove electron is ejected.64 eV.64 eV . The work function is the energy needed to remove the easiest electrons. In particular.54 eV must be energy left over to become the kinetic energy of the electron. but hard to detect it's velocity. T\rtor: Ttrtor: Yes.54 V. And after the atom absorbs the energy from the photon. Ehf:y Student: And for the 4I0 nm photons. try to turn it into the combination in the middle column. electrons are ejected with a maximum kinetic energy of 0.
^. So I use the kinetic energy to find the speed. Then I use the speed and p . but you want to know what the greatest energy is of any of the basketballs. Student: Ok y.36 x 105 m/s The advantage to this is that you aren't dragging big exponents all over the equations. If K K. T\rtor: If we find the speed from the energy. put in the mass of the electron. The potential energy of a basketball where your hand was when you quit feeling them tells you about the maximum energy of the basketballs. I have the kinetic energy of the electron in electronvolts. Student: I need to find the momentum. Because the kinetic energy of our electron is so much less than the rest energy. I can convert that to joules. matter like electrons can act like waves. Student: Correct. So you hold out your hand and keep moving it up until you don't feel any more basketballs hitting it.1mu to find the momentum. You are blindfolded and can't see them. But I need to find the momentum. When they do so. do you? That's just an intermediate step. you don't really need the speed. T\rtor: That's one way.E 1. the electron is going much slower than the speed of light. mc2.0.f.54) 511. A common mistake is to use electron. Student: So when we look at electrons we're blindfolded. so you could use p . we get Tutor: Student: I can't use .n'LU. T\rtor: You can. but there's an easier way.! i*o' and prrla + ptffi .p EXAMPLE What is the de Broglie wavelength of a 14 eV electron? L This equation is also true regarding the momentum of a photon.00145(3 T\rtor: " 108 /s)  4. Tutor: You could do that. I . then you're safe with p . This equation does not work for anything that has mass it only works for photons.289 T\rtor: Imagine that some people are tossing basketballs in the air.mu.000  0. just like in the last example. and solve for the speed. Student: Is this the "combinations" thing? . Just as light can act like a particle.00145 u . Student: So the way to tell is to compare the energy to the rest energy.{*"') G)' (:)' u c 2(0. their wavelength is the de Broglie wavelength. Also. ^ Good. KE:)*r' Trrtor: Yes. T\rtor: In the sense that we can't just know everything about them.E for  for the electron because the electron has mass.00I45c 0. and put the speed into the momentum.
or10_12m.\ffi Ttrtor: Then you can find the wavelength. This effect is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. But then the wave packet will consist of fewer waves.K + mc2. which states that the uncertainty with which the position and momentum are measured must have a minimum value. so we can't determine the wavelength as well. and add one factor of c to the left. but the idea is ^ the same. Now that we know that an electron acts like a wave.Mrequiredthat the speed be slow. T\rtor: and use Student: What if the speed isn't slow? Then we find the total energy E . we need to shrink the width of the wave packet (shown horizontally).hlp .eV) 2(511. Yes." it is hard to say exactly where the electron is. There's more algebra involved. Two interesting questions to ask are: where is the electron and how fast is it going? Because of the width of the "wave packet. Remember that the de Broglie wavelength of the electron is connected to the momentum of the electron. w€ can show you a picture of an electron. Student: Okay. .Justrememberthatourearlierstepthatledto.hcf pc to find the de Broglie wavelength. and the wavelensh tells us the momentum. p.hhchc . It works out perfectly.290 T\rtor: Student: CHAPTER 38.tffit<. use E2 (p")2 + (*"')' to find the combin ation pc. To improve the determination of the position of the electron. Tutor: It will be much easier. and get pc. .r Lp* )h: h 2n We cannot determine the position of an electron exactly without losing all information on its velocity. with shorter wavelengths corresponding to greater momentum. so someone might get confused and think K E was the product of two values. I Student: I put two factors of c inside the square root to get mc2. 000 eV) (r4 eV) . L. /^ pc 2(mc2)K Student: I need to use (1240 nm.ppc@  0.IVS AND MATTER wAvES Is there a reason that we're using K for kinetic energy now instead of K E? Because we have a total ener gy E that we didn't have before.328 nm  328 pm Student: What's a pm? T\rtor:Apicometer. PHOTO. so I have p . I want to do this combinations thing.
but not while mea"suring its velocity to a precision of 25 mls. Student: Why don't we see the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in larger objects? When a policeman pulls me over for speeding.r Ap* ) h: h 2" h ArmAur> h. Student: I would think that a slowmoving electron would be easier to pin down than a fast one. the more wavelengths you need. J . so that you know the wavelength better. so that the minimum uncertainty in the position of the car is about 1034 m while knowing the velocity to the T\rtor: Student: nearest I mph. Student: So the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is not going to keep me from getting a ticket.hc? A' > Ar (*"') c2r A. Tlrtor z 25 m/s is about 50 mph. So this is a very slow moving electron. or 0. w€ need the wave packet to contain more "wavestt so that we can better determine the wavelength.29r EXAMPTE tr An electron has a speed 10 1450 +. In a previous example. What is the minimum uncertainty in its position? T\rtor: How did you decide that? Student: Because it asks for minimum uncertainty. That makes the wave packet longer. For an electron moving with a speed of 5 x 105 m/s. this is an error of 0.6 pr. The narrower the wave packet. not the velocity itself. he says he knows my speed to 1 mph. spread out over more distance. To know the momentum better. Nothing else we've done has required a minimum A. 000 ev)(25 lQ x 10t)) : 4634 nm  4.25 m/s. Student: I need to use Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. uncertainty. T\rtor: Sure there is. Student: So there's no way to measure the position of an electron to better than 4.005%. Tbtor: Can you spot the combinations in the equation? Student: You mean like h . But the mass of the car is much bigger. so he claims to know your speed 50 times better than our electron. Then he must not know where I am. T\rtor: The way you make a wave packet is by adding waves of difference frequency or wavelength. and the uncertainty in the position is 50 times worse.6 pm Where does the 1450 m/s go? The minimum uncertainty in the position depends on the uncertainty in the velocity.eV 2r(mcz)(Au lc) 2n(511.m.25 mm. less than 1 eV of kinetic energy gave an electron a speed of half a million meters per second.r ) hc 1240 nm. then the wave packet will be wider. If you use fewer different wavelengths.
so if the energy together 292 . or square.Chapter 39 More About Matter Waves In the previous chapter. w€ treated a moving electron as a traveling wave. What happens when an electron acts like a standing wave? In a standing wave. 13. A hydrogen atom consists of an electron orbiting a proton. The tube is so skinny that we worry about the motion of the electron in only one direction. When the electron makes one complete orbit. it is possible to determine the allowed energies. and the potential energy is "flat" within the well. . The allowed wavelengths of the electron are 2LlI.2Lf 3. only specific values of the energy are allowed.2L12.2L13. it gains kinetic energy and loses potential energyr so that the potential energy is negative. A similar thing happens inside an atom. so the energy is the kinetic energy. h h hn P2Lln 2L ^the box. and all other values don't work. The potential energy doesn't change throughout E . The kinetic energy is positive and the potential energy is negative. it must form a standing wave with a node at each end. Because the electron behaves like a wave. The electron can move in only one dimension.r* (h)' : *: * (#) There are specific values of the energy of the electron that work. As the electron approaches the proton. Things tend to move toward lower energy. While the electron is close to the proton. Flom these we can find the allowed momenta.. For an electron in a similar situation. Imagine an electron in a long skinny tube. it takes an infinite energy to get past the ends of the tube. w€ take away some of its kinetic energy.I*. the distance it travels must be an integer number of wavelengths of the electron 2rrn . but the potential energy is more negative than the kinetic energy is positive.rl\n This is the Bohr model of the atom.. Because only specific values of the wavelength are allowed. only specific energies are allowed. It is a general principle that the energy of anything that is stable is less than the energy that the pieces have when they are apart.6 eV n2 Why is the energy negative? Remember that the potential energy <rf the proton and electron when they are far apart is zero. We call this a onedimensional infinite square well. and the result was that only specific frequencies would work. . This means that we would have to do work to move the negative charge away from the positive charge and back to an infinite distance apart. . FYom this. we forced nodes at particular places. where the electrons orbit the positively charged nucleus. so the total energy is negative.
Student: Ah. buy you can't bry 1. with light of wavelength 97. Because both the initial and final energies are quantized. The energy of the photon must be equal to the difference of the energies of the initial and final states. So I'll n and see if it's an integer.eV 90.39 eBBS. Not all quantized things are microscopic.750 eY 97. and with light of wavelength 90.255 nm 1240 nm. . but is a continuum. in a hydrogen atom involves moving to a different energy. T\rtor: Student: E. Not necessarily.6 eV n2  12. When you bry eggs you can buy a dozen.739 eV En: 13.6 eV. so I need to add the photon energy to the starting energy to find the after energy. and be unstable. Negative 13.255 nm ^ 13.T 1240 nm. so ground beef is not quantized.eV  12. to about 8 significant figures. and the study of quantized systems is called quantum mechanics. If the energy of the photon is not exactly right. but the energy when the electron is outside the "box" is infinite rather than zero. The energies of the onedimensional infinite positive. Atoms gain and lose energy by absorbing or emitting a photon of light. T\rtor: Tlrtor: Yes. EXAMPLE What happens to a hydrogen atom in the ground state when it is illuminated with light of wavelength 99. or energy levels. This is the principle behind spectroscopy.255 nm? The atom absorbs the energy of the photon. or lower energy. To make a quantum leap. then A system that can have only specific values is said to be quantized. The different allowed values in a quantized system are called states. so eggs are quantized.Eto*l: E. The lowest energy state is called the ground state. requires that the atom gain energy. The smallest possible value that a quantized system can have is called a quantum. Student: T\rtor: What's the starting energy? The hydrogen atom is in the ground state.293 it would tend to move apart.493 eY 12.eV 99. Student: So I need to see whether the photon has the right amount of energy. The question isn't whether the photon energy matches 13.39 pounds of ground beef. So the initial energy is 13. or perhaps a single egg. If the energy from the photon puts the atom between allowed energy states. and the next lowest state is the first excited state. or a half dozen.255 ril.6 eV divide d by n2 . To move to a lower n value. AE  lEnt*n .6 eV. requires that the atom lose energy. the photon must have exactly the right amount of energy. or change from one state to another. or higher energy.493 eY ? o Thtor: What are you trying to do? Student: I need to find out if the energy of the photon matches solve for one of the allowed energy levels. or any value you like. but whether the energy of the atom after absorbing the photon matches an allowed energy.255 rffi. To move to a higher n value. then the atom can't absorb the photon and can't make a transition. You can go to the butcher's store and buy 1. What value of n gives the lowest energy? Student: n : I. Therefore a "quantum leap" is the smallest possible change in a quantized system. square well are was positive. T\rtor: Your idea is partially correct.hc ) hc Ehc E.255 nm 1240 nm. then the atom can't go there and won't absorb the photon.
The ionization energy is the energy needed to extract an electron. but we call it ionization. Student: Not the energy of the n . T\rtor: So a positive energy is more than enough for the electron to leave the proton. Student: Cool. so we can't shine 99 . Now with 90. It has to lose energy in the process so it emits a photon with the appropriate energy.255 nm light. This photon goes off in a random direction. .107 eV  1. Es: 1. remember.255 nm light.739 eV n2 13.00 the photon and jumps to the rr  4 state. the energy afterward is 13.6 eV n2 0. right? T\rtor: That doesn't happen. .2 or n of the two states.255 nm light on a hydrogen atom.6 eV n2  1. so it works.51 3. right? T\rtor: Right. MORE ABOUT MATTER WAVES Oops.107 eV : T\rtor: Student: 3. Student: But the atom could emit a photon with the excess energy. So nothing happens. either n .3 or n .511 eV. like 10 or 20 ns. and then it would be ohy. So if we see photons going off in other directions. but that's for advanced quantum mechanics and we won't get into that stuff. that is a sign that the energy of the incident light matches a transition energy. not necessarily the same direction as the incident photons. Then what happens? 4. Student: I don't know.1. There are no values of n for which the energy of the hydrogen atom is positive. Oh. it jumps to a lower state.6 eV +0. Something does happen.850 eV  0.3 or n. Student: Could the hydrogen atom absorb a photon and go up to n: 3? T\rtor: The photon has too much energy. w€ can shine the light on a hydrogen atom.13.6 ev * En 13. Student: Is that how scientists do spectroscopy.6 eV + 12. With 97. So it jumps back down to the ground state? Ttrtor: After a while. With the first photon.2 or n.750 eV 13.51 is not an integer. l]rtor: Yes.139 T\rtor: Tntor: Student: Student: How am I supposed to take the square root of a negative number? You aren't. The atom absorbs Good.493 eV En 13. Student: The atom wants to be in the lowest possible state.294 Student: CHAPTER 39.850 eV T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: n is an integer. Student: Okay. Student: Like the photoelectric effect. It's possible to cause effects similar to that to happen. but the atom doesn't absorb any of the photons. so nothing happens. by changing the wavelength of the incident light until they see light coming off? T\rtor: A simplistic but substantially correct explanation. What happens at energy equals zero? Student: The hydrogen atom has zero energy when the electron and proton are separated. ev * 12.
13'6eY\22 TL' T\rtor: where Z is the charge of the nucleus. When we put the hydrogen atom in n stays there for only a short time.3. because it has one electron.295 T\rtor: It isn't really.6 eV . and what's a "series" ? T\rtor: A series is em'iss'ion l'ines from transitions that end with the same n. before going back down to n emission lines are all of the ones available but the absorption lines are only the ones that start at n . Student: What about up to n .3. Look at the other end. Student: What about other atoms. with an energy of hc l24o "ry ET: 4o5rT\rtor: Student: But I don't know what :30. But I don't know initial the or final levels. Above zero energy. so a series is transitions with photon wavelengths that are close together. T\rtor: The problem does say that you have the shortest wavelength in the series. like a diffraction grating. At what level does it start? Student: The problem doesn't say that either. but an electron in the n. When we view this light through a spectrometer.5 nm. so Z  T\rtor: They mean the lowerenergy level of the two. someone has already measured them so we look them up in a book. it appears as lines. right? T\rtor: Yes. do we have a name for that? T\rtor: No. Shorter wavelengths correspond to what? . It's not easy to go up from n . So sometimes we call the photons "lines. 7z lr'.6 ev level the transition finishes at. What are the allowed positive energies? Any positive energy is allowed. it only applies to the hydrogen atom. the problem becomes extremely difficult to solve. When we get to high values of n.3. in hydrogen all of the transitions that end at n . For example. the allowed energy levels are Student: Student: How is the ionization energy different from the work function? T\rtor: E. the states have energies that are close together. Student: And the photons have energies equal to the difference between the energies of the initial and final states. like helium? T\rtor: When there are two electrons in an atom. Okay.5 state can also drop ton .t have energies > have photon wavelengths in the infrared. remember to not use 13. Once the electron is free of the atom.2 to n .6 eY lnz for a particle in a onedimensional box. The Paschen series in hydrogen is all transitions down to n ." Student: Ok y. except that we use the work function only for metals.5 nm photon. Also. What is the longest wavelength in the series? 3 and the energies are 13. For oneelectron atoms with greater charg€s. Student: What's a "line?" T\rtor: When we excite an atom into higher energy states and it decays.1 (ot the ground state). For atoms with more than one electron. like the helium atom. which is the ending level when photon emission takes place. it can have any kinetic energy it wants. EXAMPLE The shortest wavelength in a series of Li++ is 40. Student: Lithium has a charge of 3. I have a 40. A helium ion H e+ is similar to a hydrogen atom. and so on.3. it gives off photons. Student: So the names Balmer and Paschen mean the level at which the transition ends.3. like 10 or 20 rs. the energy of the hydrogen atom is a continuum. An electron in the Tl state can drop ton .
Es:Et: A. so it must be equal to 1. A wavefunction iI. Because the wavefunction is zero at each end. but the math gets na.6 eV. the wavefunctions that work are 'b.y. Only specific wavefunctions work. MORE ABOUT MATTBR WAVES Greater energies. the chances of finding the electron very close to the end of the onedimensional box are nil. and transition probability between levels.sty. Good. angular momentum.296 CHAPTER 39.6 ev  lDs . is a function of both position and time tU(r. For the electron in the onedimensional infinite square well.9 nm The solutions that we've presented are overly simplistic. Ground state I tt excited state n=3 n= 4 . To solve these and other problems properly we use the wavefunction. Also. Yes. Thtor: Student: En:Tutor: Student: (tg'6 eY)(32) : 30.rh(fi.y. Therefore. and often the value of the wavefunction is a complex number. but for the n .2 state. Using the wavefunction we can calculate energy levels.6 eV)l 1240 nm. the probability of finding the electron at a given spot is proportional to the square of the wavefunction t/2 at that spot.z)eiutt.). it is hard to hold atoms together when n gets to be 100 or so. so the electron is never there.(30. the integral of the square of the wavefunction is the sum of all the probabilities of finding the electron everywhere.z.1 state that is the most likely place for it to be.rywu(*)t$:o The significance of the wavefunction is twofold.6 ev > n  2 The series is all transitions O"# to n .6 eV) .Ezl : l(13.h is zero at the middle. The energy gets too close to zero.E (ts'o eYXg2) 32  13. Experimentally. .@) l'in(T") These resemble the amplitude of a standing wave. If this is the shortest wavelength and greatest energy. A. How big can n get? Thtor: As big as you can make it. For the n .eV 17 eV : 17 eV :72. Student: So I can take zero as the starting energy. What's the longest wavelength in the series? Student: Longer wavelengths are lower energies. or the biggest n.3. where working means to satisSr the Schrodinger equation #. To solve a quantum system we have to find the wavefunctions.t) . and the energy of the final state is 30. momentum. That would be when the electron goes to n . so I want the smallest transition energ. is the initial energy higher or lower? Student: It would be the highest starting energ"y.
F (h")'  2(mc2)L' .19 n2 76. You want to find the probability of the electron being at each spot in that region.6ln' applies only for the hydrogen atom.14 nm. This is a purely quantum mechanical effect that doesn't happen in the old "classical" physics.02 ril. Consider the onedimensional finite well shown.297 to get out of the well without an infinite amount of energy.y well but not enough to get out.76 eV. and it takes energy to get from the left side to the right. the wavefunction extends past the walls of the well.76 eV ? T\rtor: The square well?  13 . The probability is the square of the wavefunction. What is the probability of finding the electron in the leftmost 0. How can you tell the states apart? Student: They have different energies. The electron has enough energy to get to both the left and right parts of the energ.6 eV n2 :76. . Tlrtor: Yes.76 eV eY)nz + n : 2 T\rtor: Student: The electron is in the n . What are the energies for the onedimensional Student: Oh. The sinusoidal line is one of the wavefunctions. Which state n is the electron in? T\rtor: You need to determine that.n2 'o 76.2 state. Less kinetic energy means less momentum.02 nm of the infinite well? So I need to find the wavefunction and integrate it from 0 to 0. so if the electron is there it must have less kinetic energy. There is a nonzero chance of finding the electron outside of the well. The horizontal line represents the energy of one of the wavefunctions. that's right. Student: Ok y. EXAMPLE An electron is in a onedimensional infinite square well of width 0. The wider lines represent the potential well it is possible The potential energy on the right side is greater. yes? Mostly correct. Otherwise known as the first excited state. Student: Infinitesimally small pieces. I know the energy. Ttrtor: Student: En: 13.76 eV (19. Also. Because the probabilities are not uniform. so I can find the state that has the right energy. and a longer wavelength. The electron has an energy of 76. we divide the region into pieces so small that we can treat the probability a^s being the same throughout the region. even though the electron doesn't have enough energy to get out.
2.f .298 CHAPTER 39. MORE ABOUT MATTER WAVES n has to be an integ€r. or an integral. l. probability : kbz("))2  Tbtor: The probability of finding the electron in any infinitesimally small piece has to be infinitesimally small.hz(*) Tlrtor. . Now that I know that n . The square of the wavefunction gives you the relative probability. sm (7")dn 0 and 0.I can write down the wavefunction.02 Student: Then the probability of finding the electron between bilities. nm loo" l. Student: What if I hadn't gotten an integer for n? Student: : T\rtor: What is the probability that the electron is in an infinitesimal piece of width dn? Student: That's the square of the wavefunction. but nothing in your equation is infinitesimally small..in'(7") d*:?l. probability  kbr("))' d* : 7 2.in'(7") dn T\rtor: Student: Or just look To find the integral. so either you or the problem author made an error. I replace the sin2 with the trigonometric identity. For an infinitesimally small piece this is infinitesimally small. it up in a book. J2 nm looo' ["in'ar? sin2ar :?ry3"*"(ffi")l :8fB *""(+"):oo6b3 6.i" (+")l:"nm Student: The chances are .53T0. nm is the sum of all the proba T\rtor: Yes. but to get the probability for a given piece you need to multiply by the width of the piece.
Chapter 40 All About Atoms so on. trll is the z component of this angular momentum. they have more effect on each other. the energies of the states depended only on n) so that 2s and 2p have the same energy. As the electron it has orbital angular momentum. 0. By filling up the levels from the lowest energy. The angular momentum of the spinning is always s *. letterrsol0iss. and the third ir { 2. or even in the z direction. I 5n ft4d The Pauli exclusion principle still says that no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers. w€ use z as the first axis chosen. state. So after two electrons. and call them by the first called 2s. and m" is the z component of the electron's spin. An electron in an atom is specified by the quantum numbers { rL. 4.Sothestaterr2. we could write ls2. The 2s electron configuration of aluminum (Z : 13) is !s2 2s2 2pu 3s2 3p'. 0. l3is/. ++ }. and the energy of 2p is slightly 'Jgreater than 2s. Previously.andcontinueswithgandh. As the number of electrons in an da atom increases.3 / can be 0 or 1 or 2. it also spins on its own axis.p. 299 . the E second ir { 1. is the z component of l. (Itr quantum mechanics. The # is the number of electrons in the nl level. l. 0.) The z component could be all of the angular momentum. and  But there are more quantum numbers than just n. rather than r.0. We attach names to the values of l. m1 could be 1 or 0 or +1. mt) ms } I is the orbital angular momentum of the electrorl. or none of it. But the z component can be + ot + (from the minimum to the maximum in steps of 1). orbits the nucleus The preferred way to distinguish between states of the same n is by the angular momentum.1. has to be an integer between l and l. So m. A configuration of 1s2 2sz 2p6 3s2 4sr would be aluminum in an excited state. so 2s is filled first..f level is f s filled.2 state. As the electron orbits the nucleus. For the 3p state. the next electron must go into the n . The idea is that once one electron is in the n 7.2 is called 4d. This is not entirely true. because the n . 0.  One way to write the electron configuration of an electron is nl#. ro we don't bother writing it. The Pauli exclusion principle says that no two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers. I0is . The next quantum number. + }. . The first electron is in the state { 1. so for n . TTL1. and the state n l:2isd. ++ }. l:Ii. 0. The quantum number I has to be an integer between 0 and n. so much so that the energy of 3d is greater than the energy of 4s (in some atoms). fa we create the periodic table (located at the end of the book). The energy of 3d is greater than the energy of 3p 3p is greater than the energy of 3s.
Because there is one electron in the n .32. Student: Oops. it emits a photon with a characteristic energy. We take an atom and bombard it with highenergy electrons. 0. When an electron drops from n . ALL ABOUT ATOMS EXAMPLE What is the electron configuration of arsenic (Ar. so 2n2. +L.1 we call it a Kp photon. When an electron drops from a higher level to a lower one. so As is one electron past 32. For the first excited state.2 and 18in n. Student: 2(4)2 ." Student: And the last three go into 4p. because p means I Student: That's Student: 5s is lower than 4d. } and { 1. but you need to fill the n . When an electron drops from n.6 eV x Z'lr'for the energy of the electron. + }. and then 3dr0. Tntor: Careful. We also get photons of other energies. Student: So how can there be six electrons in the 2p state? T\rtor: Because I . so m7 can be 1 or 0 or 1. I\rtor: Yes. This was applied to a single electron electron atom. and 2+ 6 .4 before finishing n . but we can get an estimate.3. Previously we used 13.1 level (the other has been knocked out). This photon typically has a high energy and is in the xray spectrum.. and 10 in any d level. Sometimes you'll see a level called a "shell.1 and / has to be less than n. move one of them up to the next highest level.300 CHAPTER 40. and for each of them there are two possibilities for m". T\rtor: There can be 32 electrons in the n . Student: Does that mean that there can be 6 electrons in any p level? T\rtor: Yes.6. Then comes 4s2. and 3 levels first.3is28.18 is twice I. 9. Z  33) in the first excited state? T\rtor: Ttrtor: Student: . 0." With more than one electron the energy becomes very difficult to in an atom a ."one calculate. T\rtor: That's the lowest energy place for them to go. So there can be only two electrons in the ls state. Student: And there can't be one in the lp state.1 we call it a Ko photon. There are three possibilities for m7. so you start n . giving off the extra energy as an emitted photon. up to a maximum equal to the energy of the incoming electron. Arsenicis5electronspast n3.I. and I need 15 more.8 inn2.1. right? Correct. . 4. Student: Ok y. Is there some easy way to determine how many can fit in an n level? T\rtorz 2. and 2+ 6+10:18 in n3.4 level.2innI andSin n. right? Correct. w€ use the combined charge of the nucleus plus the ls electron. rs2 2s2 2p6 3s2 Bpu 4s2 Jdro 4p' 5s1 We use an xray spectrum to identify the nucleus of an atom.8. 0. and 3 x 2 . 4s has lower energy than 3d.3 to n. { 1.2. so I fill the 3d level. 0. An electron from a higher level comes down to fill the lower energy level. The energy of the photon must equal the difference in energy of the two levels. Sometimes the incoming electron knocks out one of the electrons. Student: There can be2 electrons in 1. rs2 2s2 2pu Jsz Jpu 18.2to n .
T\rtor: Very good. 42.3 to rr . Z keV photons?  55) when bombarded with 42 Student: Kp means from rr . L/n' in the D (13.o3b2 nm:3b. Then it wouldn't be able to knock the electron out of the n . )min Student: : YE t?10.301 EXAMPLE What are the minimum wavelength and K p wavelength for cesium (Ct.66 keV of energy.D' n2 E1: Es (13'6 evX55 12  1)2 1)2 :  39.66 keV) .E .4I keV)l : Tntor: Student: What if the incoming electron doesn't have 39.251 eV Tutor: T\rtor: Good.25 keV : (13'6 eVx55 32 Et : A. Student: So the minimum wavelength photon is the one with an energy of 42 keV.2 pm How do I get the minimum wavelength? What's the most energy that you could possibly get from a 42 keV photon? Student: 42 keY. o.000 eV ll':Y  o .b pm .1.6 eV)  (Z .l(39. then the difference energies is the energy of the K p photon. I find the energy of the two states.( 4.o2sbnm  2e. Thtor: And the largest energy is the shortest wavelength. Student: So the wavelength of the K B photon is \p:y_ E ry: 35.41 keV 35.I level.I to find the energies of the states. Student: But I use Z .66 kev 4.
such as a very thin film. This is about the same size as an individual atom. But if half of the chairs were empty. How close together are these energy levels? The density of energy levels in a 3D I >. about 0. they are very close to each other. The Pauli exclusion principle says that no two electrons can be in the same state. the electron wavefunctions begin to overlap. leading to a density about 3000 times smaller.nm3) El$ (For a 2D material." a couple dozen people sit in a circle of chairs. and you have virtually no current at all. but one of the people next to the empty chair "shuffies" over into the chair. with many energies very close together. because nanometers are much smaller than the typical solid.1 nm away from each of their nearest neighbors. the units conceal a large density. The result is that instead of discrete energy levels. electrons need room to work. of course.n 8t[2r(^"')tt' ttr (h")t  (0. one does a difference calculation and gets a difference result. In the camp game "shuffie your buns.Chapter 4L Conduction of Electricity in Solids When atoms form a solid. in a gas at room temperature they are about 2 nm away from each other.81/eV. Because there is but a single empty chair. To move rapidly. Imagine a single empty chair among 1023 electrons. as each electron waits for its turn to move. then each electron could constantly be in motion. The conduction of electric current in a solid depends on whether the energy states in these bands are filled. the energies become energy bands.) When atoms are this close. the movement is relatively slow. with one empty chair and one person in the middle of the circle. but the location of the empty chair moves. the energy levels are about 101e eV apart. To avoid overlapping electrons being in the same state. For a (1 mm)3 sohd. In this way the people shuffie one way and the empty chair shuffies the other way. and without it they can move only slowly. and the next person shuffies into the chair the first one vacated. None of the chairs move. The ((it" person in the middle tries to sit down. bo Band GoP b r{ material is n(E) ry. they change their energies just a little. (For comparison. Semiconductor 302 .) While this number may look small.
Electrons would have plenty of room to move around if they could jnp up to the next band. but the j. For metals. and very little current can flow. (+ nm2 . the energy band is completely full. To get a value of kT of even 0. You could start by findittg the Fermi energy.38 x 1023 JlK. but that requires a considerable energy. At higher temperatures. Each metal atom has one or more electrons in a partly filled shell. There is no room for electrons to move around. Some of the electrons might get enough energy to move to the next band. and the power turned to heat increases. Is that something that I need to look up? Tutor: You can find it from the density. more electrons have the energy to move to higher levels. Each copper atom contributes 1 electron. higher temperature means more available energy. The probability of an energy level being filled by an electron is P(E) _ e@Er') /kr + 1 k? is the typical energy available to electrons. so there are available states at nearly the same energy. the density of charges in the higher energy band is about 1016r so that only a trillionth of the electrons have the energy to make it. &trd the density of electrons in the higher conduction band increases. the energy band is only half full. and plenty of room to move about. T\rtor: Student: That's it? I'm supposed to be able to figure Let's see how T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: How do you know that it's one? The electrons in the ground state are in Is2 2s2 2pu 3s2 3p6 3d10 4sL. and there is plenty of room to move around. Metals are typically conductors. In the conductor shown in the middle. where k is the Boltzmann constant of 1. Student: I need the density n. so the current can increase. Semiconductors have a completely filled band.v) n2/s To the right is a semiconductor. Student: So if I know the density of copper atoms. perhaps 1 eV or less. perhaps 3 eV or more.303 In the insulator shown to the left of the figure. One of the interesting result of this temperature dependence is that the resistance of semiconductors decreases with temperature. 3d.5 eV requires a temperature equal to the temperature of the Sun. corresponding to increased resistance. For a semiconductor like silicon. Remember from thermodynamics that temperature is a measure of internal energy. or about I eY 111. How could an electron hope to jump 1 eV to the next energy band at only room temperature? Though the probability is small. More energy is lost in the collisions. but the number of electrons trying to make it is much more than a trillion. Shouldn't it be 4s2 3ds? Multiple electrons in an atom cause the energy levels to change.600 K. For a conductor like copper the density of "valence electrons" n . as in lower energy.tmp to the next band is relatively small. For semiconductors. where they would have plenty of room to move around. to fill the 3d shell than the 4s shell. the density of valence electrons is the same. EXAMPLE For a 1 cm copper cube. Only the last electron is available to move around. This corresponds to atoms where the outer shell of electrons is completely filled.I x 1028 l^t. The Fermi energy Ep is the energy of the highest occupied state when all lower states are filled. It's better. a^s the temperature increases. how much more energy than the Fermi energy is the most energetic electron likely to have? this out from only that information? far we can get. and a current could flow. the number of electrons is very large. Student: I thought that 4s had lower energy than . the rate of collisions for the moving electrons increases.
8. Student: Oh.a x r0"): 51 \ (3oo K) E . and all of the electron shells are filled.) 1'3 ev T\rtor: At that energy.8x 1022 Student: Oh. Then each atom has eight electrons around it.2. but only about I0%. COI. but the probability of a state being filled was 21L000.e6) . semiconductors are "doped" with another material.18/eV nm3 We're more interested in the density p So Student: I multiply by the volume? n(r) T\rtor: Student: (ra l"yr.{DUCTIOIT OF ELECTRICITY II{ SOLIDS You look up the density (8. You already have the electrons per atom.5 x r02z1" . Doping means to replace a small fraction of the atoms of the original substance with atoms of a difference substance. and shares one of them with each of its four neighbors. if the energy level spacing was such that there was 1000 state per eV. Avogadro's number. Now..96 gl" 3) and the atomic mass (63. because it's a probability. of states is a little higher. T\rtor: Well. and you know the number of atoms per mol.(+ nm (0. so that there are about 1022 eV of them over a space of 1 eV. /kr "(EEr')  1.54 g/mol). because the e@Er') /kr is so much bigger.') x (1 c)3 x (+*)':1. T\rtor: About 2 electrons.nm3) ro22I "^r)r/r(*)' ev)/(t : 7. we could go until the density times the probability was about 1.81/eV. so there would be 2 electrons. I need to find where e@Ep)/kr +1 T\rtor: I think you can safely neglect the *1 on the left. electr_ons cm3 (6 electrons mor q x ry x '\ atom mol g x ag n  (1) . the density Student: Close enough for me. Be careful with nm and cm and m.8 x 1022 .ln (t.03 ev We can also find the density of states lr(E') ffi : nt) volt. That would involve integrating the probability times the density of states. We could do a calculation to find the expected number of electrons with even higher energies. . Student: No thanks.8 x 1022 l"y The energy levels are spaced 1022 eV apart? They are 1022 eY apart. very few if any electrons. Ep: Tutor: T\rtor: (+ nm2 "v) n2/s .. P(E)  1. Student: So above that the probability is small enough that there are no electrons. .02 x10") (#) (8. ooo K.304 T\rtor: CHAPTER 41. To find the highest energy electron. about how many electrons would be in an electronvolt? Student: 1000 x 211000 .Er :srkT: 51 v^ ( :"u (E \ rr. In practice..Ep)lkT . T\rtor: Student: Now I can find the Fermi energy. or one electron over a whole electronvolt. Each silicon atom has 4 valence electrons.
We use transistors to make amplifiers and computer logic circuits.) ( . But 1021 . Thansistors allow us to control one current with a second current or voltage. so that there are enough to fill all of the electron shells.1021 l^t? Student: The silicon itself contributes a density of 1016 l^t. The error in saying ((all" is in the sixth significant digit. T\rtor: The phosphorus atoms are scattered among the silicon atoms. Student: Why are semiconductors so important? Tntor: When we put semiconductors together we can form a transistor.p(80x1014. Vm: p l/p : ^:0. the extra electron to the conduction band. I could multiply by the density to get the number of phosphorus atoms. Student: I can live with that.86 cm3)(10" \t : l^. Tutor: Student: That's really small! . Student: So I find the volume of 2 grams of silicon and multiply by the density of phosphorus to find the number of phosphorus atoms. these additional electrons would completely outnumber the conduction electrons from the semiconductor. We saw earlier that only about a trillionth (1 in 1012) of the atoms in a semiconductor contribute an electron to the conduction band.305 For each silicon atom that is replaced with something that has one more valence electron. T\rtor: Yes. moves EXAMPLE How much phosphorus must be added to 2 grams of silicon to create a doped semiconductor with a charge carrier density n . One way to dope silicon is with phosphorus.86cm3 glcm5 2. This gives us good control of the density of conduction electrons when manufacturing doped semiconductors. Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons.6 x 1014 r.33'r. Ail of the conduction electrons come from the phosphorus. So the density of phosphorus atoms needs to be 1021 l^t. If only a millionth of the semiconductor atoms were replaced with something with an additional electron. Essentially all of the conduction electrons would be from the doping.. (#) (*'q)  44x1o8s Semiconductors are made in "clean rooms" to reduce the chances of contamination. so the doping must do all of the rest. plus one extra electron. The vast majority of the silicon is still siliconr so the volume is determined by the silicon. T\rtor: Almost all. cm) 8. Student: If I knew the volume of the phosphorus.!=^ \to. (0. It wouldn't take much to mess up the production of a semiconductor.1016 is nearly the same as 1021.
oboz88 '8?P.88u zt. Atoms of the same element but with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.es4esl t83Y t83cr 39Rb 306 I 1o1. while 85Rb is rubidium with 37 protons and 38 neutrons. The strong nuclear force holds the protons together. The neutrons are necessary to create more space between the protons. Which element an atom is is determined by the charge of the nucleus or atomic number Z. Because Z determines El. the mass of the nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of the pieces. the electric force tries to push the protons apart.s. To find the binding energy.002608 12. times c2. so that the strong nuclear force will be greater than the electric repulsion.000549 1. and is called the binding energy. We write a nucleus or isotope nt. The difference in mass.ss of electrons) .o4aggo .gaabb8 186.ss units (u) to kg.5 MeV/u.go 6124 4.r tSrt 239. multiply by and convert to megaelectron volts (MeV). El and Z are redundant and Z is sometimes omitted. Therefore. The atomic mass number A is the number of nucleons.88u 2g8. Because there are only positive charges in the nucleus. Because everything wants to have less energy. remember that anything stable must have less energy together than apart. located at the center of the atom. equal to the number of protons.Chapter 42 Nuclear Physics We now examine the nucleus.ss.05 2164 1go.902089 eb. We add up the ma^sses of the pieces of the nucleus. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons. we need to find this difference in ma. Where El is the chemical symbol for the element. otherwise it would fall apart. Nuclear physicists have measured these and we look up their results. The mass of the 37nU nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of 37 protons and 40 neutrons. Then we find the ma^ss of the nucleus itself.oooooo bb. We can combine all of these factors into c2 :931. For example.00782b 1. STnU is rubidium with 37 protons and 40 neutrons. but only at short distances of about 1015 m. is how much energy we would have to put in to separate the nucleus into individual nucleons.es42T2 (includes ma. "'.008665 lH fin tn" tu'c !8p" . which is the number of protons and neutrons. Some Nuclear Masses f e 0. We convert from atomic ma.
Do we really need a new unit? Tutor: It's handy to have a unit that's about the size of the thing that we're measuring. Student: To get the binding energy. Nuclear reactions involve much more energy than chemical reactions. T\rtor: The binding energy is proportional to the difference. and gamma is a highenergy photon. The ma.92 .307 The mass of a nucleus is not equal to the atomic mass number. Radioactive nuclei emit e. Student: (1. while we did mea^sure the atom compared to all of the electrons removed. T\rtor: Correct. the deviation away from A is different for each isotope. and occasionally neutrons. Student: Student: And the ma^ss of the pieces is (e2)(1. But we don't typically measure compared to all separate pieces. but is approximately the same. Then I subtract the mass of a '88U nucleus.) B.5. Student: When we did atoms.934202 u)(931. Student: What's a nucleon? Tutor: A nucleon is a proton or neutron in the nucleus.tH"*' P . this is much more. Is the binding energy negative? Some nuclei are stable. &s always.6 eV. and l particles. Beta decay can also be the emission of a positron. Student. but y€s. The energy here is much greater than for an atom. the mass of the nucleus (in atomic mass units u) is about equal to the number of nucleons. I multiply by 931. and others are radioactive. Because a proton and a neutron each have mass of about 1 u. We're about to subtract a number that's pretty close to the number we have. but what difference? Student: I add up the mass of g2 protons and 238 neutrons. sometimes called mass defect. I\rtor: A '88U nucleus has 92 protons and 238 nucleons. T\rtor: Hydrogen was 13. Those were 13. When we do that. EXAMPLE Find the binding energy of '88U. The sum of the masses of the pieces minus the ma"ss of the nucleus is Tutor: 239. So the binding energy is 1.934202 u. That's one reason to use nuclear energy. Student: Okay. T\rtor: Student: Ok y. Student: The binding energy is the difference in the ma"ss. Tty it.934202 atomic mass units.!e or +1"* "y . We'll work on nuclear energy in the next chapter. an antielectron with the same mass but a positive charge: a .050788 u  I.934202 u T\rtor: If we had only kept three or four significant figures. An alpha particle is the same as a helium4 nucleus. and greater charge in the nucleus led to greater energies.008665 u)  23e. which includes the binding energy of that nucleus.5 MeV/")  1802 MeV Tutor: It's true that the binding energy is how much less energy the nucleus has than if the parts were separate.6 €V. we'll get a much smaller number with two or three fewer significant figures.of the mass of a t'C nucleus. a beta is the same as an electron.984990 u  238. Note that some nuclei have more and some less mass than the atomic mass number A.e84ee0 u Is there a reason to keep so many significant figures? Yes.8r  highenergy photon . is I.146 neutrons. The standard for an atomic mass unit is L. Because the binding energies of the various isotopes is different. but not 238 neutrons. It's normal to specify binding energies as positive. w€ would have one or two now.ss difference.007825 u) + (146)(1. the energy was negative. Just keep track of your units. Student: So there are only 238 .
like a variable. like the At. Trrtor: Leave it blank. Student: Student: Student: How can the radiation particle have no mass and no charge? Photons don't have mass or charge. based on 2. Student: Now the bismuth2l5 decays by gamma radiation. we can determine one that is missing. Z 83. you might . emitting a photon. There's no way to derive or deduce the symbol just learn them or look them up. followed by after the decays? f decay. and A2I5. This is not the same as the mass being conserved. The binding energies before and after will be different. Sometimes we write a nucleus in an excited state with an asterisk. An a or P decay can leave the nucleus in an excited state.{UCLEAR PITYSICS When a nucleus decays.308 CHAPTER 42. But the mass number A is conserved. the charge is conserved.qt 2+2. Good.  ta +'rt!? Tutor: Student: What element is Z : 83? T\rtor: Look it up in a periodic table. The energies in the nucleus are much greater than for the electrons. Since A and Z of the 7 photon are zero) the isotope afber should be the same as before. %t$si*8r+2rlfBi How can you get gamma decay? Nothing happens. What isotope remains Tutor: Student: I don't know where to start. Likewise8S . you 'ltAt tc.. . *8r+2r1$Bi Student: What's so interesting about gamma decay? Why do we care? T\rtorr l rays will penetrate most things. since the mass is not exactly equal to the mass number. The charge is expressed with the atomic number Z.+2? Does T\rtor: Student: And the A's have to be the same. write down the first reaction.rtei8r +t? T\rtor: It's a photon. I. So. So if you've recently had a nuclear medical procedure done. followed by B decay. so again we can determine any one missing mass number if we know the rest. and after a short time it decays. so radioactive material can be detected from these gamma rays.rt$. & B&mma ray. EXAMPLE F Astatine2l9 ('ltAt) decays by a decay. and this will cause the mass afterward to be different from the mass before. or 215? so Student: 219:4+A.rtgBi. just like the electrons in orbit around the nucleus do. so Z must be the same before and after. So that mean that A is 2I9. . a highenergy photon.+2r1$Bi Student: Is alpha decay always a fa? T\rtor: Yes. The mass number is also conserved in a nuclear reaction. so the photon is very high energy. or are carrying kitty litter with you. the same as a tnu nucleus. By adding the Z's on each side. Z . Student: But I don't know what comes out. lhtor: Nuclei have excited states.83 is Bi for bismuth.rt$At tc. . Student: Okay. right? The total A for each side is the same. All o particles are two protons and two neutrons.
Student: Kitty litter? Yes. including 'rtiPo. Emitted gammas can be used to detect radioactive material. The meaning of r is that. found at http://wluw. which is the time needed for half of the sample to decay. Well. of getting cancer will increase slightly.6 milliseconds all of the polonium2I5 will be gone. or whatever element you want. assume B. then all of the nuclei would decay in one natural lifetime (R: Nl"). We often use the halflife Tr/z instead. L rrtSgi L %tfpo g %Ltpu LrJrtBi 3 rgln. Is it p+ or p7 Student: But how do you know? T\rtor: I know because I looked it up. your chances Tntor: If it doesn't this information. .\ is the disintegration constant or decay constant. ^. it is not true that after precisely 1.bnl.8 milliseconds. or that after 3. Nuclear physicists are very good at compiling and disseminating 'rt5Bi > ?e + 2t ) ?P + 'rtiPo The atomic number goes up? "tfBi Yes. Trrtor: T\rtor: If you swallow it. T\rtor: At the nuclear wallet card.gou/wallet/ on the Web. I'm not going to do that. Ttrtor: It has a halflife of 1.s\t : et/r :2t/Trt. R we get exponential decay. but the disintegration constant does not change. where l/6 is the size of the initial sample and Rs is the initial decay rate in nuclei per time. Student: Is polonium2l5 stable then? Tutor: Most isotopes of polonium. the atomic number can go up. are highly radioactive. so does the number that decay per time. The units of ) are l/time. In beta decay. Lrglu Lrgtrpa T\rtor: Within four hours. all of the astatine2I9 will have turned into \ead207.tr.t?At g retSgi. Nuclear decay is a random process.309 set off a security detector. As the number of nuclei decrease.nndc. A lethal dose of 'rtlPo is only T\rtor: Student: about 10e kg. You can also find it at Wikipedia by searching forisotopes of polon'ium. Student: 8t Student: What about 2]feot Where does it end? . with each nucleus "deciding" independently when to decay. This may be expressed as . F_1 Tt/z ^ ln2 . if the decay rate . Do alpha and beta decay always alternate like that? just coincidence here. When we said above that polonium2l5 has a halflife of 1.8 milliseconds. isotopes in it. Because these three forms of exponential decay are identical. typically l/seconds but not always. and has nothing to do with wavelength (*" just the Greek letter). On to the beta decay.R remained the same (it won't. R  . nearly Thtor: Student: Student: No. It has small amounts of radioactive Student: Isn't that dangerous? Student: say. And where do you find all of this information. The result of this is that the rate at which the nuclei decrease in number R is proportional to the number of nuclei l[.Ar reuse If we solve the ensuing differential equation.8 milliseconds half of the polonium2l5 turns into lead2l1. of course). T is the mean life or natural lifetimg.
with a halflife of 1. decays in a time of 1 millisecond. NUCLEAR PHYSICS EXAMPLE Given a 100 pg sample of polonium2l5.\= 5 x 101E ls. or the final number N. 100 tlg of polonium2l5 has 2.09 x 1020 atoms/s T\rtor: Student: That's a lot. then you could find the time. right? Because of the short halflife. If you knew the initial decay rate Ro. True. R^Ir # Student: I'll try to find have a mass of 215 grams.9%.781 rate has dropped to 20 decays/second? ils. R. and the log of a number less than one is negative.2):111 ms . Student: And I need to find when it drops to only 20 per second. T\rtor: Very good. Now to find the initial rate Ro./. Yes.781 milliseconds.389 /t mean? T\rtor: It means that a fraction of 0. What's 20 decays/second? Ttrtor: Student: That's the final decay rate.I multiply the initial number Ab by ).\ Ttrtor: It's averyshort halflife. and ). i.8 x 1017 atoms. A single cell has around 1012 to 1014 atoms. seems like a lot. or 38. 1 mole of polonium2l5 would  (100 x r0o s) t/ x f 6'01:10'?3) \ x 1012 atoms 2LbS / 2.9007o decays in a second.8 Yes. Ttrtor: Student: That Tt/z 1. the sign would disappear when we divide the two rates. Of course.389. As the number of atoms declines.281 ms) (62. fto: ^. Student: +r. so . Only a very small fraction of the uranium decays every second.310 CHAPTER 42.2t/r. But as the number of atoms decreases. the decay rate is such that. Where do we start? Are there any that you know? Student: The halflife Tt/z is 1. Ro.rz h(*) \ Ro ) +'2 trr/z' /nr Tutor: Are you bothered by the minus sign? Is it because the number of atoms is decreasing? Tutor: No. T\rtor: Consider that you have between 1027 and 1028 atoms in you. so it's . t/z *. /\r0 2t/rr/z the initial decay rate from the initial number N0. T. We won't get a negative time.4f0  (389 liQ. but 100 /rg is really small. Student: But then 389 per second means that 389% decays in a second! T\rtor: It means that 38. because there are fewer atoms to decay. Yes.781 ms In2 Student: What does 0. the decay rate does not stay constant. if it continued. this will eventually drop.R. they would all decay 389 times in a second. Tt/2. of about 5 billionyears. No. If the rate was negative.8 x 1017 atoms)  1. Student: Okay.WU has ahalflife Student: That seems fast. so does the decay rate.h("t) :#h(ffi) In2 (1. Student: It just seemed like a big number. and 1017 isn't that much. Student: Ah! R < Ro. how long must you wait until the decay T\rtor: Tutor: There's l/.
To get the rems. of course. _ (Z. they penetrate much better.0. T\rtor: Correct. so little of the carbon has decayed that carbon dating isn't useful. more or less. which is stable and doesn't decay.000 years &Bo. alphas interact with the first thing they can. and anything new and from the government will be in grays and sieverts. Tbaditionally. you would need a couple inches of lead. So what does this mean? Remember that even a single atom would have a decay rate of 389 decays per second.\^nf Student: Student: ^nf Student: It only takes 111 milliseconds? How many atoms are left when this happens? or find the decay from the original number N0.01 JlkS of flesh. Find the time that it takes to get to one atom. No. For things that died 50.311 T\rtor: It takes 62 halflives. The modern unit is the sievert. where more or less means it could be a few milliseconds more or less. If the ratio of carbonl4 to carbonIz is half what it would naturally be. Of course. Ttrtor: T\rtor: that fast. so the new unit is l gray . but for alphas it is 1020. are quantized. Anythirg old will be in rads and rems. Because the damage from alphas is localized and more extensive. but you can get a reasonably good estimate.of betas.  Ns2t/Trr. tr  Ab2 t/rrrz . + h .2 : 0.106 ms for them to all decay. Student: Why a natural lifetime instead of a halflife? T\rtor: That's the time it takes for all of them to decay once at the current rate. and some of it is carbonl4. we use rems rather than rads to describe the damage.781 ms Student: 103 + 2. but the halflives are very short. then add one natural lifetime. Alpha particles have more charge and mass and interact more strongly. Because they interact strongly. decays Tt/z 1. How long would it take until all of them have decayed? You can't say for sure when that happens. To block a beam of gammas. Student: I can use R. does it? So how does this carbon dating work? People have carbon in their bodies. this energy is measured in rads. can you? No. They also don't penetrate very far you could defend yourself from a beam of alphas with one page of this book. and dump all of their energy in a small volume.6 . we can measure the ratio of carbonl4 to carbonL2. To defend . so it's the expected life of a single atom. .g x 10tt) 202. there is so little carbon left that it is hard to measure. all units should be 1.100 rad). Because gammas interact weakly. multiply the rads by the quality factor. while gammas have no charge and interact weakly.0b T\rtor: T\rtor: How can you have less than one atom? You can't. The quality factor for gammas is 1. yourself from a beam you would want to block them with the whole book. where 1 rad .Tt/' In2 (#) _loams _ oA b#h(#) rlrr2 Student: But not everything No. T\rtor: For things that died last week.1J/kg (t Gy . then the thing died one halflife ago. Some radiation does more damage than others. T\rtor: Tutor: Student: Student: So you couldn't even get a decay rate of 20 per second. Student: But the halflife of carbonl4 is 5700 years. Atoms. Student: How dangerous is radiation? We measure the energy that the radiation deposits in the body. When we find something organic that died. and grays times quality factor is sieverts.
3 MeV. .1'22x 1011 MeV T\rtor: Student: Is that a lot of MeV? That's why we do the math. about 65 kg. NUCLEAR PHYSICS How much radiation is too much? A person typically gets 300400 millirem per year of radiation.o1e5 J) x . What is the quality factor of the alphas? Student: Oops. but also short enough that it decays before you die of other causes. Doubling this dose shouldn't be too dangerous. EXAMPLE 'zfllV has a halflife of 4.AIDS. 400500 rem in a short period of time is fatal it kills off the white blood cells and the victim dies of infection over . Student: And each decay produces 4. because we want the 300 millirems to be in a year. T\rtor: Student: That's not a lot of energy in a year.01 J lk1. So I need to convert it into seconds. 1 rem is 0.01 J lks x (65 kg)  ffi 0.83 x 1010 decays T\rtor: Student: Remember that this is per year. to proteins and DNA. how much 'z$fU would cause a dose of 300 millirems? Yes. The EPA has a Web site where you can estimate your annual dose (http : / / w'tlt D. you die of something else before most of the nuclei have decayed. For somethittg with a much longer halflife. htmQ .s. because the effects are so small that they are indistinguishable from other effects. 30 mrad x 0.3T2 CHAPTER 42.) Uranium in the ground decays through a string of decays into radon gas.3 MeV. and we want to know how much is dangerous. Student: Is an extra 300 millirems dangerous? T\rtor: The 300 millirems we get can't be too dangerous. Student: If we divide by the energy in each decay. Radon has a halflife of 4 days long enough to breathe it. much like doses can cause other bodily malfunctions. The effect of small doses is incredibly hard to measure. I. About half of the 300400 millirems is from radon ga. ep a.5 billion years and decays via o emission with an energy of 4. T\rtor: Yes. How much does a typical adult weigh? Student: And Student: Oh. T\rtor: T\rtor: Student: So the question is. It doesn't take many joules to break molecular bonds.001 1 *rua radx 0. so it's only 30 millirads. or we would all be dead. even LCD wristwatches. Long halflives are not the greatest danger.22 x 1011 MeV 4. Higher the next couple of months. I\rtor: Estimate. Good. g o u / ra di ati o n / stu d ent s / calculat e . increased cosmic rays during air travel. (Other sources include medical xrays. J"U r. like plutonium.3 MeV  2. It's about 10. Estimate how much t88U you would have to swallow so that the added radiation dose would effectively double your annual dose. I need to know the kilograms.019b J Radiation does damage at the molecular level. we can find the number of decays. Student: Now I need to know how many decays it takes to get that much energy.6xfu x ffi 1 Mev .01 J llr5. One rad is 0. It's impossible to avoid radiation altogether. (o.
'flt.ro ly. .5 . and it ends up as uranium234. it is followed by two beta decays. like potassium4O.8x1020atoms)x ' 6.!:. Coal plants release more radiation than nuclear plants. lt.?= x 10e yr  1 . Student: Now that I have R and ). or Avogadro's number. but they have low energ"y.yTt/z 4. Should we be worrying about other isotopes? is true that about I% of. and it goes into the air. Student: What about nuclear reactors and nuclear bombs? About 1 millircmf year from all past bomb tests. so that we to include that as well? TUtor: Excellent thinking. In a nuclear power plant the radiation is contained.ro ly. and that this isotope has a shorter halflife.02 x 1023 atoms :0. But it's only seven times shorter. and 99 times less of it. Student: I'm not going to swallow anything radioactive! Many foods contain trace amounts of radioactive isotopes. and years is a perfectly good unit of time. need Student: R)N Tutor: Student: T\rtor: It + N..54 x 10.naturally occurring uranium is z$lV.\ .b4 x 10.313 Tutor: You could. Yes. and about 0. I can find N. so it doesn't change too much. What about other decays? Doesn't uranium238 turn into something radioactive. But we have the halflife in years. . because there are trace radioactive isotopes in the coal. Uranium234 has a halflife of a quarter of a million years.01 milliremf year from nuclear power plants. 1.\ 1.073g:73mg T\rtor: T\rtor: T\rtor: So don't go swallowing more than 70 milligrams of uranium.tot='/{t . .gx1020atoms What's the weight of a uranium238 atom? 238 grams per mole. The average person gets 40 millirem from food each year. (1. so very little of this will decay before we get hit by a truck or otherwise perish.
where a large nucleus splits into two pieces. w€ measure stability in binding energy per nucleon. form new molecules. The maximum for binding energy per nucleon occurs at !8p". it would take They would then "nrrry. If the two pieces formed are more stable. If the new molecules wer.) If we were to break the molecules into their pieces. from an energy point of view. If two small nuclei merge into one larger piece that is closer to iron56. The binding energy of the large nucleus is the energy that we have to put in to separate the nucleus into its pieces. w€ call it fusion. 314 . *or. stable than the old ones. The pieces then form into new nuclei. and release energ"y. (The energies in chemistry are not defined the same way as in physics. Most of the energy that we use is chemical energy. Carbon dioxide (COz) and water (HzO) are relatively stable molecules. Consider the reaction when we burn methane: CHa + 2O2 ' COz * 2HzO reaction. then more energy would be given off than we put in to start the reaction. and comes from the chemical reactions of fossil fuels. seek lower energies. we call it fission. then more energy comes off than we put in to start the process. This is the energy that we would have to put in to separate the molecule into its pieces. much like extracting energy from fossil fuels. than the initial nucleus.. and have lower energy or more binding energy. so positive energies are possibl. Each molecule has a binding energy. and energy is given off. If a large nucleus splits into two pieces that are closer to iron56. Because the number of nucleons does not change. so about 8 eV of energy is given off every time we do this Now consider the process of nuclear fission. and energy is given off.Chapter 43 Energy from the Nucleus How do we extract energy from the nucleus? The process works.
Z \s g2ontheleft. and a chain reaction that keeps the process going. right? 236 Yes. causing more fissions. 95 !r.t) t Am Lm E . so55+ Z 37. plus two or three loose neutrons.}Eu Tutor: and Z + '$Ic'+ t? +3[n Student: Figuring out the missing piece is just matching the A's and Z's.37 up in the periodic table. Where do we T\rtor: They are conveniently located in the previous chapter.5 MeV/") . and it's rubidium.185239 u : (0. like previous chapter. 1. >. [n + 'z$fiv '$Ic' + T\rtor: Very good. s2 0. Student: To find the energy.043930 u  136. The energies involved in nuclear reactions .Lm.934272 u * 3(1.008665. bo lra {. This process results in two smaller pieces. EXAMPTE Determine the missing "fission fragment" and the energy released in the reaction [n + .315 oCd l{tp. . Notice that the energy is L72 rnega electron volts.008665 u + 235. ori d \J  F 100 Mass number A tr .172MeY T\rtor: Tutor: Student: So what's new? Nothing.r  How do we split a large nucleus? We smack it with a neutron. Student: Ais  onthe left. just like previous chapter. d ta h LI o t*Dy . so I37+A+3 236. We look Z . A TJ \/ o U u F. +0:92.907089 u * 95. These extra neutrons can smack other nuclei.rr. find the masses? ?q Rb + 3 fin w€ find the difference in masses. qJ bo L. So? Student: The energy of burning methane was 8 electron volts. and A96.185239 u)(931. L.
(1. to prevent proliferation of bombs now. The average is about 200 MeV per fission. so 2000 more is hard to detect.6 x 1025 MeV. Student: And by using nuclear power. (3. Uranium235 comprises about I% of naturally occurring uranium. we need to use the isotope uranium235. w€ use 107 to 108 times less fuel. we need to know how much material is significant. Student: Only 9 people died in Chernobyl? T\rtor: The United Nations did a study and concluded that the death toll wa^s about 60. How much enriched uranium would you need to make such a bomb? T\rtor: Again. there were perhaps 2000 more due to cancer. so this number is not substantially worse than what we already suffer.38 x 1026 MeV) lQ00 MeV) then we need I. for the capability to enrich uranium from I% U235 to g0% in substantial quantities. That many people die on American roads every month. or years. 235 x l024. More important. including coalburning power plants.316 CHAPTER 43. but there could be others. But the most dangerous materials were the fission fragments with halflives of days. So to get the same amount of electricity.38 x 1026 MeV T\rtor: Tutor: The fission above gave I72 MeV. One kiloton is 2. called fission fragments. but about 40. cesium. any death is Student: . gets eaten by cows. Fortunately thyroid cancer is treatable. and then the iodine collects in the thyroid gland. Radioactive isotopes of iodine.any death is a tragedy. Also. Each mole is 235 grams.7 g 1 .atragedy. because they have long halflives so they decay slowly. once a neutron causes one fission.7 x 1024 atoms. Uranium238 does not fission well. The smaller pieces. Radioactive iodine lands on the grass. Yes.000 of the surrounding population would be expected to die from cancer anyway.tor) ( 6. Student: So this is what the CIA looks for? Tntor: Yes.02 x 1023 atoms )(ffi) 066kg . w€ need to have one onehundred millionth as many nuclear reactions. EXAMPLE The bombs used in World War II had energy yields of about 13 kilotons. Student: But what about the nuclear waste? T\rtor: The uranium and plutonium aren't the problem. there are many neutrons around and the chain reaction happens very fast. and there were only 9 deaths due to thyroid cancer. Don't get me wrong . Wasn't there a lot of radioactive material released? There was. but we need 4% 28tU for a reactor an d 90% '88U for a highly enriched uranium bomb. and strontium are the worst. There are hundreds of possible fission reactions. goes into milk. They are highly radioactive. Student: Isn't this a little morbid? Student: Ok y. To achieve a substantial chain reaction.7 x 1024 fissions How many kilograms is that? Student: If all of the U235 is fissioned. are the problem. E]VERGY FROM THE NUCLEUS are 100 million times larger. T\rtor: But reasonable estimates are that an invasion would have resulted in 50 times as many deaths as the explosions. In an HEU bomb. for T\rtor: Student: What about Chernobyl? example. months.. 13 kilotons is Student: (13) (2. There were about 8000 additional thyroid cancers in the area because of the accident. is drunk by people..6 x 1025 MeV)  3. with much shorter halflives. But we have many more deaths from other causes.
too many neutrons leak out the side before causing more fissions. Ttrtor: Student: That's not a lot! No it isn't.317 enough to make a working bomb. the enrichment process is very challengiDg. With a piece that size. that isn't . Flortunately. Ah. Student: That's a good thing. so building a bomb sounds easier than it is. Can't we just ban them or something? T\rtor: The knowledge of how to build them is too widespread to ever do that science works that way sometimes. md the chain reaction doesn't turn into an explosion. We have to find another way to keep them from ever being used again.
The standard model of particle physics has been developed to explain these exotic particles. and molecules are made out of atoms. neutrons. and slam them together at high speed. and atoms &re made out of protons. bottom. But whatever the pieces of a proton are. Groups of three quarks are called baryons. Quarks are never seen alone. so we don't encounter them very often and haven't needed them until now. We do this hoping that the kinetic energy will change to internal enerry and free the pieces of a proton so that we can examine them. Other leptons include the muon and the tau. down. The typical method of doing this is to take a proton and something else. and protons are made out of . the muon neutrino. Groups of one quark and one antiquark are called gl@11g. They are one of a group of particles called leptons. as well as protons and electrons. and electrons. These particles have short lifetimes.Chapter 44 auarks. and include protons (uud) and neutrons (udd). they are not made of anything else. The other six elementary particles are the quarks. is a positron e*. named after an obscure literary reference. then we need to add energy. Things are made out of molecules. Particles made of quarks are called hadrons. which features No. and top. An antiproton is made of two antiup quarks and an antidown quark (uud). . so let's save a little time and go straight some funny pictures and a mindbending plot twist. perhaps another protoD. There are three neutrinos. so that they are hard to detect. . because otherwise they wouldntt stay together. Neutrinos interact very weakly. and they are paired with the other leptons. funny you should ask. Leptons. There are also elusive leptons called neutrinos. so that we call them the electron neutrino. they have less energy together than apart. seriously. strange. but only in groups. 318 Student conception of a muon. The six quarks are called up. Most of the neutrinos from the Sun pass through the Earth without interacting. If we want to separate a proton into its constituent pieces. An antielectron. before learning that muons are subatomic particles. and the Big Bang None of these things really exist. Every particle also has an antiparticle. (Ashley Hopkins) . to the appendix. The most obvious result of slamming microscopic particles together is to create unusual particles like pions and kaons and exotic baryons. for example. and the tau neutrino. charm. Over the last couple of decades it has been remarkably successful in interpreting the results of particle collisions. Electrons are (currently believed to be) elementary particl that is.
Student: First is energy. kinetic energy. conservation laws does the following reaction violate? Fix the reaction so that violate any of the conservation laws. T\rtor: Partially correct. The electron is a lepton. and the number of muontype leptons has to be the same. T\rtor: Good thinking. but the positron neutrino up are leptons. What about momentum? Student: How do I check momentum? T\rtor: While momentum is conserved. so there are two on the right. The charge beforehand is *1. Student: So there is 1 electrontype lepton and +1 muontype lepton on the right. and the positron is an antielectron. Ttrtor: Yes. so if the ma. but no leptons on Student: . if the two initial particles are moving fast enough then there would be enough energy. but there could be energy somewhere else. So charge is okay. lhtor: Good. and also the tautype leptons. The energy shows up as ma. Then the number of leptons on the right is 1 plus *1 equals 0. and the charge afberward is *1 because of the positron e*. then the reaction can't happen. we don't have the momentums so we can't check that one. Almost. so it's okay. the conservation laws one by one and check to see whether they're okay.i p+ 5o udd uus uds dds USS E_ FO kaon 6+ kaon Ko kaon Ro kaon K pion zrUd pion zro uu or dd pion zr+ ud uS ds sd s[ There are many things that are conserved in all particle reactions. Student: So the positron counts a^s 1 lepton? and the T\rtor: T\rtor: Yes. it doesn't n*P+ e* *up+Eo *ro T\rtor: Student: I go through Okay. if any. The "in families" means that the number of electrontype leptons has to be the same. Student: Ah. Student: Ok"y. Even if the rest ma^ss afberward is greater.319 Some Hadrons Baryons Mesons proton p neutron uud udd uuct antiproton p antineutron n ___.ss on the right is more than the ma"ss on the left.ss. Some ParticlePhysics Conservation Laws energy momentum charge leptonf (in families) baryonf strangeness EXAMPTE Which. Neither of the things on the left is a lepton. Student: Now we check leptonf .
a I0 ? That will have *1 strangeness. that's right. Student: What if I add an antiEo on the right. Student: None of the baryons listed have strange quarks. Thtor: . Now I'll add two kaon K0 to the left so that the strangeness will be 2 on each side.1.320 cHAprER 44. and to have a role in creating mass. Student: So I need to add two kaons K0 to the right. without adding charge. This is one of many areas of research that continue in physics today. Student: The only strange quark is in the E0 on the right. For example. T\rtor: Just count the number of strange quarks on each side. We would need another baryon on the right. . it will fix the baryonf T\rtor: But then you'll have 2 strangeness on the right. why do they keep studying it? Tutor: There are limits to what we know. but now I have 2 strangeness on the right. But then the baryon number on the right becomes zero. but no one has ever observed one in an experiment. T\rtor: You can't have more than two things on the left. and on the right only the 2o is a baryon. Tutor: You need to add one baryon and one antistrange quark to the right side. I\rtor: You'll receive the Nobel Prize in physics. so the reaction can't happen. There are fewer baryons afterward. Thtor: Student: And if I add another E0 to the right. Student: And last is strangeness. Student: If physicists understand all of this so well. and T\rtor: Correct. Student: I'll add a E0 to the right to fix the baryon number. AIVD THE BIG BAIVG the left. It is very difficult to get more than two things to collide all at once. This is one of many reactions that are possible when a highenergy neutron and proton collide. with strangeness 1. you need to get the leptons conserved in families. T\rtor: So to fix the reaction. and you need to add one baryon and +1 strange to the right. Tutor: Correct. . Student: The leptons will be fixed if I change the u* to a L/e) won't they? T\rtor: Yes. the Higgs boson is thought to exist. T\rtor: A baryon has three quarks. so having an antistrange quark makes it an antibaryon. Baryonff it can't happen? is next. Student: And if I find the Higgs boson . Student: Okay. n * p+ * e* * u"+2to + ro +2Ko Yes. QUARKS. There are two baryons on the left. A strange quark has strangeness of . LEprO_n\IS. . Student: Oh.
1 *2r * 12 e* :1+ r***'+#"t+. (1 + *)L tansr* t"t +?u*' +..r_ .1.....*rt+..o.1 .r :l .Mathematical Formulas Righttriangle: o2 r. I tt *r)Llz 32r ..no tan 0 k adjacent sinp:ghypotenuse cos0.hypotenuse tan0opposite adjacent Quadratic equation: If Thigonometry an2*br*cQ then nry sin20 identities: )sin g cos 0 cos 20 ("H) .2cos2 1 .1)*' +. sinr n*n3+*ru+...  (1 + n)2 12r*Br24rs +.coso cos 0 +sino sinB cos2 0 ff) cos..  (1+ r)31 *3r*3r2+.1n*12 r.1. ..sin2 0 .t" (+) (ry) .h*' +f.3 +. (1 + n)n *r) nL*' +irt+.Lz**t*' ........ .n(n.. I tt + *)' ...1 +*"t*' +#"t+. ln(l  . +b2 "2 sin2 0+cos2 0 .2sin2 0 sin(o + 0: sinocos P + cos asinB cos(o + P) . DrrI ' \ .1 *nr + f.  (1 + n)L/2 ..o.r4+. *cos B2cos cos (+) a cos B 2 sin (ry).": . sina*sin po^. Some Common Taylor Series . cosn.
6704 x 108 W l^'.N m: kg. .).3048 m 1 Units length meter second  1609 m time MASS y :365.4.mzf s a.560 ft2 104 m2 CA.84 nm.674 x 1011 N.m/s2 J .eV hc for photon energy permeability constant Fo 4n x 10z a.54 cm (exact) I ft 0.m'lr'.(a0.s 1 gallon (US)  1 eV .N.y+ electron mass me 9.kg.27 MeY l"' neutron mass mn L6749 x 1027 kg .mlA permittivity constant €s 8.m2 lC' Coulomb's law StefanBoltzmann constant o 5.m circle: C 2rR sphere: A .4536 kg  electric field current potential resistance capacitance volt ohm farad henry tesla ACl":YlQ V .s  N/A.136 x 1015 eV.s W .K .45 = 0.013 x 105 N/' or pascals 1 cal .50 x 1011 m (AU .s/A:f.37 x 106 ID .565 MeY f c2 Tnu 1.Some Useful Constants and Data gravity g 9.JIC .602 101e J 1 atm .2.8542 x 1012 C2/N.3807 x 1023 J lK elementary charge e L6022 x 101e C universal gas constant R 8.931 .8.m2 lk1' Avogadro's constant I{n 6.Nek Planck constant h 6.494MeY f c2 atomic mass unit M@ 5.I.80665 mf s2 vacuum c 2.4.529 x 1010 m Bohr radius Ep 13.1.s hc 1239.022 x 1023 f mol Boltzmann constant k 1.vlA N/C Ylrrr' FClvs/o T t hp 1 Tesla  746W  104 gauss inductance magnetic field HV.4nR2 322 .T.99 x 10e N.A CI.6605 x 1027 kg .m/s: V'A force enerry power charge joule watt coulomb ampere 360' t hectare 1 pound  43.939.3145 J/mol.2.999 eY f c2 proton rnass mp L6726 x 1027 kg .0 x 106 m) lQ") radius of Earth's orbit AU 1.938 .s .786 liter N 4.m2 as 0.Jl.1868 J 3.606 eV Rydberg energy k Il(aneg) ."astronomical unit") speed of sound in 20"C air 343 m/s acceleration of speed of light in SI Prefixes E P T G M k c m p n p f exa peta tera giga mega 1018 1015 1012 10e 106 103 kilo centi milli micro nano pico femto 102 103 10o LOe 1010 12 15 Conversion Factors 1 mile : 5280 ft (exact) 1 in .98 x 1024 kg mass of Earth radius of Earth B@ 6.24 mph 1 acre  r x 107 s kilogram newton l* N .626 x 1034 J.998 x 108 m/s Newton's gravitation G 6.2425 d = 1 m/s .510.109 x 1031 kg .W.
1 2 H 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 He 10 Li 11 Be 12 B 13 C 14 N 15 0 16 F 17 Ne 18 Na 19 Mg 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Al 31 Si 32 P 33 S 34 CI 35 Ar 36 K 37 Ca 38 Sc 39 Ti 40 V 41 Cr 42 Mn 43 Fe 44 Co 45 Ni 46 Cu 47 Zn 48 Ga 49 Ge 50 As 51 Se 52 Br 53 Kr 54 Rb 55 Sr 56 Y Zr 72 Nb 73 Mo 74 Tc 75 Ru 76 Rh 77 Pd 78 Ag 79 Cd 80 In 81 Sn 82 Sb 83 Te 84 I 85 Xe 86 Cs 87 Ba 88 * ** 57 Hf 104 Ta 105 W 106 Re 107 Os 108 Ir 109 Pt 110 Au 111 Hg TI Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Rf 58 Db 59 Sg 60 Bh 61 Hs 62 Mt 63 Ds 64 Rg 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 * ** La 89 Ce 90 Pr 91 Nd 92 Pm 93 Sm 94 Eu 95 Gd 96 Tb 97 Dy 98 Ho 99 Er 100 Tm 101 Yb 102 Lu 103 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr .
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