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The Self Concept

The Self Concept

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Published by: shivakumar N on Jul 03, 2009
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The Self Concept The Self Concept

A Presentation by Indranil Mutsuddi

What do we mean by the Self

The self refers to the conscious reflective personality of a person. If we develop a higher thinking for ourselves, the beliefs and values between the real and ideal self will expand, and therefore we can make more developed morals and reasons, when we know who we are. The study of the self involves significant methodological problems, especially concerning consciousness. Some of these are taken up in philosophy of mind and metaphysics.

What does Self Concept Mean ?

The Self Concept

Self-concept or self identity is the mental and conceptual understanding and persistent regard that sentient beings hold for their own existence. It is the sum total of a being's knowledge and understanding of his or her self. The self-concept is different from self-consciousness, which is an awareness or preoccupation with one's self.

Components of Self Concept
Components of the self-concept include:  Physical  psychological and  social attributes These attributes can be influenced by an individual's attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas. These components and attributes can not be condensed to the general concepts of self-image and the self-esteem.

Are U Selfish??

Think about yourself..

Major Qualities of Self Concept

It is learned It is organized, and It is dynamic

Keep believing in urself

Self-concept is learned
Self Concept gradually emerges in the early months of life and is shaped and reshaped through repeated perceived experiences, particularly with significant others.

Self-concept is learned: Implications

Because self-concept does not appear to be instinctive, but is a social product developed through experience, it possesses relatively boundless potential for development and actualization. Because of previous experiences and present perceptions, individuals may perceive themselves in ways different from the ways others see them. Individuals perceive different aspects of themselves at different times with varying degrees of clarity. Therefore, inner focusing is a valuable tool for counseling.

Self-concept is learned: Implications

Any experience which is inconsistent with one's self-concept may be perceived as a threat, and the more of these experiences there are, the more rigidly self-concept is organized to maintain and protect itself. When a person is unable to get rid of perceived inconsistencies, emotional problems arise. Faulty thinking patterns, such as dichotomous reasoning (dividing everything in terms of opposites or extremes) or overgeneralizing (making sweeping conclusions based on little information) create negative interpretations of oneself.

Self-concept is organized

Most researchers agree that self-concept has a generally stable quality that is characterized by orderliness and harmony. Each person maintains countless perceptions regarding one's personal existence, and each perception is orchestrated with all the others. It is this generally stable and organized quality of self-concept that gives consistency to the personality.

Self-concept is organized

Self-concept requires consistency, stability, and tends to resist change. If self-concept changed readily, the individual would lack a consistent and dependable personality. The more central a particular belief is to one's self-concept, the more resistant one is to changing that belief. At the heart of self-concept is the self-as-doer, the "I," which is distinct from the self-as-object, the various "me's." This allows the person to reflect on past events, analyze present perceptions, and shape future experiences.

Self-concept is organized

Basic perceptions of oneself are quite stable, so change takes time. Perceived success and failure affect selfconcept. Failure in a highly regarded area lowers evaluations in all other areas as well. Success in a prized area raises evaluations in other seemingly unrelated areas.

Self-concept is dynamic

The world and the things in it are not just perceived; they are perceived in relation to one's self-concept. Self-concept development is a continuous process. In the healthy personality there is constant assimilation of new ideas and expulsion of old ideas throughout life. Individuals strive to behave in ways that are in keeping with their self-concepts, no matter how helpful or hurtful to oneself or others.

Self-concept is dynamic

Self-concept usually takes precedence over the physical body. Individuals will often sacrifice physical comfort and safety for emotional satisfaction. Self-concept continuously guards itself against loss of selfesteem, for it is this loss that produces feelings of anxiety. If self-concept must constantly defend itself from assault, growth opportunities are limited.

Self Efficacy

Self Efficacy
 Self-efficacy

can be described as one's selfjudgments of personal capabilities to initiate and successfully perform specified tasks at designated levels, expend greater effort, and persevere in the face of adversity (Bandura, 1977; 1986).

Self Efficacy

Self-efficacy is an impression that one is capable of performing in a certain manner or attaining certain goals. It is a belief that one has the capabilities to execute the courses of actions required to manage prospective situations. Unlike efficacy, which is the power to produce an effect (in essence, competence), self-efficacy is the belief (whether or not accurate) that one has the power to produce that effect.

Hey whats ur opinion?? Can u do it??

Self-Efficacy & Social cognitive theory

The concept of self-efficacy is the focal point of Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory. By means of the self-system, individuals exercise control over their thoughts, feelings and actions. Among the beliefs with which an individual evaluates the control over his/her actions and environment, selfefficacy beliefs are the most influential arbiter of human activity.

Self-Efficacy & Social cognitive theory

Self-efficacy – the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments – is constructed on the basis of the four most influential sources: enactive attainment, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion and physiological as well as emotional factors. Self-efficacy plays the central role in the cognitive regulation of motivation, because people regulate the level and the distribution of effort they will expend in accordance with the effects they are expecting from their actions.

How self efficacy affects human function
 Choices

regarding behavior  Motivation  Thought patterns & responses  The Destiny Idea

Self Efficacy & Choices regarding behavior

People will be more inclined to take on a task if they believe they can succeed. People generally avoid tasks where their self efficacy is low, but will engage in tasks where their self efficacy is high. People with a self-efficacy significantly beyond their actual ability likely overestimate their ability to complete tasks, which can lead to irreversible damage. On the other hand, people with a self efficacy significantly lower than their ability are unlikely to grow and expand their skills.

Self Efficacy & Motivation

People with high self efficacy in a task are more likely to expend more effort, and persist longer, than those with low efficacy. Low self efficacy provides an incentive to learn more about the subject. As a result, someone with a high efficacy may not prepare sufficiently for a task.

Self Efficacy and thought patterns & responses

Low self efficacy can lead people to believe tasks are harder than they actually are and this often results in poor task planning, as well as increased stress. People with high self efficacy often take a wider picture of a task in order to take the best route of action. People with high self efficacy are shown to be encouraged by obstacles to greater effort. Self efficacy also affects how people respond to failure. A person with a high efficacy will attribute the failure to external factors, where a person with low self efficacy will attribute failure to low ability.

Self Efficacy & The Destiny Idea

Bandura successfully showed that people of differing self efficacy perceive the world in fundamentally different ways. People with a high self efficacy are generally of the opinion that they are in control of their own lives; that their own actions and decisions shape their lives. On the other hand, people with low self efficacy see their lives as somewhat out of their hands.

Factors affecting self efficacy

Experience:  "Mastery experience" is the most important factor deciding a person's self efficacy. Simply put, success raises self efficacy, failure lowers it. Modeling - "Vicarious Experience”:  “If they can do it, I can do it as well.” This is a process of comparison between a person and someone else.  When people see someone succeeding at something, their self efficacy will increase; and where they see people failing, their self efficacy will decrease.  This process is more effectual where the person sees themselves as similar to his or her model.

Factors affecting self efficacy

Social Persuasions:  Social persuasions relate to encouragements/discouragements.

These can have a strong influence – most people remember times where something said to them significantly altered their confidence. Where positive persuasions increase self efficacy, negative persuasions decrease it.

Factors affecting self efficacy

Physiological Factors:

In unusual, stressful situations, people commonly exhibit signs of distress; shakes, aches and pains, fatigue, fear, nausea, etc. A person's perceptions of these responses can markedly alter a person's self efficacy

Over-Efficaciousness in Learning

Research on learning has indicated that in certain circumstances, having less self-efficacy for a subject may be helpful, while more negative attitudes towards how quickly/well one will learn, can actually prove of benefit.

Self Esteem

Self Esteem

In psychology, self-esteem (also called self-worth, selfconfidence, and self-respect) reflects a person's overall selfappraisal of their own worth. Self-esteem encompasses both beliefs (for example, "I am competent/incompetent") and emotions (for example: triumph/despair, pride/shame). Behavior may reflect self-esteem, in (for example: assertiveness/timorousness, confidence/caution).

Self Esteem..

Where Does Self-Esteem Come From?

Our self-esteem develops and evolves throughout our lives as we build an image of ourselves through our experiences with different people and activities. Experiences during our childhood play a particularly large role in the shaping of our basic self-esteem. When we were growing up, our successes (and failures) and how we were treated by the members of our immediate family, by our teachers, coaches, religious authorities, and by our peers, all contributed to the creation of our basic self-esteem.

Healthy Self-Esteem
Childhood experiences that lead to healthy self-esteem include:
     

being praised being listened to being spoken to respectfully getting attention and hugs experiencing success in sports or school having trustworthy friends

Self-esteem is largely developed during an individual’s childhood

Low Self-Esteem
Childhood experiences that lead to low self-esteem include:
    

being harshly criticized being yelled at, or beaten being ignored, ridiculed or teased being expected to be "perfect" all the time experiencing failures in sports or school People with low self-esteem were often given messages that failed experiences (losing a game, getting a poor grade, etc.) were failures of their whole self.

Consequences of Low Self-Esteem
Low self-esteem can have devastating consequences:
   

It can create anxiety, stress, loneliness and increased likelihood for depression. It can cause problems with friendships and relationships. It can seriously impair academic and job performance. It can lead to underachievement and increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Worst of all, these negative consequences themselves reinforce the negative self-image and can take a person into a downward spiral of lower and lower self-esteem and increasingly nonproductive or even actively self-destructive behavior.

Properties of self esteem

Self-esteem as a basic human need, i.e., "…it makes an essential contribution to the life process", "…is indispensable to normal and healthy self-development, and has a value for survival." Self-esteem as an automatic and inevitable consequence of the sum of individuals' choices in using their consciousness. It indicates something experienced as a part of, or background to, all of the individual’s thoughts, feelings and actions.

Measuring self-esteem
For the purposes of empirical research, psychologists typically assess self-esteem by a self-report questionnaire yielding a quantitative result. They establish the validity and reliability of the questionnaire prior to its use.

Maslow's approaches to esteem

Maslow described two kinds of esteem needs — the need for respect from others and the need for self-respect. Maslowian self-esteem entails competence, confidence, mastery, achievement, independence, and freedom. Respect from others entails recognition, acceptance, status, and appreciation.

Maslow's approaches to esteem

Without the fulfillment of these needs, Maslow suggests, an individual feels discouraged, weak and inferior. For most people, the need for regard from others diminishes with age (because they have already received it) and the need for selfregard (having and demonstrating a positive belief in one's self) becomes more important.

Self-esteem as compassion

Some people see self-esteem as essential for psychological survival, as an emotional sine qua non (compassion). According to this school of thought, without some measure of self-worth, life can seem enormously painful, with many basic needs going unmet (McKay, Fanning). General agreement exists that self-esteem plays a central role in mental and physical health.

Self-esteem as compassion

One view sees the essence of self-esteem as compassion for one's self. People with compassion for themselves understand and accept themselves. If one makes a mistake, one forgives one's self. One tends to see one's self as basically good. One analysis identifies three basic components to the skill of compassion: understanding, accepting and forgiving.

Building self-esteem
        

Physical exercise Meditation Psychotherapy Autosuggestion Spiritual or religious activities Yoga & music Sincere praise Accomplishment Achieving goals

Building self-esteem
       

Public speaking Style of dress (i.e fashion) Education & Training Participating in a team sport Giving generously Integrity Trying one's best Pampering one's self

Quality and level of self-esteem
  

Investigators can indirectly assess the quality of self-esteem in several ways: In terms of its constancy over time (stability) In terms of its independence of meeting particular conditions (non-contingency) In terms of its ingrained nature at a basic psychological level (implicitness or automaticity).

Three Steps to Better Self-Esteem
 Step

1: Rebut the Inner Critic  Step 2: Practice Self-Nurturing  Step 3: Get Help from Others

Step 1: Rebut the Inner Critic
The first important step in improving self-esteem is to begin to challenge the negative messages of the critical inner voice. Here are some typical examples of the inner critic's voice and how you can "rebut" that voice.

The Inner Critic's Voice:

Your Rebuttals:

Is Unfairly Harsh: Be Reassuring: "People said they liked my "Wow, they really liked it! Maybe it presentation, but it was nowhere wasn't perfect, but I worked hard on near as good as it should have that presentation and did a good been. I can't believe no-one noticed job. I'm proud of myself. This was a all the places I messed up. I'm such great success." an impostor."

Be Specific: Generalizes Unrealistically: "I did poorly on this one test, but I've "I got an F on the test. I don't done O.K. on all the homework. understand anything in this class. There are some things here that I I'm such an idiot. Who am I fooling? don't understand as well as I I shouldn't be taking this class. I'm thought I did, but I can do the stupid and I don't belong in material-I've done fine in other college." classes that were just as tough.

The Inner Critic's Voice:

Your Rebuttals:

Makes Leaps of Illogic: "He is frowning. He didn't say anything, but I know it means that he doesn't like me!"

Challenge Illogic: "O.K., he's frowning, but I don't know why. It could have nothing to do with me. Maybe I should ask."

Catastrophizes: "She turned me down for a date! I'm Be Objective: so embarrassed and humiliated. No "Ouch! That hurt. Well, she doesn't one likes or cares about me. I'll want to go out with me. That never find a girlfriend. I'll always be doesn't mean no one does alone."

Step 2: Practice Self-Nurturing
     

Practice Basic Self-Care Plan Fun & Relaxing Things For Yourself. Reward Yourself For Your Accomplishments Remind Yourself of Your Strengths & Achievements Forgive Yourself When You Don't Do All You'd Hoped Self-Nurture Even When You Don't Feel You Deserve It

Step 3: Get Help from Others
  

Ask for Support from Friends/Peers Get Help from Teachers / Trainers & Other Helpers / Facilitators Talk to a Therapist or Counselor

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